P.A.R.T •
MACHINE DESIGN SHORT PROBLEMS
2. Mechanics 20
3. Machine Shop 40
4. Machine Elements 53
5. Stresses 58
To our children,
. 6. Shaft 88
7. Keys 119
8. Coupling 130
P.A R."'T'" ••
STRENGTH C)F
1 IIVIA.TE R:J:A.LS
PARTl
~ Maximum Shear =a
~
PRO:BLEM1S
~
~
Maximum Moment = Mo
8 = maximum slope
e = M L
L
~
M
EI
With Fo;rmulas
~ Y = maximum deflection
M L2
y= 2Et
~
~
~ e= 2EI
t P
P L3
~ v > 3E I
~ Shear = P
~ Moment =. ~.
PL
2
~ *p
L
2 51 reTlCjth or Materials  Beams St r enqt l i or Materials  Hewns 3
P L3
~e=PL2 ~ v> 48E I
8El
2. Uniform load
5P L3
~ y= 48E:1
~ Shear « wL
2
4. Uniform distributed load
~ Moment= w~
8
3
wL
~
~ e:;; 24Et
4
5wL
~ ~Y:;;384El
~
3. Varying load
wL
~
2
~ Moment
L
~. RESTRAINED BEAMS
~
t :
2:F
~ Shear",
c SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS
~ Moment",
PL
~
8
1. Concentrated load at midspan
3
P PL
 Lk
~ Y"'192EI
~
2
wL
~ Momem at B =  L
20 PROBLEM 1 (Apr. 1999)
~ Y = deflection at midspan A horizontal cantilever beam, 16 ft long is subjected to a load of 500 Ib located to its
wl4
center. The dimension of the beam is 2 x 4 inches respectively. W = 100 Iblft, find
y == 768
its flexural stress.
A. 3150 psi C 4510 pSI
B. 2912 psi D. 5663 psi
SOLUTION
, PROPPED BEAMS
IJ
For a cantilever beam: 500lbs
1. Concentrated load at midspan with fixed at left end and
roller at right end. = ~ w =100 'b/..
~ ~p
F total load at the center
Hl.r.r~1i
~ y = midspan deflection •. F = 500 + 100(16) = 2100lbs
L '"""" L = 16 ft
M = maximum moment
2. Uniform distributed load with fixed at left end and pin at M F x (U2)
right end
M 2100(16/2) = 16,800inlb
M_c_= 16,800(4/2~ = 3150 psi
S =
I (2)(4)3
12
~
PROBLEM 2
A 12 m simply supported beam with 30 KN load at the center has a maximum
2
~ deflection of: (EI = 6000 KN.m )
A. 150 mm C. 170 mm
B. 160 mm D. 180 mm
~
Under simply supported beam table.
6 SI rcn qtli o] Mat erials  Beams St r cn at ! of Materials Beams 7
where:
P = 30 KN ti. 12 m ::6 R2 (10) = (4 x 2)(2) + 10(8)
t R1 R2
L = 12 m R2 = 9.6 KN
2
EI = 6000 KN.m
By cutting at 10 KN section, and consider the right side of the section:
3
(30)(12) =0.180m=180mm MA = R2 (2) = 9.6 (2) = 19.2 KN.m
y = 48(6000)
PROBLEM 5
PROBLEM 3 A 10m simply supported beam with uniform load of 3 KN/m from right end to left end
A 10m simply supported beam with 25 KN load 3 m from the left end has a 2
has a maximum deflection of: (EI = 12,000 KN.m )
2
maximum slope at the left end: (IE = 8000 KN.m ) A. 43.23 mm C. 54.23 mm
A. 00056 rad C. 0.0186 rad B. 32.55 mm D. 36.45 mm
B. 0.0765 rad D. 0.1823 rad
SOLUTION
14" li itU'
125 KN y = maximum deflection 'W = 3 KN/nl
2 2 3m... 7rn
Pb(L _b )
5 w L4
fk ''
6 (E I) L
A 10m ~ Y= 384 EI
where:
where: w = 3 KN/m
P = 25 KN L = 10 m
b =7 m EI = 12,000 KN.m
2
L = 10 m
2
EI = 8000 KN.m 4
5 (3) (10) = 0.03255 m = 3255 mm
y = 384 (12,000)
25 (7) (10 2  72 )
fk  ':'',' 0.0186 radians
6 (8000) (1 0)
PROBLEM 6
An 8 m simply supported beam has a uniform load of 2 KN/m from left end to right
PROBLEM 4 end and concentrated load of 10 KN at the center has a maximum deflection of: (EI =
A 10m simply supported beam has a uniform load of 2 KN/m extended from left end 2
5,000 KN.m )
to 4 m and has a concentrated load of 10 KN, 2 m from the right end. Find the A. 12.34 mm C. 21.33 mm
2
maximum moment at the 10 KN concentrated load. (EI = 10,000 KN.m ) B. 42.66 mm D. 34.34 mm
A. 19.20 KN.m C. 23.45 KN.m
B. 26.34 KN.m D. 12.34 KN.m
~1]'·"Im'·
..1]lIO[U' Considering the 10 KN concentrated load at the center.
iP
3 ()= 
(10)(8)_ '" 0.021333 m 8EI
yl '" 48(5000)
where: ~ =25 KN
P = 25 KN
y1 '" 21.333 mm L", 14 m
2 L= 14 m
EI '" 9,000 KN.m
Considering the effect of uniform distributed load of 2 KN/m.
25 (14)2
5wL4 5(2 )(8)4 8 0.068 radians
Y2 '" 384 EI
 '" 0.021333 m = 21.333 mm 8(9000)
384(5,000)
PROBLEM 9
y = y1 + y2 A 10m cantilever beam has a uniform load of 2.5 KN/m from left to right end. Find
2
the maximum deflection of the beam. (EI = 11,000 KN.m ) •
y = 21.333 + 21.333 42.66 mm A. 423. 45 mm C. 323.45 mm
B. 198.23 mm D. 284.10 mm
PROBLEM 7
A 10m cantilever beam has a concentrated load of 10 KN at the free end. Find the
2
maximum deflection of the beam.(EI = 7,000 KN.m ) EI!!IIl'!13I
A. 476.20 mm C. 544.34 mm
B. 342.34 mm D. 764.44 mm W L4
v SET>
~+.J'."[.J". where:
y = maximum deflection
y",
P L3
3EI
~ t P.10 KN
w '" 2.5 KN/m
L = 10 m
EI '" 11,000 KN.m
2
10 m 4
 ~~L = 0.2841 m = 284.10 mm
where: y 8 (11,000)
P = 10 KN
L = 10 m PROBLEM 10
2
EI '" 7000 KN.m A 10m cantilever beam has a uniform load of 2 KN/m from left to right end and with
concentrated load of 8 KN at the center. Find the maximum slope of the beam. (EI =
2
10(10)3 13,000 KN.m )
Y=     = 0.47619 m = 476.20 mm A. 0.011 rad C. 0.033 rad
3(7000)
B. 0.022 rad D. 0.044 rad
PROBLEM 8
A 14 m cantilever beam has a concentrated load of 25 KN at the midspan. Find the EI!!IIl'!13I
maximum slope of the beam. (EI = 9,000 KN.m )
2
Considering the effect of the uniform load of 2 KN/m using beam table,
A. 0.00234 rad C. 1.23 rad
B. 0.068 rad D. 0.123 rad
81 "'~~
EI!!IIl'!13I 6EI
2 (10)3
Using beam table, for a cantilever beam with concentrated load at midspan, fl l '" '" 0.0256 rad
6(13.000)
10 St renqili of MateriClls . Becuns
Strength of MCllcliu[s lkwns 11
where:
Pa 2
2EI I 6m
IP
T
=16KN
.
L = 14 m
Em!!miD
For a triangular load with simply supported beam,
2.5 W L
4
P = 16 KN Y= 384EI
a=6m
2
EI = 6,000 KN.m
where: w = 10 KN/m
L = 10 m
16 (6)2 EI = 10,000 KN.m
2
8 0.048 radians
2(6,000)
PROBLEM 12 4
y 2.5(10.li1.QL = 0.06510 m
65.10mm
A 12 m cantilever beam has a uniform load of 1.5 KN/m extended from fixed end up 384(10,000)
to 4 m and a concentrated load of 8 KN at the free end. Find the maximum slope of
the beam. (EI = 8,000)
A. 0.126 rad C 0.654 rad PROBLEM 14
B. 0.234 rad D. 0.345 rad A 8 m cantilever beam has a triangular load from left end to a maximum of 12 KN/m
2
at the fixed end. What is the maximum deflection of the beam? (EI = 12,000 KN.m )
A. 136.53 mm C. 165.34 mm
Em!!miD B. 145.34 mm D. 15434 mm
2(8,000)
0.072 radians L =12 m L W
4
y = 30EI
j
12 Sf rCllgt h of Materials  Beams
SlrcIII/II, ojl\lul('riuls Beams 13
L=8m
2 I'I<OULJ::M 17
EI = 12,000 KN.m
A vertical load of 400 N acts at the end of a horizontal rectangular cantilever beam 2
m long and 25 mm wide. If the allowable bending stress is 130 Mpa, find the depth of
y= _22(8)~ __ the beam.
30 (12,000)  0 13653 m = 136.53 mm
A. 23.45 mm C. 56.34 mm
B. 38.43 mm D. 45.34 mm
PROBLEM 15
A 12 m restrained beams with two end fixed has a concentrated load of 15 KN at the
2
center. Find the maximum deflection of the beam. (EI = 7,000 KN.m )
E::1!!iirmI
A. 8.45 mm C. 19.28 mm For a cantilever beam with load act at the free end:
B. 34.23 mm D. 24.67 mm P = 400 N = 0.40 KN
M=PL
E::1!!iirmI M = (0.40)(2)
For restrained beam with concentrated load at the center,
M = 0.80 KN.m
PL3
P = 15 KN
Using the formula of flexural stress,
~ ~
Y = 192EI
6M
s= .
2
bh
~ t. p ::: 400 N
where: P = 15 KN
L = 12 m
EI = 7,000 KN.m
2
L:12m 130000 = 6 (0.80)
2m
, (0.025) h2
15(12)3 h = 0.03843 m = 38.43 mm
0.01928 m = 19.28 mm h
Y = 192(7,000)
PROBLEM 18
PROBLEM 16
A simply supported beam is 50 mm by 200 mm in 25 mm
A 15 m restrained beam with two end fixed has a uniform load of 3 KN/m, find the
2 cross section and 4 m long. If the flexural stress is not to exceed 8.3 Mpa, find the
maximum deflection of the beam. (EI = 9000KNm )
maximum midspan concentrated load.
A. 56.34 mm C. 34.56 mm
A. 2.77 KN C. 3.45 KN
B 23.56 mm D. 43.94 mm
B. 6.34 KN D. 4.34 KN
E::1!!iirmI SOLUTION
~
Y = 384EI
M=~~
where: w = 3 KN/m
L = 15 m
M=P
4
A 4m :.a
EI = 9000 KNm
2 L = 15 m Using the shearing stress formula for beam
200 mm
3 (15)4
Y =       = 0.043945 m = 43.945 mm s= §~2
384(9000) bh
Where:
]4 SI r ctiqt.t: of Materials  Beams
Sln'T/fl/l, III j\!1u/eriols Beams ]5
b = 0.050 m V = 2(7.5L = 7.5 KN
h = 0.20 m 2
6P 6M 6(14)
._  2 2.77 KN e. S =  = ~ = 26,880 Kpa = 26.880 Mpa
8,300 = (0.05) (0.20)
b h2 (0.05)(0.25)2
PROBLEM 19
A simple wooden beam, 50 mm wide by 250 mm deep and 7.5 m long has a f. S = 2.'". = _3J7.5l~ = 900 K a
2bh 2(0.05)(0.25) P
maximum deflection of 102 mm under a uniform load "w". E = 12,411 Mpa
a. What is the uniform load, w.
b. What is the slope? PROBLEM 20
c. What is the maximum moment? A simply supported beam having a span of 6 m carries two concentrated loads of 80
d. What is the maximum shear? KN at its middle thirds. Compute the deflection at the midspan due to this load. Let
9
e. What is the flexural stress? EI = 30,670 x 10 N .rnrn".
f. What is the shearing stress? A. 18 mm C. 24 mm
B. 20 mm D. 30 mm
Em!!'.iIrSmI 4i]'lingl
a. For a uniform loading beam under simply supported:
5wL4 y = 23PL
3
2mP~ 2m ~P2m
y = 384EI
bh 3
1=
12
648EI
Y= 23(80,000)(6,000)3 = 20 mm
648 (30,760 x 10 9
)
a 6m ~
(0.050)(0.250 )3 = 0.0000651 m 4
1= 12 PROBLEM 21
A cantilever beam having a span of 6 m, carries a triangular load of 20 KN/m at its
250 mm fixed end to zero at the free end of the beam. Determine the deflection at the free
4 12 2
0.102= 5w(7.5) end of the beam if EI = 50 x 10 N.mm .
384(12411 x 103 )(0.0000651) A. 17.28 mm C. 15.62 mm
B. 16.48 mm D. 12.63 mm
50 mm
w = 2 KN/m
Em!!'.iIrSmI
3
wL 2 (7.5)3
b. e 0.0435 rad
24EI 24 (12411 x 10 3 )(0.0000651) For triangular load of cantilever beam:
w = 20 KN/m = 20 N/mm
c. M = maximum moment wL4
y = 30 EI
Y= 20 (6,000)4 = 17.28 mm
8
12
30 (50 x 10 )
d. V = maximum shear = w U2
1
Strength of MUlerials  Beams 17
If) St rcnot u or Materials  Beams
PROBLEM 22 "1]lliita
P = 50 KN
A simply supported rectangular beam 50 mm wide by 100 mm deep carries a uniform
~ t
load of 1200 N/m over its entire length. What is the maximum length of the beam If
PL3
the flexural stress is limited to 20 Mpa.
A 3.33 m C. 5.2 m
Y = 3E1
B. 4.25 m D. 6.0
m
29.63 = 50,000 (4,000)3
38'
1i']lI"tU'
EI = 35.9996 x 10 9 N.m
2
= 35,999.6 KN.mm 2 = 36,000 KN.m 2
wL2
Moo 
8 PROBLEM 25
A restrained beam carries a triangular load which increases from zero to 30 KN/m
s , 6M 100 mm
from A to B having a span of 4 m. Determine the moment at A
bh 2
A. 12 KN.m C. 18 KN.m
6M B. 24 KN.m D. 16 KN.m
20 =  50 mm
(50)(100)2
M = 1,666 x 10 3 Nmm = 1,666 Nm EmutU' w:;; 30 KN/m
2
1 666 = 1200 L 2
, 8 wL
MA
L = 3.33 m 30
\p
B'
I I I I I ~/
I
A
M = EO) (4)2 L=4 m
16 KN.m
PROBLEM 23
A simply supported beam having a span of 20 m carries a concentrated load of 10 KN
A
36'
at a distance of 5 m from the left support and a counter clockwise couple of 6 KN.m
acting 3 m from the right support. The maximum moment due to this load is: PROBLEM 26
A cantilever beam 3 m long carries a concentrated load of 35 KN at its free end The
A. 39 KN.m C. 36 KN.m
material is structural steel and the maximum bending stress is not to exceed 125
B. 43 KN.m D. 48 KN.m
Mpa. Determine the required diameter of the bar if it is circular
..i]'II1ta A. 204.5 mm
B. 188.6 mm
C. 164.6 mm
D. 179.2 mm
LMs = 0
20 R1 = 10 (15) + 6
R1 = 7.8 KN
A6
5
tR'
m+
110 KN
20 m
f 6 KNm
3m
(\B
SOLUTION
Moo 35 (3) ~
P =35 KN
t
M = 7.8 (5) = 39 KN.m 6
M = 105 KN.m 105 X 10 N.mm
PROBLEM 24 s= ~c
free end. What is the flexural rigidity if the beam deflects 29.63 mm at its free end.
2 2
A. 36,000 KN.m C. 24,800 KN.m
2 2
B. 42,000 KN.m D. 54,200 KN.m
IS SIII'II9Ih of M(lterials  Beams Strength oiMa uii at, Ii/,w,," I' ,
M fJ8 KN.m
\ 125
105xlO h (di2)
1'1\( lllLEM 29
nd
1 64
A restrained beam having a span of 6 m carnes a uniform IOdd 01 ~O Nzrn throughout
6
Its span. If E = 200,000 Mpa, I = 6080 x 10 rnrn" determine the deflection at the mid
d = 20450 mm span.
A 0.14mm C. 036 mm
PROBLEM 27 B. 0.25 mm D. 0.48 mm
A steel beam 2 m In length is simply supported at each end and carnes a
concentrated load of 100 KN acting 05 m from one of the supports. Determine the Em!!ImD
~
maximum bending stress set up in the beam if the crosssection is rectangular, 100
mm wide by 150 mm deep.
4
A. 100 Mpa C. 97 Mpa wL
y
\ B. 120 Mpa D. 150 Mpa 384 EI
L = 15 m
\ Em!!ImD y
50,000 (6) (6,000)3
0.14 mm
\ 6
LMB = 0 384 (200,000)(6,080 x 10 )
2 R1 = 100 (1.5)
0.5 m ~ p = 100 KN
R, = 75 KN
M = 75 (0.50)
6
.a 2m  B
iI'50mm
M = 37.5 KN.m = 37.5 x 10 N.mm
S
6M
= .
bh2
= 6(37.5X 10 6 )
~
100(150)2
tR1
2
S = 100 N/mm = 100 Mpa
100 mm
PROBLEM 28
A beam made of titanium has a yield point of 850 Mpa. The beam has 25 mm x 50
mm rectangular crosssection and bends about an axis parallel to the 25 mm face. If
the maximum bending stress is 650 Mpa, find the corresponding bending moment.
A. 6.8 KN.m C. 4.5 KN.m
B. 8.4 KN,m D. 8.4 KN.m
m:mmmI
S = .
6M
bh 2
6M
650=   
f150mm
(25)(50)2
25mm
M = 6.8 X 10" N.mm
20 Mechunics
Mccllullics 21
Note.
~ If a body is at rest, then initial velocity IS zero.
~ If a body is moving at constant speed, then acceleration IS zero.
~ If a body is completely stop after the trip, then velocity is zero
c. S= Vbl ±%gf
I
I
I
•
I
I
·
I
I
I
I
•
IEImm •• I
5 I
where:
·• I
I
r,
• I
g = acceleration due to gravity
tN

Note:
~ If a body is dropped freely, then initial velocity is zero
~ If a body is thrown upward, then it reached to a maximum height where the
velocity is zero.
1. Rectilinear motion
 motion is along a straight path. 3. Projectile Motion
.
Va Vf
. 9=0
~
(. If speed is uniform:
S = vt •  ~~
• H
14 ~I
" If speed varies: s
a. Vr = Vo ± at 2
b. Vf Vo
2
± 2aS c.S= Vat ±% a t;l. R
~
x
where
a = acceleration Components of initial velocity, va
a is + if accelerating
a is  if decelerating
vox =v; cose Voy = va sine
V o = initial velocity
VI = final velocity
For Horizontal Displacement:
S = distance traveled
t = time
"The horizontal component of initial velocity will not change throughout the
=
flight. vox = Vlx contant
Where:
J m = polar moments of inertia of masses, Itlbsec"
2
p = Ib!ft
4. Circular Motion
L = length, It
2
g = 32.2 ft/sec
Radian  is a unit of angular measure equal to 57.30°
&zgular acceleration  is the rate of change of its angular speed with respect to time.
Using 51 units:
 e
FORMULAS: Wo ••·•
.. ' ..........
Jm = P L J
""\~\
~/
Where:
For accelerating object: 3
Jm = kg_m2 p = kg/m L = length, m J = m"
c;. WI :: Wa ± at
2
~r (, Radius of Gyration
'W?=Wa ± 2a6 :/ WI
Using English Units
,
......... __ .::
Mechu7Iics 25
24 Mechu7Iics
K" = radius of gyration (f = anqular acceleration, rad per sec?
P~g
2
Ko == J m := Wk o USing 81 Units:
9
2
T o:= J m a == mko a
Where: Where:
J m = polar moments of inertia of masses, Itlbsec" To := torque, Nm
2
Ko = ft J,'l := moment of inertia, kg_m
2
g = 32.2 tt/sec" a := angular acceleration, rad per sec
W := weight, Ib
2
1 2 KE == Wv
KE:= mv
Where: 2 29
J m:= kg_m2 p:= kg/m 3 Ko:= m m := mass, kg
Where: KE = kinetic energy, Joules
" Radius of Oscillation m:= mass, kg
v = velocity, mls
For isosceles triangle: 314 of height W:= weight, N
For circle: 5/8 of diameter g = acceleration due to gravity, rn/s"
For parabola: 5/7 of the height
(, Kinetic Energy of Rotating body
" Center of Percussion
KE == 1fz Jln {t)2
Q := distance from axis of rotation to center of percussion Where:
J m:= moment of inertia, ttlbsec'' ()) = angular velocity, radlsec
I Linear impulse
tan (8 + x) :=: ==
a
9
v2
~
gR
H
AOQularmornentUfTl :=: Jm W
.
~,
. .
x :=: side thrust friction angle
H = super elevation
Fe
\,. Acceleration
= .m!l = w
, Centrifugal Force
I
j I FR ~a
9
\ Fe :=: rnas, :=: rI1 (l/r) I R
I I
Ig', :=:
wv 2
gr
I
I
I
Direction of Reverse Effective Force
I
... 1. If the object is accelerating, the direction of reverse effective force is
opposite to the direction of motion.
Where:
v = velocity, m/s
r :=: radius of curvature, m
f = coefficient of friction
. FR
,.~Motion
a = acceleration, m/s"
m = mass, kg
W = weight, N ~' ~n• • _ • • • 9
.
" Banking Curves:
FR
c.
\, Banked curve
H .~ Motion
a v2
tan f ;;::._
.....
~._ ..
9 gR i
Where:
~
:2H !Hech ci nie s Mecltwlics 29
..,.
A. 17 C. 19 V" = 114km/s==114,000m/s 6 m/s
B. 21 D 15
.....
/ /. £"\
,,'
VI == 0 at maximum height
PROBLEM
Vt==Vogt
Vt
2==V
0
2
2aS .: ~,
B 0.112 D.028
PROBU':M 5 (ME Bd. Oct. 97)
An occupant moves toward the center of a merry go around at 6 rn/s If the merry go
Em:!!imD around rotates at 6 rpm. Compute the acceleration component of the occupant
normal to the radius.
F==fN==fW A. 6.79 rn/s" C. 7.54 rn/s"
B. 8.29 m/s" D. 3.77 rn/s"
20 == f (56)
f == 0.357
~
v == 2rcRN
A baseball is thrown straight upward with a velocity of 20 m/s. Compute for the time
R == 955 m
A. 1.84 C. 250
a == acceleration
B. 2.21 D. 2.04
v2
a
Em:!!imD R
62 2
a 3.77 m/s
VI = Va  g t 9.55
o == 20  9.81 t
PROBLEM 6 (ME Bd. Apr. 98)
t == 2.038 sec A wheel accelerates from rest with a = 5 rad/sec.sec. Compute how many revolutions
are made in 4 seconds.
PROBLEM 4 (Apr. 1999) A. 5.71 rev C.700rev
A 114 km/s speed is projected vertically how long will it take to go back to its initial B. 6.36 rev D. 2000 rev
position.
A. 645 hrs C. 7.23 hrs
B. 1.23 hrs D. 845 hrs ...r.JX'ur.1~.
,\'
,~
,I';,
..
Mechanics 31
30 Me(' han i ('.s
//1'_.'l~.
c= I
e = 6.36 rev / = 9.81(1.2)
v c= 343 m/s
What minimum distance can a truck slide on a horizontal asphalt road if it is traveling Solving for N:
at 25 m/s. The coefficient of sliding friction between asphalt and rubber is at 0.6 The v==2rrRN ;'
, A.2m),
343 = 2 rr (1.2) N · , ,
,
B. 58.5 D. 63.8 "~"""" ...... "
N = 0.455 rev/s X 2rr = 2.86 rad/s
SOLUTION
f W = a
FR
W
~ L,<.X,,l, I mv_
2
== mg
g R
2
a c= fg = (0.6)(9.81) c= 5.887 m/s i gR
S = 532 m
MechcUlics 3:)
32 Mechanics
PROBLEM 14 (ME Bd. Apr. 96)
T W + FH A drop hammer of 1 ton dead weight capacity is propelled downward by a 12 in
W diameter cylinder. At 100 psi air pressure, what IS the Impact velocity if the stroke IS
T W+  a
g 28 inches?
2180 A. 63.2 fps C. 15.8 fps
T 2180 +~
32.2
(3) = 23831bs B. 316 fps o 474 fps
R
mv 2 F = m a
=g F = (W/g) a
R w
11,310 = (2000/322) a
Substitute: a = 1821 + g
2
6,580,000
v} = 0 + 2(214.3)(28/12)
PROBLEM 13 (ME Bd. Apr. 96) PROBLEM 15 (ME Bd. Apr. 96)
A flywheel rotates at 120 rpm or 12.57 rad/sec slowed down to 102 rpm or 10.68
A truck skids to a stop 60 m after the application of the brakes while traveling at 90
rad/sec during the punching operation that requires 3/4 second of the punching
Km/hr. What is its acceleration in rn/sec"?
A. 5.21 rn/sec" C. 6.36
portion of the cycle. Compute the angular acceleration of the flywheel in rad/sec".
B 7.06 O. 5.76
A. 2.52 rae/sec" C. 3.15 rae/sec"
B. 2 75 rae/sec" 0 2.22 rad/sec''
V1
SOLUTION
90(1000)
= ._.
3600
v/ = V,2 + 2aS
= 25 rn/s
v
~

= 90 kph
......
'4
5 = 60 m
~

v=o
....,
.... .:r:.~.ji[.l~.
a W2 ="!1
10.68 12.57
V2 = 0 (stopped) ex _.~
' ,.
\ '~r
34 Mcciuinics Mechanics 35
A. 350 m C. 400 m
B 500 m D. 600 m
PROBLEM 16
"'.]",,[1\
stress?
SOLUTION
50=20+a(10)
S = 350 m
PROBLEM 19
FR = direction of FR is upward since the
direction of load is downward.
FR=  a
W
r F
R
A box sliding on a floor has a frictional resistance of 100 N. If coefficient of friction is
0.3, find the weight of the box.
A. 222.22 N
B. 111.11 N
C. 444.44 N
D. 333.33 N
g
Fr =0 frictional resistance
l:F v =0 0 r. = fN
Cable stress = W  FR
100 = 0.3 N
Cable stress =0 3,751.55 Ibs
N = 333.33 N
PROBLEM 17 W=N =0 333.33 N
The speedometer of a vehicle changes from 20 km/hr to 80 km/hr In 10 seconds.
+ +
V2 = 80 (1000/3600)
V2 =0 22.22 m/s
• • Va =0
0 (dropped)
~ t = 10 seconds. ~
S t + '12 g t2
V2 = V1 + at
=0 Vo
5 =300 m
22.22 = 5.55 + a(10)
a =0 1.67 rn/s" 2
Ii A car changes accelerates its speed from 20 m/s to 50 rn/s in 10 sec. Find the
,
distance traveled during the period of acceleration.
3G Mechanics Mechanics 37
PROBLEM 21
An object IS projected upward at the rate of 40 m/s. How high will the object rise? (45)2 Sin 2(30)
R
A. 5434 m C 65.34 m 981
B. 7645 m O. 8155 m R 17877 m
SOLUTION PROBLEM 24
A shot is projected 40° from the horizontal at the rate of 30 m/s will reached the
maximum height of:
VI
2
 v, 2  2 g S A 20.34 m C. 32.34 m
s B. 18.95 m O. 4534 m
VI = 0 (at maximum height) V =40 m/s

0
2
= (40)2  2 (9.81) S t E:mImD
S = 8155 m H = maximum height
2 . 2
H = 'u sin 0.
PROBLEM 22 ~_. .~._._,
A stone is projected upward from the ground travels a maximum height of 50 m. Find 2g
the velocity of stone when it returns to the ground.
(~0)2 sin ~O
2
H =
A. 31.32 m/s C. 4323 rn/s
B. 5434 m/s O. 2345 m/s 2(9.81)
IlE!!i.mD :::0" ,
, ,\
H=1895m
• I
find the height of capsule from the surface of the earth ..
Va = 0 ' I A. 435.66 m C. 543.23 m
' I
2
' I
B. 669.72 m O. 78545 m
Vt = v/ + 2 g S
' I
~
' I
V? = 0
Vf = 31.32 m/s
2
+ 2 (9.81) (50) S'SOml tv V .i·"··"·lh"
The capsule will orbit the earth if:
•
6400 krn
Fe = Fg
PROBLEM 23 Wv 2
An object is projected upward at the rate of 45 m/s at 30° from the horizontal. Find   ~W w
gR
the maximum range of projectile.
A. 178.77 m C 18934 m R = distance from center of earth to the Earth
B. 165.34 m o 10934m 2
capsule above the earth surface.
v = g R
,
SOLUTION " /
,
~~
/
(6,000)2 = 9.81 R
~<;: ,
~
R = 3669724.771 m
2 sin 28 R = 3669.724 km
R
g
/'7/7/%7777/// ; \ R = r" + H
H = 669.72 m
38 Mcclwnic!i Mechanic!i 39
PROBLEM 26
(40)2
A car that travels 100 mph reduces its speed 50 mph in 30 seconds. Find the Tan H  
distance traveled by the car until it stops. 9.81 (1 000) v = 40 m/s BI""'1II
~LiII ...
A 4402.10 m C. 5434.56 m Tan H 0.1631 ;' .....
B. 3452.34 m D. 6456.35 m /
/ "' \
,
0
8 = 9.26 I \
\
v =100 mph V = 50 mph V=O I
\
0
R=1000m,
~I
~ ~ ~
SOLUTION
e..
I. Sl
..
~u S2 ~I
\
\ /
I
VI = va  at
a = 2.44 m/s"
SI = Vo t  Y2 a t2
S, = 3300.10 m
0 2 = (73.33)2  2(2.44)S2
S2 = 1102 m
PROBLEM 27
A car traveling at 40 m/s in a radius of 1000 m will have a banking angle of:
0
A. 7.34° C. 9.26
B. 183.4° D. 12.3°
SOLUTION
v2
Tan 8
gR
40 Mact n n«: Shop Practice Machine Shop Pta ct icc 41
m:mmB
IVII~C=""':J: 11'1 E
3 !:» ..... C» F»
Co Time = Length to be,welcl
Welding rate
V = (Va + Va) L
~
Where:
V = total gas consumption of oxygen and acetylene
Va = volume of oxygen consumed per unit length of seam
Va = volume of acetylene needed per unit length of seam
Im!!Jm] L = length of seam
~1·]'·"[·B·
~ Length to be cut
time " .
Cutting rate
" Time = Length to be cut
Cutting rate
For a hacksaw. there is only one cut stroke per revolution.
Feed per stroke = 0.127 mm = 0.005 in
'" For a hacksaw, there is only one cut stroke per revolution.
5
c. Time: .__ Lengthtobe cut time = strokes
_.__..        = 8.33 min
in
500 sec
Speed, N x ~trok~ x . Fee.~
120.
min
(0.005)
stroke
rev stroke
PROBLEM 2 (Oct. 2000)
In an OxyAcetylene manual welding method. to weld a 3 1/2 ft long seam in a 0.375"
thick steel plate at a consumption rate of 9 ft3/ft for oxygen and 7 ft31ft for acetylene.
Compute for the total combined gas consumption in ft3
A 48 C. 56
B 24.5 D. 31.50
42 Machine Shop Practice Machine Shop Prcut ic«: 43
SOLUTION Cutting time 10.42 min
SOLUTION
PROBLEM 7 (ME Bd. Apr. 98)
Drill Penetration = (Feed rate) N Compute the cutting speed in fpm of a workpiece with 2 inches diameter and turning
Drill Penetration = (0.005 '~ )(1200 rev)
at 100 rpm?
6 in/min A. 72 C. 62
rev min
B. 102 D. 52
PROBLEM 4 (Oct. 1998)
What is the value in degrees of 1 radian? ED:!ImI:I
A. 5749° C. 57.29°
B. 57.94° D. 57.92° v=rrDN
. Length to be cut
Considering the average value: TIme =
cutting rate
Cutting Rate
PROBLEM 10 (ME Bd. Oct. 95)
With the arc welding rate of 18 in/min, how long will It take to weld 1/2 in thick plate by For a hacksaw. there is only 1 cut stroke per revolution.
3 feet long seam?
A. 3 min C. 2 min . &n .
B. 1.5 min O. 4 min 11 A1 J1 time =    . ..   .   = 11.11 min
.r.
120 ev x~troke xO.0060 In
1/2" min rev stroke
SOLUTION
Welding rate Using oxyacetylene welding method to weld a 3 ft long seam in a 3/8 in thick plate at
L = J' a consumption rate of 9 ft31ft of weld for oxygen and 7 felft for acetylene. What is the
total combined gas consumption in ft3?
time = (3 x 12)/18 = 2 min A. 51 B. 48
C. 45 O. 55
V V
PROBLEM 1 1 (ME Bd. Apr. 95) E1':'m!immI
How long will it take to mill a 3/4" by 2" long keyway in a 3" diameter shafting with a
24 tooth cutter turning at 100 rpm and 0.005" feed/tooth? v total gas consumption of oxygen and acetylene
A. 0.136 min C. 0.196 min
B. 0.166 min O. 0.106 min ft3
v (9 + 7 )    (3) ft length = 48 ft3
ft length
SOLUTION
PROBLEM 14
Length to be cut A grinding wheel rotates 1750 rpm and has a surface speed of 2290 ft/min. Find the
time _.  . 
diameter of the wheel in inches.
Cutting rate A. 3 in C. 4 in
B. 5 in O. 6 in
time 2in
24 teet~ x1 o~e_v x~.OO~~ "N !Ii itD
rev min tooth
v=rrON
time 0.167 min 2290 = rr (0) (1750)
0=5 in
46 Mcicttinc Shop Practice MUc!liTI<' Shop Practice 47
PROBLEM 15 (ME Bd. Apr. 96) o = 0.955 ft (12) == 11.461n
To facilitate the milling (roughing) work of a cast steel material using a 1 1/2 inch
diameter cutter choose between the two available stock. Find the speed of the
cutter in rpm. high speed steel cutter with a cutting speed of 50 fpm  carbide tipped PROBLEM 18
cutter with a cutting speed of 200 fpm A workpiece turning at 20 rad/s has a diameter of 4 in. Find the peripheral speed of
A. 389 C. 572 workpiece
B. 509 O. 412 A. 1.23 fps C. 5.23 fps
B. 3.33 fps O. 7.34 fps
SOLUTION
EmmmD
v=nON
N 20 ( 1rev)
High speed steel cutter (slower) 2n
N 3.183 rev/s
50(12) = n(1.5)N
v == nON = IT (4/12) (3.183) = 3.33 fps
N = 127 rpm
v == LN , ~
( I
Time 8 x 12' = 4.8 min 8" 8''''
ft stroke . 20
v == (6/12) _ .  (100) . = 50 ft/rnin
stroke rrun
PROBLEM 17
A workpiece turninq at 300 rpm has a tangential speed of 15 ft/s. Find the diameter. PROBLEM 20
of the workpiece. I A 10 It long seam can be weld in 10 min. The welding rate is:
EmmmD EmmmD
V=nON . Length to be weld
Time = .    .
Welding rate
15 == IT (0) (300/60)
~fi." _
4~)
i'vlachirlc ShoJi )'/rl( I ice
48 Machine Shop Prartire
10(12)
1l4·I l!mm
10    
Welding Rate Length to be cut
time =  ,'
Cutting rate
Welding rate 12 in/min
5
PROBLEM 21 time
0.2
A seam can be weld in 3 min. If welding rate is 15 in/min, find the length of seam.
A. 20 in C. 25 in
time 25 sec
B. 30 in D. 45 in
SOLUTION
PROBLEM 24
It takes 1 min to mill a 3;'/ x 4" keyway of a hub by means of a cutter having 30 teeth
at 120 rpm. Find the equivalent feed per tooth, In/tooth
Length to be weld A 000222 C 0.00333
Time ~
Length to be weld
3 ~
15 EI!!ImD
Length to be weld = 45 in Length to be cut
time ._._
Cutting rate
PROBLEM 22 4
   ,~ .
How long will it take to mill %" by 1.5" long keyway by means of 25 teeth cutter turning rev teeth
at 120 rpm and 0.008" feed/tooth. 120 . x 30   x Feed per tooth
min rev
A. 1.23 sec C. 4.23 sec
B 634 sec D. 375 sec
Feed per tooth = 0.00111 in/tooth
SOLUTION PROBLEM 25
Length to be cut How long will it take to cut a rectangular plate 4 it wide by means of a saw that has a
time  ~
speed of 160 rev/min and an average feed per stroke of 0.009 in?
Cutting rate
A. 22.22 min C. 55.55 min
B 3333 min D. 44.44 min 4"
1.5
time "
120 ~ev x 25 teeltl x O.OOB in EI!!ImD
min rev tooth
Length to be cut
time 0.0625 min (60) = 3.75 sec time . 
Cutting rate

PROBLEM 26
A 4ft wide x 8 ft long and 1,12 In thick steel plate is be cut into 4 equal parts crosswise ~
If cutting rate is 0.02 In/stroke and saw speed is 110 rpm, how long will it take to do
the job?
A. 53.45 min C. 65.45 min L total length of cut 4"
B. 3423 min D. 67.45 min
4" L 4 cuts (4 ftl cut) = 16 ft
SOLUTION
Length to be cut 8"
time , ..        
L total length of plate to be cut Cutting rate
L 3 cuts (4 ft / cut) = 12 ft
16 (12)
Length__to be cut
.._
time 19.20 min
time 
10
_
.
~
~

_
.
_

Cutting rate
PROBLEM 29
For a hacksaw, there is only one cut stroke per revolution. USing oxyacetylene welding method to weld 10ft long seam In a 1,12 In thick plate at a
12(12) . 3 3
time = .~__c_ = 65.45 min consumption rate of 10ft /ft oxygen and 8 ft /ft for acetylene. What is the total gas
rev stroke In consumption?
110 x 1   x 0.02
min rev stroke A 150 ft3 C,160fe
B. 170 ft'! o 180 fe
PHOBLEM 27 1/2"
EW'M~':sazc~
It takes 5 min to cut a plate 20 ft long by means of a saw having a speed of 250 rpm. ~
What is the average feed per stroke 01 the saw, in/stroke?
A 0.534 C. 0.745
B. 0.192 D 0.342 v Total gas consumption
V 180 ft'!
Cutting rate 11
20
PROBLEM 30
For a hacksaw, there is only one cut stroke per revolution. A 24 ft2 lateral surface for a cylindrical tank is to be made by joining 2 ft by 2 ft steel
3/lt
plate to form 6 It x 4 ft. The consumption rate for both oxygen and nitrogen is 20 ft
20 (12) using oxyacetylene welding method. Find total gas consumption needed, fe.
5 =  . ....
rev stroke A, 250 fe C. 440 fe
250 . x 1   x Feed per stroke 3
min rev B. 470 ft3 D. 280lt
PROBLEM 31
(20) (14)
280 ft3
SOLUTION

5"
5"
L = total length to be cut 10"
L = 50 ft 20"
. Length to be cut 50 (12) ~ Tangential speed V2
time =    .    = 60 min
Cutting rate 10 V1 = V2 = TI 01 N1 = TI 02 N2
Speed of Driver
to Speed Ratio == Speedof the Driven c
Speed of Driver
(. Speed Ratio = Speed of the Driven
I
I
101( ..
l:)?=_l:)l . C I
(. Center Distance Rz  R1
2
54 Mach.irie Elements Mci ci': inc ElcITICf/( S 55
PROBLEM 1 (ME Bd. Apr. 97) PROBLEM 3
Two parallel shafts connected by pure rolling turn in the same direction having a A 5 ft diameter pulley is turning at 200 rpm. Find the speed of the pulley midway of
speed ratio of 2.75. What is the distance of the shafts if the smaller cylinder is 22 the center and outer surface of the pulley.
cm in diameter? A. 20.45 ft/s C. 24.34 ft/s
A. 16.67 cm C. 30.25 cm B. 30.45 fils O. 26.18 fils
B. 25.25 cm O. 19.25 cm
SOLUTION
E'iI!!ImD
v == 2 IT Im N
Using the relation of 0 and N:
0 1 N1 == O2 N 2 r == 5/2 == 2.5 ft
22(2.75) == O2(1)
O2 == 60.5 cm rm == 2.5/2 == 1.25 ft
v == 2 t: (1.25) (200/60)
For cylinders in the same direction:
C == O2 _=Pl v == 26.18 fils
2
60.5  22 PROBLEM 4
C _ ..~
A wheel is turning at 360 rpm. If tangential speed of the wheel is 15080 ft/s, what is
2
C 19.25 cm the radius of the flywheel?
A. 8ft C. 4 ft
B. 2ft O. 10ft
PROBLEM 2 (ME Bd. Apr. 97)
A lineshaft runs at 360 rpm. An 18" pulley on the shaft is belt connected to a 12"
pulley on the countershaft. From a 15" pulley on the countershaft, motion is E'iI!!ImD
transmitted to the machine. Compute/check the required diameter of the pulley on the
machine to give a spindle speed of 660 rpm. v==ITON
A. 16" B. 121/4"
C. 101/2" O. 81/2" 150.80 == IT 0 (360/60)
R 8/2 4ft
OL N L == Dc Nc
18(360) == 12N c
If center distance is
Nc == 540 rpm (speed of countershaft)
15(540) == OM(660)
SOLUTION
OM == 1227
0 1 N 1 == D 2N 2
DA
CAe  + DB+
Dc
2 2
10 40
CAe  + 20 + 
2 2
CAe 45 cm
PROBLEM 7
Four cylinders A:8:C:D has a speed ratio of 6:4:2:1. If center distance between A and
C is 30 inches, find the center distance A and D.
A. 68.57 m C. 5634 m
8. 83.45 m D. 7634 m
58 51 resses Stresses 59
I 12. Strain (unit strain)  is the total deformation measured in the direction of the line
5
of stress.
14. Residual Stress  internal inherent, trapped lockedup body stress that exists
within a material as a result of things other than external loading such as cold
working, heating or cooling, etching, repeated stressing and electroplating.
16. Bending Strength  is the quality of a material which resists forces from causing
~
a member to bend or deflect in the direction in which the load is applied.
Force . 2 2
1. Stress (S) = , lb/in , kg/cm , KN/m
2 ~
Area
Stress  a total resistance that a material offers to an applied load. 1. Tensile Stress (S,)
Based on ultimate stress: Based on yield stress: ~"i=c± For rectangular crosssection: A "'base x height
9. Proportional Limit  is the stress at which the stressstrain curve deviates from a For hollow circular crosssection: A = ~ (0 0 2 _Oj2)
straight line. 4
~
16T
Where: S '" length of side of square o
t '" plate thickne ss nOs
where: T '" torque
FROM MACH INERI ES HAND BOOK p. 1924: J '" polar momen t of inertia
~
e Sf
y
D c Strain
where: A = DL 1< )j
D
62 Stresses
Stresses 63
F
(. Stress ==
A Sa=' Smax=.§min
2
Smax == maximum stress
Smm == minimum stress
L
"
(., Poisson's Ratio(u) == is the ratio of lateral unit deformation to axial unit
(. deformation.
E
== By.
9. Thermal Elongation; Stresses Lateral Strain Ez
U == ,,___ ~ ==.~
Longitudinal Strain
,I
Ex Ex
~ 1AtrJ4UJ.ij
v
Ex == L z L1
e (t2  tl) L
h2 q I""" L
L1
E == WZ  W1
y
w1
E == t2  t 1
z
11
e.
J V/2 . kV/2
E
PROBLEM I (Apr. 1999)
where: A steel rod 30 mm & 800 mm long has an allowance elongation not to exceed 1.5
Y == elongation due to temperature difference mm, find the allowable load in kN.
k == coefficient of thermal expansion. m/moC A. 278 C. 316
B. 248 D. 236
t 1 == initial temperature, "C
b == final temperature, °C
4tl i 'i'(,]:'1
(., Relation between shearing and tensile stress based on theory of failure:
For steel:
~y Ssrnax
6
E == 30 x 10 psi 206,785,714 kpa
FL AE
y ==  
AE F (1
0001 ==
0.0012 == ~
F (1.0)
.._       J (0020)2(206,785,714)
IT (0.03)2 (206,785,714)
4 F == 54.1364 KN
Y = _.
FL ast·m1D(.]tI
AE
Sn 28,000
F(120) . S
0.001 = .   .  .   . FS 3
IT (0.025)2(206,785,714)
4
S == 9,333.3 3 PSI
F = 84.59 KN
Em!!mm 3/4"
3'
3
DI!!iIir+D
Using density of steel == 0.284 Ib/in
T
F
Weight = Volume x density r
Weight = [(3/4)(3 x 12)(20 x 12)J(0.284) 700
Weight = 1840.32 Ibs F 700lbs
1
d = 0.2437 in = 6.19 mm
SOLU TION
PROB LEM 1 1 (ME Bd. Apr. 97)
a steel plate made of SAE
How many 5/16 inch holes can be punch in one motion in
55 tons. The ultimate strength for shear is
1010 steel, 7/16 Inch thick using a force of
50 ksi and use 2 factor of safety.
From Machin eries Handbo ok, 1924: C. 5
A. 58
B 37 D 62
Pressur e == D x t x 80, tons
t == plate thickne ss
1/4"
Pressur e = 2 x 1/4 x 80 == 40 tons
F
~ Ss
2" A
PROB LEM 9 (ME Bd. Oct. 97) F
enduran ce strength is Ss
A link has a load factor of 0.8, the surface is 092 and the rtdt
•
50 X
A. 8150 C. 9333 rrd(7/1 6)
B 10.920 D. 7260 I¢'H
d == 16 In
68 Stresses
Solving for the equivalent no. of holes Stresses 69
(5/16)
A steel tie rod on bridge must be made withstand a pull of 5000 Ibs. Find the diameter
of the rod assuming a factor of safety of 5 and ultimate stress of 64.000 psi.
Therefore no. of holes is 5 because the punching machine cannot punch entirely the
A 0.75 C. 0.71
remaining 0.12 in.
B. 0.84 D. 0.79
SOLUTION
PROBLEM 12 (ME Bd. Apr. 97)
The shaft whose torque vanes from 2000 to 6000 inlbs has 1 1/2 inches in diameter
SI = F/A
and 60,000 psi yield strength. Compute for the shaft mean average stress.
Smax ~6!max
3
=~~()OO) = 9054 psi 5 J1:d2 F = 5000 Ibs
nd n(1.5)3 4
If the weight of 6" diameter by 48" long SAE 1030 shafting is 174.5 kg, then what will
Using variable stress formula equation: be the weight of chromium SAE 51416 of same size?
A. 12,090 B. 14,165 kg
4900 N
SOLUTION
I
., Projected A rea
PROBLEM 16 (ME Bd. Apr. 96)
~ = 2.5
~~L
inch thick plate?
   = 2.5
76.2
L = 190.5 mm
EmmmmI
76.2 mm
A = projected area is rectangular
SOLUTION: 0.625"
A = 0 x L
8
A = 76.2(190.5) = 14,516 mm 2
Force r Stress x Area ~O.75"
r.;~,
:!~;
Where: Area = Circumference x thickness
~~:
..~
70 SI resse» 71
Stress es
Area == n D t
";ON""'.
Solving for diamete r of bushing hole after heating:
E == Stress/S train 6 6
EmmmD
PROB LEM 18 (ME Bd. Oct. 95) E == Stress/S train == 44,000/ 0.00105 == 41.905 x 10 6 psi
A 2.5 in diamete r by 2 in long journal bearing is to carry a
5500lb load at 3600 rpm
using SAE 40 lube oil at 200°F through a single hole at
25 psi. Comput e the PROB LEM 21 (ME Bd. Oct. 95)
bearing pressure. What force P is required to punch a 1/2 in. hole on a 3/8 in.
A. 1100ps i
thick plate it the ultimate
C. 900 pSI shear strength of the plate is 42,000 psi?
B. 1000 psi D. 950 psi A. 24.9401 bs C. 24,6201bs
5500lb s
SOLU TION I
..
Project ed A
rea
B. 24.9601 bs D. 24,7401bs
EmmmD
Bearing pressur e is the same as bearing stress.
~/
b . •2"
P == Stress x Area
F 2.5"
What is the working strength of a 2" bolt which is screwed PROB LEM 27
SOLU TION
20mm
50,000 =. Fb
Determine the estimated weight of an A36 steel plate size W' Fb = 14.176
x 4' x 8'.
A. 280 kgs C. 332 kgs
B. 301 kgs D. 297 kgs F = total force applied on cylinde r head
250mm
F = 10(14.176) = 141. 76 KN
A = area of cylinde r
141.76
Pressure = 2 = 288.8 Kpa
L
s: resses 5tn'ss(·..., 75
SOLUTION Im!!Im3
F = 250 KN
20mm
S 0= F/A S = F
A
50000 0= 250 F F
, A S = 
2 F
A 0= 5 X
3
10 m2 (7t/4)0
2) F
A (rr/4 0 0  (rr/4 0;2)
0=
2 2 80,000 = 
A 0= rr/4(00  0, ) (7t/4)(0.02)2
Substitute: F = 25.132 KN
5 x 10 0= rr/4 (0 02  (0. 185)2J
3
PROBLEM 31
6.366 X 10 0= 0 02  0.034225
3
What force is necessary to punch a 30 mm hole in 12.5 mm thick plate if ultimate
Do 0= 0.201472 m 0= 201.47 mm
shear stress is 410 Mpa?
A. 564 KN C. 483 KN
PROBLEM 29 O. 983 KN
B. 342 KN
A steel hal/ow tube is use to carry a tensile load of 500 KN at a stress of 140 Mpa. If
outside diameter is 10 times the tube thickness, find the thickness of the tube. Im!!Im3
A. 11.24 mm c. 20.64 mm Using shearing stress formula:
B. 107 mm O. 22.61 mm
F
S
SOLUTION A
F
S
S 0= £: ndt
A F
500 410,000 = 7t(0.03)(0.0125)
140,000
A t
~
A 0= 3.57143 X 10 3 m 2 F 0= 483.0198 KN
Do 0= 10t PROBLEM 32
Do 0= OJ + 2t Two 30 mm thick plate is fastened by two bolts, 25 mm in diameter. If the plates is
10t 0= D, + 2t subjected to 50 KN tension, find the bearing stress in bolts.
0; 0= 8t A. 33,333.33 Kpa C. 5555.55 Kpa
B. 4444.44 Kpa O. 555,555 Kpa
A 0= rr/4 (0 02 _ 0,2)
3
3.57143 x 10 0= 7t/4((10t)2  (8t)2J 25mm
4.5473 x 103 0= 36e SOLUTION
t 0= 0.112389 m 0= 11.24 mm
50 KN
+ 50 KN
PROBLEM 30 Using bearing stress formula: l
A 20 mm diameter rivet is used to fastened two 25 mm thick plate. If the shearing S = £.
stress is 80 Mpa. What tensile force applied each plate to shear the bolt? A
A. 26.35 KN C. 30.41 KN A = area = 2 d t ( for two bolts)
B. 28.42 KN O. 25.13 KN
Stress es
S ==£ Stress es 77
dt
PROB LEM 35
S == 50 What is the modulu s of elasticit y if stress is 300 Mpa and strain
of 0.00138 ?
2(0.025 )(0.03) == 33,333. 33 Kpa A. 217.39 x 103 Mpa C. 220.61 Mpa
3
B. 200.61 x 10 Mpa D. 215.21 Mpa
S == 59,680. 68 Kpa == 59.68 Mpa For a cantilev er beam with load at free end:
M == F xL
M == (2 x 1000 x 0.00981 )(2) = 39.24 KNm
~ t
PROB LEM 34
A shaft when subject ed to pure torsion develop ed a stress of 50 Z == Section modulu s
Mpa. If polar momen t Z == IIc == MIS == 39.24/1 10,000 == 3.5673 4 3
7 4
of inertia is 6.1359 x 10. m determi ne the maximu m torque the shaft could handle.
x 10. m x (3937)3
, 3
A. 1.23 KNm Z == 21.77 in
C. 1.84 KNm
B. 1.68 KNm D. 2.48 KNm
~
32
d == 0.05 m For a cantilev er beam with load at free end:
M == maximu m momen t = F x L
M == 5(3) == 15 KNm
t
S= 16T
3 Z == Section modulu s == lie
TC d Z == 10 in 3x 1/(39.37 )3 = 1.6387 x10·4m 3
16 T M 15
50,000 == S = flexural stress ==  = 4
91,535. 62 Kpa
TC (0.05)3 Z 1.6387x1 0
T == 1.227 KNm
78 Stresses Stresses 79
PROBLEM 38
A 6 mm steel wire is 5m long and stretches 8 mm under a given load. If modulus of
Em!!IiImI
elasticity is 200 Gpa, find the load applied.
A.7KN C.9KN Y = ~
B. 8 KN D. 10 KN AE
2
A == 0.5 ern" x 1/(100)2 == 5 X 10'5 m 0.5 cm
2
SOLUTION
0.001 == (225xO.00981)(4) 4m
(5 x 105 )E
Y == FL 6mm E == 176580000 Kpa == 176.58 Gpa
AE
5m
0.008 == F(5)
[(nI4)(0.006)2](200x10 6 )
i mm
F == 9.047 KN PROBLEM 41
A 20 m rod is stretches to a strain of 0.001. Determine the deflection of the rod.
PROBLEM 39 A. 20 mm C. 30 mm
B. 25 mm D. 35 mm
A steel wire 10m long, hanging vertically supports a tensile 'f' F
load of 2 KN. Neglecting the weight of wire, determine the required diameter if the
SOLUTION
stress is not to exceed 140 Mpa and the total elongation is not to exceed 5 mm.
Assume E == 200 Gpa.
A. 2 mm C. 4 mm Strain == Y/L
B.3mm D.5mm
0.001 == Y/20
Im!!ImD Y == 0.020 m == 20 mm
. FL D
PROBLEM 42
Y == elongation ==  A rail having a coefficient of linear expansion of 11.6 x 10'6 m/moC increases its
AE length when heated from 70°F to 113°F. Determine the strain.
0.005 == ~ 2(10) A. 2.04 x 10'4 C. 4.21 X 10'4
A(200x10 6 ) B. 6.05 X 10'4 D. 2.77 X 10'4
A == 2 X 10'5 m2
2
A == n/4 d
2 x'lO'5 ==n/4 d2 Em!!IiImI
d == 0.00504 m == 5.04 mm Converting to DC difference:
L1Clt.F == 519
t.C/(11370) == 519
PROBLEM 40
L1C == 23.889°C
An iron rod 4 m long and 0.5 ern" in cross section stretches 1 mm when a mass of Strain == S/E == K (t2  t.) == 11.6 X 10'6 (23.889) == 2.77 x 10'4
225 kg is hang on it. Compute the modulus of elasticity of the iron.
A. 176.58 Gpa C. 160.41 Gpa
PROBLEM 43
B. 169.81 Gpa D. 180.26 Gpa What temperature will the rails just touch if steel railroad is 10m long are laid with
clearance of 3 mm at initial temperature of 15°C? Use k == 11.7 X 10'6 m/moC.
A. 35.64°C C. 45.64°c
B. 40.64°C D. 50. 64°C
80 Stresses Stresses 81
PROBLEM 46
A1A'Wb
Y=kL(bt1) 2 2
For a given material, the modulus of elasticity is 100 GN/m in tension and 40 GN/m
Clearance = Y/2 + Y/2 in shear. Find the Poisson's ratio.
Clearance = Y = 0.003 A. 0.10 C. 0.25
6
J V/2 kV/2 B. 0.50 D. 0.35
0.003 = 11.7 x 10. (10)(b  15)
t2 = 40.64°C U·)!'mmI
PROBLEM 44 G=_E_
2(1 + u)
For a given material, the modulus of elasticity is 15,000,000 PSI In tension and
E
6,000,000 psi in shear. Determine the Poisson's ratio for this material. u = 1
A. Q4 C. 0.3 2G
B. 0.25 D. 0.5 100
u = 1
2(40)
SOLUTION
u = 0.25
PROBLEM 45 P=2rcTN
A 1000 lb force acts at the end of a 10ft cantilever beam. The section modulus for 3 = 2 rt T (1725/60)
3
the steel beam is 8.0 in . How much stress is induced? T = 0.01661 KNm
A. 10,000 psi C.12,000psi
300mm
B.15,000psi D.14,200psi But: T = F x r
0.01661 = F (0.025/2)
SOLUTION
PROBLEM 48
What force is necessary to punch a 1 in hole in a 118 in steel plate if the ultimate
shearing stress is 60,000 psi and the ultimate compressive stress is 80,000 psi?
M = F x L = 1000(10) = 10,000 ftIb
M = 120,000 inIb
A. 34,520.34 Ib C. 12,344.56 Ib
B. 8,345.56 Ib D. 23,561.90 Ib
z = section modulus
z= 
M E:r!!iIm
Sf
Solving for the shearing area during punching:
3 = 120,000
Sf
82 Stresses Stresses 83
2
A = re d t = re (1) (1/8) = 0.3926 in PROBLEM 51
S= ~ A hollow rivet has an outside diameter of 5 mm and an inside diameter of 3 mm. If
6 2
A the allowable shearing stress is 400 x 10 N/m , what maximum shearinq force can
the rivet sustain if subjected to double shear?
60,000= _F_
0.3926 A. 10 KN C. 15 KN
B. 20 KN O. 25 KN
e
F = 23,562 Ibs
EmDImII
2
A=2 [%(0 0;2)]
k 5 mm )1
PROBLEM 49
•
~D= 1 in A= 2
4
0
!: [(0.005)2 
5
(0.003)2]
2
F F
A = 2.51327 X 10 m
A Ubolt supports a load of 6000 lb. The crosssection of the bolt has a diameter of
1/2 inch. How much stress is induced in the sides of the bolt? 6 2 3 2
F = 400 X 10 N/m = 400 x 10 KN/m
A. 12,734.45 psi C. 13,345.56 psi
B. 14,567.23 psi O. 15,278.12 psi
S = F/A F
SOLUTION 3 5
400 x 10  2.51327x10
1/2" F = 10.05 KN
A = 2[ ~ (1 I 2)2] = 0.3927 in
2
PROBLEM 52
A vertical load of 400 Newtons acts at the end of a horizontal rectangular cantilever
2
beam 2m long and 25 mm wide. If the allowable bending stress is 130 MN/m , find
the depth of the beam in mm.
S= ~ = 6,000/0.3927 = 15,278.84 psi
6000lb
A. 23.44 mm C. 30.23 rnrn
A B. 38.43 mm O. 43.23 mm
PROBLEM 50
A 1 in diameter shaft has a 2 in diameter collar resting on a support. The axial load
SOLUTION ~ tP=400 N
on the shaft is 10,000 Ib and the thickness of the collar is 1/2 in. How much shearing 2m
stress is induced?
A. 6,366.20 psi C. 5,244.56 psi Moment = 400(2) = 800 N.m = 0.80 KN.m
B. 4,234.56 psi O. 8,456.34 psi F =
10,000 Ibs
z = MIS = [0.80/130 x 103] (1000)3 h
SOLUTION Z = 6153.85 rnrn" 25mm
;~ SHAFT· 1" dia. bh 2
z=
F 6
COLLAR· 2" dia.
Ss = reds t
6153.85 = (25)~
1/2" 6
Ss = 10,000 h = 38.43 mm
re(1)(0.5)
.1/2"
S, = 6,366.20 psi
1"
84 Stresses
PROBLEM 53 Stresses 85
A simply supported timber beam is 50 mm by 200 mm in crosssection and 4 m long. F
If the fiber stress is not to exceed 8.3 Mpa and the beam weight is neglected, find the 210000 =  
, 0.00144
maximum midspan concentrated load that the beam can support if the 200 mm
F = 302.4 KN = 302,400 N
dimension is vertically oriented.
A. 2,766.67 N C. 2,345.56 N
B. 3,233.45 N D. 1,234.45 N
PROBLEM 55
A steel hanger of 2 m length is to carry an axial load of 18 KN. If the tensile stress is
SOLUTION restricted to 104 Mpa and the elongation caused by this load is restricted to 1 mm,
what is the minimum crosssectional area the member can have? E = 200,000 Mpa
~p A.1Mm~ C.1~m~2
B. 173 rnrn" D. 190 mm
For rectangular beam:
Z = section modulus of rectangular beam SOLUTION
2
bh 200mm
Z=  
6 Based on tensile stress: 2m
Z
(50)(200)2
= '''' SOmm
S = ~
A
6
4 3 104 = 18,000
z = 333,333.33 rnrn" = 3.33 x 10. m
A
2
M=Sz A '" 173 mm
6)(3.333 4
Moo (8.3 x 10 10. ) = 2,766.67 N.m
F = 18 KN
For simply supported beam: Based on the given deflection:
M= ~L. FL
4 y
276667 = P(4)
AE
,. 4
18,000 (2,000)
P = 2,766.67 N
1 = A (200,000)
A = 180 rnrn"
PROBLEM 54 Therefore use the higher area: A = 180 rnrn"
A lap joint consists of steel plate 250 mm by 18 mm in thickness is connected by 420
mm diameter rivets. Compute the bearing capacity of the rivet connection if the
allowable bearing stress is 210 Mpa. PROBLEM 56
A. 302,400 N C. 420,340 N A short hollow steel cylinder with a wall thickness of 38 mm is to carry a compression
B. 360,200 N D. 460,240 N load, applied uniformly on the end, of 7,800 KN. If the allowable working stress in
steel in compression is 138 Mpa, then the minimum outside diameter of the cylinder
SOLUTION required to safely support the load is:
A. 512 mm C. 396 mm
F B. 482 mm D. 460 mm
Sb = 
A
A = bearing area
A = 4(dxt) = 4 (0.020 x 0.018)
F Em!!imD
2
A = 0.00144 m
s = F
A
86 Stresses Stresses 87
7,800,000
138 SOLUTION
A
A = 56,521.74 rnrn" S = KE (t2  t1)
A=AoA,
6
A = ~ D 2 _ ~ D1 2 = ~ [D 2 ~ D 2J S = (6.5 x 10 6 inl'F) (30 x 10 psi)( 130) = 25,350 psi
4
4° 4 01
Dj = Do 2t PROBLEM 59
D j = DO  2(38) = Do  76 A steel rod with a crosssectional area of 160 rnrn" is to be attached between two
TC 2 2 fixed points 1.25 m apart. If the rod is too short by 0.25 mm, find the stress applied to
56,521.74 = [Do (D o76) J put the rod back to fitness. E = 200,000 Mpa
4
2 2 38mm~~38mm A. 40 Mpa C. 50 Mpa
79,965.71 = D0  D0 + 152D o  5,776
Do = 511.5 mm B. 30 Mpa D. 60 Mpa
~ )1
k Do
PROBLEM 57 SOLUTION
A 25 mm diameter steel bar is loaded in double shear until failure, the ultimate load is
.( J
found to be 446 KN. If the allowable stress is to be based on a factor of safety 3 what L = 1.25  0.00025 = 1.24975 m
must be the diameter of a pin designed for an allowable load of 26 KN in single shear
be? A. 14.79 mm C. 13.24 mm y = S~
E
B. 15.64 mm D. 12.63 mm
0.00025 = S ( 1.24975 )
SOLUTION 200,000,000 1.25 m
S = 40,008 Kpa = 40.008 Mpa
Fu
Su = 
A
For double shear:
446,000
Su = 454.52 Mpa
2[~(25)2]
.4
PROBLEM 58
A steel bar, initially free of stress, is held between rigid supports. Determine the
stress in the bar if temperature drops 130°F. K = 6.5 x 10'6 inl'F, E = 30 x 106 psi
A. 25,350 psi C. 24896 psi
B. 26,234 psi D. 23,654 psi
88 Shafting 89
Shafting
e Shaft power
where:
TN T
P == power, KW
T = torque, KNm
N == speed, rps
B. Power in English
mmmmm! where:
P == power, Hp
1. Shaft  is a rotating member that is used to transmit power.
T == torque, ftlb
N == speed, rpm
2. Axle  a stationary member carrying rotating wheels, pulleys. F
(; Torque, T R
3. Machine shaft  shaft which is an integral part of the machine.
7. Transmission shaft  is a shaft used to transmit power between the source and
.&EiiU&i:Q:a:UiUU,W
the machines absorbing the power, and include countershafts, line shafts, head
shafts, and all factory shafting.
A. For solid shaft:
~ OTO R Machine Shaft
W • ,,~~1% %4~
I'
I,
Main Shaft
0
~1,
Counter Shaft
T]
where:
S5
tOlE t
Driven Machine 1 ~ Do == outside diameter
0, == inside diameter
t
Driven MaChine 2
90 Shafting Shafting 91
J = polar moment of inertia b. For hollow shaft:
c = is the distance of the farthest fiber from neutral axis
T = torque
d = diameter of shaft
" Torsional deflection(8), rad
where:
• Strength of shaft with assumed allowable stresses
L = length
of shaft
J = polar moment of inertia (PSME Code p. 18)
•
iii Stress in shaft when subjected to Torsion and Bending
(From Machineries Handbook)
loads:
• Shaft diameter for 0.08 degrees per foot of length of shaft
F
a. For solid shaft: deflection.
~
'a.iIJJ2i1taa!a~il'
T
Where:
where:
T = torque o = diameter, in
M = moment T = torque, inIb
5 s = maximum shear stress P = horsepower
51 = maximum tensile or compressive stress N = speed, rpm
92 Sh (~(t ino
Shu!tin.t} !cJ:1
For Sl units:
2. Rectangular
D = 2.26 tIT 'or D = 125.70 ~.
I~d
bd(b 2 +d2 )
J = 12
Where:
o :::: diameter, mm 2
bd I. b tol
P = power, watts
N = speed, rpm 3 +1.6 <l.
T = torque, Nmm d
Where:
• Shaft deflection of 1 degree for a length of 20 times its b = bose
d = height (shortest side)
diameter.
~ 3. Circle
}
D=0.10 Wf·. orD=4.0
4 3
Where" ltD Zp = ltD
J= 
32 16
P = power, hp Where: 0 ::= diameter
D = diameter, in
N =speed, rpm 4. Hollow tube
T~ torque, inIb
outside diameter
"r
16
D4 4
d
D
\. J r
L=5.2 ~ d = Inner diameter
1. Square
6. Triangle
~Io
4
J = 0.1667a
z, = 0.206 a' J = 0.036 s'
Where:
a = length of side
Z, = 0.05 s'
S length of side
s
n4 ShuJll nq 95
ShaJting
5 5
PROBLEM I (Oct. 2000) A 0.75x10 C. 1.20 X 10
5
Compute for the ~wisling moment in mfb developed when the shaft delivers 20 hp at B.1.0X10 D. 2.10 X 10"
1200 rpm.
A. 1166 C. 1050 &!!I1t_gl
B. 915 O. 945
P ~ 2rrTN
E!!Dl':D
20 ~ 2 IT (T) (200/60)
P ~ 2rrTN
~ ~
6
T 0.9549 KNm (1000)(1000) 0.9549 x 10 Nmm
33,000
20 ~ 2rrT(1200) The answer is: B (nearest)
33,000
T ~ 87.53 ftIb (12) ~ 1050.42Inlb PROBLEM 5 (Ocl. 2000)
, A 102 mm diameter shaft is driven at 3000 rpm by a 300 hp pnme mover. The shalt
PROBLEM 2 (Oct. 2000) , drives a 121.9 cm diameter chain sprocket having 85% output efficiency. Compute
Find the torsional deflection, in degrees, of a solid steel shaft, 110 mm 00 x 1.4 m the torque In inIb developed in the shalt.
fJ
long subject to 3.1 x 10 Nmm torque. The torsional modulus of elasncrty is 80,000 A. 5.600 C 8,150
N/mmmm. B. 7.100 D. 6.300
A. 0.221 C. 0.28
B. 0.195 D 0.21
mm:mmI
D!!D1':D p c .2.itT~
33.000
300 ~ .2.rrTJ3000)
6)(1400)
8 ~ ..:r L (3.1x10
   4 . _    0.003774 rad (180
e/rr)
JG 33,000
[rr(~~o) ](80.000) T c 525.211 hlb (12) ~ 6,302.53 inlb
9 ~ 0.216 degree
TL (3 6
x 10 )(1400) P ~
D3N

Q)3J.280) 19895 hp
e/rr)
8 0.00352 rad (180 38 38
JG ~ [rr (~~0)4](83.000)
PI,OBLEM 7 (Oct. 1998)
8 ~ 0.202 degree What power would a spindle 55 mm In diameter transmit at 480 rpm stress allowed
2
lor short shalt is 59 N/mm ?
'R OELEM 4 (Oct. 2000) A. 98.68 kw C 68.98 kw
'ind the torsional moment (in Newtonrum), developed when the shaft delivers 20 kw B. 96.88 kw D. 68.89 kw
t 200 rpm
96 Shaft uvq g7
Shq{t ing
SOLUTION T 1,927.390 N.mm = 1.92739 KN.m
P 2 rt T N ~ 2 n (1.92739)(480/60) ~ 96.88 kw
o ~ 55 mm ~ 0.055 m
No correct answer In the given choices.
S ~ 59 N/mm' ~ 59 Mpa ~ 59,000 kpa
am:mD SOLUTION
0.8 Ll
X 1t ~548d3)(1@_ PROBLEM 16 (ME Bd. Apr. 97)
180 0 4 Determine the torque received by the motor shaft running at 4,250 rpm, transrnittlnq
(nd )(79.300.000) 11 hp through a 10 in diameter 20° involute gear. The shalt is supported by ball
32
bearings at both ends and the gear is fixed at the shalt length.
d = 0.062 m 62 mm
A. 163 inIb C. 167 inIb
B. 132inlb D.138inlb
100 ShaJtiflq 1 (J 1
Shafting
SOLUTION torsional sheanng stress IS 28 N/mm"'.
A. 218 C. 312
B. 232 D. 380
P = nTN
T = 4500 Nm
P = 2nTN
12(33,000) = 2nT(180)
T = 350.14 ItIbs = 4,201.68 inlos
PROBLEM 21 (ME Bd. Oct. 95)
Design the size of solid steel shalt to be used .or a 500 Hp, 250 rpm application If the
L=IIt=12in
allowable torsional detrection is 1 and the allowable stress is 10,000 psi and modulus
Q
J = l'td'/32 6
G = 12,000,000 psi for steel 01 rigidity IS 13 x 10 pSI.
A. 5" dia. C. 45/8" dia.
e = TL B. 47/8" dra. D. 43/4" dia.
JG
n 4,201.68(12)
0.08' x 180 0 4 m:m:mmI
(nd )(12,000,000)
32 Solving for the shaft diameter 0 based on stress:
d ~ 2.35 in P = Zrt TN
500(33.000) ~ 2 rt T (250)
PROBLEM 19 (ME Bd. Apr. 96) T ~ 10.504.226 ItIbs
Compute the nominal shear stress at the surface in Mpa for a 40 mm diameter shalt T = 126,051 mlbs
that transmits 750 K!N at 1500 rpm. Axial and bending loads are assumed negligible.
102 SfW/llill/ IO.~
Sh({!1 fJlq
s = 16T
3
Emmitw'
n:d
16(126.051) p 
D"N
10.000 c. For short shaft
nid)3 38
d = 4" Where D shaft diameter, In
N = speed. rpm
P = power. hp
Solving for the shaft diameter based on torsional deflection:
The shaft length IS not given The common practice for torsional deflection IS per 20d
length. (From machineries Handbook) (51! 25.4)N
120 = . _ .
TL 38
I)
JG N = 330 rpm
v = ,D N = IT (0 55 x 3 28)(330) 1870 fpm
126.051(20d)
x Jl!180   
6
15T J = 1 125 x 10 m':
s
j"[d3
PROBLEM 25 (ME Bd. Apr. 95)
15T Compute the speed of the gear mounted all. a 52.5 mm diameter shalt receiving
12.000 = _.
n(2)3 power from a driVing motor With 250 Hp
T = 18850 mIbs 1.570.8 ttlbs A 2182 rpm C 2071 rpm
8 2282 rpm D. 234 f rpm
p = 2n.~
550 ~
Where T = torque. f1lb
N = speed, rps D 3N
p
p = 2'(1570 8)(120! 50) 80
3589 Hp
550
(52.5 25.4)3 N
250
80
PROBLEM 2:; (ME Bd. Oct. 95) N 2255 rpm
A short 61 mm diameter shaft transmits 120 Hp Compute the hnear speed of a pulley
55 em diameter mounted on the shaft. 1he: answer IS B (nearest)
A. 1795 lpm C. 1765 fpm
8. 1856 fpm D 2106 torn
10" Shuftinq 105
S}lU(lllln
PROBLEM 26 (ME Bd. Apr. 95) f'I<UIJLEM 28 (ME ae, Apr. 94)
A 3" diameter short shaft carrying 2 inches pulleys close to the bearings transmit how
A solid cylindrical shaft 48.2 em long IS used for a transmission of mechanical power
at a rate of 37 KW running at 1760 rpm The S~ IS 8.13Mpa. Calculate the diameter. much power If the shaft makes 280 rpm
A. 30 mm C. 35 mm A 199 Hp C. 198 Hp
B. 40 mm D 50 mm B. 200 Hp D. 210 Hp
SOLUTION ~
For short shafts
P~2rrTN
37 ~ 2nT(1760/60) D 3N (3)3(280)
P = = 199 Hp
T ~ 0.20 KNm 38 38
S ~ 16T
rrd3 PROBLE:vI 29 (ME Bd. Apr. 97)
A step shaft made of SAE 1117 steel with an ultimate strength of 69.7 ksi The notch
8130 = 16(42.017)
sensitivity lactor IS 0.00435 IS the constant dependent upon the ultimate strength.
nd 1 check the radius stress raiser
d ~ 0.050 m = 50 mm A. 0.192 C 0250
B. 0386 D. 0775
P = 2" T N = 0.25
200 = Zrr T(400/60)
T = 477465 KNm PROHLEM 30
A shafl IS used to transmit 200 KW at 300 rpm by means of a 200 mm diameter
D, = D. 2 t sprocket Determine the force tangent to the sprocket
D = 014  2(0008) = 0.124 m A 60 44 KN C 60 88 KN
B. 60 33 KN D 6366 KN
J = rr/32 (D.'  D,') = rr/32 [(0.14)'  (0.124)"] = 1.45042 x 10" m"
~
From Vallance p 31. Table 26 for C4140
steel. P=2TITN
G ~ 12000.000 pSI = 12.000.000 (101325/147) = 82714.286 Kpa 200 " 2 II T 1300/60)
II c TL T ~ 6.366 KNm
JG
T :::; F x r
477465(5)
H 00199 rad (180" IT rad) 1.14 deg 6366 = F, (0 20/2)
145042,10 '(82.714286) F = 63.66 KN
lOb Shullilln 107
S/wjl illy
PROBLEM :J]
Find the diameter of a steel shaft which will be used to operate a 110 t0N motor
E·)!''ir.g+
rotating at 5 rps If torsional stress IS 90 Mpa.
A. 60.2 mm C. 38.3 mm 2"TN
P =
B. 583 mm O. 46.2 rrm 33,000
2nT(1400)
50 
Em!!i:mD 33,000
T 18757 ItIb x 12in/lt 2250905 mlb
P=2nTN 16T
110 = 2 n T (5) S
r::d J
T = 3.501 KNm
16T 16(2250905)
S 500   
J 3
rrd rId
d = 2.84 In
90000 = 16(35()1)
, J
'd P[,OIlLEM :14
d = 0.058298 m = 58.298 mm A hollow shaft that has a 100 mm outside diameter and 80 mm msrdc diameter IS
used lo transmit 100 KW at 600 rpm Determine the shaft stress
A 1373 Mpa C. 19.86 Mpa
PROBLEM 32 B 1682 Mpa D. 17.21 Mpa
What IS the speed of 63 42 mm shaft that transmits 75 KW if stress is not to exceed
26 Mpa? ...r.lI.fkll.~
A. 550 rpm C. 650 rpm
B 660 rpm D. 700 rpm P=2,TN
100 = 2, T 1600/60)
E.:.t!!immI T = 15915 KNm
16TO, 16(1.5915)1010)
S = 16T S 4  4 13728.73 Kpa
nd J il:(Do 0 1
)
;[(010)" (008)']
PROBLEM 33
A steel shalt transrruts 50 Hp at 1400 rpm. If allowable stress is 500 PSI, find the shalt
E.:.t!!immI
diameter
16 T
A. 3.58 In C 1 65 In Ss
B. 2.84 In D 2.54 In TId:)
70 = 16 T
rt(2)3
T = 109.96 N mm
A = 2 turns = 2 rev = 2 (2TI)  4"
I (),~ ,'jlllllllll!)
~11(llrl!ln lOq
10996 L
4)1 =  
SOLUTION
IT (2)4
(35000)
32 ' lit x 1,3.281 _ 0.30478 m
D
L 6.283 mm
T = F(D!2) = 5(0.30478/2) = 0.7619 KNm
16T J(83Xl 0 6 )
s
nd 3 5
ITd 4
J = 1.93286 X 10 m'
25.000 = 16(1,5) 32
3
ITd _ red 11
1.93286 x 10" =
d 0.0673556 m = 673556 mm 32
4 4
rrd._. = rr(0.06755) = 2.02 x 10" m' d = 011845m = 118.45mm
J
32 32
4 x n:/180'
TIS) E:.'l!!IiI:.mI
J
IITd ](83x106) SOLUTION:
32
T = 113774606 d' _ Eqn. 2 For short shaft
03 N
Equate 1 and? /"
1 r f1 q.:. Cjl c. p =
38
113774.606d' = 1178097,r (::I: :;;
d = 0.10354 m = 10354 mm (1.5)3 N
¢' ! Ii:; ;:;d Le.' 44.4
38
N = 500 rpm x 1160 8.33 IpS
PROBLEM .+ I
What IS the diameter of a line shaft that transmit 150 KW at 15 rps?
A 228 In C 1.62 in
PR01J!.EM 4+
B. 3.54 In 0 2.04 In
A 3 in solid shalt IS desired to replaced a hollow shaft havnq 4 In outside diameter
Consider the strength to be the same. determine the mside diameter of hollow shaft
Em:!!ii%.:D A 2.5 In C 3.48111
B 3 0 In 0 4.0 In
For line shaft.
p =
O'N
 E:.'l!!IiI:.mI
53.5
For 50110 shaft
03(15x60)
150'0.746 = S = 15T 16T
53.5 0.1886T
nd 3 ,,(3)3
D , 2.28 in
Hali,,p'
PROBLEM 4(;
A circular saw blade has a circular speed of 25 m/sec and 500 mm diameter IS driven
by means of belt that has an effiCiency of 95% Find the required diameter of the
For Simply supported beam with load at center.
driven shaft If power transmitted IS 50 hp.
PL (500x000981}(1)
A. 1 In C. 3 In M
B 2 In D. 4 in 4 4
M 1.226 KN m p ~ 500 kg
E'.l!!iil.:'mI
V =rrDN
Sol\/Ing lor the torque developed"
P=2nTN
190 = 2 rt T (300·60)
I ~ PI
T 604i88KNm
25 = rt (0.5) N
N = 954.93 rpm For shaft subjected to torsion and bending load.
Based on shearing.
For line shaft:
16 "' ')
S _ \ M"  T"
D3N ;rd\
P =
53.5 16 ') <'
J ~ 0 ()OO " ,'(1 226)" T (6.04788)
P lei = D N :r:cl
53,5 d 009227 rr; = 9227 mm
II" ShU/II/H; :.,!Ui!llfU! I J 5
PROHLSM 49
A 100 mm diameter shaft \5 subjected to a torque of 6 KNm and a bendinq moment
I!m!!iiI:mI
of 2.5 KNm Find the maximum bending stress developed. For line shan
A. 4584 Mpa C 50.2B Mpa
B. 6025 Mpa D. 5546 Mpa
p
D"N
SOLUTION 53.5
For shaft subjected to torsion and bending IOrHL Based on compression, 0 3 (900 )
200
53.5
16 . . ', ,
31 =  I'M~\"'M2 __ T.:' I D = 2 28 In or 2 7/16 III (standard)
Ted'
Based on sbeacr.o
IIE!!Im3
16 r '2
S. = _ \ M , T,l
nd' _
S = 16T
16 '  ,   r; J
n:d
40 x 10 =  _j
'l,(0.34 t ,(0.225t
nd ,
7000= 16T
d = 0.0373 m = 37 3 mrn . "(I! 4)3
T = 1.789 fIlb
Based on compression.
16 2
T2
51 = ,  M + vM nd 4rr(1 4)4
'I .
t
nd<l J= = _ 3 835 x 10' ff'
32 32
53 3 x 10' = 16 10.34 ,
;r:d 3
\(0::34l r (0.225)2 L·lf1=12In
TL (1789xI2,112) J/nrad
8= = 00559 rad x 180
d = 0 04149 m = 41 49 mm JG 3835xl0·'(12.000.000)
II = 3 21
Therefore choose the larger diameter, d ·,41 49 mm
PFOllLEM C,7
A hollow shaft has an outside diameter of 4 In and an Inside diameter of 3 In. Find
PROBLEM 55
the marnctcr of a solid shaft with equal strength In torsion
A 1 In diameter shaft IS to be replaced with a hollow shaft of the same rnatenal
A2121n B323,n
weighing half as much, but equally strong In torsion The outside diameter of the
C >1?3 In [) 3 S2 In
hollow shaft IS to be 1 1/2 in Find the inside diameter.
A. 1322 In C I 653 III
B. 2 123 In 0 3 123 In IIE!!Im3
S, "1 = SI"...,.....
I] H J'. ( ·!I , 11 q
....... llfl/llllq
16T 16TO"
3 ::::: .1 1
IT d 7T(Oo D )
0,/  0,'1:::. rj)
(4)'. (3)' 0 d' (4)
°
do 352 In
I'ROIILEM 58
A 1;4 In steel shaft transmits 30 InIb of torque The effective length of the shaft IS 12
in: the modulus of etasncuv In shear IS 12.000,000 pSI. Find the angular deflection in
degrees.
A. 234"
B 1,23'
C, 448'
0, 634"
GmD
mm:mD ~
1. Key  a machine member employed at the mtartacc of a pair of mating male and
ITd' . )4 ~
IT(~' 4 . = 3835 terna'c Circular crosssectional members to prevent relative angular motion
>1
J = ' x 10ft
32 32 between these mating members
TL (30)(12)
H ::::: = 0.078 rad x 180"/mad 2. Keyway a groove ill the shaft and mating member to which the key fits.
JG 3835xl0" (12000000)
00448' 3. Splines  permanent keys made integral With the shaft and fitting Into keyways
broached Into the mating
PHOl3LEM SCI
A 1 1/2 In Monel shaft IS used In a torsional application. Based on operating speed of 4. Square key has a square crosssection with tlalf of ItS depth sunk In the shaft
100 rpm and safety factor of 12. How much horsepower can it transmit? Assume the ano half in the hub.
shearrng stress IS 3/4 of the ultimate tensile stress which is 100.000 pSI
A 657 hp C 234 hp 5. Flat key has a reqular cross section With a smaller omcison placed In the
B. 345 hp 0. 5.23 hp radial direction with half sunk In the shaft and half In the hub and IS used where
the weakening of the shaft by the keyway IS serious
IIE!!imD
6. Round key  has Circular cross section
S" = 3'4 S,
S" = 34 (100,000) 0 75,000 pSI 7. Barth key IS a square key With bottom two corners beveled.
S _ SSLJ 8. Woodruff key consists 01 onehalf of a Circular disk fitting into a rectangular
, FS keyway In the female member and a semicircular keyway In the male member
S,075,000'12
S, 6.250 pSI
0
9. GibMhead taper key  is a flat key With a special qrbhe ad to facilitate easy
dnvrnq and removal of the key
S, 0 16T
, 7Td 3
10. Saddle key IS a flat key used Without a 'Keyway In the shaft
16T
6250= ',
"(1.5r 11. Kennedy keys are tapered SqU,Hf' keys With the diagonal dimension In a
T 4141 751n·lb 0345.141!·lb circumferential direction.
P = ~"TN_ = 2IT(34514)(100) 12. Feather key is one which has a uqhl [II into one member and a loose Sliding lit
= 6 57 hp
33,000 33,000 In thr' 1Tl,1tltl(j member thus allowmq tile hub to move along the shaft but prevents
ILO {(I'II_", 121
Types of keys:
1. square key 3. Compressive Stress (So) of key
2 flat key
3
4.
found key
barth key
Fe
Ih/ 2
5 woodruff key So
6 oronead key (h/2)L
7. saddle key
8 kennedy key
h
9. leather key
//
s, = ~
wL
Key F where L = tenqth of key
W = width of key
h h  height of key
r
w
Shaft w
1. Power of key: 5. Relation of key and shaft for the same material:
D
A. P 21t T N, KW w L = 12 D
4
21tTN H
B P 6. Force tangent to pulley rim
33000' P F'
l?
0
/
T=T'
2. Force transmitted, F R
F.r=F'.R T'
r
T T
F
d/2 ~ _ force tanqent to the key
F force tangent to pulley rim
where d shaft diameter R radn.s of pulley
122 tc: c~ I ':> 1'23
PROBLE:vl I (ME Bd. Oct. 97) 7788
1
A 76.2 rnrn In diameter shafting of SAE 1040 grade, cold rolled, navinq a yield point of f 28,8444 N
(0054/2) '1
50 kSI and with a 3/4 x 5 Inches key Compute the minimum Yield pomt In the 'Key In ;.<:
P' ,
order to transmit the torque of the shaft. The tactor of satety to use IS 2 and S
0.50 S/ For shearing ot key 1.5875 em <~;~. L
A 39120 kSI C 27920 kSI
F 1.11 em
B 42.130ksl D. 47.120 kSI
S.
wL
SOLUTION 28844.4
60,000000
00111(L)
For Key
L c 00433 m = 4.33 em
w = 3/;" ~ 0.75"'
L = 5"
~ For compression of key'
d = 762 mm 3 In
Sy ( )
S,. S, 2 F 54mm
FS h L
3/4"
50,000
S" " 25,000 pSI 2(28.844.41
2 90,000.000
o 015875(Lj
S = 16T L ~ 0.040377 m = 40377 em
rrd3 Therefore choose the longer length of key
L c 433 em
25,000 = 16T
n( 3)'
T 132,535 94 mlb
T = F r I'H013LEM 3 (Ocl. 1998)
132,535.94 = F(3/2) A 76.2 mm cramercr shattmq of SAE 1040 grade, cold rolled, havno a Yield oom' or
F = 88,357.29Ibs 50 kSI and With a 3/4 x 3/4 x 5 In key Compute the minimum Yield pout In the key In
For sheanng of key order transmit the torque of the shaft The factor of safely to usc IS 2 and S,c, .;: 05
S,
F 88,357.29 S,
23,561 94 psi A 47 52 kSI C. 4712 kSI
wL 075(5)
B. 4725 kSI o 4721 ksi
Sy = S, x FS
S, = 23,561 94 x 2 = 47,120 PSI 4720 kSI
Em!!Ii[':W
PHOflLEM 2 (ME Bd. Ocl. 97) For Key
w ::::: ':'~ " = 0 75"'
A keyed sprocket deliver a torque of 778.8 N m thru the shaft of 54 rnrn 00. The '",ey
thickness IS 1.5875 em and the Width IS 1.11 em. Compute the length of the same
 c:
L  .,
d c:: 76.2 rnm = 3 In
key. The permissible stress value of 60 Mpa for shear and 90 Mpa for tension.
A 39.12 em C 52.22 em
B. 4.82 em 0 432 em S, 50.000 c 25,000 PSI
S"
FS 2
Em!!iiIm
S = 16T
F
T Tl"d 3
3"
16T
25,000 c
IT(3)3
124
T = 132.535.94 inIb K('l/S 125
T = Fr PROBLEM 5
132,535.94 = F(3/2) A metric M4 x 15 square key is used with a 16 mm shaft. If the allowable shearing
F = 88,357.29Ibs stress is 50 Mpa. How much torque can the assembly handle? The rotational speed
For shearing of key: of the shaft is 600 rpm.
F 88,357.29 A. 20 Nm C. 24 Nm
Ss =  23,561.94 psi
D. 34 Nm
wL 0.75(5) B. 12 Nm
Sy = Ss x FS
S, = 23,561.94x2 = 47,120 psi 47.20 ksi SOLUTION
" 0.0111125L
L = 0.04225 m = 42.25 mm Em!!iImII
Based on compressive of key:
P = 2rrTN
150 = 2rrT(400/60)
Sc = 2F T = 3.581 KNm
hL
2(28,737) T = Fxr
99,800,000 ~ . _  
200,000 = _9~~~3
L(0.015)
L = 0.03183 m = 3183 rnrn
126 J,! '1/', 127
PROBLEM 7 1\ <+3 KN C. 45 KN
A rectangular key is used in a pulley to transmit 100 KW at 1000 rpm on 50 mm shaft B. 48 KN D. 46 KN
diameter. Determine the force required to remove the shaft from the hub if friction is
0.4.
A. 33.24 KN C. 28.35 KN K=I15·UW..'
B. 36.85 KN D. 30.55 KN
For line shaft:
SOLUTION 3N
D
P = 
53.5
3
P=2nTN 15/0.746 = .0
(600 )
100 = 2nT(1000/60) 53.5
T = 0.9549 KNm o = 1.2148 in = 0.03085 m
T = Fxr L = 1 in = 0.025398 m
0.9549 = F x (0.050/2) w = 0/4 = 0.03085/4 = 0.007714 m
F = 38.197 KN F
Ss =
Lw
The friction on key experience both upper half on one side and lower half on the other
F
side.
230,000 = (0.001'714)(0.025398)
Force required to remove the shaft from the hub F = 45.061 KN
P = 2 f F = 2(0.4)(38.197) = 30.55 KN
PROBLEM 10
PROBLEM 8 A square key is to be used in a 40 mm diameter shaft and that will developed a 2 KN
A 7/16 in height x 3 in length flat key is keyed to a 2 inches diameter shaft. Determine m torque. If bearing stress of the key is 400 Mpa, determine the cross sectional
the torque in the key if bearing stress allowable is 25 Ksi. dimension of square key to be used if key length is 30 mm.
2
A. 16,406.25 inIb C. 17.42 inlb A. 324.80 mm C. 446.80 rnrn"
B. 15,248.56 inIb 0 246.75 inlb B. 246.80 rnrn" D. 277.77 mrn"
&i"'5itD "W"'mE'
w = 7/16 = 0.4375 in T = Fxr
7/16" 2 = F x (0.04/2)
F
Sc = ~ F = 100 KN w
(h / 2)L
w
F F
25000 =  Sc = 
, 3 (0.4375/2] (h / 2)L
F = 16,406.25 \bs
400000 = 100
, (0.030/ 2)(h)
T = Fxr
h = 0.01666 m = 16.6667 mm
T = 16,406.25 x (2/2) '" 16,406.25 inIbs w = h = 16.667 mm
A '" 16.667 x 16.667 = 277.77 rnrn"
!( )
, 40 mm
PROBLEM 9
A rectangular key is used in a pulley connected to a line shaft at 15 KW and 600 rpm.
If shearing of key is 230 Mpa, determine the force acling on key length if key width
onefourth of shaft diameter and key length is 1 inch
KellS 129
12R
PROBLEM II EmmmD
A 100 KN force is acting on a key that has a length of 4 times its height. If bearing
stress of key is 400 Mpa, determine the height of key.
For the same shaft and key material:
A. 1054 mm C. 12.65 mm
B.1118mm D.15.25mm
w '" 1/4 0
w = 1/4 (0.12)
w :" 003 m '" h
SOLUTION
F
Sc'"  
(h /2)L
F
s, '" (h/2)L
F
H
410,000 = 
w
(0.14)(0.03)
L '" 4 h
F '" 1722 KN
100
Fxr'" F'xR
400,000 '" (4h)(h /2)
1722(0.12) '" F' (1.2)
F' '" 172.20 KN
h '" 0.01118 m
h '" 11.18 mm
PROBLEM 12
A one meter pulley is fastened to a 100 mm shaft by means of 25 mm square key and
150 mm long. What force tangent to pulley rim will shear the key if shear stress is 200
Mpa?
A. 65 KN C. 75 KN
B. 70 KN D. 80 KN
EiD!Im'D
F
Ss '" Lw
25mm
F
200,000 '" 0.025(0.15) 25mm
F = 750 KN
F x r = F' x R
F' '" 75 KN
'( )
I 100 mm
PROBLEM 13
A 1.2 m pulley is fastened to a 120 mm shaft by means of a square key with 140 mm
long. What force tangent to pulley rim will crush the key if bearing stress is 410 Mpa.
Assume key and shaft are of the same material.
A. 16042 KN C. 18042 KN
B. 16525 KN D. 172.20 KN
130 Couplif/S} Coupling 131
8 Coupling
~ where:
n = no. of bolts
Flange Dc = bolt circle diameter
71 ~t
~
1. Coupling  is a mechanical device
• 4. Shearing of bolts(Ss)
• Shear Area
Flange
I
3. Flange coupling  type of rigid coupling which consist of two halves of flanges
connected by each other by bolts. 4 l~t
~i
where:
4. Sleeve or collar couplings  rigid coupling which is a cylindrical collar pressed t = thickness of flange
33,000,HP
B. 52.6 KN.m D. 43.8 KN.m
132 Ccn ipl i iu]
COlLpiing 133
Em!!J:mD
For shearing stress in bolts SOLUTION
1
s, = ~2
(nI4)d
P = 2rcTN
where: Fb = force transmitted per bolt
60 = 2 rt T (180/60)
50,000 = . . ~.Fb ' T = 3183 KNm
(n 14)(0.0254)2
Fb =' 25335 KN Torque on coupling:
T = F (OJ2)
B 38 Mpa O. 29 Mpa
PROBLEM 4
~i·l!iii[·H· A turbine is connected to a generator by means of flange coupling that has a bolt
circle diameter of 500 mm. The generator output is 40 MW, 3600 rpm and 90%
T =F x r etticiency. If there are 16 bolts, determine the force acting on each bolt
A. 26.41 KN C. 35.62 KN
15.1 = F (0.300/2) B 29.47 KN O. 3261 KN
20 mm
F = 10067 KN (total force) Lomm Emmir.m
Fb = force per bolt L 40000
Brake Power = .i.:»:
0.9
= 44444.44 KW
Ss ~ .~ 
12.58
_.~.__.
rc d2
rc 2 T = F (0/2)
 (0020)
4 4 117.89 = F(0.50/2)
F = 471.57 KN
PROBLEM :3 F b = Fin
A flange coupling having 180 mm bolt circle and 19 mm thick uses 8 bolts, 16 mm where: n = no. of bolts
diameter to connect two shafts. It is use to transmit 60 KW at 180 rpm. Determine the 71.57
F I , =  = 29.47 KN
factor of safety in bearing if yield point in compression is 448 Mpa 16
A. 156 C 30.8 /
B 185 o. 25.4
T = F (0/2)
SOLUTION 15 = F(O.25/2)
25 mm
F = 120 KN
T 250mm
P=2rrTN
4=:.~
Fb = F = 120 = 15 KN
300 = 2 1l T (600/60)
n 8
T = 47746 KNm
75mm
•
18 mm
S, =  ~ Solving for t based on compressive on key:
(rr / 4)d 2 15
Dc 15000 =
, (0.025)t
27 500 = f},__
t = 0.040 m = 40 mm
, rr/4(0.018)2
Fb = 6.9978 KN
F = 6(6.9978) = 41.9868 KN
T = F(D c/2)
4.774 = 41.9868(Oc/2)
Dc = 0.22740 m = 22740 mm
PROBLEM 6
The total force of 125 KN is required of flange coupling that has 5 bolts has also
shearing stress of 30 Mpa for bolt. Determine the required diameter of bolt.
A. 62.54 KN C 45.62 KN
B. 54.21 KN O. 32.57 KN
i·'!!ImD
Fb 125/5 = 25 KN
Fb
Ss ,
(rt /4)d 2
25
30.000 = 
(rr/4)d 2
d = 00325 m = 32.57 mm
PROBLEM 7
A flange coupling with bolt circle diameter of 250 mm uses 8 bolts, 25 mm diameter.
A. 25 mm C. 35 mm
B. 30 mm D. 40 mm
Pressure \', I :I
136 Pressure V, 'S.'>, '/
,.,>.,>/.[
,9 ~r~s;sur~
"~s.sel I'
P
rnnxrrnum pressure at the bottom
w h == (SG x ww) h
<t
h
,, ,,,
S== POi ,
41 e t~, D'I ~t
(, If the ratio of wall thickness to the inside diameter (~ ) is less than 0.07 then ,
. OJ k ),
. ~ !
the cylinder is considered as thinwall. (.. OJ :::: Do 2t
For Cylindrical Pressure Vessel where: e:::: joint efficiency
t
(.. If efficiency of Joint is not considered: If the ratio of t/D, is greater than 007, then the vessel is considered as thickwall.
S, == tangential stress or hoop stress
S ",PDi " Using Lame's equation for internal pressure:
Ql'~St+~1l
2t
SL longitudinal stress t ::::
PDf
2 SIIi J
Sl Ie ~ where:
4t Dr
1 == wall thickness SI tangential stress
D == inside diameter P, internal pressure
<. If efficiency of joint is considered:
PO PDt (. When the vessel is subjected to an internal and external pressures:
SI == 1... s,
2te 4t e
where:
e == joint efficiency For Maximum Internal Stress:
S == tangential stress
2 2. 2
0, == inside diameter t == thickness of the wall S _ Pi(fo Hi ) ~2Poro
1/ ~ 2 ~
" OJ '" 0 0  2t
fo  rj
,,
I
where: t:::: wall thickness Do :::: outside diameter For Maximum External Stress: ~
where:
l' 1« 1I\L1': M :\ (Oct. 1998)
St, = maximum internal tangential P, = internal pressure Deterrrune the bursting pressure of steel with diameter of 10 inches and make of
stress Po = external pressure 1/4 111 thick plate. The joint efficiency is at 70% and the tensile strength is 60 ksi.
SIO = maximum external tangential r = outside radius
0
A 4.020 psi C. 2.400 psi
stress r, = inside radius B. 4.002 pSI D. 4,200 psi
PROBLEM 1 (Oct. 2000)
SOLUTION
Find the thickness of a metal needed in the semispherical end of cylindrical
vessel 0.70 meter in diameter subjected to an internal pressure of 2.7 N/mm 2
The material is mild carbon steel and tensile stress is 69 N/mm. Using spherical vessel formula for thin wall:
A. 5.2 mm C. 7.53 mm
B. 6.02 mm O. 6.84 mm Considenng the efficiency,
SOLUTION PO,
8
4te
Using spherical vessel formula for thin wall: S 60 ksi = 60,000 psi
Two semispherical ends is considered as sphere. P(10)_
2
P = 2.7 N/mm = 2.7 Mpa = 2700 Kpa
2
60,000 = 4(11'4)(0.70)
S = 69 N/mm = 69 Mpa = 69,000 Kpa
P = 4200 psi
S = ~Oi
8 =~Oi
2 2t
2t t = 0.8516 in = 21.6 mm
28,000 = ~500~l
PROBLEM 5 (ME Bd. Oct. 97)
2t Determine the bursting steam pressure of a steel shell with diameter of 10 inches
t = 0.446 in (25.4) = 11.34 mm and made of 114 inch thick steel plate. The joint efficiency is at 70% and the
tensile strength is 60 ksi.
A. 4200 psi C 42.8 ksi
B. 105 kSI D 8500 psi
140 Pressure \lessel
Pr c ss urc \Ie sscl 141
Ei3!Iim3I
St = PO
 '
Steel shell usually spherical: 2t
Based on operating pressure:
POi 180(60)
Considering the efficiency, S 9500 = :     
4tTj 2t
t =: 0.568"
P(1Q)
60,000 =: 4(0:25 )(0 70)
Based on popout pressure:
P =: 4200 psi
9500 c; 200(60)
2t
PROBLEM 6 (ME Bd. Apr. 98) t = 0_631"
A standard plate thickness of 5/8" (0.625") would be safe Solving for the
Compute the safe wall thickness of a 76.2 cm diameter steel tank. The tank is
bursting pressure ustnq a wall thickness of 5/8" (0.625"):
subjected to 7.33 Mpa pressure and the steel material has Yield stress of 215.4
Mpa. The factor of safety to use is 3. S, =: POi
A. 1 1/2 in C. 4.09 cm 2t
B. 3.89 cm D. 369 cm P(60)
65,000 = 2(0.625)
SOLUTION
P = 1354 psi
design stress of 9500 psi maximum. The pressure vessel is to be provided with 1 2t
1/2" diameter drain valve Installed at the bottom of the vessel and safety t =: 0.225.
pressure relief valve installed either at the top most or at the side with propout
rating of 200 psi. assume a 100% weld joint efficiency. The lap welding tensile Therefore: Use 1/4" standard thickness
strength is 65,000 psi. determine the bursting pressure of this air receiver. (Kent's p. 603)
A. 1154 psi C. 1454 psi
B. 1354 psi 0 1254 pSI
PROBLEM 9 (ME Bd. Oct 93)
Ei3!Iim3I A compression ring is to be used at the junction of a conical head and shell.
Determine the required area of the compression ring if the pressure is 50 psi and
0, = 5 It =60 in the stress is 13,750 pSI. Assume an efficiency of the JOint IS 80%.
_.
142 Pressure Vessel 143
PreSSlUT Vessel
Em!!iirf3 IED!DImI
20mm
'II~t Using thin wall cylinder formula:
PD,
k  >I S
Do 2t
PD,
S = !< )j
2te 140,000 = P(0.50) 500mm
2(0.02)'
13.750 =J'0D;
2t(0.80)
P = 11,200 Kpa 11.20 Mpa
t = 0.00227 D,
Do D, + 2t
Do D, + 2(0.00227 D,) PROBLEM 12
A water tank 10m x 12 m is completely filled with water. Determine the minimum
Do 1.00454 D,
Area rr/4 [( 1.00454 D,2  D,2 J thickness of the plate if stress is limited to 50 Mpa.
Area = 0.00715 D, in
2 2 A. 11.77 mm C. 13.55 mm
B. 12.66 mm D. 12.44 mm
PROBLEM 11 PROBLEM 13
Determine the internal pressure of a cylindrical tank 500 mm internal diameter, A spherical shell of 1.8 m outside diameter and 1.725 m inside diameter contains
20 mm thick and 3 m long if stress is limited to 140 Mpa. helium at a pressure of 10.4 Mpa. Compute the stress in the shell.
A. 1006 Mpa C 1120 Mpa A. 124.08 Mpa C. 96.48 Mpa
B. 10.52 Mpa D. 12.88 Mpa B. 119.06 Mpa D. 88.46 Mpa
Pressure Vessel ]45
]44 Pressure Vessel
§~= PO,
.i·'K:m:mI FS 2t
~20 = __ P (2)
Do 0, 4.5 2 (0.015)
2 P = 14 Mpa
1.8 1.725
t = 
= 0.0375 m t~ ~t
2 OJ = 1.725 m t)ROBL~M 16
S = ~~i 10.4 (1.72_51 = 119.60 Mpa Oo=1.8m The cylinder of a hydraulic press is made up of thick walled cylinder having an
4t 4(0.0375) inside diameter of 300 rnrn. It is subjected to an internal pressure of 40 Mpa
Determine the thickness of the cylinder without exceeding a shearing stress of 80
fvlpa.
A. 62.13 mm C. 48.92 mm
PROBLEM 14
B. 5861 mm D. 7240 mm
A 600 mm diameter spherical steel pressure vessel has a uniform 8 mm wall
thickness and an internal gage pressure of 10 Mpa. If the ultimate stress of steel
is 420 Mpa, determine the factor of safety with respect to tensile of failure. EJ'immi
A. 230 C. 2.69
B. 1.89 D. 148 Using thick wall formula: (Lame's Equation)
SOLUTION = l
~ J~+~ 1J
~t~t
P =40 Mpa
PROBLEM 17
S = P~j 10(0584) = 18250 Mpa The internal pressure of a 400 mm inside diameter cylindrical tank is 10 Mpa and
4t 4 (0.008)
tank thickness IS 25 mm. Determine the stress developed if joint efficiency is
420
FS ?"' 2.30
95%.
S 18250 A 8010 Mpa C 86.75 Mpa
B. 84.21 Mpa D. 7842 Mpa
PROBLEM ]5 ~
Determine the largest internal pressure which maybe applied to a cylindrical tank
~~25mm
2 m in diameter and 15 mm wall thickness, if the ultimate stress of steel is 420
Mpa and a factor of safety of 45. PO,
A. 14 Mpa C. 18 Mpa I S 10 Mpa
2tT]
B. 2.6 Mpa D. 22 Mpa
J.~~ 15 mm 10,000(040)
S _._"~
84.210.526 Kpa
SOLUTION p 2(0.025)(0.95)
84.21 Mpa I( :;
400 mmn
P OJ
S
2t 1< )1
2m
146 Pressure Vcssd 147
Pressure Vessel
PROBLEM 18
A spherical tank 15 mm thick has an internal pressure of 5 Mpa. The joint IID!!JmD
efficiency is 96% and stress is limited to 46,875 Kpa. Find the tank internal
radius. Using thickwall formula:
A. 540 mm
B. 200 mm
C. 270 mm
O. 300 mm
t= Qr iTs! + PI)  1l
2l\i(St Pi) J
SOLUTION 0.050 = .0. 30 r ((30,000 + Pi) 1l
2 l~ (30,000  p;) J
S = ~~ ,~ . l
4111 0.333 = I(30,00~_~l 1J
I' ,,:
I
46 875 = .~ 5,000LCJ,L_
l \i (30,000  Pi)
, 4(0.015)(096)
0, = 0.540 m = 540 mm
I
I(
I
I I
1333 = II (30~~~.:+:£JllJ
L~ (30,000Pi )
r, = 540/2 = 270 mm I Di )! ~5mm
Squaring both sides:
000
1.333 = :3
+ p;
PROBLEM 19 3000 PI
A cylindrical tank has an inside diameter of 5 in and is subjected to an internal 30,000 + P, = 53333.33  1.7777P,
pressure of 500 psi. If maximum stress is 1200 psi, determine the required P, = 8400 Kpa = 8.4 Mpa
thickness.
A. 1.0 in C 1.4 in
B. 1.2 In O. 1.6 in PROBLEM 21
A round vertical steel tank has an Inside diameter of 3 m and 6 m height. It
SOLUTION 3
contains gasoline with a density of 750 kg/m If the allowable tensile stress is 25
Mpa, find the minimum thickness required
To check if the problem is thin or thick wall: A 2.65 mm C. 3.65 mm
B. 2.85 mm O. 1.82 mm
S = POI
2t
1200 = .?g~(5)
wa·"'U(m11
2t
Solving for maximum pressure at the bottom of tank.
t = 1.04166 in
tID, = 104166/5 P w h = (750 x 9.81 Ii 000)(6) = 44.145 Kpa
tiD, = 0208> 007
POI
Therefore, use thickwall formula: S
2t
By Lame's Equation for thick vessel
25.000 = 44·~~@1
t = l l
~ I~: +~? 1J =~ J~~ci~: ~ci~f 1] 1395 in
t
2t
= 2.648 x 10. 3 m = 2.648 mm
!'\{013LEM 22
PROBLEM 20 A cylinder having an internal diameter of 16 in and external diameter of 26 inches
A thick wall cylinder has 50 mm thick and internal diemeter of 300 mrn. If stress IS subjected to 1500 psi external pressure and internal pressure of 9.000 psi.
is limited to 30 Mpa, determine the maximum internal pressure Determine the hoop stress on outer surface of cylinder.
A 8.1 Mpa C 8.3 Mpa A. 8,742.65 psi C. 9.400.62 psi
B 82 Mpa O. 8.4 Mpa B 7,642.85 psi 0 9,471.43 psi
148 Pressure Vessel
noll s & Power Screw J49
SOLUTION
r, = 16/2 = 8 in
ro = 26/2 = 13 in +1
2 2 2 +
2Pj r,  Po( r0 + r, )
Sto =  .
2 2
. 1500 psi
ro  r, +1
+
2(9000)(8)2 1500(13 2 ... 8 2)
SIO _ .__._._
.. +
13 2 .. 82
s;
~
7642.85 psi
I< >!
16in
k )1
26in
PROBLEM 23 m:mm:tmtJ
A cylindrical tank has a mean diameter of 40 cm and thickness of 10 ern. It is ~ Bolts and Screws are threaded fasteners which are used to hold together
subjected to an external pressure of 140 kq/crn" and maximum internal
machine members which require easy dismantling.
tangential stress is 900 kq/crn". Determine the maximum internal tangential
stress is 900 kq/crn". Determine the maximum internal pressure of the tank. ,. Pitch(p) = is the axial distance between adjacent threads.
2
A. 2947.5 kg/cm C. 1246.5 g/cm
2
B. 34265 kg/cm D. 1942.6 kq/crn"
~. Lead ' !S the axial distance a thread advances in one revolution.
4. l 2
_. i
)
UNC(Unified National Course)  for general use, except where other types are
t,Ynrr.mended.
, UNF(IJ'lified National fine), frequently useo in automotive and aircraft work and
Wllt:lf; a line adjustment is requllf:cJ
~.;;
150 130/{ s &. Power Screw 151
Bolts & Power Screw
3. UNEF(Unified National Extra Fine) ~ used in aeronautical equipment and where o ~ nominal diameter
very fine adjustment is required
F, = Initial tension
Common forms of threads:
1. Acme thread
2. Sellers square thread
x
Co Pitch(p) ~IS the axial distance a thread
«': advances in one revolution.
1. Formulas from Vallance: 1
p =
No. of threads per inch
" Sw = C(A r ) 0 4 18
(. Lead (L)
L = p (for single thread)
Iv
(. Fa = C(A) 1418
L = 2p (for double thread)
L = 3p (for triple th read)
" Depth of tap = 1.5 0 (for cast iron)
1.25 0 (for steel) '" Linear velocity = (rotational speed)(Lead) GT
D v = NL
'" Initial torque = 0.2 Fa 0
where: c Lead angle(x)
Sw = permissible working stress, psi Lead
tan x =
Fa = applied load, Ib rrO m
A = stress area, in 2
C = 5,000 (for carbon steel) " Torque applied to turn the screw, T
C = 15,000 (for alloy steel)
o = nominal diameter For square thread:
"
" Fe
Sy(A s )1/ 2
Sd = ~~
6
Sy(A s )3 / 2
= .
7
Depth of Tap
T
T
=
= WO m
~.~. lcos<1>tanx+f]
.
6 2 cos <1>  f tan x
€. Depth of tap = 1.5 0 (for cast iron)
= 0 (for steel of wrought iron) where:
Om = mean diameter of screw
, Initial Torque = C 0 F, W = weight or load
f = coefficient of friction of th reads
where: <1J = 14.4
0
EmI!BtmI
2
E'!!Jrm \<
1 in >\
F '" S(0.55d  0.25d) '" 13,000[0.55(1)2  0.25(1)}
r~
F '" 3,9001bs
Pitch
No of thread per inch
1
PROBLEM 2 (ME Bd. Oct. 97) 2/9 =  .      
No. of thread per inch
What is the working strength of a 2 inches bolt which is screwed up tightly in a packed
joint when the allowabl, working stress is 12,000 psi. No. of thread per inch = 45
A. 204 klb C 234 klb
B 224 klb O. 18 klb
]54 Bolts & Pot ncr Screw Boll s &. Power Screw 155
PROBLEM 5 (ME Bd. Exam.) at 1000 rpm and the coefficient of friction between the collar and the pivot surface is
Find the horsepower lost when a collar is loaded with 1000 Ib rotates at 25 rpm, and 0.15.
has a coefficient of friction 0.15. The outside diameter of the collar is 4 in and the A 08 Hp C. 0.5 Hp
inside diameter is 2 in. B. 0.3 Hp D. 1.2 Hp
A. 0.045 hp C. 0.089 hp
B. 0.89 hp D. 0.56 hp SOLUTION
Em!!iiImI T = f W rj
rl = mean radius of collar
ro + rj
T c  fcW(r2~
o +r,) = 015(~OOO)(2+1) = 18.75ftlb T = fW()
 2(12) 2
T = 0.15(100)(000981)(O.05CJ..:+.Q:02?.1 0.00515 KNm
Solving for the power lost from collar: ~ 2 )
P = 2 IT TN/ 33,000 P = 2nTN
P = 2(n)(18.75)(25) = 008925 h 1000 1
33,000 P
P = 2n(0.00515)()()
60 0.746
P = 072 Hp
Solving for the initial torque applied per bolt: T = 0.0919 KNm = 91.90 Nm
T = 0.2 F, D = 0.2(3175.2)(3/4) = 476.28 inIbs
PROBLEM 14
An ACME thread power screw that has a mean diameter of 25 mm and pitch of 5 mm
PROBLEM 12 IS used to lift a load of 500 kg. If friction on threads is 0.1, determine the torque
The total torque required to turn the power screw is 50 Nm. If linear speed of screw needed to turn the screw.
is 8 ft/min and lead of 8 mm, determine the Hp input of the power screw. A. 1030 Nm C. 13.10 Nm
A.282Hp C2.14Hp B. 1263 Nm D. 14.10 Nm
B 2.54 Hp D 238 Hp
.....r.J.·~·NII
L 5
tan x ~ 0.0636
«o., n(25)
158 Bolts &. Power Screll' Bolts &. Power Screw 159
T WOrn lcos(j)tanx+f)l
     _ _._
"'_. ..
For double square thread: L =0 2P
2 coset tan x 2(10)
tan x =     = 0.039788
;c(80x2)
For ACME thread, <jl =0 14.5 0
W =0 500 x 0.00981 = 4.905 KN T = WOrn rJt~nx+!ll
2 L 1  I tan x
W Om = 4.905 (0.025) =0 0.122625 KN.m
Om =0 2r
T =0 (0.122)[(COS14.50)(O.~636)+0.10J = 0.01030 KNm W Om =0 80(008 x 2) =0 12.8 KNm
2 cos 14.5°0.1 0(0.0636)
T =0 10.30 Nm
T =0 I
(12.80) 0039788 + 0.13 I =0 1.0923 KNm
2 110.13(0.039788)
SOLUTION
PROBLEM 17
The root diameter of a double square thread power screw is 0.55 in. The screw has a
Torque required to overcome collar friction: pitch of 0.2 in. Determine the major diameter.
Tc =0 !,"W (r 0 +rJ A. 0.524 in C. 0842 in
2 B. 0.750 in D. 0961 in
nD rn
Bolts & Power Screw 161
160 Bolts &. Power Screw
0.70 == ta~_x[10.10(tanx)]
30x2800
Hp., .
tanx+0.10+0
33,000 2x
0.1tanx + 0.07 == tanx  0.1 Otan
Hp., 2.545 Hp 2x·
0.1tan 0.3tanx + 0.07 == 0
PROBLEM 19
A square thread power screw has a pitch diameter of 1.5" and a lead of 1". Neglecting
collar friction, determine the coefficient of friction for threads if screw efficiency is
63.62%
A. 0.113 C. 0.146
B. 0.121 o
0.151
II:DmimDI
Solving for the lead angle:
L 1
tan x == .. ==  == 0.2122
nOm n(1.5)
PROBLEM 20
A square thread screw has an efficiency of 70% when friction of threads is 0.10 and
collar friction is negligible.
A. 1430° C. 12.43°
B. 1037 0 o 16.45°
SOLUTION
W r = Vxw
W, = (rr D b t)(w)
where Om
b = Width of the flywheel nm
W"I'>
\ = thickness of flywheel rim
w = density of llywheel material
b
Om 4. Energy required to punch a metal(E)
E=1/2Ftp
E = 1/2(8," x A)l,
Shaft b
where:
l. Flvwheel a rotating energy reservoir which absorbs energy from a power A =0 shearing area
source dunnq a portion ef the operattnq cycle and delivcrs that stored energy A = IT d t p (for Circular hole)
as useful Work our.nq the other portion of the cycle. F _ average force needed to punch a tore
S~ = uittrnate shear stress
I
1. Kinetic energy released by the flywheel(KE). 6. Kinetic energy released by the fl'f/'lheel = Energy needed to punch a
W 2 2 hole
KE = (v, ··V2 )
2g
where 7. Coefficient of fluctualion(C;)
V' maximum speoo = It 0 N.
v. = minimum speed = It 0 N2 ~l,. v2
C,
W := total weight 01 the tlvwheel v
9 = acceleration due \0 gra',Ilty = 9.81 Ill/SCC
v;=.v 1+v;;. 2(v, v 2 )
wnere C,
2 v, +v2
I f31 Flll/I'he!'!
j()~
Fllfll'!!t'd
PRO[JLE:Y1 I (ME Bd. Oct 95)
Solvmo for Hl(' hl1, \I V,.clqr1l
A cast Iron flywheel IS rotated at a speed of 1200 rpm and bavmq a mean rcldluc, o!
I W _ 120'.W1
foot. If the weight of the rim IS 30 Ibs, what IS tile centrifugal force? Use laclG! C  11 W 12<118118197417kg
A 14.8001bs C 7 ml
B 14.860 Ibs D 14 760 IrJS
PROBLEM :1
IIE!!Ii1ElII A press IS used to punch 10 holes per minute of 30 mm diameter hole trorn 25 mrr
thick plate. Determine the power needed to punch a hole If ultimate shear stress is
400 Mpa
Solving fer the tangential speed. A. 2.68 KW C 3.58 KW
E:I!!hir·W+
USing centrifugal force formula
1 min '' 60 sec
Wv 2
F. Lei t = time required to punch one hole
gl I = 60/10 c 6 sec
30(125 664)2
F c 14.7241bs
E energy requrred to shear a plate
32.2(1)
A flywheel for a punching press must be capable of furnishing 3400 Nm cl energ:1
dunnq the 25°,) revolution while tile hole IS being punched The flywheel maxumtr
speed IS 200 rpm and the speed decreases 8.7 c,c our.nq the load stroke The mear
E = 1178 KNm
P ower =
0.002356 m'
E c 1'21400000 x 0 002356)(0 0251
Energy 11.78
1 963 KW
25 mmC:
.0= (J
30 mm
Time 6
radius of the run IS 1016 mm diameter and contributes 90~o of t"le energy
requirements Approximate total weight cf the llywheel 10 be 1.20 times that 01 tile
rim Find the weight of the flywheel.
A 975 kg C I'RC)BIYM 4
B. 652 kg D The kmetrc energy needed to punch a hole IS 5 KJ wta: IS the maximum ttuck.iess
W'h
of a hole that can be punch If hole diameter IS 25 mrn ard ultimate shearinq stress of
~·::JX(fi[.1~. plate is 420 Mpa
A 12.61 rnn C 1741 mm
B 1468m" D 19.62mm
v, 2rrR,N c 20(1016)',200,'60)
V· 21 279 rrsec
V, 2rr(1 0161(200,'601(1  0 0871
Em!!iit.':+
Vi' 19,427 rn.soc
E energy reqUired to shear a plate
W" : 1 /2 (S",>( Al tr_
KE _. (V t V > ~) E
2g " E 1'2 IS, lie d I, Itr
981 2,'981,1"
tpL:.::.:
W~ 81151 "'9 .<;25 rnrn
1 ijl; n 1111'Il( '( ,I PI 1111'/1<',,1 II 7
I'f,UIlIX;V1 r, A. 45 rim C. 60 mm
During iJ punching process o! 350 kg flywheel the speed vanes from 200 rpm to 180 B 30 mm o 55 rrrn
rpm with 1 m mean diameter Deterrr.re the ktnettc onerqy released by the flywheel
A 364 KJ
B 6.28 KJ
C 451 KJ
0 5.62 KJ
Em!!ii[.g+
Sheared Area
E _ 1!2(S??xA)t
SOLUTION
10 = 1/2 (420000)(A)(0 020)
A c 0.0023809 m 20 mm
v· r: 0 N 1 ell )1200,601 1047 m/sec
v. "0 N2 "(1)1180,601 9.425 m/sec Let
'I length of side cf a square hole
KE = kinetic energy released by Ihe flywheel
A = shear area
_ W , 2
A c 14x) t
Kt: = (v.: v.;")
2g
0.0023809 = 4x(0 02)
x c 002976 m = 29.76 mm
KE = 1350xO

009811 110
I
7?
4)
'Q 0C'
I,~ 4L.:)) j
219.81)
B 3452.71 kg 0 3845.97 kg
EI::I!!im'I3I
v, ~ it (1 )(220/60) ::: 11 519 m/sec
EI!!:im'mI v:= :1(1)(200/60) 10472 m/sec
Shear Area
E = 1,'2 IS., .<1.,;1): I KE = 5756 KJ
E  1,'2 (410,000)10 2 x 0 025)10 025) E = 1 F I
E  25625 KJ 2
29
200mm
If' .
25625 = ". [1'8 37lt  (7.5398) PROBLEM Y
219811 .
The enercv required to puncf a ho.e IS 3 KJ frorr a II/wheel mean diameter of 800
W  37729 KN x 1:0 00981 = 38"597 kJ mrn that slows Clown trom 33 rps to 3 rps during ouicunq. If Ii\'ei;)ht ,=,1 arm and hub
account 10"" of rm weight, cetetrrune the rim Vie 9hl
A 421 08 kg C 48268 kg
The energy requ,'red 10 punch a square role from 20 mil thick plate IS 10 r(J It the
uiti'late strength 01 pla:e is 420 Mpa. detorrn.ne the maxnrum sides of square that
can be punchec.
I fl,'<, Fl!JlI'llcd 1 (j~)
FIL/Lt'lU'd
A 3321~rnPl C 286.76 mm
I.E!!m:D B 24261 rrrn D. 29878 mm
2(9.81)
b 51
W 44358 KN x 1 '000981 503 147 kg b 5(66491
b 33245 mm
Solving for the nrn weight: k ,I
W = VV + VV d ,
VV ~ vv,
+ 10 ooVV,
503.147 = W, + 010W
PHOBLlc:vI 12
W = 4574 kg
The power required 10 shear a plate 50 mm thick for 10 seconds IS 5 KW. If ultimate
strength of plate material IS 420 Mpa How vade should the plate be?
A 8042 mm C 90?8 mrn
PHOBLE:vI 10 B 85 65 mm D 95 23 mm
A flywheel has a total weight of 500 kg and the weight of arm and hub IS 8°'0 of total
weight. It has a mean diameter of 1 m and width of 300 mm Deterrruno the thickness
of the fiy\vheel if density of material IS 7000 kgl"/
A. 60.65 mm
B. 6548 mm
C 6972 mm
D 75 42 mel
.,.'S!imD
Shear Area
E Power x time
E 51101 = 50 KJ
I.E!!m:D
E = 1·2 (S" x AI t
Solving for the nrn werqht 50 = 1'2 1420.000)[A)10 05)
A = 00047619 m w
VV ::; W r .... W,,'I
\V = W r + 8°'"W
A = wt
500 = W. + 008[500)
Dc = 1 m 0.0047619 = w(0.051
VI = 460 kg w = 0095238 m
IN ' 95,23 me
Solving for the rim thtcxnes s .
Wc(oDbl)w
l'EOlJLE:Yl I:,
460 = c (1110 3)(11[70001
A 900 mn mean diameter flywneel has a 'N,d:h Cit 350 m>, 7S rr.m thick <.nd dens ty
1 = 0.06972 m
of 7100 kq.rn''. \Jeg'ectInQ :he weight of arm nne hub, fl~d the crcqv relcasoo if .ts
I ~_ 69 72 rnrr
k )1 speed cranges from 280 rpm to 250 rpm
A. 7.89 KJ C 548 KJ
B. 9 30 KJ D. 6 71 KJ
PROBLEM I I
A flywr.eel has a rim weight of 450 kC~ and mean rartus of 450 mm If rim Width IS 5
times the rim thickness ana materia! density IS 720C kq/m'. determine the Width of
Ilywheel
170 FIIJ/I"! II '('1 Fi'l" ,Ii "f'! 17\
v, + Vi 160
"
USing kinetic energy torrnura V2 160  V,
KE = 29(V,"  v : IE >1 Cr
VI  V2
b = 350 mm
W = 526 96 x 0 00981 = 5 169 KN
009
21v, (160

v,ll
'5169' 160
W ::.' 2
PROIlLEM 14 KE = (v, v 2 )
2q
A flywheel welghmg 1000 kg has a rao.us of gyration of 1.5 m The normal operaunq
W I I
speed IS 160 rpm and ecett.ccn: of Huctuauor, IS 0.08, determine the energy released 3500 =l(83.6)' 176.4)2 J
IIE!!'.'iiI:D
v ,,(15 x 2)(160/601 25 132 rrvsec
2(v 1  V?)
c
V 1 v:
008
2(25132 v,l
25 132 + VI'
9_8 1
KE 1 ) 11251321' (232/] 4670 KJ
2(9.81) ,
1'!,OElLEM 1f>
A 5 11 mean diameter llywheel has to absorb 3500 ftIb of energy and maintain a
flywheel.
,
I "',
.'iJHIIl!J In
1. Stress of coil spring(S,)
12 Spring S, ~ 8KF~m
2 Stress factor(K)
ltd
K ~ 4C1 + O~
4C4 C
t
Where
Om = D,  d y,
1 To absorb energy or shock loads, as In automobile shock absorbers
2. To mamlam contact between machine members. as In valves and clutches
CL~
3 To act as a source of energy. as In clocks
Om = D: + d
4 To serve as measuring device, as In spring scales
4 Deflection(y) SL
3
Types of springs: BFC n
y ~
Gd
Om
d. Spira!
e. Leaf spring
d = wire diameter
T_
d carbor steei 6 Spring rate(K)
f. chromesilicon steel
9 stainless steel
F2 F,
K
Y2  Y,
t
Tabu!ated Data of springs:
2
"~
D D rj
} +75 kg l'I,OULEM 5 (ME Bd, Apr, 96)
A high alloy spring aavmo squared and ground ends a'ld has a total of 16 Calls and
modulus of elashcity In shear of 85 Gpa Compute the Wahl factor The spnng
~
D, 101 6  9 525 92075 mm outside diameter IS 9 66 em Wire diameter IS 0,65 cm
A, 1058 C. 1.10
C  Spring index
9.525 mm 7l i<
0111 92075
,I l 0, f
C I Solvinq for spring Index' I
9,67 I( )
d 9,525 I
101.6 mm Dr" mean diameter 0.65 em 7l
D,,, = D,  d ~ 9 66  0 65 I rI
I I 0, ) I
4(1386)1 o 61 5 1 1023
Whaal Factor =
I'J{OULEM 4 (ME Bd, Oct 97) 4(n86) 4 13 86
A three extenSion call springs are hooked In scncs tl..·at support a single weight of 100
kg The first spring ,'S rated at 0 400 kq.rrm and the other 2 lower springs is rated at
O 64 kq/mrn Compute the total (jeflectlon. I'1,OULlcM (i (ME Bd, Oct 95)
A 563 mm C. 156 mrn A COil spring With 5 em outsde diameter is required to work under the load of 190 N
B 268 mm D. 250 mm The Wire diameter IS 5 mm. the spnng IS to have 6 act ve coils and the ends are to
be closed and ground. Detsrrnme the total number of Calls The modulus of rigidity IS
80 Gpa and the mean radius IS to be 23 mm. With 7 mm pitch of the SPWlg_
IIE:!!i:lm A 6.5 COils
B 8 5 Calls
C. 7,5 ous
0 9 5 Calls
F = F, = F F, = 100 kg
17R
Sprilln l ,'q
IIE!!immI I"" lIILEM 'l
A spnnq has a rate 01 50 Ib with a spring Index of 8 If stress Induced IS 90 000 ~::;;'
For square and ground ends
determine the wire diameter.
A. 0058 In C 0452 In
Total no of coils = n + 2 .:.;. 6 + 2 ~ 8 coils or 8,5 calls B. 0.828 In D. 01157 In
1042 em and wire diameter of a 625 em, compute the maximum deflection that can K 0
IIE!!immI 8 c D, d
D", 8 d
Dm 0 D,  dolO 42  0625
0"1 = 9795 em USing stress formula
C 0D";d 9 795/0 625
0 15672 0 S 8KFD",
'. nd'
1
['HOBLF:M 8
IE!!imD
~2KN
A extension coli spnng IS to be elonqate 5 In under a load of 50 lb. What IS ue spring
rate?
A s Jbmn C 151b/mln 8KFD",
o s
B 10 lb/mm 20lb/mm r::d3
Em!iiriD
C D,,;d c (80 x 2)/20 _ 8 ~
4C1 0.615
K
4C 4 C
Spnnq Rate F.y
4(8) 1 0.615
K 1 184
8(1184112)(008x2) 20 mm ~
s "1002)' 
1 __ I
I 1 D, )1 I
1 I( I
s 120 603 Kpa  120.603 Mpa
i( Do ) ,I
J so
,t..;prIII!/ tHJ
l'kOULEM I 1
A helical spring IS made by wrapping steel wire 20 mm diameter around a forming
PI'OfJ\X:vJ 1:1
A spring sustam 200 HIb o! energy wrtf deflection of 3 tn Assume that the coil
cylinder 150 mm ITl diameter. Compute the elonqauon of the spnng without
diameter IS 7 times the wire diameter and allowable stress of 100,000 pSI. deterrrune
exceeding a shearing stress of 140 Mpa If It IS composed of 18 turns. Let G = 83,000
Mpa the wire diameter.
A. 0.416 In C.05681n
A. 9642 mm C 121 36 mm
B. 0 321 In D. 0672 In
B 1006 mm 0 89 62 mm
SOLUTION Em!!hit.g+
200
F = 800lbs
3 12
D». c 0, + d = 150 + 20 " 170 mm Om 7d
C ~ 7
C = D,,!d = 170/20 = 8.5 d d
4C1 0.615 4(7) ~ 1
K 4C ~1 0.615 0615
4C 4 C K = = 1 2128
4C 4 C 4(7) ~ 4 I
4(8.5) . 1 0.615
K 1.172 8KFD r ,
~F
4(8.5) 4 8.5 Sc ~
3
rtd
s ._. 8KFD Il1 }
8(12128)(800)(7d)
3
r: d 100,000
~
J
nd
8(1.1721(F)(0 1701
140,000 ~ d 0 0416 in
"(0 02)3
F = 2207 KN
3 P](OBLEM 14
8FC n 8 (2.207) (8.5) l (18)
y A weight of 100 Ibs stru.es a COil from a height of 18 Inches and deflects the spring of
Gd (83,000.000) (0.02) I
6 Inches Find the average force acting on the spring.
y 11757 mm 20 mm ?>lI _ A. 600lb C. 800lb
I I 150 mm )1 I B 700 Ib D. 900 Ib
I IE I
I
\ , 0
0 .I
~ I
IIE!!ii1:mI
PHORLEY! 12
It IS found that a load of 50 Ibs on extension COil spnnq deflects 8 5 In What load will Tall
the spring deflects 25 In?
A 10 64 Ib
B. 12 48 Ib
C 13 48 Ib
0 14 70 Ib
USing the formula of Impact load on
spring.
18;n
4i·,,··it·H' Wlh + y)
F
~y
2
The spring rate of spring is constant:
K, K:,
100(18 + 61 = ~ (6)
2
F 14 70 tbs
IR2
.'i[!1 ifill u·n
PHOBLEM 15 A 27 60 rnm C 3250 rnm
Three corl spring are hooked In senes and support a w8rglll 01 70 kg One spring has B. 2980 rnrn D 3460 mm
a spring rate of 0,209 kg/min and the other two have sprinq rates of 0.643 kq/mm.
Find the deflection
A 346.71 mm C 55265 mm EI:'I!!iil':.lD
B 389.30 mm
~r.TIIljit.] ~.
D. 416.58 mm
D" ~ D, 'd
D", = 117 ' 13
OTT  104 mm
1
C :::: 0",1 d
y = lola] defleclion C = 104/13
y = y + y? + v> C " 8
8Fc ln
y = I
For series connection of spring.
Gd 13 mm~
F, = F i · = F s = 70 kg I
K FlY I ,
K1 = 0.209 kg/mm 8(1 11(8)3(75) I I
Y = F/K Y = 6)(0.013) IE Do = 117 mm ))
(80xl0
y F; K· + F~/K;: + F:,iK J Y = 003249 m
K2 = 0.643 kg/mm
y 700 209 + 70/0643 + 70/0 643 y _ 32.49 mm
y 55265 mm
PHOHLE:vI 1H
KJ = 0.643 kg/mm A concentric helical spnng IS use to support a load of 90 KN. The Inner spnng has a
rate of 495 8 KN/m and outside spring IS 126.5 KN/m If initially the Inner spring IS 25
mm shorter than the outer spring. find the percent load carreo by Inner sprrnq
PROBLEM 16 70 kg A. 3465"" C. 6825""
B 5586"" D. 768P"
1
Four compression coil spring In parallel support
a load of 360 kg. Each spring has a gradient of 0.717 kg/mm. Find the deflection.
A 125.52 mm C 138.52 mm SOLUTION
IIE!!1:mmI
B. 132.52 mm D. 145.52 mm
v,
K
y, + 0025
=
Fly
F,  v. K, c 495 8 Y
I
Ty,
2s mm
F=~KN YI
:~ :: :~ :~ F, 126,5 YL
~
For parallel springs'
y, = y = YJ = y.,
i~~ i=
! i :! I !"~
F, + F L :.:: 90
F1 F2 FJ F4 495.8 v, t 1265 YL = 90
F, 4958y + 126,5(y, + 0025) = 90
F2 = F', = F, = 360/4 90 kg
495 Sv t 126 5 v: + 3 1625 c 90
y, F, i k, ::: 9010 717 +360 kg v, = 01395 m
PROBLEM 17 90
A force of 1 1 KN IS acting on a 75 active coils With wire diameter of 13 mm. The
outside diameter of corlrs 117 rum and G ::: 80 GN/m 2 Find the coil deflection. PROl3LEM I~)
How long a wire IS needed 10 make a helical spring havmq a mean diameter of 1 Inch
If there are 8 active coils?
Sprlllfj lR5
Ik\
4C 1 0.615 4(8) 1 o 615 1 184
A 25 13 In C 30211n K
B 2665 In D. 3234 In 4C ,1 C 4(8)4 8
S stress at solid length
IIiE!!DIiD S 
8KFD r·)
rrrJ
L wire length
8(1184)(15)(010)
S, c 2.315.544Kpa = 2.315S4Mpa
L Circumference x No of calls ,,0.0125) 3
13
v. = FL, SL = 156, 96 60 mrn
F, = kyo = 100(00601 = 6KN
(3.E3Clr
PRO[JLE\1 24
A spring has a spring rate of 30 KN.im. If wire dIameter IS 10 rnrn with mean diameter
of 70 rnrn. determine the number of active cors G = 80 G~~/m2.
A. 654 C. 842 (.. Gears  are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively
B. 782 D 972 engaging teeth
Em!!ImD
~
8C'n
y = I. Addendum height of tooth above pitch Circle: or the distance between the pitch
Gd circle and the top of the tooth
C = D, / d 70/10 7
3 2 Addendum Circle the circle that bounds the outer ends 01 the teeth
v =
8C n
F Gd
Arc of action arc of the pitch Circle through which a tooth travels from the first
8(7)'J n pornt of contact With the mating tooth to the prtcn POint
1/30
180xH/'J(O 0101
4. Arc 01 approach  are of the Circle through which a tooth travels from the point of
n : : : 9 72 corls contact Wittl the mating tooth to the pitch POint
;l. AXial plane  In a pair of gears It IS the plane trial contains the two axes. In a
PH OLlLEM 2" single gear, It may be any plane containing the a xts and the giver, pomt
A spring has a diameter 0125 mm and 1,2 active coils if a load of 10 KN IS apoheo it
deflects 75 mm Determine the mean diameter of the spring If G = 80 Glv.m". b, Arc of recess arc of the pitch Circle through wtuch a tooth travels from Its
A 12465mm C 134.65mm contact with the mating tooth at the prtch pomt to the point where tho contact
B 129.65 rum D 14065 rnrc ceases.
IE!!immI 7. Backlash the amount by wuch trc wrrith of ttle tooth space exceeds the
T
75 m
IF = 10 KN
thickness of the engaging tooth on the prtcr, circles.
y
8C'n
GeJ 1 •
8. Base Circle the circle from which an Involute tooth ',$ generated or developed.
q. Base hehx angle  the angle, at the base cylinder If an mvolute gear. that the
8(10IiC)J(12)
0075 = tooth makes With the gear axis
80xl0"10 025)
C 5.386 10. Base pitch In an Involute gear It IS the pitch on the base Circle or along UlC lmc
of actron
C D"
o I
25 mm~ I I. Nontnt hase pitch  IS the base pitch In the normal plane
D, ,
5386
25 ,
,
,, 1 Z. AXlat base pitch IS the base pitch tn the axtal plane
, ,
0 :=. 13465 mm
11
k Do ) I,
I J. Center distance the distance between the parallel axes 01 spur gears and
parflltpl hehcal gears. or between tto crossed axes of helical gears and worm
IHH (;('111 .'>
(;('(1 ,,.., lH:J
gears.
14. Central plane ~ In a worm gear this IS a plane perpendicular to tte gear aXIS
:12. Fd,lel curve HIe concave portion of the tooth profrle where It JOins the bottom of
and contains the common perpendicular of the gear and thp worm axrs the tooth space The approximate radius of ttus curve IS called the fillet radius
:j I. Flank of tooth  that surface which IS between the Pitch eucre and the bottom
1:1. Chordal Thickness length of the chord sub tended by the Circular thickness
arc land
:~l. Helix angle  the angle that a helical gear tooth makes the gear axis
] h. Chordal addendum the height from the top of the tooth to the chord subtending
the circularthickness arc
3:1. Internal diameter  the diameter of a Circle comcrd.nq With the tops of the teeth
on an Internal gear.
17. Circular pitch  length of the arc 01 the pitch Circle be/ween the centers or other
corresponding POints of the adjacent teeth
:Hj. Internal gear a gear With teeth on the Inner cylindrical' surnee
I ~ Normal circular pitch IS the Circular pitch In the normal plane
J7. Involute  the curved formed by the path of a pomt on a snalghl line called n18
generatrlx, as It rolls along a convex base curve
1q Circular thickness the lenglh of the arc between UW two sides of a gear tooth.
en the pitch Circles unless otherwise specified
:1.';. Top land IS the top surface of the tooth
~() Clearance  tile amount by which the dedendum exceeds the addendum of the
:~q. Bottom land  IS the surface of the gear between the fillets of adjacorit teeth
rnatmp tooth.
:2 J Certai dlameler  the smallest diameter on a gear tooth With which the mating
gear makes lO. Lead  the distance a helical gear or worm would thread along Its (DOS one
revotuton of it were tree to move axially
')'1 Cortact ratio the ratio of the arc of action to the circular pitch
4 1 t.me of action the path of contact In Involute gears It IS a strarqht line passing
through the pitch POint and the tangent to the base cuc.cs.
:l:J. Cyclo«l the curved formed by the path of d pomt on a Circle as II rolls along a
straqturne
·12 Module IS the ratio of pitch ciarieter In millimeter to the numoer of teeth mm
:l.l, Dedendum  the depth of tooth space below the pitch Circle or the radial
1:). Outside diameter  the diameter olthe outside Circle
dimensron between the pitch Circle and the bottom of the tooth space
~.). Drarnetral pitch  the ratio of the number of teeth to the number of millimeters of ·1I. Pitch the distance between Similar, equally spaced tooth surfaces. In a given
pitch oiarneter. direction and alonq a given curve or line.
l(;. Normal drarnetral prtch  IS the dtametral pitch calculated In the normal plane 1::; Pitch diameter th8 diameter of the pitch Circle
and IS equal to the pitch divded by the cosine of hehx angle
·1 t>. Pitch Circle  a Circle the radius of which is equal to the distance from the gear
L '{. Effective face Width  that portion of the face Width that actually COmes Into axrs to the pitch pomt
contact wtlh matmq teeth as occasronalty one member o~ a pair of gears may
have a greater face Width than the other 47. Pressure angle the angle between the tooth profile and a radical line at Its
Pilch po.n: In Involute teeth the angle between the line of action and the line
:2g . Efucrencv  ttlP actual torque ratio ct a gear set divided by Its gear ratio tangent to the pitch Circle
+~. Roll angle the angle subtended at the center of the base Circle from teeth
29. External gear a gear With teeth on the outer cylindrical surface.
onqm uf an Involute to the pont of tangency of the generatnx from any pomt on
the ~dme Involute.
:~() Face 01 tooth  that surface of the tooth which IS between the pitch eucre 10 \'le
top of the tooth
4~) Tip rl ' lle, 1 an arbitrary modrrc.uon of d tuoth profile whereby a small amount 01
:~ 1 Face Width the length of the teeth In c))(1<11 plane mdtelldlls rernoved near the trp of the qear tooth.
]90 (;('(n'·;
Gears \9 l
50. Tooth thickness  the width of tooth measured alonq the pitch circle. 5. Module
5]. Tooth space  the space between the teeth measured along the pitch circle. M module
52. Whole depth  the total depth of a tooth space, equal to addendum plus M
o M
25.4
dedendum, also equal to working depth plus clearance. T OP
where:
~
6. When two gears turning in opposite direction:
.
7. When two gears turning in the same direction..
N2
1. Speed and diameter relation:
0 1 Ni'=: D2 Nz C ° 2.;.D
2 1
where:
2. Speed and no. of teeth relation: D '" pitch diameter
T '" number of teeth
T1N, = TzNz N '" speed
T2
3. Pc = circular pitch
C = center distance
9. Dynamic forces on meshing gears:
T 1 = no. of teeth of pinion
A. Power transmitted
4. DP = diametral pitch
p= 21tTN, 'r0N
where:
T '" torque, KNm
N '" speed, rps
where: HP _ 2rrTN
 33,000,HP
D = pitch diameter, in
T = no. of teeth where:
T '" torque, ftIbs
N = speed, rpm
Gears 193
192 Gears
p
1. Pn == 2. tan$n == tane tan'P 3. Fa == F1 tan\fl
D. r, Ft x r1 cos \fI
where:
N
4. Nv
F[ = tangential force
cos 3 'II
T 1 = torque developed on driving gear
where:
rl = radius of driving gear
D. Total load, Tangential load and separation load relation N == actual number of teeth
t:«
Fn = vF, + Fr
2 N v = virtual number of teeth
f = face width
Fn = l
case
5. Strength of Helical Gears
where:
~~~:;=
i Working depth
=rl~57~_._~_~
±2/P
_ _ ~/P
2/P
 J
,
v == pitch line velocity == nON
, Clear.?nce.. t.Q~w:.__________
O.25/P _. . ~
2. Lead = the distance from any point on one thread to the corresponding point on
Helical gear nomenclature: the next turn of the same thread.
194 Gears Gears 195
Lead = p (for single thread) PROBLEM 1 (Oct. 1998)
3. Tan x::; Lead A 36 tooth pinion with a turning speed at 300 rpm drives 120 tooth gear of 14 1/2
nO degrees involute full depth pressure angle. What would be the speed of the driven
gear.
The worm gear is weaker than the worm, therefore the design for strength is based
on the worm gear. IEm!!Dm
1. F =. SPty(120t)' :••...J.
t w l1200 + V : Using speed and teeth relation formula:
where: F1 = tangential pitch line load on the gear
Sw = safe stress, Table 122 T, N, = T2 N2
P = circular pitch
f = face width 36(300) = 120(N 2)
Y = form factor, Table 112
N2 = 90 rpm 36 T 120 T
V = pitch line velocity of the gear
A triple thread worm has a pitch diameter of 3 inches The wheel has 25 teeth and a
cos<Pn tan x + f
pitch diameter of 5 inches. Material tor both the worm and the wheel is at phosphor
~ IEm!!Dm
~
Pc ci rcular pitch
Bevel gears  are used to connect intersecting shafts, usually at right angle.
Pc nD _11.(5t = 0.6283 in
T  25
Number of teeth and Speed relation
SOLUTION
L 1.8849
Find the tooth thickness on the tooth circle of a 20 degree full depth involute tooth
having a diametral pitch of 3, circular pitch of 1.0472 and whole depth of tooth at 0.60. PROBLEM 7 (ME Bd. Apr. 96)
A. 10,7 mm C. 101 mm Two idlers of 28T and 26T are introduced between the 24T pinion with a turning
B. 13.2 mm D. 7.9 mm speed of 400 rpm driving a final 96T gear. What would be the final speed of the
driven gear and its direction relative to the driving gear rotation?
SOLUTION A 120 rpm and opposite direction
B. 80 rpm and same direction
Using the table of gear tooth proportions: C. 100 rpm and opposite direction
1.5708 D. 100 rpm and same direction
Tooth thickness
DP
N4
1.5708 ~
Tooth thickness
3 ~
Tooth thickness 0.5236 in 13.29 mm
T1Nl = T4N4
E'I!!DI:D
24(400) = 96(N4)
For gears turning in opposite direction:
_ T +T N4 = 100 rpm (opposite direction)
C  .g.. p
2 (DP)
T = no. of teeth
42 +18
PROBLEM 8 (ME Bd. Apr. 96)
C = ,. = 38.1 cm = 0381 m A spur pinion rotates at 1800 rpm and transmits to a mating gear 30 HP, The pitch
2(0.7879) diameter is 4" and the pressure angle is 14 1/2. Determine the tangential load in Ibs.
A. 495 C. 525
A helical gear having a 14 1/2° normal pressure angle and transverse diametral pitch
of 23622 per cm. The helix angle is at 45' and has 8 teeth. Compute the
transverse pressure angle in degrees.
A. 22.2' C. 19.3° &N!!mmI
B. 189 0
D. 20.1°
T = 1050.4 inIbs
E1!l!1i(.):.
Solving for tangential force:
Force = T/r
Force = 1050.4/2
Using D and N relation:
Force = 525 Ibs
0, N, = 02 N2
Nj Pc
O2 01 ()
N2
PROBLEM 9 (ME Bd. Oct. 95) 18 T 72 T
Compute the pitch angle of a bevel gear given the pinion's number of teeth of 14 and 02 = 40, 1< )1
42 teeth on the gear.
A. 18.40 C. 28.4" For gears tl'~ning In opposite direction:
B. 33.4 0 O. 38.4 0 OJ +0 2
C =  "......
2
OJ +40 j
~ 10.23 =
T Pc _1t....~ = ~ n:(4.092)/18
Pitch Angle = tan 1 "
T
T
g
Pc 0.7854 in.
Pitch angle = tan' 14/42 = 18.4 0
PR, 3LEM 12 (ME Bd. Oct. 95)
The tooth thickness of a gear is 0.5 inch and its circular pitch is 1.0 inch. Calculate
Compute for the tooth thickness of 14 1/2 0 spur gear with diametral pitch = 5.
A. 0.3183 C 1.250
A. 0.3979 C. 31831 B. 0.3979 O. 0.1114
B. 003141 0 0.31416
SOLUTION
SOLUTION
Using the relation of diametral pitch and circular pitch: Pc (OP) =: n:
Using the table of gear tooth proportions: OP =: n/P,
OP =: n:I1
Tooth thickness 1.5708/DP OP =: n:
Oedendum =: 1.25/DP
Tooth thickness 1.5708/5 Oedendum =: 1.25/n:
Oedendum = 0.3979"
Tooth thickness = 0.31416"
PROBLEM 13 (ME Bd. Apr. 95)
An internal gear is set up with a 5 in diameter pinion and center distance of 18 inches.
PROBLEM 1 1 (ME Bd. Apr. 96) Find the diameter of the internal gear
Compute the circular pitch of a pair of gears having a ratio of 4 and a center distance A. 36" 8 215"
of 10.23 Each gear has 72 teeth and pinion has 18 teeth. C 26" O. 41"
200 (;{'(If,~ Gears :.lot
1'1~()I\I.i':1\!1 I ()
SOLUTION Find the tli:;1, incc between centers of a pair of gears, one of which has 12 teeth and
the other :J I teeth The diametral pitch is 7,
A. 3.0 In C. 4.0 in
B. 3.5 In D. 4.5 in
For internal gear:
SOLUTION
D2 .' D,
C=
2 For gear turning in opposite direction:
18 = D 2. : 5
C = D, + D2

2
2
D 2 = 41" DP, =
T,

D,
D, = 12/7 = 1.7143 in
18in 12 T 37 T
PROBLEM 14 (ME Bd. Apr. 95)
The minimum whole depth of spur gear of 141/2 deq. Involute type with diameter
D2 = 37/7 = 5.2857 in I( )1
pitch of 24 and circular pitch of 0,1309:
Solving for center distance:
A 0,09000 B, 0,08900
C, 008987 D. 0.08975 _ 17143+5.2857
C     ~   
3.5 in
2
SOLUTION
Pd
B.8in D.10in
2.157
h 0.08987
24
Em!!JmD
PROBLEM 15 (ME Bd. Apr. 94) DP =T/D
The minimum clearance allowed for meshing spur gears with a circular pitch of
0.1571 and diametral pitch of 20. The spur gear have 25 teeth. D = TIDP
A 0.007855 B. 0.007558
C. 0008578 D. 0007585 D = 28/4 = 7 in
Em!!JmD PROBLEM 18
Two parallel shafts have an angular velocity ratio of 3 to 1 are connected by gears.
From gear tooth proportions table:
the largest of which has 36 teeth. Find the number of teeth of smaller gear.
0.1571
A 10 C. 12
Clearance =  .
B. 11 D. 13
DP
Clearance
01571
0007855
Em!!JmD
20
T, N, T2 N2
202 ( ;( )( II c,
:20;1
Gears
N 1 / N 2 0= T 2 / T 1
3/1 = 361T,
UlII N, N = 1.6
T 1 = 12 teeth
[1 1 6 D l
D1 j 1 6D 1 = 5.2
0, t 2
PROBLEM 19 DP, T , / D 1
The parallel shafts have a center distance of 15 in. One of the shaft carries a 40 10 = T 1 /2
tooth, 2 diametral pitch gear which drives a gear on the other shaft at a speed of 150 T, = 20 teeth
D, +D 2
Em!!lmD
C 0= 
2
To convert module to DP, use this relation:
D1 T 1 / DP, 1< :J
OP = 25.~ or M = 25.4
D, 40/2 20 in
0= M DP
20+D 2 25.4
15
DP 3.90769
2
6.5
D2 10 in
. di N+2
Using the formula of Speed and Diameter relation:
O utside iarneter = 
DP
0 1 N1 0= D2 N2
20(N 1) = 10(150)
Where: N = no. of teeth
N, = 75 rpm
N+2
195/25.4
390769
N + 2 == 30
PROBLEM 20
N == 28 teeth
A pair of meshing gears has a diametral pitch of 10, a center distance of 2.6 inches,
and velocity ratio of 1.6. Determine the number of teeth of smaller gear.
A. 10 C. 30 PROBLEM 22
B. 20 D. 40 What is the pitch diameter of a 40tooth gear having a circular pitch of 1.5708 in?
A. 20 in C 30 in
E:m!IImI B. 25 in D. 35 in
2
Pc ltD
:::: 
2(2.6) = D, + D2
T
D, + D2 = 52
1.5708 == ltD
D, N, 0= D2 N2
40
D,(N, / N2) = D2 D == 20 in
204 Gi'urs
PROBLEM 23 Gears 205
How many revolutions per minute is a spur gear turning if it has 28 teeth, a circular 25.4
pitch of 0.7854 in and a pitch line velocity of 12 It/sec? M =
DP
A. 378.44 rpm C. 954.66 rpm
B. 643.82 rpm D. 392.88 rpm
25.4
M = 
8
Em!!imD
M = 3.175
Pc = ~~
T
0.7854 = reD
PROBLEM 26
28 The diametral pitch of a gear having a module of 23 is:
D = 7 in A. 9 C. 10
V=reDN B. 11 D. 12
12 = re(7/12)N
N = 6.548 rps x 60 392.88 rpm EiI!!imD
Use this formula to convert module to diametral pitch
P~BLEM 24
DP = ~~4
How many revolutions per minute is a spur gear turning If it has a module of 2, 40 M
teeth, and pitch line velocity of 2500 rum/sec?
A. 59683 rpm C. 476.85 rpm 25.4
B. 386.83 rpm D 312.83 rpm DP
2.3
SOLUTION DP = 11
M = module PROBLEM 27
D A gear turning 300 rpm has a diametral pitch of 8. If there are 40 teeth on the gear,
M =
T find the pitch line velocity of gear.
D A. 654 fps C. 7.45 rps
2 = ...
B 834 fps D 9.45 fps
40
D = 80 mm
EiI!!imD
V=reDN
PROBLEM 25 8 = <1:.~
D
The module of a gear having a diametral pitch of 8 is: D = 5 in
A. 5.234 C. 4.23
B. 3175 D 2.34 v = re D N = re (5/12)(300/60) = 6.54 ft/s
SOLUTION
PH.ODLEM 28
Two gears meshing each other have 18 teeth and 30 teeth. If circular pitch is 023 in.
Use this formula to convert diametral pitch to module. Find the center distance between gears
A. 523 in C 323 in
B. 2.34 in D. 1.76 in
2 Of) G('(/1 S Gears :.!()/
SOLUTION
EmiGr·U'
Solving for the diametral pitch of the smaller gear: o
1(0 M 
Pel =  T
T
o ~ T M
1( (0,)
0.23 =  
18
0, T,M
0, = 1.317in 0, = 20 M
P c2 = .
T C =01+02
2
023 = ~'21l 200 = 20 M I 60 M
30 '"
02 = 2.196 in
2
M = 5
c = 0 1 + O2 1.317 + 2.196
_.,
176 in
2 2
PROBLEM 31
0
A gear has a tooth thickness of 0.1308 in. Find the addendum of the gear at 145
involute.
PROBLEM 29
A. 2.12 mm C.3.12mm
A gear with pitch line velocity of 6.126 m/s when turning at 600 rpm. If module is 3, B.4.12mm O. 5.12 mm
find the number of teeth on the gear.
A. 60 C. 65
B. 50 0 70
SOLUTION
Em!!ImD . 1.57
Toot h thickness = 
V=1(ON
OP
6 126 = 1( (0) (600/60)
0.1308 = :!.57
0= 0195m=195mm OP
OP = 12
M =
o
T 1
Addendum 1/12 = 0.0833 in (25.4) = 2.12 mm
195 OP
3 =
T
T = 65 teeth PROBLEM 32
A gear has an addendum of 0.10 in. What is the dedendum of the gear at 20°
pressure involute.
PROBLEM 30 A. 0.037 in C. 0345 in
Two gears meshing each other has a center distance of 200 mm. The pinion has 20 B. 0.125 in O. 0235 in
teeth and gear has 60 teeth. Find the module of meshing gears.
A. 2
B. 4
C. 3
O. 5
Em!!ImD
0.80
Addendum
OP
201\ (;('urs (;('(1 r s 209
0.10
F1 = 318 KN
DP
Fr
DP = 8 tans = ..
Ft
1
Dedendum 0.125 in tan 14.5° = ..£r
8 318
Fr = 0.823 KN
PROBLEM 33 200 mm
A gear is use to transmit 12 kw at 450 rpm with 26 teeth. If the diametral pitch of the
gear is 10, find the force tangent to the gear. PROBLEM 35
A.1234KN C15.42KN The pressure angle of the 12 in diameter gear is 20 degrees. The total load of the
B. 1424 KN D. 1645 KN gear is 5 KN and is turning at 750 rpm. Find the power delivered by the gear.
A 43.23 KN C. 5623 KN
P = 2ITTN SOLUTION
12 = 2 11 T (450/60)
Cos 8 = Ft
FN
T = 0.5093 KNm
Cos 20° = ~
o = 26/10 = 2.6 in 5
F1 = 4.698 KN
T = Fxr
T = Ft x r
r
2.6
0.5093 = F l2"(39.37)
J T = 4.698 12(3~237) J
T = 0.7159 12in
F = 1542KN
P = 2 IT T N = 2 IT (07159) (750/60) = 56.23 kw
PROBLEM 34
A gear is use to transmit 20 kw at 600 rpm to a driven gear. The pinion has a pitch PROBLEM :36
diameter of 200 mm. If pressure angle is 14.5 degrees, find the load that tends to Three gears meshing each other has a driving power of 30 kw with 900 rpm. The
separate the two gears. speed ratio is 1:3:5 and each meshing gear has an efficiency of 96%. Find the torque
A. 0.234 KN C. 0763 KN developed of the driven gear, KN.m.
B. 0534 KN D. 0.823 KN A. 440 C. 5.60
B. 7.60 D. 8.20
SOLUTION
SOLUTION
T = 03183 KNm
Po = 30 (0.96) (0.96) = 27648 kw
T = F x r
14
No
3 (5)
To = torque output
Po = 2 IT TN
Bearing
27648 = 2 IT T (60/60)
T = 4.40 KNm
2. Lubricant  any substance that will form a film between the two suriaces of a
bearing.
5. Ball Bearing  type of rollingelement bearing which uses spherical balls rolling
elements.
6. Roller Bearing  type of rolling element bearing which uses cylindrical rollers as
rolling elements.
3. Guide bearing: primarily guides the motion of machine member without specific
regard to the direction of load application.
2
cm n, = journal speed, rps
C, = radial clearance, in
Sliding Bearings:
where:
Diametral Clearance Ratio H = heat dissipated in Btu/min
C h = heat dissipation coefficient, of projected area. ItIbs/rrunin"
L = length of bearing, in
D = diameter of bearing, in
where:
Ball and Roller Bearings
p = unit loading or bearing pressure
p = F/LD
e = eccentricity " Bearing Sizes and Designation
e = radial distance between center of bearing and the displaced center of
Example of bearing designation:
the journal
F = radial load
" Tabulated data on ball and roller bearings Vallance: Table 92 p 206
nLD
where: Fr Fr K2 (for roller bearings)
u = viscosity in reyns 5
n = speed in rps
p = unit loading, psi where:
L = length of rollers, in
(.. Petroff's equation for frictional torque (Faires p 302) 10,000 for hardened alloy steel
, ,g3<:
Tf:s~unr:.l,.ps (, Radial Load Catalog Capacities of Ball and Roller Bearings (Vallance: pp
Cr 207213)
where:
T, = frictional torque, inIb (. Tabulated catalog capacities of ball and roller bearings:
u = viscosity, reyns (Fig. AF 16, P 595)
Table 97, P 212 and Table 98, p 213
214 Bcaiin q Bell t i T/9 215
PROBU:M 2
ks kt Fr A 2 in horizontal shaft rotates in a sleeve type bearing The coefficient of friction IS
o 10 and the shaft applies a load of 500 lb. Find the frictional resistance.
where: A. 20 Ibs C. 30 Ibs
Fe = Catalog rating of bearing, Ib (tables 97 and 98) B. 40 Ibs D. 50 Ibs
Fr = actual radial load on the bearing, Ib
H, = desired life of bearing, hrs of use
He = catalog rated life of bearing, hr Em!!iitH'
ka = application factor takinq into account the amount of shock (Table 94)
F = frictional resistance
F=fN
But: N = W
where: F = 0.10(500) = 50 Ibs
ko = oscillation factor
= 1.0 for constant rotational speed of the races
= 0.67 for sinusoidal oscillations of the races PROBLEM 3
kp = preloading factor A bearing sustains a load of 4450 N. The shaft diameter is 100 mm, the coefficient of
= 1.0 for nonpreloaded ball bearings and straight roller bearings sliding friction is 001, and the shaft speed is 400 rpm. Find the horsepower lost in
k = rotational factor the bearing.
= 1.0 for bearings with fixed outer races and rotating inner races A. 9320 watts C. 83.45 watts
krel = reliability factor, Table 93 B 76.34 watts D. 45.23 watts
SOLUTION
PROBLEM 4
Solving for the frictional force on bearing: A 50 mm diameter shaft supported by two sleeve bearings carries a load of 13.3 MN.
F = frictional force The shaft rotates at 150 rpm. If the coefficient of sliding friction between the shaft and
F = f N = 0.15 (800) = 120 Ib bearings is 0.1, how much power is lost in friction?
r = 1/2 = 0.5 in = 0.041666 ft A. 261 kw C.345kw
B. 643 kw D. 108 kw
T = torque developed due to frictional force
T = F x r = 120 (0.04166) = 5 ttlb &miitH'
Solving for the hp lost due to friction:
P=2 IT TN = 27t(5)(500) = 0.4759 h Load for one bearing = 13.3/2
33,000 P Load for one bearing = 665 MN
6
Fr = frictional resistance = (0 10)(665 x 10 ) = 6.65 x 105 N
[3eu t: i WI 217
216 Bearing
2 Usmg the beanng stress formula: 2
Fr = 6.65 X 10 KN
S = PIA = 2000/1000 = 2 N/mm or Mpa
Solving for the tangential speed:
PROBL~M 7
v = IT 0 N = IT (0.050)( 150/60) = 0.3927 m/s
A 22 mm diameter shaft is supported by sleeve bearing at a distance of 0.50 m. A
Power Lost = F r v load of 2.2 KN is applied at 0.2 m from the left end. The sleeve bearings have an LID
Power Lost = (6.65 x 10
2)(0.3927)
= 261.14 kw (per bearing) ratio of 1.5. Find the maximum bearing pressure.
A. 1.82 Mpa C 2 12 Mpa
Solving for the power lost of 2 bearings: B. 3.45 Mpa O. 5.23 Mpa
Total power lost = 2(261.14) = 522.30 kw
Em!!mmI
PROBLEM 5 2:M[J = 0
A 36 mm shaft uses a sleeve beanng that sustain a load of 4000 N. If the allowable 05 RA = 0.3(2.2)
2
bearing pressure IS 1.3 MN/m . Find the length of the bearing. RA = 1.32 KN = 1320 N
A. 75.47 mm C. 89.23 mm
B. 23.44 mm O. 85.47 mm A=LO
But: UO = 1.5
L = 1.5 0
Em!!mmI A = (150)(0) = 150
2
F = 4000 N = 4 KN F F 1320 2
3
P=  ' = "  ~ '  
= 1.818 MN/mm or Mpa
S = 1.3 Mpa = 1.3 x 10 Kpa A 1.50" (1.5 )(22)2
Using bearing stress formula
F
Sb = ._..
A PROBLEM 8
3 4 A sleeve beanng is to have an LO ratio of 1.0 and an allowable bearing pressure of
1.3 x 10 =  2
A 0.5 MN/m . Find the inside diameter and the length of the bearmg If it is to sustain a
A = 0.0031 m
2 load of 2550 N.
A. 23.45 mm C. 45.34 mm
Solving for bearing length: B.71.41mm O. 9834 mm
A=LO
00031 = L (0.036) Em!!mmI
L = 0.08547 m =, 85.47 mm
F = 2550 N
F = 000255 MN
PROBLEM 6 UO = 10
A 20 mm shaft uses sleeve bearings. The total load per bearing is 2000 N. An UO L=O
ratio of 25 is desired. What is the bearing pressure?
A. 1 Mpa C. 2 Mpa Solving for the area:
B. 3 Mpa O. 4 Mpa S = F/A
2
A = F/S = 000255 I 0.5 = 00051 m
Em!!mmI Solving for the diameter'
A = LO
LID = 2.5
00051 = 0(0)
L = 2.50 = 2.5(20) = 50 mm
0=007141 m =71.41 mm
Solving for the area:
A = LO = 50(20) 1000 rnrn"
218 Bearing Bells 219
PROBLEM 9
A sleeve bearing has an outside diameter of 1.50 in and a length of 2 in. The wall
thickness is 3/16 in. The bearing is subjected to a radial load of 450 lb. Find the
bearing pressure.
A. 100 psi
B. 150 psi
C. 200 psi
D 250 psi
15 BE3Its
SOLUTION
Solving for the crosssectional area: (. Chrome leather is used where very pliable material is desired.
A= lJ J =~ [(0.075)2. (0.012)2 ]
(D/  D;2) (. Rubber belt is used when exposed to moisture, acids and alkalies.
2
A = 0.00430476 m t, Fabric and canvas belts are used for light power transmission.
e=tc ± 2sid (R 2 ~ R1
1
J radians
(.. If Centrifugal Tension is Considered
1"1  Fe

1"2 Fe
= eIII
where:
O 2 0 1 Fe = centrifugal tension
2
12wbtv /g
9 = rt ± ,radians 3
w = belt weight, Ib/in
b = belt width, in
Note: Use + sign for larger pulley t = belt thickness, in
Use  sign for smaller pulley v = belt velocity, fUsec
For Crossed Belt Connection (, Net belt pull (tangential force on pulley)
I" = 1"1  1"2
(, Pulley diameter and speed relation:
0 1 N1 =02 N:z (. Stress in Belt:
S _ 1"1
(., Belt Length: e W  bt
2C +
. D2 + D1 where:
L = 1.57 ([)2 + D,) Sw = working stress = 300 pSI for leather belts
4C
where: L = length of belt
(.. Power Transmitted and Torque Relation by Belt:
0 1 = diameter of smaller pulley
O 2 = diameter of larger pulley
R = radius of larger pulley
T = (1"1  1"2) r = I" x r
r = radius of smaller pulley
P = 2nTN, Kw
e = arc of contact, radians
C = center distance
where:
P = power, Kw
t,.. Angle of contact: T = torque, KNm
e =n + 2slo,1 N = speed, rps
B 69.5 hp D 54.5 hp
in
F1
.. ~ e f8
l
D2D1
2CJ 180  2 sin
1
(~1J
l2(4 )
= 165.63°
F2
.6.MJ Belts l uak c: 227
PROBLEM 7
A 5 mm round belt connects a 20 mm pulley with a 40 mm pulley. The center
distance is 150 mm. The 20 mm pulley rotates at 100 rpm and the coefficient of
friction of the belt is 0.25. Find the horsepower capacity for this arrangement if the
2
allowable belt stress is 2.6 N/mm .
A. 0.12 kw C 000282 kw
B. 0.23 kw D. 0.054 kw
SOLUTION
F
~
S = '.
A
F = SA Brake· is a device which is used to regulate or stop the motion of a body.
F = (2.6) (nI4)(5)2 = 51.05 N
For larger pulley: Types of Brakes:
8B = 180 + 2 sin'1l~2 ~_f3l J= 180 + 2 sin' 20.=2.~ 1= 187.65° = 3.275 rad 1. Mechanical Brakes
150 ) a. band d. disk
b. block e. spot
T =: (F1  F2)r
where:
T = brake torque
r =: radius of friction surface on the drum
Actuating Force Required: (by taking moment about the pivot point)
Fa = aF2
L
228 Brake Brake 229
Maximum Unit Pressure:
where: W = weight lowered
h = total distance traveled
where:
w = width of the bond
PROBLEM 1
Stress in band: The band brake of a band brake has 210 degrees of contact with its drum. By
laboratory tests, it is found that the pull on the tight side is 800 Ibs and the pull on the
slack side is 285 lb. What is the coefficient of friction?
where: A. 0.281 C. 0 186
B 0.753 D. 0.453
t = thickness of the band
PROBLEM 2
2
The inertia load on an electric brake is 32 Ibft and the drive shaft is rotating at 2000
where: rpm. What average torque is required to bring this load to a complete stop in 12 sec?
T = braking torque A. 173.61 ftIbs C. 12345 ttlbs
F r = radial force between the drum and each shoe B 153.45 ftlbs D. 237.23 ftIbs
f = coefficient of friction
h = effective moment arm of the friction force
SOLUTION
r = radius of the friction surface of the drum
8 = angle of contact
Using the formula of torque in electric brake:
P max = maximum normal pressure between block and drum
2
w = axial width of block T= J!v.r)N _
308(1.2)
Automotive Shoe Brake (Vallance pp 366370)
Ki·)!WDI
F1 Ie
17 Clutch
=e
F2
~
f = 0.322
PROBLEM 4
A brake requires 900 inlb of torque to stop a shaft operating at 840 rpm in a period of
3.5 seconds. What is the inertia load expressed in Ibft 2 ?
Clutch  is a machine member which is used to connect shafts so that the driven
A. 90.23 C. 34.45
shaft will rotate with the driving shaft. and to disconnect them at will.
B 74.34 D. 9625
Types of clutches:
Em!!Iir.mI
1. Jaw clutches  jaws or teeth in the two elements interlock
2)N
T= (wr
2. Friction clutches  the drivinq force is transmitted by friction; the major types are'
308 (t)
plate or disk clutch, cone clutch, band clutch, block clutch and expandingring
T = 900/12 = 75 ftIb clutch.
2)(840)
75 = lwr
308(3.5) 3. Hydraulic clutches  the torque is transmitted by a moving fluid
w ~ = 96.25 ft2 Ib
4. Electromagnetic clutches  the torque is transmitted by means of a magnetic lieid.
P = 2rrT N
T = n f Fa fl
where:
T = torque transmitted
n = number of pairs of mating friction surfaces
f = coefficient of friction
Fa = axial load
r, = mean friction radius
fr =
2.'

[f O
3
3 ro 2'. rI 2
__ rj3 ]
Clutch 233
2:32 Clutch
T= l
~~~ ~; ri J= sif;ex (D2m J Torque
Alternate Solution:
146 lbtt
PROBLEM 2 PROBLEM 4
How much torque can a cone clutch transmit if the angle of the conical elements is 10 Find the frictional radius for a disc clutch. The disc clutch has an outside diameter of
degrees the mean diameter of the conical clutch sections 200 mm and an axial force 10 in and an inside diameter of 6 in.
of 550 N is applied? Assume the coefficient of friction is 0.45. A. 454 in C 5.34 in
A. 123.23 Nm C 142.53 Nm B. 4.08 in D. 8.44 in
B. 34.56 Nm D. 234.56 Nm
SOLUTION
SOLUTION
ro = 10/2 = 5 in
r, = 6/2 = 3 in
T= ~~~;l~trl.J 3
l
l
3
2 ro  r,.3 2 r 53 3 1 = 408 in
fF r'=:3 ~J
a , 3l5" 3"]
T= ~ (rm )
Sin ex
234 Clutch ("{llldl 235
PROBLEM 5
In a clutch the outside diameter is 8 in and the inside diameter is 4 in. An axial lorce
4i·"mtmI
of 400 Ib is used to hold the two parts together. If the coefficient of friction of the Using uniform wear method:
mating materials is 0.4, how much torque can the clutch handle?
A.123.45inlb C.213.34inlb
B. 497.80 inlb D. 563.23 inIb
P = 2]"(TN_
33,000
33,000
r, = 4/2 = 2 in T =105.04 ftIb
ro = 8/2 = 4 in
~
P = 3TCT~ 2]"((360/12)(400) = 2.28 hp
33,000 33,000 F I 1 F2 = 4/1
F,
 = e
fO
F2
PROBLEM 7 4/1 = e l(250 x ,,/180)
A cone clutch has cone elements at an angle of 10° The clutch transmits 20 hp at a
speed of 100 rpm. The mean diameter of the conical friction sections is 16 in and the In 4 = In e436331
coefficient 01 Iriction ;s 0.3. Find the axial force needed to engage the clutch.
A. 246.37 Ibs C. 234.56 Ibs
f = 0318
B. 212.561bs D. 346.781bs
236 Clutch
('1111 ell 237
PROBLEM 9
0
A band clutch has an angle of contact of 270 on a 15 in diameter drum. The F1 = F2 e 1o
.' IT
rotational speed of the drum is 250 rpm and the clutch transmits 8 hp. The band is 0.4(250 x )
1/16 in thick and has a design stress of 5000 psi. How wide should the band be? 750 =, F2e 180'
Assume a coefficient of friction of 0.40. F2 = 13094 Ib
A.2.123in C.1014in
B. 3.234 In D. 4354 in T = (F 1  F2) r
T = (750  130.94)(16/2) = 4952.48 inlb = 412.707 Itlb
SOLUTION
p = 2ITTN 2IT(412.707)(35_0) = 27.50 hp
F1 = S b t 33,000  33,000
T = (F 1  F2 ) r
p = 2n:TN
33,000 PROBLEM II
8 = _2_ITT_(_25_0_) Find the power capacity under uniform wear of a cone clutch with mean diameter of
33,000 250 mm if the conical elements are inclined 8 degrees and the axial force is 450 N.
The rotational speed of the driver is 200 rpm and the coefficient of friction is 0.20.
T = 168.067 ftIb = 2016.811 inIb
A. 1683 kw C. 1.287 kw
B. 2340 kw D. 3234 kw
F
.1 = e to
F2
EellUi[']~1
fe
F 1 = F2 e
" It
0.4(270 x   ) Using uniform wear method
F1 = F2e 180C = 6.586 F2
T =_.t£...1 !ot:.i] = .lSl:.?1~450) (0.25/2) = 80.8345 Nm
sin (X L 2 sin 8°
Substitute to the equation of torque: T = 0.0808345 KNm
PROBLEM 13
= 2 IT T N = 2 IT (0,209603)(870 160) = 19,096 kw
1 B Machineries
Find the power capacity under uniform wear of a cone clutch with the following
specification speed = 870 rpm; length of conical elements in contact = 125 mm; major
~
diameter = 250 mm; minor diameter = 200 mm; coefficient of friction = 0,30; and axial
operating force = 500 N,
A. 7,69 kw C, 9,34 kw
B, 5,23 kw D. 3.23 kw
SOLUTION
~
. r0  r, Polar Moment of Inertia
sin u. = 
b
. 0.1250.10 Using English units:
sino; =
0,125 Jrr:= p.L. J
a = 11,537° 9
2
Where: Jm = polar moments of inertia 01 masses, ftlbsec
2
p = Ib/ft
T= ~~ L = length, ft
sina
g = 322 tt/sec"
500(0.3)(g~_135_!_0.10) J = polar moment 01 inertia 01 area with constant crosssection, ft4
= 84375 Nm = 0.084375 KNm
Sin 11 ,53r Using SI units:
P = 2 IT TN = 2 IT (0.084375)(870/60) = 7.69 kw J m = p LJ
2
Where: J m = kg_m
PROBLEM 14 3
p = kg/m
Assuming uniform wear, find the power capacity of a single disc clutch with an outside L = length, m
4
and inside diameter of 200 mm and 100 mm respectively, a rotational speed 01 1160 J =m
rpm, a coefficient of friction of 0,35 and an axial operating force of 800 New1ons.
A. 4,23 kw C. 6.32 kw Radius of Gyration
B. 2.55 kw D. 8.23 kw
Using English Units
SOLUTION
Ko = radius of gyration
Using uniform wear:
I
r + rj
T = fFl2~
0 l Ko =~Jmg
W
. •.·•·.
Where: J m
Jm= W
g
k~
= polar moments of inertia 01 masses, ttlbsec"
T = (0.35)(800{ 0.10; 0,05 J = 21 Nm = 0.021 KNm
Ko = ft
g = 322 It/sec"
W = weight, Ib
P = 2IT TN = 2IT (0.021)(1160/60) = 2,55 kw
,\Tn r II i fI ('I WS 241
240 ModI ineries
Using 51 Units !(l~etic Energ:y
p == kg/m
Ko = m
Kinetic Energy of Rotating body
m == mass, kg KE== Vz Jrno}
Where: r == the distance form axis of rotation to center of gravity of body Where: 5 == total height, It
Formulas relating Torque and Angular Acceleration o == distance in feet which pile IS driven
To == torque, Nm
J m == moment of inertia, kg_m2 Angular impulse == To x t
To x t == J m(rot  Ulo)
242 ATClchincries Mochinerics 243
Centrifugal Force For cast iron having a tensile strength of 19,000 psi the bursting speed would
be:
In English units: v == ~1 0 x 19,000 =; 436 fUsee
F =0 centrifugal force
Thickness of Cast Iron flywheel:
y== ~FR9
W
R radius, ft
=0
N speed, rpm
=0
In 51 units:
F= 0.01097 m R N2
Where: t thickness, in
=0
F = force, N
Spokes and Arms of flywheels:
F = 0.01097 h1 R N2
The strength of the arms should equal threefourths the strength of the shaft In
torsion.
FLYWHEEL
If W equals the width of the arm at the hub and 0 equals the shaft diameter. then
W==1';30 for a wheel having 6 arms. For 8 arms, W:;i1:2D
Energy of Flywheel due to change of Velocity:
2 2
E== W(v 1
2g
 V2 )
~
For simple pendulum
Where: W = weight, Ibs
v = velocity, ftls
=0
y2
L = length of pendulum, ft
ft = poisson's ratio
~
Thickwalled cylinders of ductile material; open ends.
Strength of Taper Pins: Clavarinos equation is used:
HP = horsepower
p == 50,210,000 (1/0)3
N = speed, rpm
P = collapsing pressure, psi
~
Where: d = tapered pin diameter, mm
N = speed, rpm 1. Torsional deflection of circular shafts:
0= shaft diameter, mm
P = power transmitted, watts
S = unit stress, N/mm 2 a
T = torque, inlb
L = length, in
D = shaft diameter, in
For low pressure cylinders of cast iron: G = 11,500 psi (for steel)
' ,DP 2. Shaft diameter for 0.08 degrees per foot of length of shaft
t = t h.ckness, = ,'~.,,'~
In
2500 deflection.
o = inside diameter, in
Mochin eries
247
24fi !'v[Ucll illcrics
For English units: L (A + 0) xA xB xK
Where: D = diameter, mm
N = speed, rpm
o = sheave diameter
20 times its
3. Shaft deflec tion of 1 degre e for a length of
2. dw = wire diameter
diame ter.
0.10
P = power, hp
o = diameter, in 3 A=
N = speed, rpm
T = torque, inlb
f m ", It nt N
T",,6.3D
W
Estimating Planer Cutting Speeds
T = number of teeth
Vc = cutting speed, fpm
o = cutter diameter, in
So = number of cutting strokes per minute
o = depth of cut, in
Planning Time
For high speed milling with sintered carbide:
T= W[LX(~,' +1)+o,o25]•
T =.'. ,K H~
FNelW
L" l v: v,
T = time, min
T = number of teeth
W = width of surface to be planed, in
H = horsepower
L = length of stroke, It
D = depth of cut, in
W = width of cut, in
Cutting Speed ~
Size and types of rivets:
v= nDN
Rivet diameter falls between:
N = speed, rpm
D = diameter, ft
v = cutting speed, fpm D= 1:2jt'· to 1.4jt
IN F = n x Ar x 5 s
W ==St(0.55d2 0.25 d)
~
W == St (A  0.25d) Horsepower of friction wheels:
W = working strength of bolt, Ib
1. HP =   
St = allowable working stress, psi
d = nominal outside diameter of bolt, in
Where:
A = area at the root of the thread, in 2 D = diameter of friction wheel
N = speed, rpm
Holding Power of Set Screw:
W = width of face, in
DNd~·3 f = coefficient of friction
P = ,hp
P = force in Ibs per inch of width
Sharp V  thread
C = center distance
D = depth of thread
2. Circular Pitch for Given Center Distance and Ratio
0= P xcos30o
D= 0.866
p = pitch, in
C = center distance
T = number of teeth
L
252 Machineries
Moe h i ucvie s 253
Wrappedspring Clutches
t = tooth thickness
Pc = circular pitch 1.
e = amount outside diameter is increased over standard
¢ = pressure angle
HP = horsepower
N = speed, rpm
ftIbs
t = tooth thickness
Pc = circular pitch
e = amount outside diameter is increased over standard 2
I = W R moment of inertia, Ibft
2
R = radius of gyration, ft
3. Heat Generated
N = number of teeth
N2 = initial rpm
PROBLEM 1
7. Chordal addendum A car moving at 60 mph when the brakes are suddenly locked and the car begins to
skid. If it takes 2 seconds to slow the car to 30 mph, at what rate is it being
decelerated, how long the car comes to a halt, and how far will it have traveled?
.ij'·"[RI
a = addendum
va = 60 (5280/60) = 88 ft/s
VI = 30 (5280/60) = 44 ft/s
A. VI = Va + at
44 = 88 + a (2)
a = 22 ft/s 2
VI '= Va + at
SOLUTION
o '= 44 + (22) t
t '" 2 sec
T '= total time W,= 50 (9.81) '= 490.5
T '= 2 + 2 '= 4 sec W
T '= W + a
g
c. S '= Va t
2
+ Yz a t
S '= 88 (4) + 112 (22) (4/ 600 '= 490.5 + 490.5 a
S '= 176 ft 9.81
a '= 2.19 m/s"
PROBLEM 2
A flywheel on a press rotating at 120 rpm is slowed to 102 rpm during a punching
process that requires 34 sec for the punching portion of the cycle. What angular PROBLEM 5
deceleration the flywheel experience? A flywheel has a diameter of 3 ft and weighs 1000 pounds. What torque must be
A. 2.52 rad/s" C. 1.23 rad/s" applied, neglecting bearing friction, to accelerate the flywheel at the rate of 100
B. 5.45 rao/s" D. 8.45 rad/s" revolutions per minute .per second?
A. 265.80 ftlbs C. 365.80 ftIbs
B. 565.80 ttIbs D. 665.80 ftIbs
II'm!!Dm
SOLUTION
WI + a. t
'= Wa
Wa '= 120 (2rr/60) '= 12.57 rad/s
a. = 100 rev/secmin (2rr/60) = 10.47 rad/s"
w, '= 102 (2rr/60) '= 10.68 rad/s
10.68 '= 12.57 + a. (3/4) 2 W 2
T = (Yz m r ) (112 
0.= r ) a.
a. '= 2.52 rad/s" g
T = \/2 (1000/32.2)(3/2)2 (10.47)
T '= W + FR 4NiIDi1m
W
T '= W + a
g a. = 100 rev/secmin (2rr/60) 10.47 rad/s"
T = (112 m (') a.
100
110 '= 100 +   a T = 112 (800)( 1.5/2/ (10.47)
32.2 T = 2356 N.m
2
a '= 3.22 ftls
PROBLEM 7
PROBLEM 4 A 12 inch cube of steel weighing 490 lbs is being moved on a horizontal conveyor belt
A body of mass 50 kg is being hoisted by a winch, and the tension in the cable is 600 at a speed of 6 miles per hour (88 ft/s) What is the kinetic energy of the cube?
N. What is the acceleration? A. 323.45 ftIbs C. 534.34 ftIbs
B. 489.22 ftIbs 0 633.34 ftIbs
256 Mo ciiin er ie« Moc h i fl cr ies 257
SOLUTION SOLUTION
W 2 PE = potential energy
KE = 1'2 V Potential energy = Work produced
g
PE = W
KE = '12 _490 (8.8)2 = 489.22 ttlbs m (z + d) = F x d
32.2 100 (10 + 0.3) = F (0.3)
F = 3433.33 kg (0.00981) = 33.68 KN
PROBLEM 8
If a cube of mass 200 kg is being moved on a conveyor belt at a speed of 3 mis, what
is the kinetic energy of the cube? PROBLEM 11
A. 800 J C. 850 J A 1000 Ib block is pulled up a 2degree incline by a cable exerting a constant force F
B. 900 J D. 950 J of 600 Ibs If the coefficient of friction between the block and the plane is 0.5, how
fast will the block be moving up the plane 10 seconds after the pun is applied?
A. 12.4 mph C. 17.3 mph
Em!!ImD B. 10.2 mph D. 14.3 mph
KE = % mv 2 % 200(3)2 w..ie],IIIWl'
KE = 900 J R = F  P = W(~ cosu. + sin o.)
R = 600  1000(0.5 cos2° + sin 2°)
R = 600  535 = 65.41 Ibs
PROBLEM 9 W W
A pile driver weighing 200 pounds strikes the top of the pile after being fallen from a Rt = vrvo
g g
height of 20 ft. If forces a pile into the ground a distance of 1'2 foot. What is the
average force of the blow? 1000 1000
65.41 x 10 = ~vf ~(O)
A. 8,2001bs C. 8,4001bs 32.2 32.2
B. 8,6001bs D. 8,8001bs v, = 21.06 ftls = 14.3 6 miles/hr
Em!!ImD PROBLEM 12
A 500 kg block is pulled up a 2 degree incline by a constant force F of 4 KN. The
PE = potential energy
coefficient of friction between the block and the plane is 0.5. How fast will the block
Potential energy = Work produced
be moving 10 seconds after the pull is applied?
A. 27.6 rn/s C 30.4 rn/s
PE = W
B. 34.2 m/s D. 38.3 m/s
m (z + d) = F x d
d = Y2 It = 0.5 ft
200 (20 + 0.5) = F (0.5) Em!!:immI
F = 8200lbs
R = F  P = mg(~ coso. + sin u.)
R = 4000 500 x 9.81 (0.5 cos2° + sin 2°) 1378 N 1.378 KN
PROBLEM 10 R t = mv, mv o
A pile driver of mass 100 kilograms falls 10 meters and moves the pile a distance of 1378 x 10 = 500(vr  0)
0.3 m. What is the average force of the blow? Vj= 27.6 m/s
A. 23.45 KN C. 5423 KN
B. 33.68 KN D. 43.23 KN
258 Machineries Muchincries 259
PROBLEM 13 PROBLEM 16
A flywheel having a moment of inertia of 25 lbsftsec" is revolving with an angular A casting of mass 150 kg is lifted 4 meters in 15 seconds by means of a crane. What
velocity of 10 radians per second when a constant torque of 20 Ibsft is applied to is the power?
reverse its direction of rotation. For what length of time must this constant torque act A. 392 watts C. 456 watts
to stop the flywheel and bring it up to reverse speed of 5 radians per second? B. 523 watts D. 634 watts
A. 12.34 sec C. 18.80 sec
B.14.34sec D.16.34sec ID.IDIilmI
P '= W xv = W x (Sit)
SOLUTION P '= (150 x 0.00981)(4115)
P '= 0.392 kw = 392 watts
Angular impulse '= Change in angular momentum
Fe = 5(13.82)2 = 796150 N
mv m(S/t) 0.12
HP '= 550 '=  550
D = 2.523 in &1·l!iiiGD
Therefore, use D = 2 9/16 (standard)
PROBLEM 20
d = 110.3 ~~S' mm
A lever secured to a 2 inches round shaft by a steel tapered pin (d = 3/8") has a pull
of 50 Ibs at a 30 in radius from shaft center. Find the unit working stress of the pin. 112,000
A 6770 psi C. 6790 psi
d = 11 0.3 ~ 500 x 50 ~ 40 12.09 mm
B. 7433 psi D. 5234 psi
EmmmD PROBLEM 23
Find the thickness of metal required in the hemispherical end of a cylindrical vessel,
Using the formula of strength of tapered pin: 2 feet in diameter, subjected to an internal pressure of 500 psi. The material is mild
steel and a tensile stress of 10,000 psi is allowable.
8 = 2·27~ A. 0 10 in C. 0.3 in
Dd 2
B. 0.5 in D. 0.7 in
T = Fxr
SOLUTION
T = 50 x 30 = 1500 inlb
8 =0 2.
27 (1500)
Using the formula of spherical shell because of two hem ispherical ends.
2(3/8)2
8 =0 6770 psi P o,
8
4 t
PROBLEM 21 P o, 500 x 2 x 12
0.3 inch
A lever secured to a 50 mm round shaft by a steel tapered pin ( d =0 10 mm) has a pull 48 4 x 10,000
of 200 N at a radius of 800 mm. Find the working stress on the pin.
A. 32.3 Mpa C. 45.20 Mpa PROBLEM 24
B. 40.6 Mpa D. 56.34 Mpa Find the thickness of metal required in the hem ispherical end of a cylindrical vessel,
2
750 mm in diameter, subjected to an internal pressure of 3 N/mm . The material is
2
mild steel and a tensile stress of 70 N/mm is allowable.
262 Machineries Machineries 263
A.4mm C.6mm A. 78 mm C. 93 mm
B.2mm D. 8 mm B. 81 mm D. 85 mm
Wf':rv.:m:D SOLUTION
Using the formula of spherical shell because of two hem ispherical ends. For main shaft:
3
D N
P o, P =
S 80
4 t
3
P o, 3 x 750
~~= D (500)
 8.04 mm 0.746 80
4S 4 x 70
D = 3.18 in = 80.78 mm
PROBLEM 25 PROBLEM 28
What would be the diameter of the line shaft to transmit 10 horsepower if the shaft What power would a short shaft, 50 mm in diameter, transmit at 400 rpm?
makes 150 rpm? A. 50 kw C. 55 kw
A. 9/16 in C.29/16in B.60kw D.65kw
B. 39/16 in D. 1 9/16 in
SOLUTION
SOLUTION
D3 N
D3 N P
P = ~ 38
53.5
3
(50/25.4)3 (400)
10 = D
(150) P 80.29 hp = 60 kw
38
53.5
D = 1.53 in = 1 9/16 in (standard)
PROBLEM 29
Find the torsional deflection for a solid steel shaft 4 inches in diameter and 48 inches
PROBLEM 26 long, subjected to twistinq moment of 24,000 inlb.
What horsepower would be transmitted by a short shaft, 2 inches in diameter, A. 0.122 deg C. 0.23 deg
carrying but two pulleys too close to bearings if the shaft makes 300 rpm? B. 0.052 deg D. 0.43 deg
A. 60 hp C. 65 hp
B. 75 hp D. 70 hp
IEm!!Im3
SOLUTION
Using the derived formula for deflection:
3
D N 584 TL d
P = 38 (X = 4~' eg
D G
(2)3 (300) = 63 hp where: ex= angular deflection, deg
P =  38 T = torque, inIb
L = length, in
PROBlEM 27 D = shaft diameter, In
G = 11,500 psi (for steel)
What would be the diameter of powertransmitting shaft to transmit 150 kw at 500
rpm?
264 Machineries Much inL'ries 265
A = (H  0  2Y)/2
a = 584 (24,009)( 48 2= 0.23 degree
(4)4 (11,5000,000)
L = length of wire rope, ft
L = (A + 0) x A x B x K
PROBLEM 30 Where:
Find the torsional deflection of a solid steel shaft, 100 mm in diameter and 1300 mm B = width between drum flanges, in
long, subjected to twisting moment of 3 x 106 Nmm. The torsional modulus of o =' diameter of drum barrel, in
elasticity is 80,000 N/mm 2 . H = diameter of drum flanges, in
A. 0.122deg c. 0.234 deg K = factor from table
B. 0.285 deg O. 0.543 deg Y = depth no filled on drum
0=4.6 {f Sb
E dw
D
= (12,000,000) (0.0315)
24
15,750 psi

P = horsepower
N = speed, rpm PROBLEM 34
m
Find the breaking load in pounds of a wrought iron chain crane if the diameter of bar
10 . from which links are made is 2 inches.
o = 4.6 4__ = 2.35 Inches A.216,000Ibs C.316,000Ibs
150
B. 416,0001bs O. 516,0001bs
PROBLEM 32
Find the length in feet of 9/16 inch diameter rope required to fill a drum having the &i)''tmD
following dimensions: B = 24 in, 0 = 18 in, H = 30 in. (K = 0.741) 2
A.1873ft C.2874ft W = 54,000 D
B. 2560 ft O. 2645 ft
Where: W = breaking loads, lbs
4i·)!!ImD o = diameter of bar, in
W = 54,000 (2)2 = 216,0001bs
A = depth of rope space on drum, in
266 Machineries Machineries 267
PROBLEM 35 SOLUTION
The specific gravity of cast iron is 7.2. Find the weight of 5 cubic inches of cast iron.
A. 1.1 Ibs C. 1.2 Ibs Using the relation of D and N:
B. 1.31bs D. 1.4lbs
D1 Nl = D2 N2
Em!!ImmI 24(100) = D2 (600)
Weight of any material = 0.0361 (SG), Ib
02 = 4 in.
Weight of any material = 0.0361 (7.2) = 1.2996 Ib
PROBLEM 39
PROBLEM 36 How many Y2 inch diameter setscrews would be required to transmit 3 horsepower at
a shaft speed of 1000 rpm if the shaft diameter is 1 inch.
The weight of a cubic inch of gold is 0.697 lb. Find the specific gravity.
A. 13.45 C. 17.23
B. 15.34 D. 19.31 A. 1 C.2
B. 1.5 D.2.5
&,e],'''[.];''
SOLUTION
Em!!ImmI
PROBLEM 40
Using the relation of D and N: How many 3/8 inch diameter setscrews would be required to transmit 3 horsepower
at a shaft speed of 1000 rpm if the shaft diameter is 1 inch.
D1 N1 = D2 N2 A. 1 C. 1.5
B.2 0.3
15(180) = 9 (N2)
SOLUTION
N2 = 300 rpm
Holding Power of Set Screw:
PROBLEM 38
If the diameter of driving pulley is 24 inches and its speed, 100 rpm, and the driven 23
pulley is to rotate 600 rpm, find the diameter of driven pulley. P = DNd .
A. I in C. 2 in 50 ,hp
[1. 3 in D. 4 in
268 Machineries Much incrips 269
p = 1(1 000)(3/8)2.3 = 2.1 hp
50 26(N 1) = 4(800)
Ei1!!mmI E'm!!IilmI
Using the relation of T and N:
W = workinq strength of bolt
T1 N, = T 2 N2
W = S1 (0.55d 2 ~ 0.25d)
20 (80) = 40 (N2)
W = 10,000[0.55(1)2  0.25(1)] = 3000 lbs
N2 = 40 rpm
PROBLEM 42
42. If the diameter of driven pulley is 36 inches and its required speed, 150 rpm, and PROBLEM 45
the speed of driving pUlley is 600 rpm, then the diameter of driving pulley is: If the pitch diameter of the driver is 8 inches, its speed, 75 rpm, and the pitch
A. 5in C.7in diameter of the driven gear, 20 rpm is:
B. 9 in O. 11 in A. 20 in C. 30 in
B.40in 0.50in
. SOLUTION
SOLUTION
Using the relation of 0 and N:
Using the relation of 0 and N:
0, N, = 02 N2 0 1 N, = O2 N2
SOLUTION
E'm!!IilmI
Using the relation of 0 and N: Te = clutch starting torque, ftIbs
T = Ix,A.~
0, N, = 02 N2 c
308t
270 Machineries Mac iiin eti es 271
2
I = W R = moment of inertia. Ibtt 2 f = coefficient of friction
W = weight, Ib P = force in Ibs per inch of width
R = radius of gyration, ft C = 3.1416 (150) (0.2) = 0.00024