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Operating manual

enK01386A

Rotary kiln plant

Code word
THALOFA

THANG LONG CEMENT


JOINT STOCK COMPANY
S.R. Vietnam

Order no.
01 386
Operating manual Contents
Rotary kiln plant

Contents
1 Technical data ......................................................................................... 1-1
2 Safety ....................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1 Use............................................................................................................ 2-1
2.2 Operation .................................................................................................. 2-1
3 Components and mode of functioning................................................. 3-1
3.1 Process-technological functions of the plant components........................ 3-1
3.2 Mode of plant functioning.......................................................................... 3-2
3.3 Important control loops of the kiln plant .................................................... 3-6
3.4 Flaps and dampers in the kiln plant .......................................................... 3-7
3.5 Clinker storage and conveyance............................................................... 3-8
3.6 Electrical interlock ..................................................................................... 3-8
4 Commissioning ....................................................................................... 4-1
4.1 Checks prior to commissioning ................................................................. 4-1
4.2 Test run ..................................................................................................... 4-3
4.3 Drying the refractory lining ........................................................................ 4-4
4.4 First commissioning .................................................................................. 4-5
4.5 Checking the plant and correcting the settings......................................... 4-6
5 Starting the plant..................................................................................... 5-1
5.1 Heating up the kiln plant ........................................................................... 5-1
5.2 General information about starting the kiln plant ...................................... 5-6
5.3 Increasing the plant throughput ................................................................ 5-8
5.4 Start sequence of the kiln plant................................................................. 5-9
6 Operation ................................................................................................. 6-1
6.1 Checks during operation ........................................................................... 6-1
6.2 Typical operating data............................................................................... 6-3
6.3 Optimisation of the plant ........................................................................... 6-3
7 Shutting down the plant ......................................................................... 7-1
7.1 Shutting down the kiln plant under normal circumstances ....................... 7-1
7.2 Shutting down the kiln plant in case of emergency................................... 7-2
7.3 Shutting down the plant in the case of certain malfunctions..................... 7-3
8 Trouble shooting..................................................................................... 8-1
8.1 Kiln and preheater..................................................................................... 8-1
8.2 Safety recommendations for eliminating blockages in the preheater ....... 8-1
9 Appendix.................................................................................................. 9-1
9.1 Flowsheets ................................................................................................ 9-1

enK01386A
Operating manual Technical data
Rotary kiln plant 1-1

1 Technical data
NOTE
For the technical data of the individual machines, refer to the machine manuals
or operating instructions of the respective machines. The machines are listed
with reference to their AAT items at the end of this section. To find the
documentation for an individual machine, use the Table of contents in the first
folder of the overall documentation. The table of contents contains the
machines and units in accordance with their positioning in the plant. However,
the table of contents does not contain all sub-items that are in the flowsheets.
Information about the sub-items is contained under the respective main items.

For the technical data of machines not supplied by POLYSIUS AG Beckum,


consult the technical documentation of the respective manufacturer or supplier.

NOTE
All data and values given in this operating manual are to be regarded as
recommended values only. They are not to be understood as warranty figures.
The relevant warranty data are contained in the contractual documents.
Information regarding the compilation of records and notes, as well as the
performance of analyses is to be regarded as a recommendation only. The
information must not be understood as a basis for the preparation of
acceptance reports for the verification of performance figures.

1.1 Technical data of the plant

Basic data
Year of construction ......................................................................................... 2006
Preheater........................................................................................ 2-string, 5-stage
Rotary kiln ................................................... 5.2 x 78 m, 3 supporting roller stations
Output......................................................................................................... 6000 tpd
Energy consumption................................................................... 730 kcal/kg clinker

enK01386A
Technical data Operating manual
1-2 Rotary kiln plant

1.2 List of machines

NOTE
For a correct description of the plant and of the plant operation it is also
necessary to consider plant components and machines not included in the
scope of supply of POLYSIUS AG.

Chapter 08 - Preheater
Qty. Designation Item No.
1 CC burner 08 04 BU-101
1 Electrical hoist 08 05 HOI-101
1 Fan 08 06 FA-103
1 Passenger and goods lift 08 09 TW-101
2 Fans (ID-Fans) 08 12 FA-102
08 13 FA-101
1 Preheater 08 01 C/K-101
®
2 Riser ducts with fresh-air dampers and DOPOL 08 02 DD-101
dampers 08 02 DD-102
1 Precalciner 08 03 CAL-101
1 Compressed air cleaning system 08 07 AC 101

Fig. 1 Chapter 08 - Preheater

enK01386A
Operating manual Technical data
Rotary kiln plant 1-3

Chapter 08 - kiln
Qty. Designation Item No.
1 Rotary kiln (5,200 X 78,000) 08 17 RK-101
1 Kiln shell cooling device 08 18 FA-123-
146
1 Shutoff flap 08 19 DA-101
1 Clinkering zone burner 08 21 BU-101
1 Primary air fan 08 22 FA-121
1 Electrical hoist 08 23 HOI-102
1 Kiln shell cooling device 08 20 FA-120

Fig. 2 Chapter 08 - Kiln

enK01386A
Technical data Operating manual
1-4 Rotary kiln plant

®
Chapter 08 - Clinker cooler REPOL
Qty. Designation Item No.
1 Reciprocating grate cooler with intermediate crusher 08 24 CC-101
1 Electrical hoist 08 25 HOI-103
1 Set of cooling air fans 08 26 FA-106
1 Water injection system 08 27 WT-102
1 Bag filter 08 28 BF-501
1 Tertiary air duct 08 30 DA-103

Fig. 3 Chapter 08 - Clinker cooler REPOL®

enK01386A
Operating manual Technical data
Rotary kiln plant 1-5

Chapter 08 - cooler dedusting system


Qty. Designation Item No.
1 Shutoff flap 08 31 DA-104
1 Electrostatic precipitator for clinker cooler 08 32 EP-101
2 Double flap valves 08 33 RV-101
08 33 RV-102
1 Trough chain conveyor 08 34 CHC-103
1 Trough chain conveyor 08 35 CHC-104
1 Fan 08 36 FA-122
1 Exhaust gas stack 08 37 SK-101
1 Deep bucket conveyor 08 38 PC-501

Fig. 4 Chapter 08 - Cooler dedusting system

enK01386A
Technical data Operating manual
1-6 Rotary kiln plant

Chapter 08 - Clinker conveying equipment to silo


Qty. Designation Item No.
1 Bag filter 08 39 BF-502
1 Electrical hoist 08 40 HOI-104
1 Apron conveyor 08 41 PC-502
1 Distributing chute 08 42 GA-
501/502
1 Bag filter 08 43 BF-503
1 Electrical hoist 08 44 HOI-105
1 Clinker silo 09 11 SS-201
1 Silo for under-burnt clinker 09 01 SS-101

Fig. 5 Chapter 08 - Clinker conveying equipment to silo

enK01386A
Operating manual Safety
Rotary kiln plant 2-1

2 Safety

NOTE
Be sure to comply with the general safety instructions in the supplement
Important notes on the documentation.

2.1 Use
• The plant is exclusively intended for producing clinker from raw meal.
Be sure to comply with the specification of the intended use in section
Technical data.
• Any use other than the intended use is forbidden. POLYSIUS AG is not
responsible for damage resulting from any use other than the intended
use. All other use is at the owner's own risk.
• The intended use also includes compliance with the instructions in the
operating manual, the machine manuals, and the operating instructions.

2.2 Operation

General
• Hearing protectors have to be worn in the area of the primary air fan, the
cooling air fans and the compressors, as the noise level can exceed 90
dB(A).
• Any safety checks before or during operation depend on the relevant na-
tional regulations. The plant management is responsible for the perform-
ance and recording of such checks.
• If changes in the plant or its operating behaviour relevant to safety occur,
shut it down immediately.
• Before starting up the kiln plant, check and activate all necessary inter-
locks required for safety reasons.
• Be sure to stay at an adequate safety distance from all moving plant
components.
• In the periods of heating-up operation and cooling, all surfaces are ex-
tremely hot and may only be touched on the condition that suitable pro-
tective clothing is worn.
• Only use 24 Volt lamps for illuminating the interior.
• At the flap valves, parts of the body may be mangled or cut off. Make
sure that the entire swinging range of the pendulum counterweights is
covered by the protection cover.
• In the case of a power failure in the kiln plant, overpressure in the entire
preheater may occur. Do not open the doors or poke holes until there is
no overpressure in the preheater.
• Existing platform openings must be closed or properly safeguarded.

enK01386A
Safety Operating manual
2-2 Rotary kiln plant

Preheater
• During the heating up phase and during operation, all doors and covers
in the preheater must be securely closed. It is strictly forbidden to open
doors and covers.
• Before opening the poke holes, interrupt the compressed air supply to the
shock blowers in the neighbouring area and trigger and thus depressur-
ise the shock blowers.
• During operation, manually clean the inside of the preheater only through
the provided poke holes. Wear suitable protective clothing (such as
safety boots, heat protection clothing, safety helmet with face shield) for
this work. Only clean the preheater with the provided equipment (such as
long lances).
• Make sure that no raw meal or other loose objects can fall down on you
when you are working inside the machine. Make absolutely sure that per-
sons in subsequent plant components are not endangered.

NOTE
Make sure that all electric cables in the vicinity of the preheater are
protected with covers against contact with hot raw meal.

enK01386A
Operating manual Safety
Rotary kiln plant 2-3

Elimination of blockages in the preheater


 Shut down the rotary kiln immediately if blockage of a preheater cyclone is de-
tected.
 All persons must immediately leave the danger areas.
The danger areas are:
• preheater tower and neighbouring ground area
(take wind direction into account)
• rotary kiln (kiln platforms and neighbouring area)
• clinker cooler
• clinker conveyor
 Inform the following persons:
• control room personnel
• production manager or his deputy
• plant manager or his deputy
 Do not take any measures until at least one person in charge has arrived.
 The elimination of the blockage must be directly supervised by a person in
charge.
 Only assign appropriately skilled employees for eliminating the blockage.
 Cordon off the entire danger area to prevent unauthorised persons from gain-
ing access. Ensure that the emergency escape routes are free.
 Only the necessary specialist engineers may be present in the preheater
tower.
 The personnel responsible for elimination of the blockage
• must wear the necessary protective clothing,
• must use blasting lances of maximum length so that they remain outside
the range of spurting hot raw meal,
• must not work on platforms with raw meal on them or onto which raw meal
may fall down.
 Only the person in charge who supervised the elimination of the preheater
blockage is entitled to give the signal that the danger is over.

When cleaning a blocked cyclone, you must clean the meal chute first, in order to
ensure that the raw meal can flow away unhindered. You can then clean the cy-
clone using compressed air blasting lances from below through the lateral clean-
ing slots or from above through the poke holes. If the cyclone cannot be cleaned
using this method, you will have to clean it via the access door in the gas inlet of
the cyclone. Open the door with great caution.

enK01386A
Safety Operating manual
2-4 Rotary kiln plant

If there are still incrustations in the cyclone which you are unable to blast away
when working from the access door in the gas inlet of the cyclone, you must
clean them out through the round access hatch in the conical section of the cy-
clone. Open the door with great caution. Do not open the door before you have
looked through the access door in the gas inlet of the cyclone and made sure that
no there is no loose material which could flow out when you open the round ac-
cess door in the conical cyclone section. During the cleaning period, the exhaust
gas fan must operate at low speed. The slight negative pressure prevents hot
gases from flowing out. Carefully check the meal chutes and the cyclone after the
cleaning. They must be completely free of incrustations, as these may be the
starting point for new cyclone clogging.

Rotary kiln
• Be sure to stay at an adequate safety distance from all rotating plant compo-
nents during operation.
• Wear a face shield with a cobalt glass and gloves as well as a tough jacket for
observing the flame at the main burner and looking through the provided
opening in the kiln hood. Be sure to stay at an adequate safety distance from
the opening as hot air may escape.
• Touching the kiln shell and the kiln hood during the periods of heating up, op-
eration and cooling is strictly forbidden (danger of suffering burns).

Inspection
• Be sure to comply with all warning signs and safety instructions on and
around the machines, as well as in the machine manuals and operating
instructions.
• Ensure that for the entire duration of the inspection work, all machines
and motors whose operation might endanger persons or equipment are
switched off and safeguarded against restarting.
• Ensure that all rotating parts of the machines have come to a complete
standstill before you remove any protection devices or open any flaps.
• Before starting work on the machines, make absolutely sure that there is
no danger of suffering burns when touching the machines and before
opening any inspection and service covers make absolutely sure that
there is no longer any hot material inside the machines.
• Make absolutely sure that the interior of the machines has cooled down
so far that the personnel will not suffer any burns on entering.
• Make sure that no material accumulations have remained in the machine
which could fall down onto personnel entering the machine sections.
• Make sure that the personnel use adequate safety equipment (such as
abseiling harness in the preheater).
• Remount all protection devices and properly close all inspection and ser-
vice covers when inspection work has been finished.

enK01386A
Operating manual Components and mode of functioning
Rotary kiln plant 3-1

3 Components and mode of functioning


NOTE
Some details of the drawings in this manual may not be identical with the
drawings supplied under the contract as listed in section 9.1 Technical
drawings.

3.1 Process-technological functions of the plant components

to the raw
grinding plant
•Vaporisation of water
•Dehydration of clay
•Preheating of raw meal
Raw meal •Cooling of exhaust gases
Gas
•Conveyance of gas and meal
Dust
•Partial decarbonation of raw meal

Preheater

Tertiary air duct

Fuel Exhaust air


Fuel
Calciner Rotary kiln

Clinker
cooler
•Conveyance of meal and gas
•Heating of raw meal Clinker
•Residual decarbonation
•Combustion
•Granulation of meal/clinker
•Decarbonation Air
•Formation of clinker mineral
•Conveyance of gas and meal to the clinker silo
•Combustion
•Cooling of clinker
•Preheating of combustion air
•Conveyance of clinker and air

Fig. 6 Process technological functions

enK01386A
Components and mode of functioning Operating manual
3-2 Rotary kiln plant

3.2 Mode of plant functioning

Preheater and calciner


®
Between cyclone stages 4 and 5, the 2-string cyclone preheater DOPOL 90 is
constantly and uniformly fed with homogenised raw meal.

The raw meal is conveyed via the bucket elevator 07 11 BE-101, the pneumatic
trough conveyor 07 13 AS-106, the pneumatic trough diverter 07 1303, the trough
conveyor 07 14 AS-107 and the overflow distributor 07 21 DI-101 to the rotary air-
locks 07 17 RV-106 for the left-hand preheater string and 07 18 RV-107 for the
right-hand preheater string. The rotary airlocks ensure uniform and flow-regulated
raw meal feed and serve as an airlock.

From the dosing devices the raw meal is conveyed into the gas ducts above cy-
clone stage 5. The raw meal is fed into cyclone stage 4 if the heat requirement of
the raw mill is high due to the high moisture content of the raw material. The up-
ward flowing gas carries the meal in the gas ducts to the next higher cyclone
stages. The heat is transferred from the gas to the raw meal.

The raw meal is collected in the cyclones and is conveyed through meal chutes
into the gas ducts of the cyclone stage below. This procedure is repeated in the
individual stages until the material flows from the second cyclone stage at a tem-
perature of approximately 760 °C into the calciner. In the calciner, the raw meal is
decarbonated as far as possible (up to approx. 90 to 95 %) by adding fuel in the
combustion chamber. From the calciner, the meal is conveyed into the lowest cy-
clone stage, is collected and then conveyed via meal chutes at a temperature of
840 to 860 °C through the inlet housing into the rotary kiln.

NOTE
For further information about the raw meal conveying equipment see the
operating manual for the raw grinding plant.

enK01386A
Operating manual Components and mode of functioning
Rotary kiln plant 3-3

Fig. 7 Preheater

enK01386A
Components and mode of functioning Operating manual
3-4 Rotary kiln plant

Rotary kiln

Residual decarbonation of the raw meal takes place in the rotary kiln. The raw
meal is granulated and heated up to clinkering temperature. In the clinkering zone
of the kiln, clinker is formed.

The speed of the kiln must be adapted to the clinker burning conditions. A higher
rotation speed normally results in better results due to the low filling ratio and
more intensive agitation of the raw meal. It also makes the material flow more
uniform.

The clinker passes a cooling zone at the end of the rotary kiln which is longer or
shorter depending on the position of the burner. The clinker then falls at a tem-
perature of approx. 1300 to 1400 °C into the downstream cooler.

Clinker cooler

In the clinker cooler, the movement of the reciprocating cooler plates makes the
hot clinker flow towards the cooler outlet. While this takes place, air is blown
through the hot clinker from below so that the clinker is cooled and the air heats
up.

The clinker discharged from the kiln falls through the cooler's vertical feed chute
onto the static primary grate. On the inclined primary grate area, a sloped clinker
wall builds up and ensures that the incoming clinker is distributed. Furthermore,
the bed of clinker protects the grate plates in the cooler inlet zone against over-
heating.

The bed depth in the cooler is kept as constant as possible via a control loop that
controls the stroke frequency of the grates. The pressure under the clinker bed in
a zone in which the clinker falls from the kiln into the cooler serves as controlled
variable for the bed depth. You must adjust the setpoint so that a maximum heat
transfer is achieved, and it is simultaneously ensured that sufficient air can pass
through the grate plates to cool them adequately. A roll crusher is installed be-
tween the first and second grates in order to break up the clinker.

The major part of the combustion air is introduced into the kiln plant by the cool-
ing air fans. The set values for the cooling air flow rate are kept constant by con-
trol loops. The cooling air flow rate is set in accordance with the kiln output. The
temperatures of the grate plates have to be monitored to ensure that sufficient
cooling air is always supplied to the plates to prevent them from overheating.

To achieve both good clinker distribution and good heat exchange, you can throt-
tle the air flow to certain grate plate areas so that the air flow rate to other plate
grate areas increases. These adjustments are made manually during the first
commissioning phase in accordance with the discharge conditions from the kiln
into the cooler and the granulometry of the clinker.

enK01386A
Operating manual Components and mode of functioning
Rotary kiln plant 3-5

Combustion air for the kiln system

The major part of the combustion air is introduced into the kiln plant by the cooler
fans.

The combustion air required for the combustion in the calciner flows through the
tertiary air duct 08 30 DA-103 from the cooler to the calciner. The air flow rate is
set by the position of the dampers 08 30 20 and 08 30 21 in the tertiary air duct.
The calciner burner is supplied with additional combustion air by the primary air
fan and in the form of conveying air for the fuel.

The air stream supplied by the primary air fan 08 22 FA-121 to the main burner
and the preheated air from the cooler (secondary air) flow into the kiln hood and
the kiln. Additional air is supplied to the main burner in the form of fuel conveying
air. The primary air flow rate should be as low as possible in order to increase the
cooler efficiency.

The pressure in the kiln hood is kept constant with the cooler exhaust air fan. The
normal values lie between -0.5 mbar and -1 mbar. The portion of the cooling air
which is not required as combustion air leaves the cooler as exhaust air.

Combustion gases

The fans draw the combustion gases through the kiln and the preheater. Along
the way, they transfer a large part of their thermal energy to the kiln charge mate-
rial. After the last cyclone stage, the gases flow at a temperature of approx. 300
to 340 °C to the evaporation cooling tower, where they are cooled in direct opera-
tion (raw mill not in operation) by water injection to a temperature of approx. 150
°C. Also see the description in the operating manual for the grinding plant for raw
meal.

The tertiary air is used for burning the calciner fuel. The flue gas from the com-
bustion chamber flows to the calciner.

Set the speed of the fans and the positions of the dampers so that the pressure in
the kiln inlet is approximately -2 to -5 mbar and the oxygen content in the gas af-
ter cyclone stage 2 is approx. 1.5 to 2.5 %. The oxygen content of the gas at the
kiln inlet should be 1 to 2 %. The values stated for the oxygen content can vary in
accordance with the operating requirements.

enK01386A
Components and mode of functioning Operating manual
3-6 Rotary kiln plant

Fuel

Fuel is fed into the process at two points: in the main burner and in the calciner
burner.
Burner Fuel
Main burner Coal
Calciner burner Coal

Cooler exhaust air

The cooler exhaust air is dedusted in the electrostatic precipitator 08 32 EP-101


the. The collected dust passes via the trough chain conveyors 08 32 CHC-101,
08 32 CHC-102, 08 34 CHC-103 and 08 35 CHC-104 to the clinker conveyor 08
38 PC-501 and thus into the clinker silo or the silo for underburnt clinker. The
cleaned exhaust air passes into the atmosphere via the stack 08 37 SK-101.

3.3 Important control loops of the kiln plant

Aim of the control loop Controlled variable Manipulated variable


Uniform clinker layer in clinker cooler Pressure in chamber 1 Stroke frequency of cooler
grates
Protection of electrostatic Temperature in gas duct Water injection system
precipitator for cooler exhaust air before electrostatic
against excessively hot exhaust air precipitator
Keeping the cooling air flow rate to Flow rate at inlet Position of the inlet vane
the cooler constant measuring nozzles controller of the cooling air
fans
Keeping the pressure in the kiln Pressure in the kiln hood Speed of fan for cooler
hood constant exhaust air
Table 1 - Control loops of the plant

enK01386A
Operating manual Components and mode of functioning
Rotary kiln plant 3-7

3.4 Flaps and dampers in the kiln plant

The following table is an overview of the flaps/dampers in the kiln plant.


Designation Place of installation Item no. Open/ Positionable Adjustable
closed
Damper Kiln exhaust gas duct 08 02 05 X X -
Fresh-air damper Fresh-air connection 08 02 21 X X -
piece of the kiln ex-
haust gas duct
Shutoff flap Exhaust gas duct 08 41 DA-104 X X -
from raw mill to filter
Shutoff flap Exhaust gas duct 08 19 DA-101 X X X
from kiln to filter
Gate valve Exhaust gas duct to 08 40 DA-103 X - -
raw mill
Shutoff flap with Cooler exhaust air 11 21 DA-104 X X X
quick-closing flap duct to coal mill
Gate valve Tertiary air duct 08 30 20/21 X X -
Damper Combustion chamber 08 30 20/21 X X -
head air duct
Table 2 - Overview of flaps/dampers

enK01386A
Components and mode of functioning Operating manual
3-8 Rotary kiln plant

3.5 Clinker storage and conveyance

The conveyor 08 38 PC-501 transports the cooled clinker to the clinker silo
09 11 SS-201 or, if necessary, to the silo for underburnt clinker 09 01 SS-101,
depending on the conveying route selected via the distributing chute 08 42 GA-
501.

Silo for under-burnt clinker

Corresponding setting of the distributing chute enables inadequately burnt clinker


(underburnt product) to be conveyed into the silo for underburnt clinker. The un-
derburnt clinker is either loaded onto trucks via the discharge device 09 0301 and
the loading device 09 03 BL-101 or is supplied via the discharge device
09 04 VS-101 to the troughed belt conveyor 09 09 BC-101 for conveyance to the
cement grinding plant.

Dedusting system

This plant section is dedusted by bag filters.


Dedusted plant component Bag filter Filter dust fed into
Silo for under-burnt clinker 09 02 BF-101 Silo for under-burnt clinker
09 01 SS-101 (Off Spec Silo) 09 01 S-101
(Off Spec Silo)
Distributing chute 08 42 GA-501 08 39 BF-502 Apron conveyor
08 41 PC-502
Feed unit, clinker silo 09 11 SS-201 08 43 BF-503 Clinker silo 09 11 SS-201
Table 3 - Dedusting

3.6 Electrical interlock

The drives of the machines in the plant or in a plant component are interlocked
with one another. If one machine fails (e.g. due to overloading), then all the drives
in the process sequence upstream of the failed machine are switched off auto-
matically. This arrangement prevents blockages and machine damage.

The sequence for switching the individual drive units on and off is stated in the
process functional diagrams.

enK01386A
Operating manual Commissioning
Rotary kiln plant 4-1

4 Commissioning

4.1 Checks prior to commissioning

NOTE
Be sure to also perform the checks specified in the machine manuals of
POLYSIUS AG and in the operating instructions of the respective
manufacturers.

After completing the assembly work and prior to the first test run, make absolutely
sure that all material remnants, tools and assembly aids are removed and check
and/or adjust the plant components again. Be sure to carry out the following par-
ticularly important checks and actions:
 Prepare measurement records (log books) as specified in the Machine
manuals.
 Fill the machines/plant components with the required consumables (e.g. oils,
greases).
The qualities and quantities are specified in the respective machine manuals.
 Visually inspect all piping, screwed connections and welds for leaks.
 Check all drive motors for correct direction of rotation.
 Check that all the necessary protection devices (e.g. guards) and warning
signs have been properly mounted.
 Check all flaps, dampers and discharge devices for proper functioning and
setting.
 Check the compressed air supply system (e.g. water separator, lubricator).
 Check the anti-runback devices for correct installation (blocking direction).
 Check that all manholes, inspection doors and covers are correctly closed.
 Check the refractory lining
Have all projections and wide joints (except the expansion joints specified in
the refractory lining drawing) and all roughness been eliminated?
 Check the compressed air blasting pipes.
The compressed air blasting pipes must be flush with the wall.
 Inspect the cyclones, gas ducts and riser pipes
Remove all incrustations from the kiln system. Incrustations disintegrate after
a short time, but they can form again in other areas in the preheater and
cause blockages.
 Check the flap valves in the meal chutes.
Do all flap valves move easily in both cold and hot condition?
 Check all conveyor systems
Remove all foreign bodies or big lumps of material in the conveyor systems.

enK01386A
Commissioning Operating manual
4-2 Rotary kiln plant

 Check the direction of rotation of all fan impellers.


 Check whether the exhaust gas fans are free of stressed contacts with other
parts.
 Compare the flap position in the control panel with the actual flap position.
 Check whether water pipes, overflows and drains have been cleaned and are
ready for operation.
 Check all machines for firm anchorage.
 Have the contact surfaces of the rollers and tyres been carefully cleaned?
 Check the specified distance between the refractory lining of the end kiln sec-
tion and the inlet trough. Unless otherwise stated in the drawing, this meas-
urement must be between 30 and 35 mm.
 Check that the kiln inlet seal has sufficient clearance.
 Check the electrical control systems and interlocks.
 Special checks at the burners:
Check that all solenoid valves open and close properly. If pneumatically con-
trolled valves are used, check their opening and closing times (3 seconds). In
the case of oil firing, check the system for leaks with 1.5 times the feed pres-
sure (with oil gun withdrawn).
 Check all measuring devices and indicators for proper functioning.
 Prepare and check bought-in equipment according to the suppliers' instruc-
tions.
 Check the voice communication between the control room and the burner plat-
form.
 Check the voice communication between the control room and the preheater
tower.

Calibrating
 Calibrate all flow regulating devices.
 Adjust all measuring devices and indicators.

Signal check
 Check the monitoring devices (e.g. speed monitors, skew monitoring switch,
filling level monitors, gas analyser) for proper functioning.
 Check and adjust all measuring points (e.g. pressures, temperatures, speed).

NOTE
Be sure to also perform the checks specified in the machine manuals of
POLYSIUS AG and in the operating instructions of the respective
manufacturers.

enK01386A
Operating manual Commissioning
Rotary kiln plant 4-3

4.2 Test run

NOTE
The first test run must be carried out in the presence of representatives from
POLYSIUS AG and in accordance with the instructions given by them.

Caution
There is potential danger for both the personnel and the plant.
Do not start the test run before all checking and adjusting work has been
completed.

During the test run, pay special attention to the following:


 abnormal noise at plant components,
 higher temperatures than normal at bearings, gear units, motors or other plant
components,
 severe vibrations at rotating plant components.

After the completion of the preparations and checks of all plant components, a
24-hour test run is carried out. All machines – with the exception of the kiln – are
switched on and must operate continuously under the supervision of the commis-
sioning and erection personnel. Check all plant components for correct function-
ing.
 Check the temperature of the bearings.
 Check the electrical interlocks (e.g. of the firing system, raw meal and clinker
conveyor) several times.
 Set the thermal tripping devices of the electric motors to rated current.

Caution
Do not rotate the kiln in cold condition.
Otherwise, the refractory lining may suffer damage.

If necessary, the test run can be continued during the drying time. Subsequently,
close all the doors and flaps of the plant with the exception of the doors/flaps that
are needed for evaporation during the drying operation. Do not close these
doors/flaps until shortly before commissioning, i.e. before the heating up phase.

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Commissioning Operating manual
4-4 Rotary kiln plant

Caution
The plant may suffer serious damage.
Interrupt the test run immediately if one of the abnormal conditions
mentioned above occurs.
Eliminate the cause without delay.

During the test run, also pay attention to


 Correct interlocking and proper functioning of individual plant components and
machine groups which are started up together,
 Tightness of all piping and screwed connections.

4.3 Drying the refractory lining

Caution
The refractory lining may suffer damage.
For the drying process and the heating up, be sure to comply with the
instructions of the supplier of refractory lining and the documentation of
the company responsible for the drying.

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Operating manual Commissioning
Rotary kiln plant 4-5

4.4 First commissioning

A short time before raw meal feeding may be started, the clinker conveying
equipment is started in the interlock sequence. The other cooling air blowers of
the cooler and the cooler exhaust air blower are then switched on. A control loop
keeps the pressure in the kiln hood at a constant 0 to 0.5 mbar with the cooler
exhaust air blower. Subsequently, the clinker crusher and the cooler grates are
started. The cooler grates are temporarily operated at the lowest speed.

The rotary kiln, calciner and preheater must be sufficiently heated up and the
clinkering zone must be hot enough for clinker to form. Suitably open the tertiary
air dampers and set the exhaust gas fans so that there is at least 2 % oxygen in
the gas at the kiln inlet and at least 4.5 % oxygen in the gas downstream of
stage 2.

You can then feed in raw meal. Check for the formation of clinker through the
sight glass at the kiln outlet. The gas temperature at the kiln inlet should be 900
to 1000 °C. If the fresh air dampers are open, close them and then increase the
negative pressure after the preheater to approx. -12 to -15 mbar by raising the
speed of the exhaust gas fan and feed in approx. 30 % of the raw meal quantity
required for the rated throughput of the plant. Increase the fuel quantity at the
main burner if necessary or feed fuel into the precalciner. Rotate the kiln continu-
ously at low speed.

Make sure that the exhaust gas temperature at the exhaust gas fans does not
exceed the maximum permissible value. In the further course of the process, the
exhaust gas temperature is regulated via the raw meal quantity, so that finally the
normal operating values of between approx. 320 and 340 °C are attained for the
gas temperature after cyclone stage 5.

As long as no coating has formed on the kiln's refractory lining, only feed 30 % of
the raw meal quantity required for rated capacity to the preheater.

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Commissioning Operating manual
4-6 Rotary kiln plant

4.5 Checking the plant and correcting the settings

 Take care particularly in the start-up phase that the flap valves in the meal
chutes operate perfectly and that the meal flows unhindered. Correspondingly
adjust the counterweights of the flap valves and later correct them at rated
throughput and fix them if necessary.
 The temperature and pressure conditions, as well as the gas analyses,
provide information about the operating conditions.
 Check the values shown on all indicating instruments. In the case of imper-
missible deviations, immediately investigate the cause. Eliminate any faults
without delay.
 Check the clearance at the kiln inlet seal and the kiln outlet seal and adjust it if
necessary.
 Check the bearing temperatures.
 It is advisable not to alter the settings in the first hours after feeding in meal.
 To increase the throughput, first raise the speed of the kiln. A little later (e.g.
after 15 minutes), raise the rotation speed of the exhaust gas fans and then
increase the fuel and raw meal feed rates. Any alteration that is effected too
early may cause flushing of raw meal through the kiln.
 Carry out any increase in the raw meal feed rate step by step. Adjust the
negative pressure and the fuel quantity so that no CO forms, the oxygen con-
tent in the gas after the precalciner is not lower than 2 % and overheating of
the preheater is prevented. The content of oxygen in the gas at the kiln inlet
must not be below 2 % either.

NOTE
Before beginning to slowly increase the fuel quantity, wait until the content of
oxygen in the gas after the precalciner has clearly risen (e.g. to 4.5 %) due to
the increase of the speed of the exhaust gas fans.

After short stoppages from full kiln operation, which means that the kiln is hot, the
raw meal feed rate may be approx. 2/3 of the required flow rate at nominal
capacity. Even when lower feed rates are being used, restart the plant with the
precalcination running right from the outset. The kiln output can then be
increased far more quickly than is possible if it is started from cold condition.

If raw meal nevertheless flushes through during the starting procedure, operate
the plant at constant operating parameters and wait until clinker forms and kiln
operation is normal. To reduce the low kiln rotation speed during the start further
is wrong.

Heat up the plant again if the kiln is too cold.

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Operating manual Commissioning
Rotary kiln plant 4-7

After kiln operation has stabilised, try to set higher speeds as soon as possible.

After the start-up, you must check the clinkering zone burner. Make sure that the
burner nozzle of the clinkering zone burner is horizontal. It must project far
enough into the kiln for the last section of the kiln to be used as a cooling zone,
so that the clinker is not too hot when entering the cooler. Align the nozzle tip with
the kiln axis, so that the flame burns at the centre of the rotary kiln without over-
heating the kiln refractory lining.

You will possibly have to slightly correct the position and inclination of the burner
nozzle later during normal kiln operation at nominal capacity. The burning
conditions that occur as a result of the raw meal properties are decisive. Slightly
direct the flame towards the slope of the kiln charge material. Evaluate the
combustion quality on the basis of the content of CO and O2 in the kiln exhaust
gases.

NOTE
Make sure that combustion takes place with air excess; there must be no CO in
the exhaust gas.

If necessary, you can alter the clinkering zone by taking the following
measures:
• by axially shifting the burner nozzle;
• by varying the primary air. More swirl air than axial air results in a short
wide flame and more axial air than swirl air in a long narrow flame. The
primary air overpressure at the main burner should be approximately 160
to 180 mbar.

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Operating manual Starting the plant
Rotary kiln plant 5-1

5 Starting the plant


NOTE
Start the constant-speed fans only when the dampers are closed. Otherwise the
drive motors of the fans will be overloaded.

NOTE
Be sure to also comply with the data stated in section Commissioning.

The start-up, stoppage and operation are linked with the following 3 types of con-
dition:
• Starting conditions:
a starting condition must be fulfilled before a group or operating mode
can be started.
• Permanent conditions:
the permanent condition must be fulfilled in order for the group to remain
in operation.
• Stopping conditions:
the corresponding group is stopped when a stopping condition is fulfilled.

5.1 Heating up the kiln plant

As soon as the kiln plant has dried out, you can start to heat it up.
 Close all covers, doors and flaps in the preheater.
 Shortly before starting to feed in meal, close the openings (if existent) drilled in
the cyclone walls for moisture evaporation.
 Start the filter and exhaust gas fans,
 Start the primary air fans (clinkering zone burner and calciner burner) and the
oil treatment system,
 Start the cooling air fans,
 Adapt the position of the fresh-air dampers in the preheater to the pressure
conditions,
 Ignite the clinkering zone burner.

For the heating of the kiln plant, you have to use light oil as fuel. As soon as coal
is available, change over the firing to coal. If necessary, you can stabilise the coal
flame by adding light oil.

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Starting the plant Operating manual
5-2 Rotary kiln plant

With coal firing, a very uniform fuel supply is extremely important. Carefully check
all conveying and feeding devices before commissioning the firing system. Only
then may you switch on the plant.

Before starting raw meal feeding, you must adjust the pressure conditions in the
kiln so that the fuel is burnt with the lowest possible combustion air volume with-
out CO formation, and so that as much heat as possible remains in the clinkering
zone. The flame must be short, compact and steady.

The temperature after Stage V and at the fans must not exceed 450 °C. At a
temperature of 430 °C, an alarm message is issued and at 450 °C, the kiln plant
is shut down.

The combustion air is supplied by operating the first cooling air fans.

When the flame has been ignited, turn the kiln for the first time by 180° after ap-
proximately 2 hours and then by 120° every 30 minutes for 3 to 5 hours. As heat-
ing up progresses, rotate the kiln more frequently and rotate it continuously when
the operating temperature is reached.

Great care is necessary when the kiln is heated up for the first time and the re-
fractory lining must be constantly monitored.

The turning of the kiln prevents distortion. It is performed with the lowest speed in
order to prevent loosening of the refractory brick lining.

NOTE
When rotating the kiln at low speed, ensure that the bearings in the supporting
roller stations are supplied with sufficient quantities of lubricating oil. If the
lubricating oil pump fails, oil must be poured onto the bearing trunnions through
the filling nozzles by hand. Especially after a prolonged stoppage, make sure
that lubricating oil is poured onto the bearing trunnions.

The auxiliary drive is used for vibration free turning at low speed, also in the case
of main drive failure. It must always be ready for operation so that the hot kiln can
be rotated even in the case of power failures.

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Operating manual Starting the plant
Rotary kiln plant 5-3

Heating-up diagrams
The diagram for heating up the plant with fuel oil and coal is only an example.

Aufheizkurve Gas
Heating-up curve for oil

6.000

5.000
[ltr/h]
quantity inin[Nm³/h]

4.000

3.000
Oil Gasmenge

2.000

1.000

0
0,0 5,0 10,0 15,0 20,0 25,0 30,0 35,0 40,0 45,0 50,0
Zeit in Stunden
Heating-up time

Fig. 8 Example of a heating-up curve for oil / coal

During the heating up phase, twice feed a raw meal quantity of approx. 10 t into
the preheater shortly before starting the kiln plant. This promotes the formation of
coating in the clinkering zone.

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Starting the plant Operating manual
5-4 Rotary kiln plant

Fig. 9 Heating-up curves

Explanations regarding the diagrams

Increase the fuel quantity at the main burner so that the temperatures increase
continuously. Before starting raw meal feeding, adjust the pressure conditions so
that the following combustion conditions are achieved:
• the combustion air volume is as small as possible,
• CO does not form,
• the heat largely remains in the clinkering zone,
• the flame is short, compact and steady.

The time required for heating up the kiln plant depends on the kiln temperature. If
the kiln has completely cooled down, the heating up to operating temperature
takes approx. 44 to 48 hours.

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Operating manual Starting the plant
Rotary kiln plant 5-5

NOTE
When heating-up the kiln be sure to comply with the temperature : time curve in
figure 2.
But also strictly observe the instructions of the manufacturers of the refractory
lining material.

Inching and turning the kiln

To prevent damage while heating up the kiln, you must inch and rotate it continu-
ously, i.e. turn it at certain intervals of time into a different position. Be sure to
comply with the recommended values for a cold kiln in the following table:

Time Turning
after approx. 180°
2 hours
until the 12th by 120° every 30 minutes
hour
from the 13th to by 120° every 20 minutes
the 26th hour
from the 27th to by 120° every 15 minutes
the 40th hour
from the 41st to by 120° every 10 minutes
the 46th hour
from the 47th to continuously by means of the auxiliary drive
the 48th hour

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Starting the plant Operating manual
5-6 Rotary kiln plant

5.2 General information about starting the kiln plant

Starting
NOTE
Start the fans only when the dampers are closed. Otherwise the drive motors of
the fans will be overloaded.

The preheater, kiln, kiln feed system and exhaust gas filter form a single unit as
regards the start sequence. The cooler is already in operation with the grates
running at minimum speed.

To protect the kiln plant against damage during the heating up or during opera-
tion, all plant component groups are interlocked with one another. This means
that the plant component groups can only be started in accordance with the fol-
lowing scheme (start sequence). The scheme results from the safety interlocks of
the kiln plant.

After the heating up and immediately before meal feeding, the plant is in the fol-
lowing status:

1. Cooler grates Minimum stroke frequency (see


documentation about cooler)
-1
2. Main kiln drive Kiln speed approx. 0.6 to 0.8 min
3. Cooling air fans Increase in cooling air flow rate
4. Cooler exhaust air fan Pressure at the kiln hood approx. -0.1 to
-0.2 mbar
5. Main burner Auxiliary burner with light oil:
approx. 1500 l/h
Coal firing system: approx. 7 t/h
6. Start of meal feed equipment 30 % to 40 % of the rated capacity,
tertiary air damper 20 % open
As it takes approx. 30 seconds from the start of raw meal feeding to entry of the
raw meal into the gas duct (so-called dead time), do not change the pressure
after the preheater until you observe a reduction in the gas temperature in the
preheater. If you increase the draught in the preheater too quickly (without ade-
quate raw meal feed rate), there is the danger that the plant will fail because of
excessive exhaust gas temperatures.
8. Pressure after preheater Set to approx. -15 mbar by
• opening the shutoff flaps 08 02 05,
• closing the fresh-air dampers
08 02 DD-101 and 08 02 DD-102,
• increasing the speed of the fans
08 12 FA-102 and 08 13 FA-101

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Operating manual Starting the plant
Rotary kiln plant 5-7

9. Fuel quantity increase Heat consumption approx. 1300 to


1700 kcal/kg of clinker
The initial heat consumption will be approx. 1300 to 1700 kcal/kg of clinker. This
will decrease to normal values (approx. 730 kcal/kg of clinker) as the tempera-
tures of secondary air and tertiary air rise and the throughput increases.
Fuel distribution main burner approx. 65 %,
calciner burner approx. 35 %
Kiln inlet temperature approx. 1050 °C
Temperature after Stage 1 approx. 860 °C
Temperature in meal chute 1 approx. 840 °C
As soon as the raw meal feed system has been started and the temperatures in
the lower meal chutes have reached approx. 860°C, you can start the calciner
burner at minimum fuel quantity. Make absolutely sure that the content of O2
after stage 2 is at least 4.5% O2 before the calciner burner is started.
Do not start the calciner burner until you observe a temperature drop in
the lower meal chutes, which indicates that raw meal is flowing.
10. Start of the calciner burner Increase the fuel quantity so that the
temperature in meal chute 1 rises to
above 800 °C as quickly as possible.
11. Cooling air flow rate Set the cooling air flow rate in accor-
dance with the raw meal feed rate (nor-
mally approx. 2.0 Nm³/kg Klinker).

Operate the plant with the above-mentioned setting until clinker forms in the
clinkering zone (visual check by means of the kiln camera). A further indication
for clinker formation is an increasing power consumption of the kiln main drive. If
you cannot detect this, you should increase the fuel quantity at the main burner.

Because of the small quantity of raw meal that is fed in during the start-up phase,
pay particular attention that the maximum permissible temperatures in and after
the preheater are not exceeded. The fuel quantity to be fed in depends on these
temperatures. If the temperatures increase too high, the raw meal feed should be
increased as quickly as possible in order to prevent failure of the plant.

Maximum permissible temperature in and after preheater


Before fans 08 12 FA-102 and approx. 450 °C
08 13 FA-103
After preheater stage 5 approx. 450 °C
In meal chutes of stage 1 approx. 880 °C

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Starting the plant Operating manual
5-8 Rotary kiln plant

5.3 Increasing the plant throughput

As soon as clinker forms in the clinkering zone, you can increase the throughput
of the plant as follows:

1. Increase the speed of the filter fan and the exhaust gas fans. The guide
value is the content of O2 after the preheater or after Stage 2. Before you
increase the fuel supply, the oxygen content should be at least 2 – 3 %.
The speed of the filter fan depends on the pressure after the exhaust gas
fan (-5 mbar).
2. Open the tertiary air dampers step by step. The O2 concentrations in the
kiln inlet and after Stage 2 are the relevant process variables. Each O2
content should be approx. 2 – 3 %.
3. Increase the cooling air flow rate (keeping the kiln hood pressure at -
0.1 mbar).
4. Increase the fuel supply at the clinkering zone burner and the calciner
burner (fuel distribution at rated capacity: clinkering zone burner approx.
45 %, calciner burner approx. 55 %).
5. Increase the meal feed in accordance with the fuel supply.
6. Increase the rotation speed of the kiln. The rotation speed is increased in
accordance with the raw meal feed rate. It is advantageous to keep the
filling ratio of the kiln as low as possible.

Every increase of the throughput causes a rise in the quantity of clinker dis-
charged from the kiln and leads to an increase in the temperatures of secondary
air and tertiary air. For each increase of the throughput, you must increase the
stroke frequency of the cooler. You must also suitably adjust the cooling air flow
rate at the cooling air fans of the cooler (approx. 2.0 Nm³/kg of clinker).

NOTE
The heat requirement of the kiln decreases with increasing secondary and
tertiary air temperature. The danger of overheating is avoided by reducing the
fuel quantity and/or by increasing the raw meal feed rate. The relevant process
variables are the temperatures in the kiln inlet, in meal chute 1 and after
preheater.

Starting after a short stoppage

After short stoppages from full kiln operation, which means that the kiln is hot, the
raw meal feed rate may be approx. 2/3 of the required raw meal quantity at nomi-
nal capacity. Even when lower raw meal feed rates are being used, restart the
plant with the calcination running right from the outset. The kiln output can then
be increased far more quickly than is possible if it is started from the cold condi-
tion.

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Operating manual Starting the plant
Rotary kiln plant 5-9

If raw meal nevertheless flushes through during the starting procedure, operate
the plant at constant operating parameters and wait until clinker forms and kiln
operation is normal. To further reduce the already low kiln rotation speed during
the startup is wrong.

If the kiln becomes too cold, you must heat up the plant again.

After kiln operation has stabilised, try to set higher speeds as soon as possible.

5.4 Start sequence of the kiln plant

The plant is automatically started in starting groups via a programmed control


system. The detailed start-up sequence and the switch-on conditions are con-
tained in the process functional diagrams.

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Operating manual Operation
Rotary kiln plant 6-1

6 Operation
NOTE
It is a prerequisite of our warranty that the first test run is carried out in the
presence of and according to the instructions of specialists from
POLYSIUS AG.

6.1 Checks during operation

DANGER
When the preheater is cleaned, there is mortal danger of being buried alive
and suffocated in the rotary kiln and the cooler.
While the preheater is being cleaned, it must not be possible for persons to
gain access to the rotary kiln or the cooler. The Plant Manager is
responsible for the proper cordoning off.
 Take care particularly in the start-up phase that the flap valves in the meal
chutes operate perfectly and that the meal flows unhindered. Correspondingly
adjust the counterweights of the flap valves and later correct them at rated
throughput and fix them if necessary.
 The temperature and pressure conditions, as well as the gas analyses, pro-
vide information about the operating conditions.
 Check the values shown on all indicating instruments. In the case of imper-
missible deviations, immediately investigate the cause. Eliminate any faults
without delay.
 Check the clearance at the kiln inlet seal and adjust it if necessary.
 Check the bearing temperatures.
 It is advisable not to alter the settings in the first hours after feeding in meal.
 To increase the throughput, first raise the speed of the kiln and a little later
increase the feed rates of fuel and raw meal. Any alteration that is effected
too early may cause flushing of raw meal through the kiln.
 Carry out any increase in the raw meal feed rate step by step. Adjust the
negative pressure and the fuel quantity so that no CO forms, the oxygen con-
tent in the gas after the precalciner is not lower than 2 % and overheating of
the preheater is prevented. The content of oxygen in the gas at the kiln inlet
must not be below 2 % either.

NOTE
Before beginning to slowly increase the fuel quantity, wait until the content of
oxygen in the gas after the precalciner has clearly risen (e.g. to 4.5 %) due to
the increase in speed of the exhaust gas fans.

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Operation Operating manual
6-2 Rotary kiln plant

Firing system

After the start-up, you must check the firing system. Make sure that the burner
nozzle of the clinkering zone burner is horizontal. It must project far enough into
the kiln for the last section of the kiln to be used as a cooling zone, so that the
clinker is not too hot when entering the cooler. Align the nozzle tip with the kiln
axis, so that the flame burns at the centre of the rotary kiln without any danger of
overheating the kiln refractory lining.

For optimisation purposes, you will possibly have to slightly correct the position
and inclination of the burner nozzle later during normal kiln operation at nominal
capacity. The burning conditions that occur as a result of the raw meal properties
are decisive. Slightly direct the flame towards the slope of the kiln charge
material. Evaluate the combustion quality on the basis of the content of CO and
O2 in the kiln exhaust gases.

NOTE
Make sure that combustion takes place with air excess; there must be no CO in
the exhaust gas.

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Operating manual Operation
Rotary kiln plant 6-3

6.2 Typical operating data

NOTE
The operating data listed in the table are typical operating data that may
possibly change during commissioning.

Temperatures
Hot gas temperature at kiln inlet approx. 1150 °C
®
Temperature after DOPOL preheater 300 - 340 °C

Pressures
Kiln hood pressure 0 to - 0.5 mbar
®
Pressure after DOPOL preheater approx. 50 mbar

6.3 Optimisation of the plant

If necessary, you can alter the clinkering zone by taking the following
measures:
• by axially shifting the burner nozzle;
• by varying the primary air. More swirl air than axial air results in a short
wide flame and more axial air than swirl air in a long narrow flame. The
primary air overpressure at the main burner should be approximately 160
to 180 mbar.

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Operating manual Shutting down the plant
Rotary kiln plant 7-1

7 Shutting down the plant

For the detailed program for shutting down the plant under normal circumstances,
refer to the process functional diagrams.

7.1 Shutting down the kiln plant under normal circumstances

Previous to a planned plant stoppage, you should continuously reduce the


throughput in 5 % steps to empty the kiln. If possible, maintain the maximum kiln
speed in order to reduce the filling ratio. The minimum feed rate is normally be-
tween 40 % and 50 % of the normal feed rate. If the temperatures in the clinker-
ing zone or downstream of the preheater reach the critical values, you must
switch off the kiln. You can then turn the kiln for a time until it is empty, using the
main drive and maximum possible fuel quantity at the main burner. An empty kiln
is easier to reheat and to restart.

1. Stop the calciner burner and the raw meal feed system
2. For brief interruptions:
Reduce the fuel feed rate to the main burner,
otherwise:
Stop the fuel supply. You must keep the primary air fan in operation to
cool the burner lance. For longer stoppages, withdraw the burner from the
kiln.
3. Open the fresh-air dampers
4. Close the fresh-air dampers 08 02 05 in the exhaust gas duct to approx.
15 - 20 %.
5. Reduce the speed of fans 08 12 FA-102 and 08 13 FA-101 to 20 - 25%.
6. Reduce the speed of the cooling air fans in the cooler or close the inlet
vane controllers.
7. Reduce the cooler exhaust air.
8. Close the tertiary air damper
9. Reduce the kiln rotation speed to minimum or switch over to auxiliary
drive
10. Turn kiln until cold (if it is raining, turn continuously with the auxiliary
drive)
1st to 2nd hour: turn auxiliary drive 1/3 of a rotation every 10 minutes
3rd hour: turn 1/3 of a rotation every 15 minutes
4th hour: turn 1/3 of a rotation every 20 minutes
5th to 8th hour: turn 1/3 of a rotation every 25 minutes
Then turn 1/3 of a rotation every 30 minutes until a shell temperature of
100 °C has been reached in the clinkering zone.
11. Operate the cooler grates at intervals
12. After turning the kiln until it is cold, shut down the cooler

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Shutting down the plant Operating manual
7-2 Rotary kiln plant

13. Stop the primary air fans


14. Close shutoff flaps 08 02 05
15. Stop fans 08 12 FA-102 and 08 13 FA-101
16. Stop filter fan 11 12 FA-101
17. Switch off all other plant components

7.2 Shutting down the kiln plant in case of emergency

The control and monitoring devices installed in the system are designed to en-
sure continuous plant operation on a permanent basis. Nevertheless, unforeseen
circumstances can lead to stoppages.

EMERGENCY OFF

If personnel are in danger or damage to the plant threatens, shut down danger-
ous sections of the plant or even the complete plant as quickly as possible to pre-
vent accidents. To shut down in case of emergency, actuate the EMERGENCY
OFF devices on the control panel or on the machines.

When danger threatens, proceed as follows:


 Shut down the kiln plant with EMERGENCY OFF.
This also shuts down the conveying equipment.
 Subsequently, shut down the plant components upstream of the switched off
plant component via the programmed control system.
 Shut down the other sections of the plant in accordance with the normal shut-
down sequence.

Shutting down in the case of malfunctions

Especially if the following malfunctions occur, you have to shut down the kiln
plant as described above. Malfunctions of the
• kiln drive,
• filter fan,
• exhaust gas fan,
• clinker conveyor,
• raw meal feed system.
(if an immediate change over to an emergency route is impossible).

On the other hand, you may be able to eliminate faults affecting auxiliary units
without interrupting plant operation.

If any damage to the refractory lining occurs, shut down the plant immediately.

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Operating manual Shutting down the plant
Rotary kiln plant 7-3

If the temperature at the exhaust gas fans increases, the reason for this may be
insufficient or fluctuating raw meal feed rate. First, reduce the fuel quantity and
make the raw meal feed more uniform. If this has no effect, you must shut down
the kiln plant as described in section Shutting down under normal circumstances.

DANGER
The elimination of blockages in the preheater always involves mortal
danger.
Be sure to observe the safety recommendations in section Trouble
shooting.

If cyclones get clogged up, shut down the kiln plant immediately unless you can
immediately eliminate the blockage by blasting with compressed air.

7.3 Shutting down the plant in the case of certain malfunctions


DANGER
The elimination of blockages in the preheater always involves mortal
danger.
Be sure to observe the "Safety recommendations for the elimination of
blockages in the preheater".

NOTE
The following tables list the actions which, in the case of certain malfunctions,
are either performed automatically by the interlocking system of the plant or
have to be initiated manually by the operator.

Failure of the main burner


Action Interlocking Operator
system
The meal feed equipment stops. X
The calciner burner fails. X
The kiln rotation speed goes to minimum. X
Continuation of normal cooler operation until the X
conditions for a cooler shutdown are fulfilled.
The gas passage (dampers and fans) must be X
adjusted.

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Shutting down the plant Operating manual
7-4 Rotary kiln plant

Failure of cooler
Action Interlocking Operator
system
The main kiln drive stops. X
The raw meal feed system stops. X
The calciner burner fails. X
The clinkering zone burner goes to minimum X
capacity.
The kiln must be operated with auxiliary drive. X
The gas passage (dampers and fans) must be X
adjusted.

Failure of raw meal feed system.

Action Interlocking Operator


system
The clinkering zone burner goes to minimum X
capacity.
The kiln rotation speed goes to minimum. X
The calciner burner fails. X
The gas passage (dampers and fans) must be X
adjusted.

Failure of exhaust gas fan


Action Interlocking Operator
system
Cooling air reduction to minimum. X
The clinkering zone burner and calciner burner X
fail.
The raw meal feed system stops. X
The kiln rotation speed goes to minimum. X
The gas passage (dampers) must be adjusted. X

enK01386A
Operating manual Shutting down the plant
Rotary kiln plant 7-5

Failure of kiln drive


Action Interlocking Operator
system
The raw meal feed system stops. X
The fuel quantity for the main burner is reduced X
to minimum.
The calciner burner fails. X
The kiln must be operated with auxiliary drive. X
The gas passage (dampers and fans) must be X
adjusted.

DANGER
The elimination of blockages in the preheater always involves mortal
danger.
Be sure to observe the "Safety recommendations for the elimination of
blockages in the preheater".

enK01386A
Operating manual Trouble shooting
Rotary kiln plant 8-1

8 Trouble shooting

8.1 Kiln and preheater

Blockages in the preheater

If cyclones get clogged up, shut down the kiln plant immediately unless you can
immediately eliminate the blockage by blasting with compressed air.

8.2 Safety recommendations for eliminating blockages in the preheater

Personnel Actions Result


Kiln operator Shut down the rotary kiln im- Rotary kiln has been shut
mediately if blockage of the down
preheater is detected.
Shift supervisor Ensure that all personnel All personnel have left the
leave the danger area. danger area
The danger areas are:
• preheater tower and
neighbouring ground area
taking wind direction into
account
• rotary kiln: kiln platforms
and neighbouring area
• clinker cooler
• clinker conveyor
Inform the following persons in Persons with appropriate au-
charge: thority have been informed
• control room personnel
• production manager or his
deputy
• plant manager or his dep-
uty
Wait until at least one person
with appropriate authority has
arrived.

enK01386A
Trouble shooting Operating manual
8-2 Rotary kiln plant

Personnel Actions Result


Plant personnel Elimination of the blockage No unauthorised actions by
must be supervised by a per- the plant personnel
son with appropriate authority.
Only assign skilled employees
to this work. Their number
should be as small as
possible.
Cordon off the entire danger Only a few experienced tech-
area to prevent access by nicians are present in the
persons not assigned to carry preheater tower.
out the work.
Make absolutely sure that all All emergency escape routes
emergency escape routes are are free.
kept free.

DANGER
When poke holes and observation ports are opened, hot raw meal may
spatter out. Hot raw meal has the fluid consistency of water.
You may suffer very severe burns. There is mortal danger. Always put on
the complete protective clothing before opening any covers. Never stand
in front of any openings but always to the side.
Secure the place of work against unauthorised access.
Make sure that emergency escape routes are available and unobstructed.

For cleaning a clogged-up cyclone proceed as follows:


 Operate the exhaust gas fan at low speed. The slight negative pressure pre-
vents hot gases from escaping.
 Clean the meal chute first, in order to ensure that the raw meal can flow
away unhindered.
 Clean the cyclone with compressed air blasting lances either from below
through the lateral cleaning slits or from above through the poke holes.
 If the cyclone cannot be cleaned in this way, cautiously open the access
door in the gas inlet to the cyclone and eliminate the blockages using the
compressed air blasting lances.

enK01386A
Operating manual Trouble shooting
Rotary kiln plant 8-3

DANGER
When the access door in the conical part of the cyclone is opened, loose
material can fall down!
You may suffer very severe burns. There is mortal danger. Check through
the access door in the gas inlet to the cyclone that there is no loose
material above the access door in the conical section. Make sure that
nobody is below the access door.
 If there are still incrustations in the cyclone which cannot be reached from
the access door, you must clean them out through the round access hatch in
the conical section of the cyclone.
 Open the access door with great caution and eliminate the incrustations.
 After cleaning the meal chutes and cyclone, you must check that they are
free of incrustations. There must not be even the slightest incrustation, since
this could easily form the starting point for renewed blockage of the cyclone.

Fault Cause Elimination


Raw meal is flushing through • Fall of coating  Drastically reduce the kiln
the kiln • Coating ring has col- speed
lapsed
 Additionally, you can in-
Indication:
The curve of current and crease the fuel quantity.
power consumption shows an To prevent the production of
abrupt peak, which then falls CO, the oxygen content after
off rapidly. the calciner must not drop
below 1.5 %.
 Increase the kiln rotation
speed step by step.
 If the kiln process does
not stabilise within 15
minutes, reduce the meal
quantity.
Temperature fluctuations • Fuel not homogenous Keep power consumption of
in the clinkering zone • Large quantities of dust kiln drive constant by
Indication changing the speed
Power consumption of the
kiln drive

enK01386A
Trouble shooting Operating manual
8-4 Rotary kiln plant

Fault Cause Elimination


Temperature rise downstream • Insufficient raw meal feed  Reduce the fuel quantity,
of exhaust gas fan rate
• Fluctuating raw meal feed  Ensure uniform raw meal
rate feeding,
• Water injection into the  Check the water injection
cooling towers faulty system and repair if nec-
essary,
If the above described
measures remain
unsuccessful, shut down the
kiln plant (see section 7.1
Shutting down the kiln plant
under normal circumstances)
Excessive vibration of exhaust Incrustations on impellers Switch off the fan and clean
gas fan the impeller
Excessive temperature after Non-uniform feeding of raw Return the raw meal feed to
the preheater (> 400 °C) meal uniform condition
Inadequate raw meal feed rate Increase the raw meal feed
rate
Excessive fuel quantity Reduce the fuel quantity for
the calciner burner
If these fan protection meas-
ures are of no avail,
 shut down the kiln plant if
necessary, and
 eliminate the cause (e.g.
at the raw meal dosing
system)
Incrustations and coating in The refractory lining has pro- Switch off the plant and repair
preheater (recognisable e.g. jections, or is not smooth. the refractory lining.
by increased pressure drop). Overheating in the preheater  Reduce the fuel quantity
 or increase the raw meal
feed rate
Infiltration of false air, particu-  Check the kiln inlet seal
larly at the kiln inlet seal
 and repair if necessary,
Non-uniform raw meal quality Check and, if necessary, cor-
rect the homogenising system
and raw meal dosing system
Inadequate cleaning Increase the intensity and
frequency of cleaning

enK01386A
Operating manual Trouble shooting
Rotary kiln plant 8-5

Fault Cause Elimination


Cyclone clogging Jammed flap valves in the  Eliminate clogging by
meal chutes blasting out with com-
pressed air
 If this is not possible, shut
down the plant and elimi-
nate the clogging.
 Restore free movement of
the flap valves
Other causes such as chemi-  Eliminate clogging by
cal properties of raw meal, blasting out with com-
overheating, CO production or pressed air
inadequate cleaning
 If this is not possible, shut
down the plant and elimi-
nate the clogging.
Blockages, especially during Overheating in the lower sec-  Start the plant at a low
starting-up of the plant tion of the preheater temperature,
 briefly feed in a large
quantity of raw meal,
 subsequently reduce the
feed rate again to normal.
Production of CO downstream Excessive or irregular supply  Check the fuel supply sys-
of stage 2, while the CO value of fuel to the calciner burner tem
in kiln inlet is normal
 and repair it if necessary
Not enough air excess in the  Increase the air supply by
precalciner opening the tertiary air
dampers.
 Increase the speed of the
exhaust gas fan if neces-
sary.
The kiln shell temperature has The kiln's refractory lining is  Shut down the plant.
risen strongly faulty
 Replace the refractory
lining.
The bearings of the rollers are Water cooling system and/or  Inspect the water cooling
too hot lubrication system faulty system and the lubrication
system
 and repair if necessary.

enK01386A
Operating manual Appendix
Rotary kiln plant 9-1

9 Appendix

9.1 Flowsheets

Designation Drawing no. Register


Flowsheet 65000123 Sheet
Nos. 12 - 16 and 50

enK01386A