Você está na página 1de 23

SURFACE J2730

ISSUED
AUG2006
VEHICLE Issued 2006-08
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE

Dynamic Cleat Test with Perpendicular and Inclined Cleats

RATIONALE

This Recommended Practice was developed as part of a set of Recommended Practices intended to allow modelers to
determine the parameters required by any of the common tire models for calculating spindle loads given the road surface
profile. These documents provide the necessary data from a single set of experimental results, thus, eliminating duplicate
testing.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Scope ............................................................................................................................................................ 2

2. References.................................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 Applicable Publications ................................................................................................................................. 2

3. Definitions ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
3.1 The Parallel Axis Tire Coordinate System .................................................................................................... 3
3.2 The Tire Forces and Moments...................................................................................................................... 4
3.3 Travel Distances ........................................................................................................................................... 6
3.4 Test ............................................................................................................................................................... 6
3.5 Test Program ................................................................................................................................................ 6

4. Nomenclature................................................................................................................................................ 6

5. Laboratory Quality System Requirement...................................................................................................... 6

6. Apparatus...................................................................................................................................................... 7
6.1 Environmental Vibration and Isolation .......................................................................................................... 7
6.2 Loading System .......................................................................................................................................... 15
6.3 Measuring System ...................................................................................................................................... 15
6.4 Data Acquisition .......................................................................................................................................... 17
6.5 Test Surface................................................................................................................................................ 17
6.6 Test Cleats .................................................................................................................................................. 18
6.7 Test Space .................................................................................................................................................. 19

7. Calibration ................................................................................................................................................... 19

8. Preparation of Apparatus ............................................................................................................................ 19

9. Selection and Preparation of Test Tires ..................................................................................................... 19


9.1 Selection of Tires for Good Comparability .................................................................................................. 19
9.2 Inflation Pressure ........................................................................................................................................ 19

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
SAE Technical Standards Board Rules provide that: “This report is published by SAE to advance the state of technical and engineering sciences. The use of this report is
entirely voluntary, and its applicability and suitability for any particular use, including any patent infringement arising therefrom, is the sole responsibility of the user.”
SAE reviews each technical report at least every five years at which time it may be reaffirmed, revised, or cancelled. SAE invites your written comments and suggestions.
Copyright © 2006 SAE International
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of SAE.
TO PLACE A DOCUMENT ORDER: Tel: 877-606-7323 (inside USA and Canada)
Tel: 724-776-4970 (outside USA) --```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Fax: 724-776-0790
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE
Email: CustomerService@sae.org Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
SAEorWEB
No reproduction ADDRESS:
networking permitted without license from IHS http://www.sae.org Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -2-

9.3 Tire Preparation .......................................................................................................................................... 20


9.4 Sample Size ................................................................................................................................................ 20

10. Test Procedure............................................................................................................................................ 20


10.1 Tire Mounting .............................................................................................................................................. 20
10.2 Loaded Radius Determination .................................................................................................................... 20
10.3 Test Speeds ................................................................................................................................................ 20
10.4 Test ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

11. Data Processing and Reporting .................................................................................................................. 21

12. Data Repeatability and Reproducibility....................................................................................................... 23

Figure 1 The SAE Parallel Axis System...................................................................................................................... 4


Figure 2 SAE Parallel Axis System Forces and Moments .......................................................................................... 5
Figure 3 Test Machine Schematic............................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 4 Illustration of the Amplitude Effect of a Machine Resonance ....................................................................... 8
Figure 5 Illustration of the Phase Effect of a Machine Resonance ............................................................................. 9
Figure 6 Inputting an FY” Impulse with a Modal Hammer.......................................................................................... 10
Figure 7 Inputting an FX” Impulse with a Modal Hammer.......................................................................................... 10
Figure 8 Inputting an FZ” Impulse with a Modal Hammer .......................................................................................... 11
Figure 9 Inputting both FY” and MX” Impulses with a Modal Hammer........................................................................ 11
Figure 10 Inputting both FY” and MZ” Impulses with a Modal Hammer........................................................................ 12
Figure 11 Inputting an FY” Impulse into the Back Path with a Modal Hammer ........................................................... 13
Figure 12 Inputting an FX” Impulse into the Back Path with a Modal Hammer ........................................................... 13
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 13 Inputting an FZ” Impulse into the Back Path with a Modal Hammer............................................................ 14
Figure 14 Inputting both FY” and MZ” Impulses into the Back Path with a Modal Hammer.......................................... 14
Figure 15 Inputting both FY” and MX” Impulses into the Back Path with a Modal Hammer ......................................... 15
Figure 16 Cross Sectional View of Mounted 90° Cleat ............................................................................................... 18
Figure 17 Example Data for Two Channels ................................................................................................................ 22

Table 1 Symbols Defined ........................................................................................................................................... 6


Table 2 Minimum Load Cell Capacities Based on Force and Moment.................................................................... 16
Table 3 Load Cell Capacity Example....................................................................................................................... 17
Table 4 Data File Layout ......................................................................................................................................... 22

1. SCOPE

This SAE Recommended Practice describes a test method for measuring the forces and moments generated at a high
frequency response spindle when a rolling tire impacts a cleat. The cleat is configured either with its crest perpendicular,
90°, to the path of the tire or optionally with its crest inclined at an angle to the path of the tire. The carriage to which the
spindle is attached is rigidly constrained in position during each test condition so as to provide a good approximation to
fixed loaded radius operation. The method discussed in this document provides impact force and moment time histories
essentially free from variations due to tire non-uniformities. The method applies to any size tire so long as the equipment
is properly scaled to conduct the measurements for the intended test tire. The data are suitable for use in determining
parameters for road load models and for comparative evaluations of the measured properties in research and
development.

NOTE: Herein, road load models are models for predicting forces applied to the vehicle spindles during operation over
irregular surfaces, paved or otherwise. Within the context of this document, forces applied to the road or terrain
surface are not considered.

2. REFERENCES

2.1 Applicable Publications

The following publications form part of the specification to the extent specified herein. Unless otherwise indicated the
latest revisions of all publications shall apply.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -3-

2.1.1 SAE Publications

Available from SAE, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, Tel: 877-606-7323 (inside USA and
Canada) or 724-776-4970 (outside USA), www.sae.org.

SAE J2047 Tire Performance Technology

SAE J2429 Free-Rolling Cornering Test for Truck and Bus Tires

SAE J2710 Modal Testing and Identification of Lower Order Tire Natural Frequencies of Radial Tires

SAE J2717 Tests to Define Tire Size (Geometry), Mass and Inertias

SAE 2001-01-0790 Dynamic Force Measurement System (DFMS) for Tires, G. R. Potts and E. F. Knuth, 2001

SAE 770870 The Effect of Tire Break-in on Force and Moment Properties, K. D. Marshall, R. L. Phelps, M. G.
Pottinger, and W. Pelz, 1977

SAE 810066 The Effect of Aging on Force and Moment Properties of Radial Tires, M. G. Pottinger and K. D.
Marshall

2.1.2 Rubber Manufacturers Association Publication

Available from Rubber Manufacturers Association, 1400 K Street, NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20005, Tel:
202-682-4800, www.rma.org.

OSHA Standard 1910.177 Servicing Multi-piece and Single Piece Rim Wheels (available in wall chart form as #TTMP—
7/95)

2.1.3 ISO Publication

Available from ANSI, 25 West 43rd Street, New York, NY 10036-8002, Tel: 212-642-4900, www.ansi.org.

ISO Standard 17025 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories

3. DEFINITIONS

The definitions that follow are of special meaning in this document and are either not contained in other Recommended
Practices or are worded somewhat differently in this practice.

3.1 The Parallel Axis Tire Coordinate System

This system is the one defined in SAE J2710 extended to allow tire rotation.

The loaded tire for the purpose of this document is defined as a tire/wheel assembly attached to the spindle. The spindle
is considered to be substantially rigidly supported in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions1. The tire is free to
rotate about the spindle. The tire is loaded in contact with the reaction (test machine) surface so as to produce a tire
footprint. The principal directions are defined in terms of a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system with its origin at the
intersection of the spindle and the wheel plane. The three axes are defined as follows and illustrated in Figure 1.

1
The vertical direction is sometimes referred to as the normal or radial direction dependent on the context.
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -4-

Sp
ind
le
ω X”
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Y”

Z”

FIGURE 1 - THE SAE PARALLEL AXIS SYSTEM

3.1.1 Parallel System Longitudinal Axis, X”

The parallel system longitudinal axis is parallel to the SAE X’—Axis as defined in SAE J2047. It is positive in the direction
of rolling as indicated in Figure 1.

3.1.2 Parallel System Lateral Axis, Y”

The parallel system lateral axis is parallel to the SAE Y’—Axis as defined in SAE J2047. Its positive sense is to the right
as viewed from behind the Y”—Z” Plane.

NOTE: In the case of a tire without inclination, as assumed in this document, Y” lies along the spindle center line with a
positive sense to the right.

3.1.3 Parallel System Vertical Axis, Z”

The parallel system vertical axis is perpendicular to the road plane with a positive sense into the road surface. It is
parallel to the SAE Z’—Axis as defined in SAE J2047, but the origin of the vertical axis is at the center of the tire not at the
road surface.

NOTE: The tire is assumed to have no inclination in this document in which case Z” lies in the wheel plane.

3.1.4 Spin Velocity, ω

The tire spin velocity is about the spindle, which is coincident with the Y”—Axis in the case considered in this document.

3.2 The Tire Forces and Moments

In this document, the forces and moments originate at the origin of the double primed axis system. They are shown in
Figure 2 and are defined below. They are considered as being forces and moments applied to the spindle by the
vibrating tire/wheel assembly. After this section and use in Table 1, these forces and moments are simply referred to as
tire forces and moments. This is done for reasons of simplicity. In the definitions, these forces and moments are named
to clearly associate them with the parallel axis system. These are the only forces and moments under discussion in this
document.

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -5-

Sp
in dle FX”

MX”

MZ”
MY”
FY”

FZ”

FIGURE 2 - SAE PARALLEL AXIS SYSTEM FORCES AND MOMENTS

3.2.1 Parallel Axis Longitudinal Force, Fx”

The parallel axis longitudinal force is along the X”—Axis. It is positive in the direction of the positive X”—Axis. The force
acts from the tire onto the spindle.

3.2.2 Parallel Axis Lateral Force, Fy”

The parallel axis lateral force is along the Y”—Axis. It is positive in the direction of the positive Y”—Axis. The force acts
from the tire onto the spindle.

3.2.3 Parallel Axis Normal Force, Fz”

The parallel axis normal force is along the Z”—Axis. It is positive in the direction of the positive Z”—Axis. The force acts
from the tire onto the spindle.

3.2.4 Parallel Axis Overturning Moment, Mx”

The parallel axis overturning moment is about the X”—Axis. It is positive clockwise about the positive branch of the X”—
Axis. The moment acts from the tire onto the spindle.

3.2.5 Parallel Axis Rolling Resistance Moment, My”

The parallel axis rolling resistance moment is about the Y”—Axis. It is positive clockwise about the positive branch of the
Y”—Axis. The moment acts from the tire onto the spindle.2

3.2.6 Parallel Axis Aligning Moment, MZ”

The parallel axis aligning moment is about the Z”—Axis. It is positive clockwise about the positive branch of the Z”—Axis.
The moment acts from the tire onto the spindle.

2
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The rolling resistance moment is included for completeness, but is neither measured nor utilized in this document.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -6-

3.3 Travel Distances

3.3.1 Angular Displacement of the Tire, Φ

The angular displacement about the spindle defined to be zero at the instant the data acquisition trigger occurs.

3.4 Test

A Test is execution of the procedure described in this document one time on one tire at a single set of conditions.

3.5 Test Program

A Test Program is a designed experiment involving a set of the tests described in this practice.3

4. NOMENCLATURE

Table 1 lists the symbols used in this document. For further information on items not in Section 4 of this practice please

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
see SAE J2047.

TABLE 1 - SYMBOLS DEFINED

Symbol Defined Term


FX” Parallel System Longitudinal Force
FY” Parallel System Lateral Force
FZ” Parallel System Normal Force
Φ Tire Angular Displacement
MX” Parallel System Overturning Moment
MY” Parallel System Rolling Resistance Moment
MZ” Parallel System Aligning Moment
p Inflation Pressure
Rl Tire Loaded Radius
t Time
V Test Velocity
ω Tire Spin Velocity
Ω Test Roadway Spin Velocity

5. LABORATORY QUALITY-SYSTEM REQUIREMENT

The laboratory performing the procedures specified in this document shall have a quality system either conforming to ISO
17025 or which can be shown to be functionally equivalent to ISO 17025. The elements of such a system are assumed
below and are not, therefore, specifically called out within this practice.

3
There are many experimental possibilities: repeated tests of the same tire, tests of the same tire under multiple test conditions, tests of tires with
different specifications (design details), application of this test as part of a series of different tests, etc.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -7-

6. APPARATUS

The required apparatus consists of a test machine with a round test surface capable of rolling test tires at the velocities
defined in the test conditions, Section 10.3 Test Speeds. The test surface shall allow mounting of test cleats one at a time,
as specified in this practice. The machine shall have an instrumented spindle capable of measuring three forces (FX”, FY”,
and FZ”) and two moments (MX” and MZ”) developed during tire impact with a test cleat. The instrumentation also
measures tire angular displacement, Φ, using absolute encoders. Figure 3 is a schematic of such a machine.
Appropriate data-acquisition equipment is considered to be part of the apparatus. The space housing the loading
machine is also considered to be part of the apparatus.

Vibration initiated by the tire/cleat impact process and outside sources is so important in this document that vibration
requirements are discussed explicitly in Section 6.1, the first subsection in this part of the practice.

+
Tire

Fixed Distance
Φ
Cleat

ωΩ
+
Roadwheel

FIGURE 3 - TEST MACHINE SCHEMATIC4

6.1 Environmental Vibration and Isolation

Tire/cleat impact in the case of a rigidly constrained spindle, as is used in this test, generates very significant dynamic
forces. The instrumented spindle will respond to force signals regardless of whether they reach it directly from the
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

tire/wheel system, as is desired, from the test surface through the machine frame, or from a source in the laboratory
environment through the floor and then the machine frame.

The machine’s planned environment should be tested for significant structure borne vibration arising from the laboratory
environment prior to installation.5 If no such vibration is found, the machine can be mounted on a normal foundation. If
significant, environmentally-associated, vibrations are discovered, two courses are open. The first is to ascertain whether
or not there are predictable periods when the environmental vibrations are at a low enough level to permit testing. Is
there enough usable time to permit adequate machine use? If enough usable time exists, an operational schedule
adjustment may resolve the problem. If scheduling can’t mitigate the problem, a second course is as follows, an
adequate vibration isolated machine foundation should be designed by a machine isolation expert, and the cleat impact
machine installed on it. In very bad cases both isolation and scheduling may have to be pursued. In any case,
environmental vibration monitoring should continue during machine use to warn of environmental changes that may affect
test results.

4
An external drum machine is shown, as an example. An internal drum machine is also acceptable.
5
Significance is a judgment that should be made by a competent expert in machine isolation.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -8-

Structural resonances are an inherent feature of test machines. Depending on their frequencies machine resonances can
lead to serious distortions in the measured data. Figures 4 and 5 show an example of amplitude and phase distortion due
to a machine resonance. Ideally, all machine resonances should be at frequencies, at least three times the expected first
natural frequencies of the tires, which a machine is designed to test.6 However, this may not be possible.7 Thus, it is
recommended that the test machine be evaluated for resonances while mounting a metal part, the inertia surrogate,
simulating the mass and inertia of the most massive tire/wheel assembly to be tested.8 Machine evaluation with the
surrogate mounted, as discussed below, will identify lowest machine resonances and give a feeling for the fraction of the
test results arising from transmission of cleat impact forces from the test surface through the machine frame back into the
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

load cell, transmission through the back path.

Once the machine resonances and back path transmission are known, the engineer has the option of using the machine
data, as is, while bearing its limitations in mind, or employing Dynamic Force Measurement System (DFMS) technology,
SAE 2001-01-0790, or a related technology to eliminate spurious responses.9 It is good practice to choose an option
during the machine design phase or in prototype testing for reasons of economics and delay.

Response to a 1 Unit Sinusoidal Excitation

25

Tire
20 Mach @ 1.5 Tire
Mach @ 1.5 Tire
Mach @ 2.0 Tire
Relative Amplitude

15 Mach @ 3.0 Tire


Mach @ 3.0 Tire
Mach @ X.X Tire means the
10
machine natural frequency is X.X
times the tire natural frequency.
Tire 1st Natural
Frequency

5
Mach @ 2.0 Tire

Tire
0
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50
Normalized Tire Natural Frequency

FIGURE 4 - ILLUSTRATION OF THE AMPLITUDE EFFECT OF A MACHINE RESONANCE

6
Each of the measured forces and moments will have an associated set of natural frequencies. From Task Force’s viewpoint the first natural frequency
in each case will probably be the crucial one.
7
Exact minimum machine resonant frequency recommendations are not made in this Recommended Practice. This was done for two reasons. First,
this practice is applicable to all tires regardless of size (wheelbarrow to earthmover) so a single answer is inappropriate. Second, evolving tire designs
may alter the required frequencies.
8
A disc with a thick outer edge can be used to produce the mass and inertia simulation. The required mass and inertia values can be determined by
applying SAE J2717 to the most massive tire/wheel assembly likely to be tested.
9
DFMS technology uses accelerometer data derived by instrumenting the spindle assembly to correct results for inertial forces and moments, which
occur due to the physical design of the test machine and its measuring head.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 -9-

Phase Lag for Sinusoidal Excitation


Normalized Tire Natural Frequency

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50


0

-90
Tire
Mach @ 1.5 Tire
Mach @ 2.0 Tire
Phase Lag (°)

Tire

Tire 1st Natural


-180 Mach @ 3.0 Tire

Frequency
Mach @ X.X Tire means the
-270 machine natural frequency is X.X
Mach @ 1.5 Tire
times the tire natural frequency.

-360

FIGURE 5 - ILLUSTRATION OF THE PHASE EFFECT OF A MACHINE RESONANCE

6.1.1 Machine Resonance Evaluation

With the inertia surrogate mounted on the machine, but not in contact with the test surface, a modal impact hammer is
used to selectively strike the surrogate while recording the outputs of the hammer’s load cell and of the load cells on the
instrumented spindle. The transfer functions are evaluated using a spectrum analyzer.10 The resultant outputs show the
relevant natural frequencies and give a picture of machine crosstalk under dynamic conditions. There are five impact
experiments required assuming that the analyzer can deal with six or more channels of simultaneous signals. If fewer
channels are available, then each impact experiment will have to be broken into a series of separate experiments. The
experiments are defined in the subheadings of this section. In each experiment, it is good practice to repeat the impact
four or more times and average the results. Each experiment is performed with the loading system clamps in their locked
position. These clamps are noted in Section 6.2. These experiments only need to be performed when the machine is
first placed in service or if a major modification is made to the machine.

In the machine characterization experiments, the force applications should be lined up as perfectly with their defined
orientations as possible and applied as near their ideal application locations as possible. Angular misalignment of a force
application will input forces in two or more directions instead of one. For example, an input of FY” at a small angle to the
Y”—Axis instead of parallel to it will indicate that the machine measures the wrong amount of force in other directions
when the input is FY”. That is, the apparent crosstalk, for example, FX”/FY” will not be correct. Locational force application
errors lead to unexpected or distorted moment applications and more crosstalk errors. If errors of the type just discussed
exist, the crosstalk matrices will be in error and the machine measurements will be in error.

10
Note that force/force, force/moment, moment/force, and moment/moment transfer functions all occur in the course of the set of frequency response
experiments.
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 10 -

6.1.1.1 Lateral Force Impact

The inertia surrogate is struck as indicated in Figure 6. By striking in line with the Y”—Axis the only input is a pulse of
lateral force, FY”.

FIGURE 6 - INPUTTING AN FY” IMPULSE WITH A MODAL HAMMER

6.1.1.2 Longitudinal Force Impact

The inertia surrogate is struck as indicated in Figure 7. By striking in line with the X”—Axis the only input is a pulse of
longitudinal force, FX”.

FIGURE 7 - INPUTTING AN FX” IMPULSE WITH A MODAL HAMMER

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 11 -

6.1.1.3 Normal Force Impact

The inertia surrogate is struck as indicated in Figure 8. By striking in line with the Z”—Axis the only input is a pulse of
normal force, FZ”.

FIGURE 8 - INPUTTING AN FZ” IMPULSE WITH A MODAL HAMMER

6.1.1.4 Overturning Moment and Lateral Force Impact

The inertia surrogate is struck as indicated in Figure 9. By striking at the center of the surrogate’s flange in line with the
Z”—Axis and parallel with the Y”—Axis both a pulse of lateral force, FY”, and a pulse of overturning moment, MX” are
generated. The effect of the MX” input is obtained by comparing the output of the FY” experiment, Section 6.1.1.1, with the
results of this experiment.

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIGURE 9 - INPUTTING BOTH FY” AND MX” IMPULSES WITH A MODAL HAMMER

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 12 -

6.1.1.5 Aligning Moment and Lateral Force Impact

The inertia surrogate is struck as indicated in Figure 10. By striking at the center of the surrogate’s flange in line with the
X”—Axis and parallel with the Y”—Axis both a pulse of lateral force, FY”, and a pulse of aligning moment, MZ”, are
generated. The effect of the MZ” input is obtained by comparing the output of the FY” experiment, Section 6.1.1.1, with the
results of this experiment.
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

FIGURE 10 - INPUTTING BOTH FY” AND MZ” IMPULSES WITH A MODAL HAMMER

6.1.2 Back Path Transmission Evaluation11

With the inertia surrogate mounted on the spindle, but not in contact with the test surface, and the loading system clamps
noted in Section 6.2 in their locked position, the five experiments described in the subheadings of this section are to be
performed. Record the output from both the hammer’s load cell and the load cells of the instrumented spindle. The
transfer functions are evaluated using a spectrum analyzer. The resultant outputs give a picture of back path
transmission under dynamic conditions. In these experiments it may be necessary to use a heavier modal hammer than
that employed in Section 6.1.1.

11
If the machine structure is heavily damped or if the back path from the test surface to the spindle contains a mechanical break, the machine may not
have appreciable back path vibration transmission.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 13 -

6.1.2.1 Lateral Force Input into the Back Path

The test roadway is struck as indicated in Figure 11. By striking in line with the Spin Axis of the test roadway the
response is equivalent to that to a pure lateral force pulse input to the test roadway.

FIGURE 11 - INPUTTING AN FY” IMPULSE INTO THE BACK PATH WITH A MODAL HAMMER

6.1.2.2 Longitudinal Force Input into the Back Path

The test surface is struck as indicated in Figure 12. By striking at the center of the test surface parallel to the X”—Axis the
system response is equivalent to that to a pure longitudinal force pulse input to the test roadway.

FIGURE 12 - INPUTTING AN FX” IMPULSE INTO THE BACK PATH WITH A MODAL HAMMER

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 14 -

6.1.2.3 Normal Force Input into the Back Path

The test surface is struck as indicated in Figure 13. By striking at the center of the test surface in line with the Z”—Axis
the system response is equivalent to that to a pure normal force pulse input to the test roadway.

FIGURE 13 - INPUTTING AN FZ” IMPULSE INTO THE BACK PATH WITH A MODAL HAMMER

6.1.2.4 Lateral Force and Aligning Moment Input into the Back Path

The side of test roadway is struck parallel to Y”—Axis in line with the Z”—Axis as indicated in Figure 14. By striking in this
way the system response is equivalent to that to simultaneous lateral force and aligning moment pulses. The effect of the
aligning moment pulse is obtained by comparing the output of the lateral force pulse experiment, Section 6.1.2.1, with the
results of this experiment.

F
Pa ” & M
Y
th
Im Z” Ba
pu ck
ls e
s

FIGURE 14 - INPUTTING BOTH FY” AND MZ” IMPULSES INTO THE BACK PATH WITH A MODAL HAMMER

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 15 -

6.1.2.5 Lateral Force and Overturning Moment Inputs into the Back Path

The side of test roadway is struck parallel to Y”—Axis parallel with the X”—Axis as indicated in Figure 15. By striking in
this way the system response is equivalent to that to simultaneous lateral force and overturning moment pulses. The
effect of the overturning moment pulse is obtained by comparing the output of the lateral force pulse experiment, Section
6.1.2.1, with the results of this experiment.

FIGURE 15 - INPUTTING BOTH FY” AND MX” IMPULSES INTO THE BACK PATH WITH A MODAL HAMMER

6.2 Loading System

The loading system shall maintain the tire at a slip angle of 0° ± 0.05° and an inclination angle of 0° ± 0.05°, common
machine specifications when this document was drafted. The system shall be capable of loading the tire to at least twice
the 100% load specified by the test requester. It shall be capable of loading the tire to an average normal forces accurate
to within ± 1.0% of the test machine’s full-scale normal force range when no cleat is mounted and to an average loaded
radius accurate to within ± 0.5 mm either with or without a cleat mounted.12 Loading shall be possible with the test
surface either static or rolling.

The loading system must be as stiff as possible during tire/cleat impacts so as to have well defined natural frequencies
that are as high as possible given the machine’s structure. Backlash in the loading system is highly undesirable and will
lower effective stiffness. Therefore, a system of clamps that removes all clearances is a vital feature.13 This is equivalent
to bolting the system fast prior to data acquisition, after the load or loaded radius is set. The clamps must remain in
operation during data acquisition, and be released before the load is reset.

So long as the machine’s structural design is adequate, it is not important whether the machine is designed such that the
Z”—axis is oriented horizontally or vertically.

6.3 Measuring System

6.3.1 Instrumented Spindle

The spindle shall be capable of measuring three forces (FX”, FY”, and FZ”) and two moments (MX” and MZ”). The output
shall be corrected for load cell interaction by a matrix method conceptually equivalent to that discussed in SAE J2429.
This should be sufficient so long as the structural resonances are well away from the first tire modal frequencies or if
DFMS technology has been applied. See Section 6.1.

12
Due to tire non-uniformity, the normal force and loaded radius vary with tire angular position. Thus, when the tire is rolling the best solution is to set
the tire normal force or loaded radius to a value most correspondent to its average value during a tire rotation.
13
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

If the clamps work correctly, the loading system will act as a part of the machine’s frame during testing.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 16 -

Load cell sizing must be done on two bases. One is vibration, and the other is force and moment capacity. The larger of
the two capacities derived in the subheadings of this section is to be used.

The capacities recommended in this section are best estimates at the time this document was prepared, but are not
known to be correct based on experimental evidence.

Force and moment measurements shall be accurate to ±0.5% of each load cell’s maximum capacity.

NOTE: A rotating wheel force transducer may be used in place of an instrumented spindle. If this is done, there are
several points to verify. 1) Insure that the apparent vertical stiffness of the transducer is constant independent of
its angular orientation with respect to the center of tire contact. 2) Determine that the structural resonances of the
transducer are well away from the first tire modal frequencies. 3) Insure that the transducer anti-rotate, the
member that maintains Φ alignment is stiff enough to prevent a loss of angular reference during the impact event.

6.3.1.1 Vibration Based

Viewing the instrumented spindle as a series of stiffnesses mounted on a rigid foundation supporting the inertia surrogate
and any adapters, the machine designer can compute approximate first natural frequencies of the measuring system
applicable to the three forces and two moments. Given the expected vibration response of the machine structure, the
designer can then decide what load cell stiffnesses are required to achieve the desired frequency response
characteristics. In this process there is a decision to be made about magnifaction factors and phase shifts as represented
in Figures 4 and 5.
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6.3.1.2 Force and Moment Based

The load cell capacities given in Table 2 are believed to be adequate but are best estimates as noted in the last
paragraph of Section 6.1. The load cell capacities assume that maximum transient forces are less than or equal to 50%
of the steady state load on the tire. The capacities assume that the testing will be conducted such that no contact occurs
between the tire tread band and the sidewall/bead area. If such contact occurred, it would be equivalent to cleat-to-wheel
crash. This would introduce unknowably high forces damaging the machine, the tire and the test wheel. Section 6.6
contains cautionary information as to what to do to insure that a crash of the type just discussed will not happen during
testing. Cell sensitivity, mV/N or mV/N-m, is a balancing consideration in the load-cell choice. It may force a compromise
with high natural frequencies.

TABLE 2 - MINIMUM LOAD CELL CAPACITIES BASED ON FORCE AND MOMENT

Force or Moment Load Cell Capacity


Longitudinal Force -(Maximum 100% Tire Load14) ≤ FX” ≤ (Maximum 100% Tire Load)
Lateral Force -(Maximum 100% Tire Load) ≤ FY” ≤ (Maximum 100% Tire Load)
Normal Force -(300% Maximum Tire Load) ≤ FZ” ≤ 0
Overturning Moment -FY” Capacity times Rlmax ≤ MX” ≤ FY” Capacity times Rlmax15
Aligning Moment -FY” Capacity times Rlmax ≤ MZ” ≤ FY” Capacity times Rlmax

NOTE: By way of example, assume that the machine in question was designed to test tires with 100% loads up to
9000 N with a maximum loaded radius in test of 0.4 m. That would mean that the load cell capacities would need
to be as follows.

14
The maximum 100% tire load is the 100% load for the largest load capacity tire the machine is designed to test.
15
Rlmax is the largest expected loaded radius that will occur during testing.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 17 -

TABLE 3 - LOAD CELL CAPACITY EXAMPLE

Design Load Cell Capacity Example


Force or Moment Load Cell Capacity
Longitudinal Force -9000 N ≤ FX” ≤ 9000 N
Lateral Force -9000 N ≤ FY” ≤ 9000 N
-27 000 N ≤ FZ” ≤ 0
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Normal Force
Overturning Moment -3600 N-m ≤ MX” ≤ 3600 N-m
Aligning Moment -3600 N-m ≤ MZ” ≤ 3600 N-m

6.3.2 Loaded-Radius Instrumentation

The system shall measure loaded radius over a range from at least 0.8 times the flange radius of the smallest wheel that
is expected to be mounted up to 1.2 times the unloaded crown radius of the largest tire expected to be tested. The
measurement shall be accurate within ± 0.5 mm.

6.4 Data Acquisition

Data may be acquired either time sampled or spatially sampled, based on test roadway angular position.

6.4.1 Time Sampled

Test data for all channels shall be simultaneously sampled at a minimum rate of 2000 samples per second. Analog anti-
aliasing filters with a corner (–3 dB) frequency set to 25% or less of the sampling frequency shall be utilized in the data
acquisition system. The filters shall be four pole or higher.

Depending on specific data reduction methods, algorithms, and requirements, the data can either be sampled
continuously during a series of revolutions of the test roadway, or individual datasets, one for each cleat impact, can be
recorded. If sampling continuously, a pulse signal, indicating a reference position of the test roadway with respect to the
test tire, shall be recorded simultaneously with the other data channels. If recording individual datasets, the data
acquisition for each revolution of the test drum shall be triggered at a test drum angular position at least 50 mm before the
test cleat first encounters the tire. Data acquisition for a revolution will be terminated prior to the trigger for the next
revolution. Either method shall allow acquisition of a predetermined number of individual data sets.

6.4.2 Spatially Sampled

Test data for all channels shall be acquired at a rate corresponding to 5 mm in traveled distance or less.16 Data shall be
simultaneously sampled and held. Analog anti-aliasing filters with a corner (–3 dB) frequency set to 25% or less of the
sampling frequency applicable at the lower test speed shall be utilized in the data acquisition system. The filters shall be
four pole or higher.

Data acquisition for each revolution of the test drum shall be triggered at a test drum angular position at least 50 mm
before the test cleat first encounters the tire. Data acquisition for a revolution will be terminated prior to the trigger for the
next revolution. The system shall allow acquisition of a predetermined number of individual data sets following issuance
of an initiation pulse.

6.5 Test Surface

The test surface shall be a bare metal drum. A well designed metal drum can provide adequate speed capability, a good
foundation for cleat attachment, and contribute to proper machine natural frequency behavior (see Section 6.1) while
avoiding undesired inputs due to test surface radius errors. The drum diameter shall be 1.7 m or more.

16
This corresponds to time sampling at about 1790 Hz at the lower of the two test speeds specified in Section 10.3 and at approximately 3600 Hz at
the higher of the two speeds.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 18 -

NOTE: 1.7 m drums are common. The tire oscillations due to cleat impact during the test should die out for passenger
tires prior to a second encounter with a cleat at speeds of 64.4 km/hr or less as specified in Section 10. However,
a large, low pressure tire may not become quiescent within a single revolution of a 1.7 m drum, thus, this should
be checked prior to choosing a drum diameter during the machine design process. Further, tire natural
frequencies are tire test drum diameter dependent. It is also possible that amplitude is test drum diameter
dependent. For convex drums, ones on which tire contact occurs on the outside of the drum, tire natural
frequencies drop as the drum diameter becomes larger with the lowest frequencies occurring on a flat surface.

6.6 Test Cleats

The purpose of the cleats is to excite a nonlinear dynamic tire response to an impulse type excitation occurring due to
enveloping at driving speeds. The tire modes are expected to be excited simultaneously with large deformations of the
tire comparable to those encountered during travel on a rough surface. A recommended cleat cross section for
passenger and light truck tires has a square cross section 15 mm X 15 mm with a 2 mm bevel on the corners, Figure 16.
This cleat cross section may not be adequate for users who wish to test larger tires. They will typically need cleats with a
larger cross section.

NOTE: The Task Force, which is a temporary entity organized by the Vehicle Dynamics Standards Committee, does not
have evidence as to a proper cleat size for TBR, farm or OTR tires, but its engineering judgment is to begin
experiments to determine a proper cleat on the basis given in the note at the end of this section. If those
developing cleats for TBR, farm and OTR tires will share their results with the Vehicle Dynamics Standards
Committee, the next revision of this document will contain specific recommendations for cleat sizing to use with
larger tires.

45°

Cleat

15mm

Test

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Roadway
FIGURE 16 - CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF MOUNTED 90° CLEAT

Test cleats must fasten to the drum surface so as to prevent bending parallel to the surface of the test drum. This
requires fastening the cleats to the surface not only at the edges of the surface, but also in the middle.

To prevent rocking, and to provide a firm foundation, the cleats must conform to the curvature of the test surface as
illustrated for the 90° cleat in Figure 16. On drums this requires cleats with alternative crest angles to have double
curvature to insure firm mounting. That is, cleats whose crest angle is not 90° must twist around the test surface like a
helical gear tooth.

When testing low aspect ratio tires, a certain amount of cautious preliminary experimentation with cleat size and tire load
may be required to insure that the cleats used will not lead to damage to the test wheel.

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 19 -

NOTE: Cleat lateral and vertical dimensions for testing large tires should be approximately 0.04 times the tire radius at
the crown. The 2 mm bevel, which is to prevent cutting and chipping, should be adequate regardless of tire size.
To avoid having a different cleat size for every tire size in a given class, for example, farm rears, base the trial
cleat size on the tire in the class, which is of mean load carrying capacity and aspect ratio. This was done for
passenger tire sizes current in 2005 to arrive at the suggested cross section factor based on 16, 17, and 18 rims
and a 60 aspect ratio. It is realized that very large rim sizes and low aspect ratios now exist in the passenger car
market, but it was judged that these will probably continue to be of secondary importance for the majority of
customers, thus, the trial sizing factor was based on the choice noted in the last sentence.

6.7 Test Space

The space housing the machine shall be vibrationally characterized and monitored as specified in Section 6.1. It shall be
maintained at 22 °C ± 2 °C during testing.

7. CALIBRATION

Calibrate all measuring system components in accordance with the mandates of the written plan required by the
laboratory quality system referenced in Section 5. Calibration must exercise all measuring system components over
substantially their full range of application and must be performed not less than once each year. The reference standards
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

and instruments used in measuring system calibration shall be traceable to the National Institute of Standards and
Technology or the appropriate national standards organization for the country in which the testing is being performed.
Currently valid calibration certificates for reference standards and instruments must be on file in the testing laboratory’s
files when the system’s calibration is performed. Gains, offsets, and other pertinent performance measures and
comments on system behavior during calibration shall be kept permanently on file within the testing laboratory’s archives
and be available to customers on request.

8. PREPARATION OF APPARATUS

Preparation of the apparatus shall ensure that the test equipment meets its calibration at the outset of each test program.
The precise process control method used to verify readiness of the apparatus is likely to be unique to an individual test
site, but must be specified in writing within the quality system of the laboratory. The results of process control
experiments shall be available on request.

9. SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF TEST TIRES

9.1 Selection of Tires for Good Comparability

The purpose of the test must be carefully borne in mind when selecting test tires, since tire properties depend on
numerous factors besides the tire design and materials. It is especially important to properly account for storage history
(SAE 810066) and previous work history (SAE 770870). Due to the many complex questions that the test defined in this
document may be used to address, specific tire selection recommendations can only be made for the case in which
different tires are to be compared for pure design or materials effects. In that case, all test tires should be of
approximately the same age, have been stored under essentially identical conditions, have experienced approximately
the same exercise history, and have been sampled from production lots with similar statistical characteristics.

9.2 Inflation Pressure

The inflation pressure will significantly affect the stiffness of a tire under load and, thus, the tire’s response to cleat
impacts. Therefore, the appropriate test inflation pressure must be specified by the requester to allow for behavior in the
environment, which is being simulated, and be set within ±5 kPa by the test laboratory. If the purpose of testing is to
simulate the running state, then the inflation pressure used in the test must be equivalent to the on-road operating
inflation pressure. Because tires typically operate at a temperature higher than that of the ambient air, operating inflation
pressure is usually higher than cold inflation pressure.

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 20 -

9.3 Tire Preparation

Clean the tire surface of dirt, loose material, or other contaminants. Mount the test tire on a wheel with the tire and rim
standards organization specified rim profile.17 Mounting and demounting shall be done in accordance with the practices
specified in OSHA 1910.177) OSHA 1910.177 does not apply to the servicing of rim wheels used on automobiles or on
pickup trucks or on vans utilizing automobile tires or truck tires designated “LT”.

9.3.1 Inertia Data

The results will be dependent on rotating element IYY inertias for all parts rotating on the spindle: the hub, any required
wheel adapter, the wheel, the tire, lug nuts, etc. The test requester is assumed to be responsible for determination of the
IYY inertias of any parts he or she supplies. The inertias of tester- supplied parts shall be reported as part of the data. The
IYY inertias of the rotating parts supplied by the tester are assumed to be determined using the method of SAE J2717 or
an analogous method. The IYY inertia of wheels and tires supplied by the test requester are assumed to be the
responsibility of the test requester either through his or her own testing or by separate contract with the tester. These
inertias will be determined using the methods in SAE J2717. The best results will be obtained using the application wheel
intended for mounting the test tire on the usage vehicle. The application wheel properly accounts for the influence of the
wheel on the forces measured at the spindle.

9.4 Sample Size

Typically, a single tire selected at random from among the group of tires in each specification is an adequate sample if the
goal is parametric data for producing a tire model. However, should the desire be to determine differences between tire
specifications at a stated level of accuracy it will be necessary to use statistically valid sample sizes and to employ
appropriate statistical analyses of the results to define the differences among specifications.

10. TEST PROCEDURE

10.1 Tire Mounting

The test tire and wheel shall be mounted to the spindle and inflated to the pressure specified by the test requester using
regulated inflation pressure.

10.2 Loaded Radius Determination

The test provides data at two values of fixed loaded radius, Rl18 employing the loaded radii determined at the zero test
speed. With the tire and wheel positioned such that a circumferential point one-half of the way between the largest and
smallest radius of the assembly is toward the test surface, the tire shall be loaded from 0 to twice the 100% test load

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
specified by the test requester. This shall be done in a ramp of approximately 60 sec duration with Rl vs FZ” data sampled
at least twice per second. Based on a second order fit to the Rl vs FZ” data between 10% loading and 200% the RL
correspondent to 100% and 200% of the specified test load shall be determined.

10.3 Test Speeds

The test speeds used will vary in number and magnitude according to the intent of the test requester. Thus, the test
requester must specify the speeds at which data acquisition is to occur. Within this document a set of two speeds
minimally adequate for model paramerization, 32.2 and 64.4 km/hr, is used within the text.

17
The Tire and Rim Association, Inc. is an example of a tire and rim standards organization.
18
Tire stiffness and, hence, loaded radius is dependent on inflation pressure, operating velocity, and tire design.
Copyright SAE International
Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 21 -

10.4 Test

The test with a cleat of any crest angle is the same.

• Mount a cleat.
• Load the non-rotating tire to the Rl correspondent to the test requester specified 100% load and lock the spindle at that
radius.
• Bring the test surface to the first speed.
• After 2 minutes, acquire data from 16 impacts sampling as specified in Section 6.4.
• Bring the test surface to the second speed.
• After 2 minutes, acquire data from 16 impacts sampling as specified in Section 6.4.
• Stop the test surface.
• Unlock the spindle radius.
• Load the non-rotating tire to the RL correspondent to the test requester specified 200% load and lock the spindle at
that radius.
• Bring the test surface to the first speed.
• After 2 minutes, acquire data from 16 impacts sampling as specified in Section 6.4.
• Bring the test surface to the second speed.
• After 2 minutes, acquire data from 16 impacts sampling as specified in Section 6.4.
• Stop the test surface.
• Unlock the spindle radius.
• Retract the tire to its unloaded position.
• Dismount the cleat.

11. DATA PROCESSING AND REPORTING

The FX”, FY”, FZ”, Φ, MX”, and MZ” data from the 16 impacts for a given (Rl), V, and cleat orientation (90° standard, any
other angle is optional) will be averaged at each sampling instant so as to produce a signal in which 0 seconds is the
origin and which terminates prior to a new impact, Figure 17. The averaged data for each Rl, V, cleat orientation condition
will be assembled into a data file, which if printed could look like Table 4. The information in Table 4 is required, but the
exact format will be as specified by the test requester.
--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 22 -

Force Response
10000

5000
Force Level (Newtons)

-5000
Fx
Fz
-10000

-15000

-20000
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Time (seconds)

FIGURE 17 - EXAMPLE DATA FOR TWO CHANNELS

TABLE 4 - DATA FILE LAYOUT(1)


HEADER
Cleat (Xmm X Zmm X ∠) 15X15X90° Tire Identification TIRE XYZ
Test Drum Size (Type Sign and Diameter mm)(2) +1700 Test Velocity (km/hr) 32.2
Tire Size P235/45R17 Rim Size 17x7.5 J
Wheel Type ABC -AL Test Load (N) 4450
Inflation Pressure (kPa) 240 Measured Static Loaded Radius (mm) 342
IYY Tester Supplied Rotating Parts (kg-m2) 2.03
DATA
Time (sec.) Φ (°) FX” (N) FY” (N) FZ” (N) MX” (N-m) MZ” (N-m)
0.0000 0.00 XXXX YYYY ZZZZ MXMX MZMZ
• • • • • • •
• • • • • • •
• • • • • • •
1. The data in the header is only for concept clarification and is not real data.
2. Internal drums have – as a type sign. External drums have + as a type sign.

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT
SAE J2730 Issued AUG2006 - 23 -

12. DATA REPEATABILITY AND REPRODUCIBILITY

There is no data now available adequate to discussing repeatability and reproducibility for this document.

PREPARED BY THE SAE TIRE TESTS FOR ROAD-LOAD TIRE MODEL PARAMETERS TASK FORCE
OF THE SAE VEHICLE DYNAMICS STANDARDS COMMITTEE

--```,,```,```,`,,,,,``,``,`,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SAE International


Provided by IHS under license with SAE Licensee=Hyundai Motor/5947999001
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/13/2012 22:50:39 MDT