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Apêndice: Prova 02 - Física Quântica - Prof. J. Javier S. Acuña - 04/12/2015

I. C

e

= 1.6021 × 10 19 [c] = carga elementar

c

= 2.9979 × 10 8 [m/s] = velocidade da luz

h = 6.6256 × 10 34 [Js] = constante de Planck = h/2π = 1.0545 × 10 34 [Js]

k = 8.9874 × 10 9 = constante de Coulomb

a 0 = 0.53 × 10 10 [m] = raio de Bohr

m

e = 9.1091 × 10 31 [kg] = massa do elétron

m

p = 1.6725 × 10 27 [kg] = massa do próton

m

n = 1.6748 × 10 27 [kg] = massa do néutron

µ B = 9.27 × 10 24 [J/T ] = magneton de Borh

II. R

ξ=

p 2 ke 2

2m

r

2

r m = ke 2 m =a 0 = 0.0529 nm

2

2 Ψ (x, t)

2m

∂x 2

+ V (x, t) Ψ (x, t) = i Ψ ∂t (x, t)

Ψ (x, t) = ψ (x) φ (t)

Ψ (x, t) =

Ae i(kxωt)

= A [sin (kx ωt) + i cos (kx ωt)]

P (x) dx

−∞

= Ψ (x, t) Ψ (x, t) dx = |Ψ| 2 dx

Ψ (x, t) Ψ (x, t) dx = 1

φ(t)=e

iξt/

−∞ Ψ (x, t) Ψ (x, t) dx =

−∞

ψ (x) ψ (x) dx = 1

ξ=

p

2

h

2

=

2m

22

ξ n = n 2 4π 2 2

8mL

2

=

n 2 ξ 1

=n 2 2mL π 2 2 2

com

n = 1, 2, 3,

k 2 = p 2 2 = 2

2

k n = nπ

L

= 2π

λ n

λ n = 2L

n

2

ψ(x)= L sin nπ x

L

com

n = 1, 2, 3,

d

2 ψ(x)

dx

2

+k

2 ψ(x)=0

d

2 ψ(x)

2

2 ψ(x)=0

= p 2

dx k 2 = 2m(ξV) 2

α

2

α 2 = 2m 2 (V 0 ξ)

ψ(x)=

A 2 e αx

B 2 e αx

x<0

A 1 sin (kx) + A 2 cos (kx)

0 < x < L

x>L

ψ(x)=

  A 1 e ikx +A 2 e ikx

B 1 e αx +B 2 e αx

C 1 e ikx +C 2 e ikx

R= |A 2 | 2

|A 1 | 2

T=

ν 2 |C 1 | 2

ν 1 |A 1 | 2

T+R=1

x<0

0<x<L

x>L

ψ(x)= Ae ik 1 x + Be ik 1 x

Ce ik 2 x + De ik 2 x

R= |B| 2

|A|

2

=

k 1 +k 2 2

k

k

1

2

T= ν 2 |C| 2

4k 1 k 2

ν 1 |A| 2 = (k 1 +k 2 ) 2

x<0

x>0

T=   1+

sinh 2 αL

4 V 1

ξ

ξ

V

1

T |B| 2

|A|

2

e 2αL = 16 ξ

V 0 1

V ξ 0 e 2αL

1

V(x)= 2 k x 2 = 1

2 2 x 2

ψ(x)=A n e mω 2 /2 H n (x)

x =

−∞

Ψ (x, t) x Ψ (x, t) dx

f(x) =

−∞

ψ f (x) ψ dx

p =

−∞ Ψ

i

x Ψ dx

p 2 = −∞ Ψ

i

∂x i

x Ψ dx

2

2

2 ψ(x 1 ,x 2 )

2

2 ψ(x 1 ,x 2 )

 

2m

∂x 2

1

2m

∂x 2

2

= [ξ(x 1 ,x 2 )V(x 1 ,x 2 )] ψ (x 1 ,x 2 )

ψ nm (x 1 ,x 2 )=ψ n (x 1 )ψ m (x 2 )

2m

2

2 ψ(x,y,z)

∂x 2

+ 2 ψ(x,y,z) + 2 ψ(x,y,z)

∂y 2

∂z 2

= (ξ V ) ψ (x, y, z)

ψ (x, y, z) = ψ 1 (x)ψ 2 (y)ψ 3 (z)

ψ (x, y, z) = A sin (k 1 x) sin (k 2 y) sin (k 3 z)

ξ n = k 2 +k 2 +k

1

2

2

3

2

2mL 2

2µ 2 ψ

2

+ 2 ψ + 2 ψ + V ψ = ξψ

∂y 2

∂z 2

∂x 2

  ∂ r 2 ∂r r 2 ∂ψ ∂r − 2 2µ
r 2 ∂r r 2 ∂ψ ∂r
− 2

+

+

θ sin θ ψ

1

1

r 2 sin θ

1

2 ψ

∂θ

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2

+ V ψ = ξψ

ψ nlm (r, θ, φ) = C nlm R nl (r)f ml (θ)g m (φ)

R nl (r) = e Zr/na 0 Zr

0

(sin θ) |m|

l l!

f lm

(θ) =

2

g m (φ) = e imφ

l L nl Zr

a

0

a

∂θ ∂ (cos θ) l+|m| cos 2 θ1 l

Y lm (θ, φ) = f lm (θ)g m (φ)

L = l(l + 1)

1

L z = m

para

para

l = 0, 1, 2, 3,

m = 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, , ±l

R nl (r)=e Zr/na 0 Zr

a

0

l L nl Zr

a

0

ξ n

= µk 2 Z 2 e 4

2

2 n 2

=Z 2 ξ 1

n

2

ξ n 13.6 eV

n

2

a 0 = 2

µke 2

n

=

1,

2,

3,

l

=

0, 1, 2, 3,

m

= l, l + 1,

, n 1

, 0,

, + l 1, + l

m = 0 ou ± 1

a

b

l = ±1

sin 2 (u) du = u 2

1

4 sin (2u)

b

a

a

0

0

x 2 e βx dx = 2

β

3

x 2 sin 2 (γx) dx = 4a 3 γ 3 + 3 sin (2aγ)

24γ 3 6(sin (2) + cos (2))

24γ

3

sin () = 0

para

l = 0, 2, 4,

ψ 100

ψ

200

ψ 210

ψ 21±1

=

=

=

=

1

0 3/2 e r/a 0

a

1

π

21 ± 1 = = = = 1 0 3 / 2 e − r/a 0

C 200 2Zr

a

0

e Zr/2a 0

C 210

Zr

e Zr/2a 0 cos θ

a

0

Zr

C 21±1

e Zr/2a 0 cos θ e ±

a

0

P (r) dr = ψ ψ 4πr 2 dr

a

b

e 2γ/a 0 r 2 dr = 4γ 2 + 2γr + 2

8

1

L

V

µ B = q 2m e

=

q

2M

=µ z B

µ= l(l + 1)g L µ B

µ z = mg L µ B

S = s (s + 1)

S z =m s

m s = +1/2 ou 1/2

1

a

3 e 2γ

0

b

a

J z =m j

1

J= L+ S

1

1

|J|= j (j + 1)

onde

m j = j, j + 1, , j 1, j