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Circulatory System

a. Heart - bone marrow produces

- essential in the system abnormal white blood cells
- cardiac muscles for blood - may be acute (immature
distribution blood cells that can’t
b. Veins & Arteries function normally) or
- just as essential in the chronic (mature blood cells
system which produce too many or
- main site for blood too few)
transport & distribution - causes: previous cancer
treatment, genetic
disorders, smoking (acute
myelogenous leukemia),
1. Angina Pectoris family history of leukemia
- angina = localized pain - symptoms: fever/chills,
- pectoris = relating to the fatigue, weakness, weight
chest loss, swollen lymph nodes,
- lack of blood flow to enlarged liver or spleen,
heart (usually temporary) easy bleeding or bruising,
- may signify heart recurrent nosebleeds,
disorders excessive sweating, bone
- occurs with vomiting, pain or tenderness
neck, jaw or back
discomfort, and sweating 4. Stroke
- two types: stable (during - occurs when the blood
physical stress) & unstable supply to part of your brain
(severe – occurs at rest) is interrupted or reduced,
depriving brain tissue of
2. Myocardial Infarction oxygen and nutrients
- myo = muscle; cardial = - Ischemic Stroke: arteries
heart. to the brain become narrow
- infarction = obstruction or blocked
of blood - Hemorrhagic Stroke: blood
- severe obstruction of vessel in the brain leaks or
blood to heart muscle ruptures
- results to severe death of - causes: overweight or
muscle tissue obese, high cholesterol,
- causes: stress, obesity, diabetes, physical
lack of exercise & inactivity, heavy drinking &
underlying heart-related use of illicit drugs,
conditions obstructive sleep apnea,
personal or family history
3. Leukemia of stroke
- cancer of the body’s - symptoms: trouble with
blood-forming tissues speaking and understanding,
- white blood cells = seeing in one or both eyes,
infection fighters paralysis or numbness of the
face, arm or leg, & headache
5. Hypertension
- greater force exerted by
the blood against the walls Technologies
of the blood vessels
- symptoms: headache, 1. Fat Attenuation Index
fatigue, chest pain & - measure the level of fat
difficulty breathing that restricts blood flow
- avoid sweets, salty and 2. Smart Watches
oily food - wearable technologies that
measure heart rate
6. Atherosclerosis - encourage physical
- buildup of plaque (fats, activity and allow for early
cholesterol and other detection
substances) in and on your 3. Watchman
artery walls, which can - permanent heart implant to
restrict blood flow. reduce the risk of stroke
- when plaques suddenly - designed to close off the
rupture, it can cause: left atrial appendage to
1. stroke (brain) keep stroke-causing blood
2. heart attack (heart) clots from escaping
4. Percutaneous Coronary
7. Aneurysms Intervention
- the enlargement of an
- procedure to open arteries
artery caused by weakness in
that are closed/blocked
the arterial wall
- non-surgical procedure
- aortic, cerebral and
that uses catheters to
peripheral aneurysms
narrow the arteries
- aneurysm rupture causes:
1. severe chest or back 5. Blood Pressure Monitor
pain - used to keep track with
2. angina: chest pain the force exerted by blood
that can lead to heart to the walls of the blood
attack vessel
3. sudden extreme head 6. Angioplasty and Stenting
ache if brain - opens a blocked vessel and
aneurysms lead to improve blood flow
subarachnoid 7. Cerebral Angiogram
hemorrhage (SAH) which - a diagnostic test that
is a stroke. uses an X-ray
- produces an image to find
blockages or other
abnormalities in the blood
vessels of your head and
- safe and effective way to
diagnose and treat brain
- catheter is inserted in
the groin for the cerebral