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S.Y. 2018-2019

“I am Invulnerable”

In Partial fulfillment

of the requirements

in General Biology 2

Submitted to:

Mr. Neal Lagitnay

Submitted by:

Apostol, Nicole Andrea

Gomez, RocelAliana

Mirabel, Paul Nico

12 – Adam
Table of contents

Homo sapiens sapiens is called “wise thinking man” for short. We are continuously evolving
from day to day, we do not know what may change or notice the change in us. Organisms evolve
in response to the change in the environment and adapt to compensate the necessities for
survival. Climate change and global warming plays a pivotal role on us nowadays. Sea level
rising, Islands sinking, air pollution, thinning of ozone, temperature rise abnormally, unusual
weather etc. Humans have long existed with bacteria and viruses althroughout history itself.

From bubonic plague to small pox. We are still continuing to evolve even further to be
invulnerable to them, and as a response, viruses have also developed its new ways of infecting
us. (Fox-Skelly, J. 2017). One major concern that may trigger or force humans to change is the
melting of icebergs and glacial sheets at poles. Icebergs or any glacial object are proven to
contain ancient microbes that causes possible worst diseases and have remained dormant ever
since. Reports In Siberia, the melting of permafrost have already contained complex “giant
viruses” as described by scientists after discovering 30,000 year old ice. However it still does not
pose danger to humans yet. (Pefermuss, M. 2017). If These glacial objects melts and it happened
to contain a disease causing microbe it would go into the air or contaminate the seas.

The first victims would be the fishes and once caught it would be brought to humans. The
possible scenario would be the widespread of it once a human consumed this fish that contained
the disease or virus. In response to counter all that, scientists would now create medicines which
is necessary to decrease these widespread. Vaccines are considered as the best and right way of
public health safety interventions to prevent serious diseases and death in the future. Global
immunization programs have given exceptional results in an expected manner as it declined
more widespread of epidemic causing diseases.(The institute of medicine national academy,

The possibility that each individual may be vaccinated or be required to take their medicines
are at critical. Let’s say all the glacier, the poles gone forever. Humans would take medicines or
be vaccinated forever as to prolong survival. As time goes by humans adapt and continuously
change internally, growing stronger enough to tolerate the change in the environment. this study
contains a more realistic approach in the “interphase” of evolution should these phenomena
happened. The study aims to determine if humans can become immune after taking long term
medicines in response to the Melting of iceberg contaminated with ancient virus.

Our hypothesis concerns if humans could become immune by taking long term medicines which
would eventually result to immunization in response to the possible melting of glacial sheets
particularly the permafrost. There are already several evidences of glacial sheets melting around
the globe. The worst fact is that these glaciers contains ancient virus that was yet to discovered
for the past ages. Should these virus awakens, there won’t be any medicine available and surely
most humans would get infected particularly those who live ashore because the ice melts it
would turn into water of course. Imagine how many glaciers are there and it is still unknown
what they contain. Scientists already covered this case when a permafrost gave up in Siberia,
they found out the there is a complex virus dormant in it. The first case of events is that, its
possible it could affect marine life, then humans would go fishing for food and once consumed
its possible a person would be afflicted quickly. The afflicted will never be given any medicine to
use. Scientists would get curious and interested and eventually experiment the person until it
dies(fact). Eventually they would study and do research about it until a new medicine is formed.
Considering it’s hard to make a new one, our current technology won’t even be enough to make
it. Half or almost the rest of earth’s population would be affected by the disease from the glaciers
that have melted. Once a medicine was found, it is unknown what type it may be but percentage
that it is a vaccine is high and so does tablets, capsules and other liquids that are consumable
medicines. Humans would take this for many years or months until they’re bodies become
immune to the disease and able to live a normal life again. In this case adaptation was already
shown and featured. There is an appearance of internal changes by simply using medicines. Soon
humans won’t even use meds just to survive day after day. A new generation of humans would
eventually be born and better than the past and they are capable being invulnerable from the
numerous diseases that came before them.

And so the true evolution would occur. The invulnerability of humans must take place first
before external changes occur. It is like the “interphase” before everything begins.

According to McKenna, J., (2017), The effects of climate change now comes to the point
where permafrost soils that had remained solid for the past millennia’s are melting. Possible
consequences that humanity might face would be the disease causing ancient virus present on
these glaciers and are capable of returning back once again.

According to Plat, J., (2017), People are warned that global warming is the affect of the
melting of frozen lakes, glaciers and permafrost’s. Thus if this phenomena happened, ancient
bacteria, viruses and fungi would be free and cure would be in demand as humans would be
exposed to various diseases not encountered for the past thousand years. It had already taken its
first step in Siberia in the arctic.

According to Yong, E., (2014), Humans are already exposed to billions of bacteria, viruses
and fungi whenever they swim to a nearby beach or sea. The melting of arctic ice could cause
ancient virus to spread rapidly and could cause an epidemic. The first primary target would be
those at the shores.

According Greenwood, B., (2016), Global coverage of vaccination against critical disease
causing viruses namely, polio, measles, smallpox and rinderpest, have been completely repelled
by the combined efforts of the WHO’s expanded programme of Immunization in 1974 and
Global alliance for vaccination and immunization 2000. Vaccines have already contributed so
much for us humans. It had defended for over decades now.

In Siberia, the melting of permafrost have already contained complex “giant viruses” as
described by scientists after discovering 30,000 year old ice. However it still does not pose
danger to humans yet. (Pefermuss, M., 2017)

Humans have long existed with bacteria and viruses althroughout history itself. From
bubonic plague to small pox. We are still continuing to evolve even further to be invulnerable to
them, and as a response, viruses have also devolved its new ways of infecting us. (Fox-Skelly, J.,

Vaccines are considered as the best and right way of public health safety interventions to
prevent serious diseases and death in the future. Global immunization programs have given
exceptional results in an expected manner as it declined more widespread of epidemic causing
diseases. (The institute of medicine national academy, 2013)

According to Resnick, B., (2017), Permafrost is a layer of frozen soil that covers 25 percent
of the Northern Hemisphere. It acts like a giant freezer, keeping microbes, carbon, poisonous
mercury, and soil locked in place. Now it’s melting. And things are getting weird and creepy: The
ground warps, folds, and caves. Roadways built on top of permafrost have becoming wavy roller
coasters through the tundra. Long-dormant microbes — some trapped in the ice for tens of
thousands of years — are beginning to wake up, releasing equally ancient C02, and could
potentially come to infect humans with deadly diseases.

According to Glick, D., (2019), When temperatures rise and ice melts, more water flows to the
seas from glaciers and ice caps, and ocean water warms and expands in volume. This
combination of effects has played the major role in raising average global sea level between four
and eight inches (10 and 20 centimeters) in the past hundred years.

Viruses and bacteria are present in ancient ice it can survive a thousand of years,
including the ice patches where we work. This is backed by solid science. It concerned that rising
temperatures could lead to ancient, but still infectious viruses thawing out of the ice. They
believe this could potentially be a threat to human health, when they melt out (Pilo, L., 2017).

Thawing permafrost can release more than carbon emissions. In 2016, a young boy died
and dozens were hospitalized after contracting anthrax on the Yamal Peninsula in Siberia. An
anthrax-infected reindeer carcass that froze 75 years earlier became exposed when the permafrost
thawed. Anthrax spores entered the soil and water, and eventually the food supply, infecting the

People and animals and their diseases have been frozen in the permafrost for hundreds of
years, but bacteria and viruses can survive in permafrost for hundreds of thousands of years—
scientists recently revived a 30,000-year-old virus that infects amoebas. Diseases like the
Spanish flu, smallpox or the plague that have been wiped out might be frozen in the permafrost.
As the Arctic warms, more activity, like mining for rare earth or precious metals, could
potentially put us in contact with them again.(Cho, R, 2018).

According to Collins (2015), in the first use of daily medicine for the long-term
treatment, it may already cause minor changes. Over the course of time, it will soon prove to
have good or bad effect. A change in habits may contribute as well, for better or for worse.

According to Claridette, M., et al (2014), immunization is the process wherein a person is

made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically by the administration of vaccines.
Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to protect the person against subsequent
infections or diseases.

According to Lexington (2014), when patients fail to comply with the proper process of
their medications, it leads to poor health and in the worst case scenario, death. Over one third of
hospital admissions annually tend to be patients who fail to follow medication routines. In the
United States, more than 125,000 deaths occur due to the neglection or failing to comply with the
proper taking medications.
According to Howard, C. R., et al., (2012), Emerging virus diseases are a major threat to
human and veterinary public health. With new examples occurring approximately one each year,
the majority are viruses originating from an animal host. Of the many factors responsible,
changes to local ecosystems that perturb the balance between pathogen and principal host species
is one of the major drivers, together with increasing urbanization of mankind and changes in
human behavior. Many emerging viruses have RNA genomes and as such are capable of rapid
mutation and selection of new variants in the face of environmental changes in host numbers and
available target species. This review summarizes recent work on aspects of virus emergence and
the current understanding of the molecular and immunological basis whereby viruses may cross
between species and become established in new ecological niches. Emergence is hard to predict,
although mathematical modeling and spatial epidemiology have done much to improve the
prediction of where emergence may occur. However, much needs to be done to ensure adequate
surveillance is maintained of animal species known to present the greatest risk thus increasing
general alertness among physicians, veterinarians and those responsible for formulating public
health policy.

Vaccines or any type of drugs are proven to have positive effects on the body, however it
still depends on the person’s body. Its ability to withstand powerful medicines. A stated clearly
immunization programs are the most effective way of preparing the body to become stronger and
invulnerable from death causing diseases. We do not know when it would infect us that is why
taking meds earlier is still the best way. In addition it was also mentioned that the body can be
immune to any particular diseases. Not all but only to a specific one. Poor adherence too it is
very critical on the articles, as it may have the opposite effects.

Cho, R, (2018), Why Thawing Permafrost Matters?. Retrieved from


Claridette, M., et al (2014), Extent of Compliance to Immunization: Reasons for

NonContinuity and Its Consequences. Retrieved from http://lpulaguna.edu.ph/wp-

Collins, S. (2015, July 17). Are We Taking Some Medicines for Too Long? Retrieved from
Web MD: https://www.webmd.com/drug-medication/news/20150717/medications-too-long#1

Fox-Skelly, J., (2017), There are Diseases hidden in Ice and they are Waking up. Retrieved
from http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20170504-there-are-diseases-hidden-in-ice-and-they-are-

Glick, D., (2019), The Big Thaw. Retrieved from


Greenwood, B., (2016), The contribution of vaccination to global health: past, present and
future. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024226/

Howard, C. R., et. al., (2012), Emerging virus diseases: can we ever expect the unexpected?
Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26038413

Lexington, K. (2014, October 02). Failure to Follow Doctor's Advice on Prescription

Medications Can Have Negative Health Consequences. Retrieved from KentuckyOne Health:

McKenna, J., (2017), The deadly diseases being released as ice thaws. Retrieved from

Pefermuss, M., (2017), As Ice Melts, Dangerous Diseases From The Past Could Rise
Again.Retrived from

Pilo, L., (2017), Can deadly virus and microbes survive in the ice? Retrieved from

Plat, J., (2017), Earth Matters: Climate Weather Stories Melting Ice could release Old Virus.
Retrieved from https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/www.mnn.com/earth-matters/climate-
Resnick, B., (2017), Melting permafrost in the Arctic is unlocking diseases and warping the
landscape. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2017/9/6/16062174/permafrost-melting

The Institute of Medicine National Academy. (2013), The Childhood Immunization Schedule
and Safety. Retrived from http://www.nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Report

Yong, E., (2014), Giant virus resurrected from 30,000-year-old ice. Retrieved from