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Solid and liquid Waste Management:

India is 2nd most populated country in world. So the solid waste is

produced in huge quantity. The qualities of both solid & liquid wastes
are increasing and if the wastes are disposed in an uncontrolled
manner these may cause adverse impact on public health &
environment. Therefore, the solid wastages are still a major problem in
these rural areas. To overcome these problems, we have proposed to
implement vermicomposting. Key words: Solid waste,
vermicomposting, liquid wastes. Introduction to Solid and Liquid Waste
Management Keywords: Biodegradable, Recyclable, diarrheal

Solid waste has become one of the biggest problems and its
management is one of the major issues now days for our environment.
The problem is not restricted to a single place rather it covers all parts
of the environment which leads to toxic pollutants. Developing
countries face major problem i.e. solid waste management in urban as
well as in rural areas. The most obvious environmental damage caused
by solid waste is aesthetic. A more serious risk is the transfer of
pollution to ground water and land as well as the pollution of air from
improper burning of waste.
In India especially in rural areas, waste is a severe threat to the public
health concern and cleanliness. Though, the form of waste (both solid
and liquid) generated in rural areas is predominantly organic and
biodegradable yet becoming a major problem to the overall
sustainability of the ecological balance. Close to 88% of the total
disease load is due to lack of clean water and sanitation and the
improper solid and liquid waste management-which intensify their
occurrence, e.g. 1) 5 of the 10 top killer diseases of children aged 1-14
in rural areas are related to water and sanitation 2) Almost 1500
children die every day from diarrheal diseases.
Waste is any material/liquid that is thrown away as unwanted. As per
physical properties, waste can be categorized as: A. Solid Waste: Any
waste other than human excreta, urine & waste water, is called solid
waste. Solid waste in rural areas generally includes house sweeping,
kitchen waste, garden waste, cattle dung & waste from cattle sheds,
agro waste, broken glass, metal, waste paper, plastic, cloths, rubber,
waste from markets & shopping areas, hotels, etc. Solid waste can also
be defined as the organic and inorganic waste materials produced by
households, commercial & industrial establishments that have no
economic value to the owner. As per biodegradability, solid waste can
be classified as:
1) Biodegradable:
Waste that are completely decomposed by biological processes
either in presence or in absence of air are called biodegradable.
e.g. kitchen waste, animal dung, agricultural waste etc Solid and
liquid Waste Management in Rural Areas.
2) Non-Biodegradable: Waste which cannot be decomposed by
biological processes is called non-biodegradable waste. These are of
two types:
A) Recyclable: waste having economic values but destined for disposal
can be recovered and reused along with their energy value. e.g. plastic,
paper, old cloth etc.
B) Non-Recyclable: Waste which do not have economic value of
recovery e.g. tetra packs, carbon paper, thermo coal etc. B. Liquid
Waste: Used & unwanted water is called waste water.
1) Black Water: Waste water generated in the toilet is called “Black
water”. It contains harmful pathogens.
2) Grey water:
Waster water generated in the kitchen, bathroom and laundry is
called “Greywater”. It may also contain pathogens. IV.OBJECTIVES
1) To protect human health and improve quality of life among
people living in rural areas.
2) To reduce environment pollution and make rural areas clean.
3) To promote recycling and reuse of both solid and liquid waste
4) To convert bio waste into energy for ensuring greater energy
security at village level.

The following steps may be followed for introducing community
based Waste Management System: Information Collection,
Participatory Planning and Preparation of GP/Block level action
A. Step 1: Information Collection: In order to draw up a plan of
action for community based SLWM in an area, it is essential to
know the exact number of houses, institutions and commercial
establishments to determine the types and amounts of waste
generated in the area. The Survey findings through data collection
will also serve as documents for introducing the system. For
developing the SLWM plan of the GP/Block, the following
information may be collected following rapid rural survey of the
1) No. of Households
2) Total Population
3) Details about shops, marriage halls, market, commercial
establishments, etc
4) Community map of the area
5) Existing system and practice of waste management
6) Quantum of solid and liquid waste generated per day
7) Local body’s approach and future plans for SLWM
8) Details of vacant spaces available in the local body
9) Details and activities of NGOs & CBOs, e.g. Women Self help
Groups etc available in the village.

Two decades of economic growth since 1990 has changed the
composition of Indian wastes. The quantity of MSW generated in
India is increasing rapidly due to increasing population and change
in lifestyles. Land is scarce and public health and environmental
resources are precious. The current SWM crisis in India should be
approached holistically; while planning for long term solutions,
focus on the solving the present problems should be maintained.
In India especially in rural areas, waste is a severe threat to the
public health concern and cleanliness. Though, the form of waste
(both solid and liquid) generated in rural areas is predominantly
organic and biodegradable yet becoming a major problem to the
overall sustainability of the ecological balance.
This is the place to admit that while there appear only authors on
the cover, this work just as any other, is a product of the
interaction with and support during our thesis work, among them,
first we express our gratitude to our guides Mr. Priyank Shah for
their affection throughout guidance, advice and encouragement.
Thanks to all our family members for their affection, care and
encouragement. Special thanks to our college for giving us the
invaluable knowledge. Above all we are thankful to almighty God
for everything. REFERENCE [1] DOSIWAM- An Innovative
Technology for Integrated Waste Management Leading to
Resource Recovery and Reuse