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01 Compulsory Courses 07 19

02 General Courses 08 21

03 Foundation Courses 11 29

04 Major Courses 18 57

05 Electives Courses 02 06

LAYOUT / FRAMEWORK

English I 3

English II 3

Pakistan Studies 2

Islamic Studies 2

Calculus-I 3

Compulsory Computer Programing 3

Calculus-II 3

Total 19

General Courses Physical Chemistry 3

Bio Physics 3

Numerical Analysis 3

Linear Algebra 3

Differential Equations 3

Arabic 3

Marketing 3

GOF/GRF social science courses from

following list:

3

a. Sociology

3

b. Mass Communication

3

c. Economics

3

d. Marketing

3

e. Environmental Policy

3

f. Psychology

3

g. Fine Arts

3

h. Political Science

3

i. International Affairs

3

j. Public Administration

3

k. Arabic

Total 21

GRF: General Subjects from Science Faculty

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Mechanics 3

Electromagnetism-I 3

Foundation Courses Electromagnetism-II 3

Thermodynamics 3

Waves and & Optics 3

Modern Physics 3

Introduction to quantum physics 3

Lab-I 2

Lab-II 2

Lab-III 2

Lab-IV 2

Total 29

Quantum Mechanics–I 3

Quantum Mechanics–II 3

Classical Mechanics 3

Major Courses Basic Electronics 3

Computational Physics 3

Mathematical Methods of Physics–I 3

Mathematical Methods of Physics–II 3

Electrodynamics-I 3

Electrodynamics-II 3

Statistical Mechanics & Thermal Physics 3

Nuclear Physics 3

Solid State Physics 3

Atomic Physics 3

Research Project 6

Lab-V 3

Lab-VI 3

Lab-VII 3

Lab-VIII 3

Total 57

Elective Courses Elective – I 3

Elective – II 3

Note

These courses will be selected from the list of

elective courses.

Total 6

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SEMESTER-WISE BREAKUP

SEMESTER I

PHY -1101 English-I (C) 3

PHY -1102 Islamic Studies (C) 2

PHY -1103 Computer Programming (C) 3

PHY -1104 Mechanics (F) 3

PHY -1105 Calculus-I (C) 3

PHY -1106 Basic Lab-I (F) 2

Total 16

SEMESTER II

PHY -1201 English-II (C) 3

PHY -1202 Pakistan Studies (C) 2

PHY -1203 Electromagnetism-I (F) 3

PHY -1204 Calculus II (C) 3

PHY -1205 Marketing or (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 2

PHY -1206 Basic Lab-II (F) 3

Total 16

SEMESTER III

PHY -2301 Electromagnetism-II 3

PHY -2302 Waves & Optics (F) 3

PHY -2303 Linear Algebra or (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 3

PHY -2304 Modern Physics (F) 3

PHY -2305 Numerical Analysis or (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 2

PHY -2306 Basic Lab-III (F) 3

Total 17

SEMESTER IV

PHY -2401 Thermodynamics (F) 3

PHY -2402 Introduction to Quantum Physics (F) 3

PHY -2403 Arabic (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 2

PHY -2404 Physical Chemistry (G) 3

PHY -2405 Bio Photonics (G) 3

PHY -2406 Basic Lab-IV (F) 3

Total 17

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SEMESTER V

Code Name of Subject Credits

PHY- 3501 Method of Mathematical Physics-I (M) 3

PHY- 3502 Classical Mechanics (M) 3

PHY- 3503 Basic Electronics (M) 3

PHY- 3504 Electromagnetic Theory-I (M) 3

PHY- 3505 Physics Lab-I (M) (Electronics) 3

Total 15

SEMESTER VI

Code Name of Subject Credits

PHY- 3601 Method of Mathematical Physics-II (M) 3

PHY- 3602 Electromagnetic Theory-II (M) 3

PHY- 3603 Solid State Physics (M) 3

PHY- 3604 Atomic Physics (M) 3

PHY- 3605 Physics Lab -II (Solid State Physics) (M) 3

Total 15

SEMESTER VII

Code Name of Subject Credits

PHY- 4701 Nuclear Physics 3

PHY- 4702 Quantum Mechanics – I 3

PHY- 4703 Computational Physics 3

PHY- 4704 Physics Lab -III (Nuclear Physics) 3

PHY-47(5-7) Elective Course – I 3

PHY- 4708/ Final Year Project/ Optional course 3

PHY-47(09-15)

Total 18

SEMESTER VIII

Code Name of Subject Credits

PHY- 4801 Statistical Mechanics and Thermal Physics 3

PHY- 4802 Quantum Mechanics-II 3

PHY- 4803 Physics Lab -IV (General Physics) 3

PHY- 48(4-6) Elective course-II 3

PHY- 4807 /

Final year Project/ optional Course 3

PHY-48(08-13)

PHY-48(08-13) Optional Course 3

Total 18

Note: All courses and labs from semester V and on ward semesters will be same for B.S and

M.Sc. programs.

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LIST OF ELECTIVE COURSES

PHY-4705 Electronics-I 3

PHY-4706 Solid State Physics-I 3

PHY-4707 Nuclear Physics-I 3

PHY-4804 Electronics-II 3

PHY-4805 Solid State Physics-II 3

PHY-4806 Nuclear Physics-II 3

Note: The elective courses opted in 7th and 8th semester must be related to each other.

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OPTIONAL COURSES

PHY- 4709 Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy 3

PHY- 4710 Semiconductor Physics 3

PHY- 4711 Introduction to Nano Technology 3

PHY- 4712 Laser 3

PHY- 4713 Particle Physics 3

PHY- 4714 Research Methodology & Skill Enhancement 3

PHY- 4715 Introduction to Quantum Computing 3

PHY- 4808 Methods of Experimental Physics 3

PHY- 4809 Digital Electronics 3

PHY- 4810 Plasma Physics 3

PHY- 4811 Quantum Electronics 3

PHY- 4812 Quantum Optics 3

PHY- 4813 Environmental Physics 3

Note: The selection of optional courses will depend upon the availability of qualified staff

and laboratory facilities.

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Item No. 04

system

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SEMESTER-I

PHY -1101 English-I (C) 3

PHY -1102 Islamic Studies (C) 2

PHY -1103 Computer Programming (C) 3

PHY -1104 Mechanics (F) 3

PHY -1105 Calculus-I (C) 3

PHY -1106 Basic Lab-I (F) 2

Total 16

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PHY-1101 ENGLISH-I

Basics of Grammar, Parts of speech and use of articles, Sentence structure, active and passive

voice, Practice in unified sentence, Analysis of phrase, clause and sentence structure,

Transitive and intransitive verbs , Punctuation and spelling, Comprehension: Answers to

questions on a given text, Discussion: General topics and every-day conversation (topics for

discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students),

Listening: To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject

teachers, Translation skills: Urdu to English, Paragraph writing: Topics to be chosen at the

discretion of the teacher, Presentation skills: Introduction.

Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 1. Third

edition. Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0194313492

2. Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. Third

edition. Oxford University Press. 1997. ISBN 0194313506

3. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin, Suzanne Brinand and Francoise

Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 0 19 435405 7

Pages 20-27 and 35-4

4. Reading. Upper Intermediate. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary

Skills. Third Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.

human life, place of man in the universe, purpose of creation, textual study of Surah al-

Rehman and Surah al- Furqan, Prophethood, need for prophet, characteristics of a prophet,

finality of prophethood, seerat; life of prophet as embodiment of Islamic ideology, faith in

hereafter aakhrat, effects of belief on worldly life.Ibadah: Concepts of Ibadah, Salat, Saom,

Zakat, Hajj and jehad. The Holy Quran: Its revelation and compilation, The authencity of the

text, Hadith: Its need, authenticity and importance. Consensus (Ijma), analogy (Qiyas).

Sources of Knowledge: Islamic approach to institution, Reason and experience. Revelation

Wahi as a souce knowledge. Moral and social Philosophy of Islam: The concept of good and

evil, Akhlaq -e- Hasna with special reference to surah Al- Hujrat, Professional Ethics Kasb-e-

Halal. Islamic Political Principles: Salient feature of the Islamic state, Madina character,

Responsibilities of the Head of the state, Rights and Duties of Citizens. Economics Oder of

Islam: Right to property, System of Taxation, Distribution of Wealth Zakat and Ushar,

Interest Free Economy Shirakat and Muzarabat. Islam as Living Force: Application of Islam

Teaching to Socio- Economic Development in the 20th Century.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Muhanmmad, H. “Emergence of Islam”, IRI, Islamabad.

2. Muhanmmad, H. “Muslim Conduct of State”

3. Muhanmmad, H. „Introduction to Islam

5. Hussan, H. H. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication

Islamabad, Pakistan.

6. Hasan, A. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research

Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad (1993)

7. Mir, W. 1982. “Muslim Jurisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes”

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Islamic Book Service.

8. Bhatia, H.S. 1989. “Studies in Islamic Law, Religion and Society” Deep & Deep

Publications New Delhi.

9. Muhammad, Zia-ul-Haq.2001. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama

Iqbal Open University, Islamabad.

languages; algorithms; The turbo C Programming Environment: Setting up the IDE. Files

used in C program development. Basic structure of a C program, The programming

language: The C Character set. Constants, variables and keywords. Types of C constants,

Types of variables. C Instructions. Type declaration Instruction. Arithmetic Instruction,

C Building Blocks: Fundamental Data Types, Declaration. Expressions. Assignment.

Input/Output, Operations. Comments, Loops: The for loop, the while loop, the do while

loop Nesting of loops. Multiple initializations in the for loop. The break Statement. The

switch statement, Decisions: The if statement. The if–else statement. The else-if

statements, Functions: Definition. Purpose. Simple functions. Functions that return a

value. Passing values between functions. Call by value and call by reference. Using more

than one function, External variables, Arrays and strings: What are Arrays, Array

initializations, bound checking. Passing array elements to a function. 2-and 3-

Dimensional arrays. Strings, Pointers: Returning data from function .Pointers and array.

Passing an entire array to a function. Pointers and strings, Structures- Unions:

Structures- Union: Declaring a structure, accessing structure elements. Arrays of

structures. Uses of structures. Union. Union of structures.

PHY-1104 MECHANICS

Measurements, Motion in one Dimension. Force and Newton‟s Laws. Motion in two and

Three Dimensions, application of Newton‟s Law, linear Momentum, Collisions, center of

mass, frame of reference, System of particles, Rotational Kinematics, rotational

Dynamics, rotational inertia Angular Momentum, Energy: Work, kinetic Energy.

Gravitation, fluid Dynamics, special theory of Relativity.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Hallidy, Resnick and Krane, Physics, 5th ed. Vol.1, John Wiley and Sons, New York,

2002

2. Roger A. Freedman Hugh D. University Physics, 11th ed., Ben.-Cumm,Inc.

3. Serway and Jewett, Physics for Scientist and Engineers 6th ed. John Wiley and Sons,

2000.

PHY-1105 CALCULUS-I

Introduction, real numbers, intervals, absolute values and its properties, coordinates planes

and graphs, lines, functions, operation on functions, graph of functions, shifting of graph

limits, continuity, graphical and analytical approach. The derivatives, geometrical meanings

of derivatives, tangent lines and rate of changes. Derivatives of Trigonometric functions,

inverse trigonometric functions, the chain rules, implicit differentiation, differential

derivative of hyperbolic, inverse hyperbolic, logarithmic, exponent function, first order

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differential equation and application, increase and decrease, concavity relative extrema, first

and second derivatives test, Maximum and minimum of a function, applied maximum and

minimum problem, L‟ hospital rules integration, basic rules of integration, formula of

integration, integration by parts, by substitutions, partial fraction definite integrals, Riemann

sur theorems of definite integral, first and second fundamental theorems of calculus definite

integral with property areas between curves, Disk and washer, volumes by cylindrical shell

and slicim length of plane curves, Area of surface of revolution, First order differential

equation and applications, Roll‟s theorem, mean values theorem and its application, improper

integral, convergent and divergence of integrals, straight line in R3, Planes, Cylindrical and

Spherical coordinate surfaces, cylinders and cones, sphere, spherical trigonometry.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Calculus and analytical Geometry, by Thomas & Finny. 10th Edition.

2. Calculus & Analytical Geometry, by Howard anton, 7th Edition

3. Calculus & Analytical Geometry, by S.M. Yosuf.

4. Calculus & Analytical Geometry, by SkowSky. 6th Edition.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Measurement of techniques

2. Measurement of basic constant length, weight and time.

3. Moments

4. Modulus of elasticity

5. Mechanical hysteresis

6. Hook‟s Law

7. Tree fall

8. Determine the value of „g‟ by krater‟s reversible pendulum.

9. Determine the moment of inertia of a body by means of a torsion pendulum.

10. Determine the moment of inertia of a fly wheel.

11. Determine the young‟s Modulus of a wire by Searle‟s apparatus.

12. Determine the Modulus of rigidity of a wire by using Maxwell‟s needle. (Dynamical

method)

13. Determine the elastic constants of a wire by Searl‟s tube method.

14. Determine the co-efficient of viscosity of water by capillary flow method.

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SEMESTER- II

PHY -1201 English-II (C) 3

PHY -1202 Pakistan Studies (C) 2

PHY -1203 Electromagnetism-I (F) 3

PHY -1204 Calculus-II (C) 3

PHY -1205 Marketing or (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 2

PHY -1206 Basic Lab-II (F) 3

Total 16

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PHY-1201 ENGLISH-II

(Communication Skills)

Paragraph writing, Practice in writing a good, unified and coherent paragraph, Essay writing,

Introduction, CV and job application, Translation skills, Urdu to English, Study skills,

Skimming and scanning, intensive and extensive, and speed reading, summary, and précis

writing and comprehension, Academic skills, Letter/memo writing, minutes of meetings, use

of library and internet, Presentation skills, Personality development (emphasis on content,

style and pronunciation)

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Practical English Grammar by A.J. Thomson and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. Third

edition. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 431350 6.

2. Writing. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin, Suzanne Brinand and Francoise

Grellet. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth Impression 1993. ISBN 019 435405 7

Pages 45-53 (note taking).

3. Writing. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Fourth

Impression 1992. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos,

introduction to presentations, descriptive and argumentative writing).

4. Reading. Advanced. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Oxford Supplementary Skills.

Third Impression 1991. ISBN 0 19 453403 0.

5. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan

6. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky.

An over View of the British Rule in the sub-continent, two nation theory & role of Sir

Sayyed for the revival of Muslims, major political organization (congress muslim league),

Constitutional reforms, Constitutional & political struggle (separate electrolate, Lucknow

Pact ), Tehrik –e-Khilafat, Nehru Report, Jinnah‟s 14 point, e-Allah Abad Address 1930,

Round table conferences, Election of 1937 and Congress Minstries, Pakistan Moment (1940-

47), Crips proposal 1942, Wavell plane and shimla conference 1945, Election of 1945-46,

Cabinet mission plan 1946, 3rd June plane and Red cliff award, Pakistan's Immediate

Problems: Administrative problems, problems of Refuges, Problems of Accession of

states(Kashmir, Hyderabad, June Garh), Distribution of Assets, Canal Water dispute, political

and constitutional Development, Hurdles of Constitution Making, 1956 constitution, Islamic

clauses) 1962 constitution (Islamic clauses) and Ayub Era, Yahya Regime and first General

election 1970, Bhutto in power 1973 constitution (Islamic clauses), Zia government steps for

Islamization, Era of Democracy (1988-1999), Pakistan‟s foreign policy: Relations with USA,

Soviet union, Relations with neighboring countries (India, china, Iran, Afghanistan),

Relations with Saudi Arabia and Turkey, Pakistan and International Organizations (UNO,

OIC, ECO,SAARC), M.D. Zafar, Pakistan studies, Aziz Book Depot Urdu Bazzar Lahore.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Sheikh Muhammad Rafique, Pakistan studies, urdu Bazar Lahore

2. Sheikh Muhammad Rafique, History of Pakistan, urdu Bazar Lahore.

22 of 61

PHY-1203 ELECTROMAGNETISM-I

Brief review of vector calculus, the electrostatic field, coulombs law, divergence and curl of

electrostatic fields, electric potential, work and energy in electrostatic. Electrostatic boundary

value problems, field mapping: Laplace equation, uniqueness, separation of variable, poisons

equation, method of images, multiple expansions, Electric field in dielectric, Electric

polarization, The field of polarized objects, dielectric displacement, linear dielectrics.

Magnetostatic, steady currents and their magnetic fields, the biot-savart law, the divergence

and curl of B field, magnetic vector potential. Magnetic field in matter (H), Magnetization,

the fields of magnetized object, the auxiliary field of H field, Linear and non linear media,

Electrodynamics, Electromotive force, electromagnetic induction, Maxwell‟s equations,

Electromagnetic waves.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introduction to electrodynamics (2nd edition) by David J. Griffiths

2. Electromagnetic theory (4th edition) by Reitz, Milford and Christy

3. Electromagnetic fields and waves (3rd edition) by Lorrain, Corson and Lorrain.

PHY-1204 CALCULUS-II

convergence test Alternating sequence, conditional convergence, Power series Taylor‟s and

Maclaurin‟s series, differential and integration of series. Arc length in polar, Cartesian,

parametric curves, surface area, area in polar and Cartesian form of curves. Area of

revolution in polar and Cartesian forms. Conversion of systems, Unit tangent and normal

Vectors, Curvature and radius of Curvature, Motion along a curve. Function of several

variables, homogeneous function Euler theorem, Partial derivatives, Laplace equation.

Differentiability and chain rules, Tangent planes, total differential, Directional Derivatives

Gradient of two functions Function of n- Variables maxima and minima of two functions

Lagrange Multipliers Double integral, triple integrals Centroid, center of Gravity, Total mass.

Triple integrals, Jacobians, triple integrals in cylindrical and Spherical coordinates.

Introduction to conic section, rotation of axes, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola, Sketching of

conics Volumes of Surfaces, complex numbers: DeMoivre's theorem and its applications,

Complex functions, analytical functions, harmonic and conjugate, harmonic functions,

Cauchy- Rehmunn equations (in Cartesian and polar coordinates). Line integrals, Green‟s

theorem, Cauchy' theorem, Chauchy's integral formula, singularities, poles, residues and

contour integration and applications.

RECOM ENDED BOOKS

1. Calculus & Analytical Geometry, by Thomas & Finny, 10th Edition

2. Calculus & Analytical Geometry, by Howard Anton, 7th Ed

3. Calculus & Analytical Geometry, by S.M. Yousaf

4. Calculus & Analytical Geometry, by Skowsky, 6th Edition.

PHY-1205 MARKETING

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PHY-1206 BASIC LAB-II

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

ELECTROMAGNETISM

1. Experiment with transmission lines

2. Measurement of transistor hybrid parameters

3. Transistor pulse –circuitry (three types of flip flop and the Schmidt trigger circuit).

4. Design of L.F.R.C coupled amplifier and a study of its characteristics.

5. Earth‟s Magnetic field

6. Magnetic field of single coils /Biot savarts law

7. Magnetic moment in the magnetic field

8. Hall Effect voltage with variation of current applied to the system using Helmholtz coil.

9. To find the energy loss per cycle for a specimen by drawing BH-curve

10. To study the characteristics of a SQUID (superconducting quantum interference

device).

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SEMESTER- III

PHY -2301 Electromagnetism-II 3

PHY -2302 Waves & Optics (F) 3

PHY -2303 Linear Algebra or (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 3

PHY -2304 Modern Physics (F) 3

PHY -2305 Numerical Analysis or (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 2

PHY -2306 Basic Lab-III (F) 3

Total 17

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PHY-2301 ELECTROMAGNETISM-II

Maxwell‟s field equation equations, Vector and scalar potentials, gauge transformations,

Conservation laws, Macroscopic electromagnetism. Electromagnetic Waves:

Electromagnetic Waves vacuum, Electromagnetic waves in matter, Absorption and

dispersion. Potential and fields: The potential formulation, continuous distributions, point

charges, radiations, Lienard- Wiechert potentials. Relativistic Formulation of

Electromagnetism: Relativistic kinematics; generalization of Maxwell‟s equations, Field-

theoretic approach and quantization concepts, Comments on quantum electrodynamics and

beyond.

RECOMKNDED BOOKS

1. David J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics (2nd Ed)

2. J.D Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition (Wiley,1999)

3. Corson and Lorrain Electrodynamics Fields & Waves 3rd edition.

Oscillating systems, simple harmonic oscillator, simple harmonic motion, Energy in SHM,

Applications of SHM, SHM and uniform circular motion, Damped oscillations, Forced

oscillation and resonance. Two body oscillations, Types of waves, Traveling waves, wave

speed on stretched string, The wave equation, Energy in wave motion, the principle of

Superposition, Interference of waves, standing waves, standing waves and resonance,

properties of sound waves, Travelling sound waves and speed of sound, power and intensity

of sound waves, Interference of sound waves, Standing longitudinal waves, vibrating systems

and sources of sounds, beats, The Doppler effect, The electromagnetic spectrum, visible light,

The speed of light, refraction and reflection of light, Total internal reflection, The Doppler

effect for light, Image formation by mirrors and lenses, plane mirror, spherical mirror,

spherical refracting surfaces, lenses, optical instrument, Two-source interference, interference

in thin films, Michelson‟s interferometer, Diffraction and wave theory of light, single slit

diffraction, Intensity in double slit diffraction, Diffraction at a circular aperture, Double- slit

interference and diffraction combined, Multiple slits, diffraction grating, dispersion and

resolving power, X-ray diffraction, Polarization of electromagnetic waves, polarizing sheets,

Polarization by reflection, Double refraction, Circular polarization, polarization by scattering.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Hallidy, Resnick and Krane, Physics, 5th ed. Vol.1, John Wiley and Sons, New York,

2002

2. Roger A. Freedman Hugh D. University Physics, 11th ed., Ben.-Cumm,Inc.

3. Serway and Jewett, Physics for Scientist and Engineers 6th ed. John Wiley and Sons.

26 of 61

PHY-2303 LINEAR ALGEBRA

System of Linear Equations: Basic concepts. Standard matrix form, Inverse of matrix, Matrix

operations, Elementary row and column operation Echelon & Reduce Echelon form System

of homogeneous & non- homogeneous linear equations (Gauss Elimination and Gauss-

Jordan). Application of linear equations, Linear Dependence & Independence sets of vectors,

Linear Transformations. Vector spaces: Definitions, Properties of vector spaces, vector

spaces and subspaces, Basic, Dimensions of vector space, Eigen vector & Eigen value,

Characteristic Equations, Eigen vectors and Linear Transformations, Inner Product, Length

and Orthogonality sets, Gram Schmidt process, Inner Product Spaces.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Linear algebra and its application (3rd edition) by David C. Lay.

2. Advance Engineering Mathematics by Ervin KAREYZIG, 9th Edition.

3. Elementary Linear Algebra (8th edition) by ANTON.

ultraviolet catastrophe, Planck's quantization. Wave-Particle Duality, Photoelectric effect,

Compton effect, production and properties of X-rays, diffraction of X-rays, concept of

matter waves, de Broglie relationship, electrons are waves, electron diffraction,

particulate nature of matter, contributions of Faraday (atoms exist), Thomson (electron

exists), Rutherford (nucleus exists) and Bohr (quantization of energies inside an atom),

wave packets and wave groups, dispersion, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, direct

confirmation of quantization through Franck-Hertz experiment and spectroscopy, working of

electron microscopes. Nuclear Structure, Size and structure of nucleus, nuclear forces,

radioactivity and nuclear reactions, radiocarbon dating.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. R.A. Serway, C.J. Moses and C.A. Moyer, “Modern Physics”, Brooks Cole, 3rd ed.

2004.

2. Paul A. Tipler and Ralph A. Llewellyn, “Modern Physics”, W H Freeman and

Company 6th ed. 2012.

3. Arthur Beiser, “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw-Hill, 6th ed. 2002.

4. R. M. Eisberg and R. Resnick, “Quantum Physics of Atoms, molecules, Solids,

Nuclei and Particles”, John Wiley, 2nd ed. 2002.

Numerical computation, Measures of error, finite precision arithmetic and associated pitfalls,

round off error, truncation error, computational complexity, Non- Linear equations in one

variable, Bisection method, Newton‟s Method, Secant Method, Roots of Polynomials,

multiple roots, complex roots, factoring, Applications, System of linear equations, Gauss

elimination with back substitution, Complexity of Gauss elimination, LU decomposition,

Eigen Values, Iterative methods for Linear equations, interpolation and approximation,

polynomial interpolation, cubic splines, least square polynomial approximation, numerical

differentiation, Trapezoidal and Simpson‟s Rules, Romberg Integration, Gaussian

Quadrature, solution of ordinary differential equation, Euler‟s Method, Runge-Kuta Method,

step-size control time permitting, multi-step methods time permitting.

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RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Richard L. brden, J. Dauglas Faires, Numerical Analysis 9th Ed. Cengage Learning,

2011.

2. Timothy Sauer, Numerical Analysis 9th Ed., 2007.

3. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal, “An introduction to Numerical Analysis”, Ilmi kitab Khana

Lahore.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

LIST A (ELECTROMAGNETISM)

1. Magnetic induction.

2. Inductance of solenoid.

3. Capacitor in AC circuit.

4. Rectifier circuits.

5. RC Filters.

6. High-pass & low-pass filters.

7. RLS measuring bridge.

8. Resistance, phase shift and power in AC circuits.

9. To plot I-H curve for a material by a magnetometer. Also determine magnetic constants

for that material.

10. To determine charge sensitivity of Ballistic galvanometer.

11. To compare capacitances of two capacitors by Ballistic galvanometer.

LIST B (OPTICS)

12. To determine wavelength of sodium light by Fresnel‟s biprism.

13. To determine wavelength of sodium light by diffracting grating using spectrometer.

14. To determine resolving power of diffracting grating rings.

15. To determine the diameter of lycopodium particles by corona rings.

16. To determine specific rotation of sugar (glucose) by polarimeter.

17. To measure vertical distance between two inaccessible points (height of an

inaccessible object) by extant.

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SEMESTER- IV

PHY -2401 Thermodynamics (F) 3

PHY -2402 Introduction to Quantum Physics (F) 3

PHY -2403 Arabic or (As offered by the Dept.) (G) 2

PHY -2404 Physical Chemistry (G) 3

PHY -2405 Bio Photonics (G) 3

PHY -2406 Basic Lab-IV (F) 3

Total 17

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PHY-2401 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS

Quantum Mechanics in One Dimension: The concept of a wave function, time independent

Schrodinger equation and interpretation of the equation, solving the Schrodinger equation for

a free particle, for a particle inside an infinite box, relationship between confinement and

quantization, working of a CCD camera. Quantum Mechanical Tunneling: Concept of

tunneling, reflection and transmission of wave functions from barriers, applications:

radioactivity, scanning tunneling microscope, decay of black holes. Quantum Mechanics in

Three Dimensions: The Hydrogen atom, orbitals, angular momentum and its quantization,

orbital magnetism, Zeeman effect, concept of spin, Pauli‟s exclusion principle, Building of

the periodic table, magnetic resonance and MRI, why is iron magnetic? White dwarfs,

and neutron stars. From Atoms to Molecules and Solids: Ionic bonds, covalent bonds,

hydrogen bonds, molecular orbitals, how crystals are different from amorphous solids?

Why and how do metals conduct electricity? Bands in solids, semiconductors, introduction

to LED's and lasers, introducing grapheme.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. R.A. Serway, C.J. Moses and C.A. Moyer, “Modern Physics”,Brooks Cole, 3 rd ed.

2004.

2. Paul A.Tipler and Ralph A. Llewellyn, “Modern Physics”, W H Freeman and

Company 6th ed. 2012.

3. Arthur Beiser, “Concepts of Modern Physics”, McGraw-Hill, 6th ed. 2002.

4. R. M. Eisberg and R. Resnick, “Quantum Physics of Atoms, molecules, Solids,

Nuclei and Particles”, John Wiley, 2nd ed. 2002.

PHY-2402 THERMODYNAMICS

temperature, Thermal expansion, Ideal Gas, Molecular properties of Gases. The atomic

nature of matter, a molecular view of pressure, the mean free path, the distribution of

molecular speeds and molecular energies, Equation of state, intermolecular forces, concepts

of Heat, The first law of thermodynamics. Heat capacity and specific heat, work done on or

by an ideal gas, the internal energy of an ideal gas, heat capacity of an ideal gas, Application

of first law of thermodynamics, one-way processes, Defining entropy change, entropy change

for reversible processes, The second law of thermodynamics, entropy and the performance of

engines and refrigerators, the efficiencies of real Engines, The second law revisted, A

statistical Review of entropy.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Halliday, Resnick and Krane, “physics” 5th Ed., Vol 1, John Wiley and Sons.

2. Roger A. Freedman Hugh D. “University Physics”, 11th Ed., Ben.-Cumm., Pub

3. Serway and Jewett, “Physics for Scientists and Engineers 6th Ed.”, John Wiley and

Sons.

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PHY-2403 ARABIC

ادلرساالول

امس،لعف،رحف،یکرعتافیت،اثمںیل اامسےئاشاراتاناکاامعتسل،اثمںیل رعیباافلظ،اعمین۔ ٭

املکتااہفتسم،معن ،لب،اکاامعتسلواہلثم ٭

ادلرسااثلین

امضئرہلصتمرعیبولمجںںیماامعتسل،قشم اافلظاعمین،امضئریکااسقم ٭

ادلرسااثلل

رمبکااضیف،رعتفی۔اہلثم السیل،لیست،رحوفیفنیکرعتافیتواہلثم اافلظ،اعمین ٭

رعیبےلمج،ئرہمج،قشم

ادلرسااسلدس

وقادععمجرسکماوراثمںیل،قشم عمجیکااسقماوراثمںیل وادح،عمج ٭

ادلرسااسلعب

وقادعلعفامیض،واہلثم،قشم لعفامیضیکاثمںیل لعفامیض،رعتفیاملکت ٭

ادلرسااثلنم

وقادعلعفاضمرع،اکمہمل۔قشم لعفاضمرع،واہلثم لعفاضمرع،املکت ٭

ادلرسااتلعس

وقادعلعففنصمواثمںیل۔قشم لعففنصمواہلثم لعففنصمواملکت ٭

ادلرسااعلرش

وقادع،قشم لعفحیحص،لعفلتعم،اثمںیل۔ لعفحیحص،لعفلتعم،املکت ٭

ادلرسااحلدیرشع

ل

اامسءا خمستہ،قشم ذمرکومن،اثمںیل۔ ذمرکومن،املکت ٭

ادلرسااثلینرشع

وقعدواہلثم وقادعوادعاد ادعادواہلثم ادعاد ٭

ادلرسااثللرشعہ

ای۔مکاہلثم مک۔ایاوراناکاامعتسل ٭

ادلرسارلاعبرشعہ

اثمںیل،ےلمج امسافلع،املکت ٭

ادلرسااخلزمرشعہ

ع لجلس

ےلمج،اثمںیل ا ضااءا م ٭

ادلرسااسلدسرشعہ

املکتواہلثم ٭

ادلرسااسلعبرشعہ

ہلمجاہیمسوہلمجہیلعف ٭

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ادلرسااشلنمرشعہ

اخمرجارحلوف،رمقہی،رحوفشمستہ،رحوفیقلح رحوف َمدہ،رحوفالہجلااء ٭

ادلرسااتلعسرشعہ

ل

ا ممررضتہ،امالمجالضتااء،ُداع االنادیشااتخملرہ ٭

ٹسکیٹ ُ لبااسللنارعلیب۔العہماابقلاونپویوینریٹساالسمآنلادنااتسکن

Bohrs atomic model and its defects dual nature of electron , Compton effect, Schrodinger

equation of particle in one and three dimension box, Gauss law, kinetic gauss equation,

Vander walls equation, critical phenomenon, liquid identification of gases, specific heat

(molar heat capacity), surface tension, viscosity, osmic pressure, BH buffer solution,

Spectrophotometry, Basic concepts of colloid chemistry, classification, purification (dialysis),

chemical thermodynamics, Hess‟s law, Heat reaction, Relation between H and U

measurement of heat reaction, Bomb calorimeter, laws of electrolysis, E.M.F. series,

corrosion (Theories , inhibition and protection), Types of bonds, Orbital hybridization,

Metallic bonding, Hydrogen bonding, Laws of thermodynamics, entropy, Carnot cycle,

properties and generation composition of metals and alloys such as iron, copper, Aluminum,

chromium, zinc, uses in engineering field, inorganic chemistry of engineering materials:

cement, Glass. Organic Engineering Materials: polymers, Rubbers, Plastics, Paints,

Semiconductors and Dielectric materials, Le- chastiser‟s principle, Law of mass action,

Applications.

RECOMENDED BOOKS

1. Peter W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, W.H. freeman Company,2001

2. Gordon M. Barrow, Physical Chemistry, 5th edition , Tata McGraw-Hill Co.,1994

3. Ghulam Nabi, Physical Chemistry, Ilmi Kitab Khana Urdu Bazar Lahore, 1998.

Review of Optics, geometric optics, wave optics, radiometry and fiber optics. Optical

instrument: microscope grating spectrometer, Polarimetry, Optical properties of tissue-

absorption and scattering. Monte Carlo simulation, Beer‟s law optical phase function,

Spectroscopy: Light matter interaction, theoretical models, Applications of theoretical

models, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Optical Coherence tomography, Fluorescence and

Fluorescence recovery, Confocal microscopy, fiber optic sensors, Medical imaging.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Prasad, Introduction to Biophotonic

2. E. Collett, Polarized Light: Fundamentals and applications

3. V. V. Tuchin, Optical Polarization in biomedical applications

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PHY-2406 OPTICS LAB

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. To prove the Rutherford law of scattering of charged particles.

2. Measurement of the spectrum of gamma rays from a radioisotope and study of their

phenomenon and Compton absorption.

3. To examine the stopping-power of various substances for thermal neutrons.

4. Determination of the charge on an electron (e) by Millikan‟s method.

5. Fabry-Perot interferometer used as a gas refractometer.

6. Nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.) of protons in water.

7. Determination of range of alpha particles.

8. Stopping power for alpha particles in air equivalent of Mica, Ag, Cu and Al.

9. Absorption co-efficient of alpha particles using as electroscope.

10. Characteristic curves of Geiger Muller counter.

11. Absorption co-efficient of Beta and gamma rays using G.M. Counter.

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SEMESTER-V

PHY- 3501 Method of Mathematical Physics-I (M) 3

PHY- 3502 Classical Mechanics (M) 3

PHY- 3503 Basic Electronics (M) 3

PHY- 3504 Electromagnetic Theory-I (M) 3

Physics Lab-I (M)

PHY- 3505 3

(Electronics)

Total 15

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PHY-3501 METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS-I

Divergence and Curl of Vectors, Vector Integration, Line, Surface and Volume Integration,

Gauss's Theorem, Stokes Theorem and Green's Theorem, Dirac Delta Function, Vector

Analysis in Curved Coordinates, Tensor Analysis. COMPLEX VARIABLES: Analytic

Functions, Types of Functions, Type of Singularities, Branch Cut, Branch Points, Theorem of

Moreira, Maximum Modulus Theorem, Cauchy-Rieman Condition, Taylor and Laurent‟s

Series, Complex Integration, Cauchy's Theorem, Cauchy's Integral Formula, Residue

Theorem, Examples of Integration. MATRICES: Linear Vector Spaces, Orthogonal System,

Linear Transformation of Bases and Operators, Matrices (basic definitions), Orthogonal

Matrices, Hermitian and Unitary Matrices, Diagonalization of Matrices, Solution of Eigen-

Value Problems.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 6th Edition, George Arfiken,

2. Mathematical Physics, Bukove, Addison-Wesley

3. Mathematical Methods of Physics, News and Walker.

4. Mathematical Physics, Gupta, Vikas Publication

5. Vector Analysis with applications to Geometry and Physics, Schwartz, Green and

Rutledge, Harper and Ron.

6. Complex Variables and Applications, Churchill, Mc-Graw Hill Company.

7. Vector Analysis; Rawat.

8. Introduction to Tensor Calculus & Relativity, Lader

Constraints, D-Alembert's Principle, Lagrange's Equations and its Applications, Calculus of

Variation and Hamilton's Principle, Derivation of Lagrange's Equation from Hamilton's

Principle, Two Body Central Force Problem and its Reduction to the Equivalent one Body,

Problem, The Equation of Motion and Solution for one Body. The Kepler Laws, Laboratory

and Center of Mass Co-ordinate Systems and Their Mutual Transformation, Rutherford

Scattering Formula, Legendre Transformation and Hamilton Equation of Motion, Cyclic

Coordinates, Conservation Theorems and Physical Significance of The Hamiltonian For

Simple Cases, The Canonical Transformation and Their Examples, The Lagrange's and The

Poisson's Brackets, Liouville Theorem Small Oscillations and Normal Modes. THE

KINEMATICS OF RIGID BODY MOTION: Rotations in Three Dimension, Orthogonal

Transformation, Euler Angles, Coriolis Force. SPECIAL RELATIVITY: Michelson-Morley

Experiment, Einstein's Postulates of Relativity, Lorentz Transformation, Geometry of Space

and Time, Addition of Velocities, Kinetic Energy of Relativistic Particles, Mass Energy

Relation, Momentum of Relativistic Particles, Energy Equation of Charge Particle Including

Electromagnetic Potential, Orthogonal Transformation in three Dimensions, Lorentz

Transformation as Orthogonal Transformation.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Classical Mechanics; H. Goldstein

2. Classical Dynamics of Particles and System; M. Thornton

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3. Introduction to Classical Mechanics with Problems and Solutions; Morin.

4. Special theory of Relativity (French), Books pipe and Harwell

5. Classical Mechanics; Carbon and Steel.

Electrical concepts and theorems: Basic Electrical Concepts (Ohm & Kirchhoff Laws),

Circuit Elements (Active & Passive) Behaviors, Transformer (Introduction), Wave Filters

(Low & High),) Acceptor & Rejecter Circuit, Differentiator & Integrator, Circuit Theorems

(Thevenin, Norton, Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer Theorems, DC Analysis

Only). Semiconductor diode characteristics and applications: PN-Junction Diode, Ideal and

Real Behavior and Characteristics, Junction Capacitance, Reverse Recovery Time, Frequency

Response, Temperature Effect, Diode as a Rectifier, Half Wave, Full Wave and Bridge

Rectifier, Smoothing Circuit, Diode Clipper and Clampers, Zener Diode, Voltage Regulation.

BJT characteristics and dc biasing: BJT, Transistor Characteristics as CBC, CEC, CCC,

Transistor Voltage Amplification, Transistor Biasing, Fixed Current Bias, Collector-to-Base

Bias, Emitter Current Bias, Temperature Effect, Q-Point Operation, Graphical Analysis,

Small Signal Analysis, codes and logic gates: Codes, BCD, Octal and Hexa-Decimal Codes,

Excess-3 Code, Alphanumeric Codes, Parity In Codes, Code Detection and Correction, Gray

Code, Logic Gates (OR, AND, NOT, NOR, NAND, Ex-OR) and Their Truth Tables.

Boolean algebra and combinational logic circuits: Boolean Algebra Fundamentals, Boolean

Theorems, DE Morgan‟s Theorems, NAND-NOR Gate Design, SOP & POS Expression,

Simplifying Logic Circuits, Algebraic Simplification, Designing Combinational Logic

Circuits. Flip-flops, counters, registers and memory: Flip-Flops (NAND-NOR gate latch),

Clocked Flip-Flop, Clocked S-C, J-K, D-, T-Flip-Flop, Monostable and Astable

Multivibrators.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Electronics Devices (7Ed Conventional Current Version); Floyd L. Thomos.

2. Digital Fundamentals 8th ED; Floyd L. Thomos

3. Digital Systems Principles and Applications 10th Ed. Tocci Ronald J.

4. Electronic Devices and Circuits 4th Ed. Bell D.A.

5. Electronic Devices and Circuit theory; Nashelsky L. and Boylested R.

Electrostatic fields: Review of Coulomb's law, Field intensity, Electric Potential Gauss's law,

Field and potential due to a charge distribution, Dipole. Linear quadrupole and multipole due

to charge distribution, Coefficient of capacitance and inductance, Potential energy of a charge

distribution, Energy density in an electric field, forces on conductors. Dielectrics: The electric

polarization, Electric displacement D, Electric susceptibility, The dielectric coefficient,

Calculation of Electrostatic field involving dielectrics, Dielectric sphere with a point charge

at its center, Calussius Mossotti equation, Potential energy of a charge Distribution in the

presence of dielectrics, Laplace and Poisson's equation, Boundary conditions, Uniqueness

theorem, Images for plane and spherical surface, Images in dielectrics, Charge near a semi-

infinite dielectric, Solution of Laplace's equation for Rectangular and Spherical systems.

Magnetic fields of steady currents: Magnetic forces, Magnetic induction, The Biot-Savart law

and its Applications, The Lorentz force on a point charge moving in a magnetic field, parallel

36 of 61

plate magnetron, the divergence of the magnetic induction B, the vector potential A, Equation

of continuity, Divergence of vector potential, The Curl of magnetic Induction, The Ampere's

circuital law and its applications, Magnetic scalar potential, Magnetic dipole moment of a

current loop, Ampere Circuital law and the Scalar potential.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introduction to Electrodynamics 3rd Ed; Griffths

2. Electromagnetic Field and Waves, Lorrain and Corson

3. Electromagnetism, Reitz and Milford.

4. Electromagnetism with Applications, Lorrain and Corson

5. The Physics of Electricity & Magnetism, Scott.

6. Classical Electrodynamics, Jackson

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Design and Construction of Wave shaping circuits (Integrator, Differentiator, Clipper

and Clamper) and study of their characteristics.

2. Study of a PN-junction diode characteristics and construction of half wave and full

wave (center tapped and bridge) circuits and study of their characteristics with load

resistance and filters

3. Design of a low tension regulated power supply using fixed and variable voltage

regulators.

4. Draw BJT (Bipolar junction transistor) I/P and O/P characteristics in CE and CB

configuration and Derivation of I/P and O/P parameters.

5. Design and construction of a single stage common emitter transistor amplifier and

measurement of Input / Output Impedance and frequency response curve.

6. Design and construction of Operational amplifier with 741 IC and study its

characteristics and functions

7. Design and construction of discrete AND, OR, NOT (invertor), NAND and NOR Logic

Gate circuits and verify their truth tables using discrete components and 74LS00 and

74LS03 ICs for the same purposes.

8. Design and construction of a Monostable, Astable and Bistable Multivibrators and

study of their characteristics using IC and discrete components.

37 of 61

SEMESTER- VI

PHY- 3601 Method of Mathematical Physics-II (M) 3

PHY- 3602 Electromagnetic Theory-II (M) 3

PHY- 3603 Solid State Physics (M) 3

PHY- 3604 Atomic Physics (M) 3

Physics Lab -II

PHY- 3605 3

(Solid State Physics) (M)

Total 15

38 of 61

PHY- 3601 METHOD OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS-II

Fourier series: Definition of Fourier Series, Example of Fourier Series, Fourier Sine and

Cosine Series, Complex Form of Fourier Series, point wise and mean convergence of Fourier

series, Applications of Fourier series. Fourier transform: Integral Transforms, Fourier

Transforms of Derivatives, Fourier Sine Transform, Fourier Cosine Transform, Fourier

Transformation of Generalized Functions, Fourier Transform and its Properties, Connection

Between Laplace and Fourier Transform, Laplace Transform, its Properties and Applications.

Special functions: Partial Differential Equations of Theoretical Physics, Separation of

Variables, Singular Points, Series Solutions, Forbenius Method, Non-Homogenous Equation,

Gamma Function (Definitions and Simple Properties), Beta Function, Bessel Function of

First Kind, Bessel Function of Second Kind, Fourier Bessel Series, Generating Functions of

Legendre Functions, Recurrence Relations and Special Properties, Spherical Harmonics,

Green‟s Functions.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 6th Edition, George Arfiken,

2. Mathematical Physics, Bukove, Addison-Wesley

3. Mathematical Methods of Physics, News and Walker.

4. Mathematical Physics, Gupta, Vikas Publication

5. Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Skolonihoff

6. Fundamental of Mathematical Physics, Krout E. A.

Electromotance in a Moving System, Inductance and Induced Electromotance, Energy Stored

in a Magnetic Field, Self–Inductance for a Volume Distribution of Current, Magnetic Force

between two Currents. Magnetic Torque. Magnetic materials: The Magnetic Polarization

Vector M, The Magnetic Induction B from Polarized Magnetic Material at an Exterior Point,

at an Interior Point, Magnetic Field Intensity H, Hysteresis, Boundary Conditions, Magnetic

Field Calculations. Propagation of plane electromagnetic waves in matter: Maxwell's

Equation in Differential and Integral Forms, Electromagnetic Waves in a Free Space, The

Poynting Vector, The E and H Vectors in Homogeneous, Isotropic Linear and Stationary

Media, Propagation of Plane Electromagnetic Wave in Non-Conducting and Conducting

Media, Propagation of Plane Electromagnetic Waves in Ionized Gases.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introduction to Electrodynamics 3rd Ed; Griffths

2. Electromagnetic Field and Waves, Lorrain and Corson

3. Electromagnetism, Reitz and Milford.

4. Electromagnetism with Applications, Lorrain and Corson

5. The Physics of Electricity & Magnetism, Scott.

6. Classical Electrodynamics, Jackson.

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PHY- 3603 SOLID STATE PHYSICS

Crystal structure: Lattices (Bravais and Non-Bravais Lattices), Primitive and Non Primitive

Unit Cell, Wigner-Seitz Unit Cell, Symmetry and Symmetry Operations, Miller Indices and

Planes, Classification of Lattices, 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Lattices, (Nacl, Cscl,

Zns and Diamond Lattices), Reciprocal Lattice. Crystal diffraction: Bragg's law, Von-Laue

equation, Experimental techniques of X-ray diffraction (Laue method, Rotating crystal

method, Powder method), Electron diffraction, Neutron diffraction. Crystal binding: Covalent

Bonding, Metallic Bonding, Hydrogen Bonding, Ionic Bonding, Cohesive Energy of Ionic

Crystals, Van-der-Waals Bonding, Van-Der-Waals London Interaction. Semiconductor

crystals: Crystal Structure and Bonding, Band Structure, Band Structure of Semiconductors,

Impurity States, Donor States Accepter States, Holes, Effective Mass, Intrinsic Carrier

Concentration (Law of Mass Action), Hall Effect. Lattice vibrations: Dynamics of One-

Dimensional Monoatomic Linear Lattice, Dynamics of One-Dimensional Diatomic Linear

Lattice, Physical Difference Between Optical and Acoustic Branches, Excitation of Optical

Branch, Quantization of Elastic Waves Phonons, Phonon Momentum. Specific heat of solids:

Lattice Heat Capacity, Dulong and Petit Law for Specific Heat of Solids, Einstein Model of

Specific Heat of Solids, Debye Model of Specific Heat of Solids with High and Low

Temperature Limitations.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introduction to Solid State Physics (6th edition), C. Kittel.

2. An Introduction to Solid State Physics and its Applications, R. J Elliot and A. F.

Gibson; ELBS and Macmillan.

3. Elementary Solid State Physics, Ali Omar.

4. Solid State Physics, Neil W. Ashcroft & N David Marmin.

5. Solid State Physics, J. S. Blackmore; W. B. Saunders.

Nuclear Dimensions and Electron Orbits. Atomic structure and atomic spectra: Bohr Theory

of Atomic Structure and Atomic Spectra, Correspondence Principle Correction for Nuclear

Motion, Frank Hertz Experiment, Somerfield Elliptic Orbits, Relativity Correction and

Hydrogen Fine Structure, Vector Model of the Atom, Space Quantization, Stern Gerlach

Experiment, Orbital Angular Momentum, Spin Angular Momentum, Total Angular

Momentum, Orbital and Spin Magnetic Moments, Magnetic Quantum Numbers, Pauli's

Exclusion Principle, Distribution of Electrons in an Atom, Spectral Notations, Relative

Intensity Measurements. Coupling Scheme (LS and JJ Coupling), Zeeman Effect (Normal

and Ananolous), Spectra of Two Electrons Atom, Inner Core Electron Spectra (X-Rays),

Stark Effect. Quantum theory of radiation: The Failure of Classical Physics to Describe

Atomic Phenomena, Emission and Absorption of Thermal Radiation, Classical Theory of

Thermal Radiation and Its Failure, Planks's Quantum Theory of Thermal Radiation. Waves

and particles: de-Brogli's Hypothesis, Diffraction of Electron and Neutron, Velocity of the

De-Brogli Wave, Group Velocity and Phase Velocity, Photoelectric Effect, Compton Effect

and Pair Production.

40 of 61

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Concept of Modern Physics, Arthur Beiser, 4th Ed

2. Physics of Atoms and Molecules, B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain

3. Atomic Spectra, White,

4. Elements of Spectroscopy, S. L. Gupta, V Kumar and C. Sharma 9th Ed.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. To investigate the Hall Effect in semiconductor or in metal and to draw the graph

between Hall voltage and current.

2. To verify the Bragg's law for X-ray diffraction by using the rock salt crystal.

3. To expose the Van-Laue pattern of LiF on X-ray film

4. To determine the dielectric constant of solid by capacitor method.

5. (a) To study the characteristics of photocell.

(b) To study the characteristics of thermistor.

6. To determine the energy gap in Silicon or Germanium.

7. To find the crystal structure of graphite by electron diffraction.

8. To study the thermoelectric effect by using the heat pump.

9. To study the crystal lattice structure of tungsten by Field Emission Microscope.

10. To measurement the resistivity & conductivity of metals & non-metals.

41 of 61

SEMESTER-VII

PHY- 4701 Nuclear Physics 3

PHY- 4702 Quantum Mechanics–I 3

PHY- 4703 Computational Physics 3

PHY- 4704 Physics Lab -III (Nuclear Physics) 3

PHY-47(5-7) Elective Course–I 3

PHY-4708 / Final Year Project/ Optional course 3

PHY-47(09-15)

Total 18

42 of 61

PHY- 4701 NUCLEAR PHYSICS

Nucleus, Size, Mass, Binding Energy, Dipole and Quadruple Moments (Electric) Parity and

Statistics of Nuclei: particle detectors and accelerators: Passage of Charged Particles Through

Matter, Energy Loss and Stopping Power, G.M Counter, Proportional Counter, Ionization

Chamber, Semiconductor Detector, Scintillation Counter. Linear Accelerator, Betatron,

Cyclotron. Radioactivity: Introduction to Radioactivity, Laws of Radioactive Disintegrations,

Theory of Alpha Decay, Alpha-Ray Spectra, Introduction to Classical Theory of Beta Decay,

Non Conservation of Parity in Beta Decay, Neutrino Hypothesis, Introduction to Gamma-

Decay. Nuclear forces (introductory): Two Body Problem, Ground State of Deuteron, Spin

Dependence and Charge Independence of Nuclear Force, Yukawa Theory. Nuclear reactions:

Conservation Laws of Nuclear- Reactions, Q-Value and Threshold Energy, Theory of

Compound Nucleus, Nuclear Cross-Section, Reaction Induced by Photons, Protons,

Deuterons and Alpha Particles, Nuclear Fission, (Symmetric & Asymmetric) & Fusion.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Nuclear physics, D.G.Tyal.

2. Nuclear physics, K.S. Krane

3. Nuclear physics 2nd ED Kaplan.

4. A text book of nuclear physics, Smith.

5. Theoretical nuclear physics, Belatt and Weisskoff.

6. Introduction to Nuclear Physics, H-Enge.

Operators and Eigen functions: Observables and Operators, Eigen Functions and Eigen

Values, The Measurements in Quantum Mechanics, The State Function and Expectation

Values, Orthogonal Systems, Completeness of Eigen Functions, Hermitian Operator,

Simultaneous Eigen Functions and The Commutator, The Parity Operator, The Fundamental

Commutation Rule and The Uncertainty Principle, Ehrenfest Theorem, Correspondence

Principle. Formulation of quantum mechanics: Wave Particle Duality, Wave Packets,

Uncertainty Principle and the Related Gedenken Experiment, Wave Function for a Free

Particle, Schrödinger Equation, Interpretation of Wave Function, Probability Density and

Probability Current. Application of schrödinger equation: Application of Schrödinger

Equation for one Dimensional Problems, Potential Step, Potential Barrier and Tunneling,

Rectangular Potential-Well, Linear Harmonic Oscillator. Spherically symmetric systems: The

Schrödinger Equation for Spherically Symmetric Potentials, Degeneracy, Angular

Momentum, Many Particle System, the Hydrogen Atom.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introductory Quantum Mechanics 4th ED, Richard Liboff.

2. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 2nd ED, David Griffith.

3. Modern Quantum Mechanics. Sakurai.

4. Quantum Mechanics, S-Gasiorowiz.

5. Quantum Mechanics, Gupta.

6. Quantum Mechanics, Powell and Grasemann.

43 of 61

PHY- 4703 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS

computation. Numerical solution of equation, Regression and interpretation, Numerical

integration and differentiation. Error analysis and techniques for elimination of systematic

and random errors. Conceptual models. The mathematical models, random numbers,

Computer simulations, relationship of modeling and simulation. Some systems of interest for

Physicist such as Motion of Falling objects, Kepler‟ problems. Oscillatory motions, Many

particle systems, Dynamical systems. Wave phenomena. Field of static charges and current,

Diffusion, Population genetics.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. M. L. De Jong, “Introduction to Computational Physics”, Adision Wely Publishing

Company Inc.

2. S. T. Koonini, “Computational Physics”, The Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Inc.

3. H. Gould and J. Tobochmik, “An Introduction to Computer Simulation Methods”,

Adision Weley.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. To draw the G M Tube's characteristics

2. To find the dead time of a G M Tube.

3. To study the exponential decrease in the intensity of gamma rays with thickness and

determination of the linear absorption coefficient and mass absorption coefficient of

lead.

4. To study the statistics fluctuation in emission of gamma rays and to compare the

theoretical and experimental curve.

5. Determination of range of Alpha particles using solid state detector.

6. Determination of the maximum energy of beta - particles.

7. Determination of half-life of thoron gas

8. To verify the inverse square law of Nuclear radiations.

9. Detection of g-rays by sodium iodide (NaI) detector system

PHY-4705 ELECTRONICS-I

Alternating source & application: Sinusoidal Voltage & Current, Phase Angle, Complex

Impedance, Basic Element of AC Circuit, Power & Power Factor, Power Factor correction,

Three wire distributaries system, Complex Network Analysis, (KVL, KCL, Thevenin, Norton

and Superposition Theorem). Fourier methods of waveform analysis: Trigonometric &

Exponential Fourier Series, Waveform Symmetry, Laplace Transform & Its Application to

Circuit Analysis. Initial and Final Value Theorem and Its Application to Circuits. Field effect

transistor: n-Channel JFET and its Characteristics, p-Channel JFET and its Characteristics,

FET Voltage Amplification, JFET Construction, MOSFET and Power MOSFET.

Optoelectronics and three terminal semiconductor devices: Photodiodes, Photoconductive

Cells, LED, Solar Cell, Thermistor, Schottky Barrier Diode, Varactor Diode, Tunnel Diode,

Laser Diode SCR, DIAC, TRIAC and Their Characteristics. Light Activated SCR, Shockley

Diode. Large signal amplifier: Class a Amplifier, Transformer-Coupled Power Amp., Class-B

44 of 61

Amp., Operation and Circuits, Classes of Amp. Operations and Distortion, Power Transistor

Heat Sinking. Transiting modeling and multistage system: Transistor Modeling, Transistors

Hybrid Equivalent Circuit, re-Model, Graphical Determination of the h-parameters, General

Cascaded system, RC-Coupled Amplifier, Transformer Coupled Transistor Amplifier, Direct

Coupled Transistor Amplifier, Cascaded Amplifier. Application of operational amplifier and

frequency response: Inverting and Non-Inverting Op-Amp., Summing Amplifier, Comparator

Voltage Follower, Active Filter, Integrator, Differentiator, Op-Amp. Circuit Stability,

Frequency and Phase Response, Frequency Compensation, Circuit Bandwidth, Circuit

Stability Precautions. Integrated circuits(ic‟s): IC‟s Recent development in IC‟s, Monolithic

IC Fabrication Procedures and Techniques, Hybrid IC‟s. Analog and Digital IC‟s.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Electronics Devices (7Ed Conventional Current Version); Floyd L. Thomos.

2. Digital Fundamentals 8th ED; Floyd L. Thomos

3. Digital Systems Principles and Applications 10th Ed. Tocci Ronald J.

4. Electronic Devices and Circuits 4th Ed. Bell D.A.

5. Electronic Devices and Circuit theory; Nashelsky L. and Boylested R.

Free electron fermi gas: Energy Levels and Density of Orbital in one Dimension, Effect of

Temperature on The Fermi-Dirac Distribution, Free Electron Gas in Three Dimensions, Heat

Capacity of the Electron Gas, Experimental Heat Capacity of Metals, Electrical Conductivity

and Ohm's Law, Experimental Electrical Resistivity of Metals, Motion in Magnetic Fields,

Hall Effect, Thermal Conductivity of Metals, Ratio of Thermal to Electrical Conductivity.

Energy bands: Nearly Free Electron Model, Origin of the Energy Gap, Magnitude of the

Energy Gap, Bloch Functions, Kronig-Penney Model, Wave Equation of Electron in Periodic

Potential, Restatement of the Bloch Theorem, Crystal Momentum of an Electron, Solution of

the Central Equation, Empty Lattice Approximation. Semiconductor crystals: Band Gap,

Equation of Motion, Fuller Derivation of F = Nk Holes Effective Mass, Physical Basis of the

Effective Mass, Effective Masses in Semiconductors Silicon and Germanium, Intrinsic

Carrier Concentration, Mobility in the Intrinsic Region, Impurity Conductivity, Thermal

Ionization of Donors and Accepters, Mobility in the Presence of Impurities, P-N Junction,

Rectification, Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Detectors, Schottky Barrier. Superconductivity:

Occurrence of Superconductivity, Destruction of Superconductivity by Magnetic Fields,

Meissner Effect, Thermodynamics of the Superconducting Transition, London Equation,

Coherence Length, BCS Theory of Superconductivity, Flux Quantization in a

Superconducting Ring, Type II Superconductors, Vortex State, Estimation of HC1 and HC2,

Single Particle Tunneling, Josephson Superconductor Tunneling, DC Josephson Effect, AC

Josephson Effect.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel, 5th.ed. John Wiley & Sons.

2. Solid State Physics, W. Neil Ashcroft & N. Marmin David, Holt-Saunders

International.

3. Solid State Physics, J. Blakmore Saunders.

4. Elementary Solid State Physics, Ali Omer, Addison Wesley.

5. Thermal Physics, C. Kittel John Wiley & Sons.

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PHY-4707 NUCLEAR PHYSICS-I

Constant, Radioactive Equilibrium, Half and Mean Life of Radioactive Isotopes, Natural

Radioactive Series, Isotopes and Their Separation and Use, The Discovery of Artificial

Radioactivity, Artificial Radio Nuclides. Alpha decay: The Stability of Heavy Nuclei Against

Emission, Theories of Alpha Decay (Classical and Quantum Mechanical), Alpha- Particle

Spectra, Measurements of Alpha- Particle Energies and Velocities, Nuclear Energy Levels as

Deduced from Alpha-Decay Data, The Absorption of Alpha-Particles, Range, Ionization and

Stopping Power. Beta decay: The Beta Decay, The Velocity and Energy of Beta-Particles,

Beta-Particles Spectra, Neutrino Hypothesis, Fermi Theory of Beta-Decay, Curie Plot,

Allowed and Forbidden Transitions, Selection Rules, Parity Violation in Beta-Decay,

Electron Capture, Range-Energy Relation. Life-Time of Beta Emitters. Gamma decay:

Introduction to Gamma Decay, Multipolority of Gamma-Radiations, Measurements of

Gamma Rays Energies (Using Nai (Tl) Detector), Measurements of Life Times of Excited

States. Nuclear reactions: Kinds of Nuclear Reactions, Conservation Laws of Nuclear

Reactions, Q-Value of Threshold Energy of the Nuclear Reactions, Transmutation by

3 3

Photons, by Protons, by Alpha- Particles, by Neutrons, by Deuterons, by 1H or 2H , by

Radiations and by Heavy Ions, Kinematics of Nuclear Reactions, Bohr Compound Nuclear

Theory and its Limitations, Nuclear Reaction Cross Section.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Nuclear physics, D.G.Tyal.

2. Nuclear physics, K.S. Krane

3. Nuclear physics 2nd ED Kaplan.

4. A text book of nuclear physics, Smith.

5. Theoretical nuclear physics, Belatt and Weisskoff.

6. Introduction to Nuclear Physics, H-Enge.

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SEMESTER-VIII

PHY- 4801 Statistical Mechanics and Thermal Physics 3

PHY- 4802 Quantum Mechanics-II 3

PHY- 4803 Physics Lab-IV (General Physics) 3

PHY- 48(4-6) Elective course-II 3

PHY- 4807 /

Final year Project/ optional Course 3

PHY-48(08-13)

PHY-48(08-13) Optional Course 3

Total 18

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PHY- 4801 STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND THERMAL

PHYSICS

Thermodynamic Potentials, Criteria of Thermodynamical Equilibrium, Intrinsic and

Mutual Stabilities of Single Component Systems, Conditions of Stabilities. The

Lechatelier Braun Principle, First Order Phase Transition, Discontinuities of Volume and

Entropy. Second Order Phase Transition, Kinetic Theory of Gases. Statistical mechanics:

Fundamental Principles, Mean Values and Probability Distributions Statistical Ensemble,

Probability and Entropy Relation- Ship, Liouville's Theorem, Statistical Concept of

Temperature, Entropy and Free Energy, Micro Canonical, Macro-Canonical and Grand

Canonical Ensembles, Macro & Micro States, Maxwell's Boltzmann Statistics and Its

Application To (I) Equipartition of Energy, (Ii) Harmonic Oscillator, (Iii) Richardson's

Equation for Thermionic Emission (Iv) Para magnetism, Quantum Statistical Mechanics-

Basic Facts of Quantum Mechanics, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle and Bose Einstein

Statist- Ics; Its Application To Black Body Radiation, Pauli Exclusion Principle and

Fermi-Dirac Statistics; Its Application to Electron Gas, Specific Heat of Electron Gas,

Thermionic Emission, Kinetic Methods and Transport Theory, Boltzmann Transport

Equation and Its Application,

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Fundamental of statistical and thermal Physics by F. Rief.

2. Statistical Physics by C. Kittle.

3. Heat, Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics by F. H. Grawford, H Brace.

4. Statistical Physics, Barkley series.

5. Statistical Physical by A. J. Pointion, (LONGMAN).

6. Thermodynamics by H. B. Callen.

7. Thermodynamics by Gugenheim.

8. Heat and Thermodynamics by Zemansky.

Bra and Ket Vectors. Schrodinger, Heisenberg and Interaction Pictures of Quantum

Mechanics. the One Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator in Matrix Mechanics. Angular

momentum and spin: Matrix Representation of Angular Momentum and Its Components,

Explicit Forms of Angular Momentum Matrices, Effect of Magnetic Field, Quantum

Theory of Normal Zeeman Effect, Electron Spin and The Pauli Spin Matrices, Electronic

States in a Central Field, Addition of Angular Momenta, The P-States of an Electron,

Spin States for Two Particles of Spin One-Half. Methods of approximation: Variational

Methods and its Application, Perturbation Theory for Non-Degenerate Stationary States

with Simple Illustration, Time Dependent Perturbation, WKB Approximation. Transition

Probability and Fermi‟s Golden Rule. Theory of scattering: Derivation of Scattering

Cross Section by Partial Wave Technique, scattering by an Attractive Square Well

Potential, Born Approximation, Scattering by Coulomb Field, Optical Theorem. Identical

particles: Principle of Indistinguishability of Identical Particles, Generalized Pauli's

Exclusion Principle, Statistics of Identical Particles, Helium Atom, Symmetric and Anti-

Symmetric Wave Functions.

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RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introductory Quantum Mechanics 4th ED, Richard Liboff.

2. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 2nd ED, David Griffith.

3. Modern Quantum Mechanics. Sakurai.

4. Quantum Mechanics, S-Gasiorowiz.

5. Quantum Mechanics, Gupta.

6. Quantum Mechanics, Powell and Grasemann.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

1. Michelson's Interferometer

(i) to measure the wavelength of sodium light

(ii) to measure the difference of wavelength

(iii) to measure the thickness of the thin films.

2. To study the parameters of Laser beam.

3. To measure the Planck's constants by photoelectric apparatus.

4. To measure the Planck's constants by Hydrogen discharge spectrum.

5. To determine the ratio of e/m of electron by J. J. Thomson's method.

6. To verify the quantization of energy band by Franck - Hertz experiments.

7. To determine the (g) factor by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR).

8. To find the fine structure of one electron spectrum or two electron spectrum.

Map, Sample Design Procedure, Code Converter Logic Design, Special Code Converter

Units, Quine Mc-Clusky Method. Basic Adder Circuit, Adder Unit, Basic Techniques of

Addition/Subtraction, Adder and Subtractor Circuitry, Arithmetic Operation, Trouble

Shooting Digital System. Switching circuits logic families: Switching Properties of Semi-

Conductor Devices, TTL Logic Family and Its Characteristics, CMOS Logic Family and

Its Characteristics, TTL Driving CMOS, CMOS Driving TTL Troubleshooting.

Sequential logic circuit: Shift Register Parallel Data Transfer, Serial Data Transfer, Serial

Parallel Data Transfer Register, Basic Binary Ripple Counter, Modulus Counters,

Asynchronous and Synchronous Counters, Analog-Digital Conversion, DAC, ADC,

Multiplexing, Demultiplexing and Troubleshooting. Memory circuits and magnetic

storage devices: General Memory Description, ROM, PROM, EPROM, E2PROM, Flash

Memory RAM Magnetic Storage Techniques, Magnetic Disk Storage, Floppy Disk

Operation, Magnetic Tape. Microprocessor basics: Basic Microprocessor Units, Basic

Microprocessor Architecture and Buses, Basic Instruction Cycle, Interfacing

Microprocessor Busses, Different Addressing Techniques, Basic Interrupt Processing and

Hardware Interrupts, Detail of 8085/8088 Microprocessor. Application of

microprocessor: Traffic Light Controller, Dc Motor Controller, Step Moter Controller,

Digital/Analog Conversion Control, Analog/ Digital Conversion.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Floyd l. Thomos, Digital Fundamentals, 5th Edition.

2. tocci Ronald L. Digital System, Third Edition.

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3. Nashelsky L, Introduction to Digital Technology.

4. Assembly Language for Intel Based Computers by Kip R. Irvine

5. Brey, Microprocessor Peripherals 2nd Edition

6. Barry B & Brey The Intel microprocessors Prentice-Hall Forth editions

Electric Field at an Atom, Lorentz Fields E2, Field of Dipoles Insides Cavity E3,

Dielectric Constant and Polarizability, Electronic Polarizability, Ferroelectric Crystals,

Classification of Ferroelectric Crystals, Polarization Catastrophe. Diamagnetism and

paramagnetism: Langevin Diamagnetism Equation, Paramagnetism, Quantum Theory of

Paramagnetism, Rare Earth Ions, Hund Rules, Iron Groups Ions, Crystal Field Splitting,

Quenching of the Orbital Angular Momentum, Cooling by Adiabatic Demagnetization of

Paramagnetic Salt, Nuclear Demagnetization, Paramagnetic Susceptibility of Conduction

Electrons. Ferromagnetism: Ferromagnetic Order, Curie Point and Exchange Integral,

Temperature Dependence of the Saturation Magnetization, Saturation Magnetization at

Absolute Zero, Magnons, Thermal Excitation of Magnons. Defects in solids: Lattice

Vacancies, Diffusion, Metals, Color-Centers, F-Centers, Other Centers in Alkali Halides,

Shear Strength of Single Crystals Slip, Dislocations, Burgers Vectors, Stress Field of

Dislocations, Low Angle Grain Boundaries.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel, 8th ed. John Wiley & Sons.

2. Solid State Physics, W. Neil Ashcroft & N. Marmin David, Holt-Saunders

International.

3. Solid State Physics, J. Blakmore Saunders.

4. Elementary Solid State Physics, Ali Omer, Addison Wesley.

5. Thermal Physics, C. Kittel John Wiley & Sons.

Neutron with Matter in Bulk, Thermal Neutrons, Neutron Reactions and Cross section,

The Diffusion of Thermal Neutron, Scattering. Nuclear fission and fusion: Discovery of

Fission, Types of Fission, Theory of Fission (Bohr and Wheeler‟s Theory), Weizeker

Mass Formula, Mass and Energy Distribution in Fission, Controlled Fission Reaction,

Fission Reactors, Fission Explosive, Basic Fusion Reaction, Characteristics of Fusion.

Nuclear forces: Introduction, Deuteron (Properties of Nuclear Force, Ground State of

Deuteron No Excited S-States, Exited States of the Deuteron). Yukawa Theory of Nuclear

Forces, Saturation on Nuclear Forces (Exchange Forces, Isotopic Spin Formulism),

Scattering Cross Sections, Neutron-Proton Scattering at Low Energy, Proton-Proton

Scattering at Low Energy, Similarity Between (N-N) and (P-P) Forces. Nuclear models:

Introduction, Fermi Gas Model, Liquid Drop Model, Shell Model, Evidence for the

Existence of Magic Numbers, Extreme Single Particles Model (Square Well Potential,

Harmonic Oscillator, Spin-Orbit Potential), Individual (Independent) Particle Model,

Prediction of Shell Model, Collective Nuclear Model. Elementary particle: Introduction,

Classification of Elementary Particles, Klen-Grodon Equation, Symmetric Form of the

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Klen-Grodon Equation, Dirac Equation, Symmetric Form of Dirac Equation, Dirac Sea,

Spin of Dirac Particles.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Nuclear radiation and Deduction, William J. Price

2. Nuclear physics, D.G.Tyal.

3. Nuclear physics, K.S. Krane

4. Nuclear physics 2nd ED Kaplan.

5. A text book of nuclear physics, Smith.

6. Theoretical nuclear physics, Belatt and Weisskoff.

7. Introduction to Nuclear Physics, H-Enge.

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OPTIONAL COURSES

PHY- 4709 Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy 3

PHY- 4710 Semiconductor Physics 3

PHY- 4711 Introduction to Nano Technology 3

PHY- 4712 Laser 3

PHY- 4713 Particle Physics 3

PHY- 4714 Research Methodology & Skill Enhancement 3

PHY- 4715 Introduction to Quantum Computing 3

PHY- 4808 Methods of Experimental Physics 3

PHY- 4809 Digital Electronics 3

PHY- 4810 Plasma Physics 3

PHY- 4811 Quantum Electronics 3

PHY- 4812 Quantum Optics 3

PHY- 4813 Environmental Physics 3

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PHY-4709 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

Atom, Quantization in Poly-electronic Atoms, Electronic States of Diatomic and

Polyatomic Molecules. Molecular Vibrations and Rotation. How Spectra are obtained.

Vibrational Spectroscopy, Rotational and Electron Spectroscopy.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. J. Michael Hollas, “Basic Atomic and Molecular spectroscopy, 1st Ed.” Wiley-RSC,

2002

2. J. Michael Hollas, “Modern spectroscopy, 4th Ed.” John Wiley & Sons Inc..2004.

specific semiconductors in common use, Phonon-spectra, energy band structure and

constant surfaces of specific materials, Charge and energy transport in semiconductors.

Scattering process in one valley and many models, Quantum effects in transport

phenomena. Optical properties, Radiative and non-radiative recombination processes,

Thermal and high-field properties, Novel two-dimensional electron gas phenomena.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. K. Seeger, Semiconductor Physics (Springer-Verlage)

2. R. A. Smith, Semiconductors (Cambridge U.P)

3. J.P. Mckelvey, Solid State and Semiconductors Physics (Harper and Row)

NANOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction: Feynman talks on small structures, Nano scale dimension, Course goals and

objectives. Quantum Effects: Wave particle duality, Energy quanta, Uncertainty

principle, De Broglie relation, Quantum Dots, Moore's law, Tunneling. Surfaces and

Interfaces: Interfaces, Surface Chemistry and Physics, Surface Modification and

characterization, Thin Film, Sputtering, Self-assembled films. Material Properties:

Subatomic Physics to chemical systems, Types of Chemical Bonds, solid state Physics /

Material properties. Tools and Instrumentation: STM, AFM, Electron Microscopy,

Fluorescence methods, Synchrotron Radiation. Fabricating Nano Structures: Lithography

(photo and electron beam), MBE, Self-assembled masked, FIB, Stamp technology, Nano

junctions, CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition), VLS (Vapor Liquid Field). Electrons in

Nano Structures: Variation in electronic properties, free electron model, Bloch's

theorem, Band structure, Single electron transistor, Resonant tunneling. Molecular

Electronics: Lewis structures, Approach to calculate Molecular orbital‟s, Donor

Acceptor properties, Electron transfer between molecules, Charge transport in

weakly interacting molecular solids, Single molecule electronics.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. S. Lindsay, “Introduction to Nano Science”, Oxford University Press, 2009.

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2. C. Binns, “Introduction to Nano Science and Nanotechnology (Wiley Survival

Guides in Engineering and Science)”, Wiley, 2010.

3. T. Pradeep, “A textbook of Nano Science and Nanotechnology”.

4. R. Kumar, “A textbook of Nano Science.”

Elements of laser physics: Interaction of Radiation with Matter, Black Body Radiation,

Application of Harmonic Perturbation Theory, Principles of Laser operation, Population

Inversion and Optical pumping, Q-Switching, Laser Medium and Laser Cavity. Properties

of laser: Different Beams of Light and Characteristics of Laser Beams, Spatial and

Temporal Coherence, Intensity, Directionality, Monocromaticity and Focusability. Laser

transitions: Role of Electrons in Laser Transitions, Resonating Cavity, Levels of Laser

Action, Two, Three and Four Level Laser, Rate Dynamic Analysis of a Four Level

Scheme, Efficient Laser and Quality Factor in Cavities. Types of laser: Solid State Laser,

Ruby Laser, Nd-YAG Laser, Nd-Glass Laser, Alexandrite and Titanium Sapphire Laser,

Liquid Dye Laser (Tunable Pulsed and Continuous), Gas Laser, He-Ne Laser and Argon-

Ion Laser, Semiconductor Laser. Laser applications: Laser Applications in Industrial,

Communication, Military and Medical Sciences Laser Hazards and Safety.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Laser Principle, Types and Applications, 2006, K R Nambiar

2. Laser Technology and application, Samuel Marshall.

3. Laser, Lengyl

4. Fundamentals of Modern Physics, Eisberg.

5. Theory of atomic spectra, Condon and Shortly

Invariance principles and conservation laws, Bound states and resonances, Kinematics;

Determination of spin and parity, Introduction to Symmetries, The Quark Model, Colored

Quarks and Gluons, Reactions and Decays in the Quarks Model, Charm, Beauty and

Truth, Quark Dynamics, Grand Unified Theory.

RECOMENDED BOOKS

1. J. J. Sakurai, Invariance Principles and Elementary Particles (Princeton U.P.).

2. G. Kallen, Elementary Particle Physics (Addison-Wesley).

3. S. Gasiorowicz, Elementary Particle Physics (John-Wiley and Sons).

ENHANCEMENT

types; extraction and review of literature, identifying a research problem and formulating

a hypothesis, designing a study, data collection, interpretation and analysis, writing a

research report, project, thesis and/or research article or review, preparing posters,

making scientific presentations, intellectual property.

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RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Bryman, A. 2001. Social research methods. Second Edition; Oxford University

Press.

2. Awan, J. A. 2003. Scientific Presentation. Unitech Communication, Faisalabad,

Pakistan.

3. Kumar R, Kindersley D, 2010. Research Methodology: a step by step guide for

beginners. Third Edition; SAGE Publications.

4. Kothari, C. R. 2004. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. Second

Revised Edition; New Age International Publishers, New Delhi.

5. Durrani, S. A. 2004. Technical Writing. Higher Education Commission, Islamabad.

quantum mechanics, quantum states, evolutions, quantum measurement, superposition,

quantization from bits to qubits, operator, function, density matrix, Schrodinger equation,

Schmidt decomposition, EPR and bell inequalities, Quantum computation, quantum

circuits, single quibit operation, controlled operation, measurements, quantum gates,

single qubit and CNOT gates, Breaking Unbreakable codes, code making, trapdoor

function, one time pad, RSA cryptography, Code breaking on classical and quantum

computers, schor‟s algorithm, quantum cryptography uncertainty principle, polarization

and spin basis, BB84, BB90, and Ekert protocole, Quantum cryptography with and

without eavesdropping, experimental realization, quantum search algorithm.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. M.A Nielson and I.L. Chaung, “Quantum computation and quantum information”

Foundation books 2007

2. C P. Williams and S. H. Clearwater. “Exploration in quantum computation”

springer, 2nd ed. 2011

3. P. Bounwmester, A. Ekert, and A. zeilinger. “the physics of quantum information;

Quantum Cyptography, Quantum Teleportation, Quantum Computation”. Springer

2011

4. R.K. Brylinsky, and G. Chen, “Mathematics of Quantum Computation” by

Champan and Hall/ CRC, 2002.

Gas transport: throughout, pumping speed, pump down time ultimate pressure. Fore-

vacuum pumps: rotary oil pumps, sorption pumps. Diffusion pumps, sorption pumps

(high pumps), production of ultrahigh vacuum, fundamental concepts, guttering pumps,

ion pumps, cryogenic pumps, turbo molecular pumps. Measurement of total pressure in

vacuum systems, unit pressure ranges, Manometers, Perini gauges, the Mcload gauges,

mass spectrometer for partial measurement of pressure. Design of high vacuum system,

surface to volume ratio, pump choice, pumping system design. Vacuum components,

vacuum valves, vacuum flanges leak detection: basic consideration, leak detection

equipment, special techniques and problems, repair technique. GM tubes, scintillation

detector, channel Tron, photo multipliers, neutron detector, alpha/beta detector, x- rays /

gamma detectors, cosmic rays detectors, spectrographs and interferometers. Sensors for

pressure, pressure displacement, rotation, flow level, speed, rotation position, phase,

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current voltage, power magnetic field, metal, explosive and heat. Operational amplifies,

summing amplifiers, differentiators, integrators, logarithmic amplifiers, current to voltage

converter, spectroscopy amplifiers, charge sensitive pre- amplifiers, coincidence circuits,

isolators, ramp generators and single channel analyzer. Power supplies, signal generators,

counters, multichannel analyzer, lock in amplifiers, boxcar averages. Introduction to

computers, GPIB interface, Rs 232. Interfacing, DA/AD conversion, visual c/visual basic,

evaluation of measurement: systematic errors, accuracy, accidental errors, precision,

statistical methods, mean value and variance, statistical control of measurements, errors

of direct measurements, rejection of data, significance of results, propagation of errors,

preliminary estimation, errors of computation. Least squares fit to a polynomial.

Nonlinear functions. Data manipulation, smoothing, interpolation and extrapolation,

linear and parabolic interpolation.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. F. JAMES, statistical methods in experimental physics, world scientific company,

2nd ed. 2006.

2. M.H. Hablanian, high- vacuum technology, Marcel dekker, 2nd ed.1997.

3. P. Bevington and D.K. Robinson, Data reduction and error analysis for physics

science, McGraw-hill, 3rd ed.2002.

Review of Number System, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal number system, their inter-

conversion, concepts of logic, truth table, basic logic gates. Boolean Algebra: De

Morgan‟s theorem, simplification of Boolean expression by Boolean Postulates and

theorem, K-maps and their uses. Don‟t care condition, Different codes. (BCD, ASCII,

Gray etc.). Parity in Codes, IC Logic Families: Basic characteristics of logic family. (Fan

in/out, Propagation delay time, dissipation, noise margins etc. Different logic based IC

families (DTL, RTL, ECL, TTL, CMOS), Combinational Logic Circuit: Logic circuits

based on AND–OR, OR-AND, NAND, NOR Logic, gate design, addition, subtraction

(2‟s compliments, half adder, half subtractor, full subtractor encoder, decoder, PLA.

Exclusive OR gate. Sequential Logic Circuits: Flip-flops clocked RS-FF, D-FF, T-FF,

JK-FF, Shift Register, Counters (Ring, Ripple, up-down, Synchronous) A/D and D/A

Converters. Romprom, eaprom, EE PROM, RAM (Statics and dynamic memory

mapping techniques. Computers and its types all generation of computers basic

architecture of computer microprocessor (ALU, UP Registers, Control and time section).

Addressing modes, intrusion set and their types, discussion on 8085/8088, 8086 processer

family, intel microprocessor Hierarchy. Introduction to embedded and microcontroller

base systems, the microprocessor and microcontroller application and environment,

microcontroller characteristics, features of general purpose microcontroller, microchip,

Inc and PIC peripherals.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. M .M Mono, Digital Logic and Computer design”, prentice Hall,1995

2. R.Tokheim, Digital Electronics, MCGraw Hill, 7th ed.2007.

3. B.B Brey,The INTEL microprocessor: Architecture, programming and interfacing,

merril 2nd ed.1991

4. Thomas L.Floyd, Electronics Fundamentals circuits, Devices and Applications,

Prentice Hall,8th ed.2009.

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5. T. Wilmshurst, The Design of small scale embedded Systems, Palgrave, 2001.

Temperature, Debye Shielding, The Plasma Parameter, Criteria for Plasma, Application

of Plasma Physics. Single particle motions in electromagnetic fields: Single Particle

Motion in Uniform Electric and Magnetic Field, Single Particle Motion in Non-uniform

Electric and Magnetic Field, Motion In Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic Field,

Adiabatic Invariants, Plasma as fluids: Relation of Plasma Physics to Electromagnetic,

the Fluid Equation of Motion, Fluid Drifts Perpendicular and Parallel to Magnetic Field,

Plasma Approximation. Waves in plasma: Group Velocity, Plasma Oscillation, Electron

Plasma Waves, Sound Waves, Ion Waves, Electrostatic Electron Oscillation

Perpendicular to Magnetic Field, Electrostatic Ion Waves Perpendicular to Magnetic

Field, Electromagnetic Waves Perpendicular and Parallel to B0, Hydromagnetic Waves

and Magnetosonic Waves.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. Introduction to Plasma Physics, F.F. Chen.

2. Principle of plasma physics, N. A. Karall and A. W. Trivelriece.

3. Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 2nd Ed. 2006, F.F. Chen.

Energy levels of the free atoms and molecules, Crystal structure of solids, Energy levels

of atoms in solids, Semi classical treatment of the interaction of radiation with matter,

Calculation of the probabilities of transition by stimulated emission and absorption.

Quantization of the radiation field, Interaction of quantized radiation and atoms, Selection

rules, Macroscopic material properties resulting from collective quantum mechanical

interaction, Quantum statistics, The density matrix, Quantum statistical calculation of the

time varying macroscopic properties of materials, Quantum electronic devices, General

properties of lasers, Solid State, gas and semiconductor lasers.

RECOMENDED BOOKS

1. Amon Yariv, Quantum Electronics (John-Wiley & Sons).

2. William S.C.Chang, Principles of Quantum Electronics (Addison Wesley).

3. Richard H.Pantel, Fundamentals of Quantum Electronics (John-Wiley & Sons).

Birefringence, Interference Theory, Localization of Fringes, Multiple-Beam Interference,

Optical Resonators, Fourier Spectroscopy, Kirchhoff's Diffraction Theory with

Applications in Spectroscopy, Holography, Partially Coherent Light, Correlation

Functions of Light Beams, Degree of Coherence.

RECOMENDED BOOKS

1. M.Born and E.Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon).

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2. M.V. Klein, Optics (John-Wiley and Sons).

3. R.W.Ditchburn, Light (John-Wiley and Sons).

4. P.A.Lindsay, Introduction to Quantum Electronics (Pitman);

5. S.N.Levine, Quantum Physics of Electronics (McGraw-Hill).

house, enjoying the sun, transport of matter, energy and momentum, the social and

political context. Basic Environmental Spectroscopy: Black body radiation, the emission

spectrum of sun, the transition electric dipole moments, the Einstein‟s coefficient,

Lambert-beers law, The spectroscopy of bi-molecules, Solar UV and life, the ozone filter.

The Global Climate: The energy Balance, Elements of Weather and Climate, Climate

variation and modeling Transport of Pollutants: Diffusion, Flow in reverse, Ground water,

Flow equation of fluid dynamics, Terbulence, Gaussian plumes in air, turbulent jets and

planes. Noise: Basic acoustics, Human perceptions and noise criteria, reducing the

transmission of sound, active control of sound Radiations: general laws of radiation,

natural radiations, interaction of electromagnetic radiation with plants, utilization of

photosynthetically active radiation Atmosphere and Climate: Structure of the atmosphere,

vertical profiles in the lower layers of atmosphere, lateral movement in atmosphere,

atmosphere circulation, cloud and participation, The atmospheric greenhouse effect. Top

Climates and Micro Climates: effects of surface elements in flat and widely undulling

areas, Dynamic action of solid, thermal action of solid. Climatology and Measurements of

Climate Factor: Data collection and organization, statistical analysis of climate data,

climatic indices, General characteristics of Measuring equipment, measurement of

temperature, air, humidity, surface wind velocity, Radiation balance, precipitation,

pressure, automatic weather station.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS

1. E.T books and R. Van Grondelle. “Environmental Physics” John Wiley 3rd ed 2011

2. G. Guyot. “Physics of Environmental and Climate” John Wiley 1998.

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Item No. 05

and Ph.D. Thesis

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List of External Examiners for the Evaluation of M.Phil and Ph.D. Thesis (Local)

1 Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Baig NCP, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad

Vice Chancellor

2 Prof. Dr. Iftikhar Hussain

Haripur University Abbottabad KPK

Department of Physics

3 Prof. Dr. Muhammad Nawaz Tahir

University of Sargodha

Chairman, |Department of Physics

4 Prof. Dr. Arshid Majeed Mirza

QAU, Islamabad

Director & HoD, Material Science

5 Dr. Muhammad Arshid Janjua

Department, PIEAS, Islamabad

Director,

6 Prof. Dr. Shahzad Naseem Centre of Excellence in Solid State

Physics University of the Punjab, QAC

Department of Physics

7 Prof. Dr. Arshid Iqbal (Rtd) University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir

Muzaffarabad.

Chairman, Department of Physics

8 Dr. Muhammad Abdul Rauf Khan University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir

Muzaffarabad.

9 Dr. Sami-ul-Haq NILOP, Islamabad

Department of Physics

10 Prof. Dr. Ghazanfar Ali Khan (Rtd) University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir

Muzaffarabad.

Director,

11 Prof. Dr. Ijaz Mujtaba Ghori Center of Advance Studies in Physics,

(CASP) G. C. University, Lahore.

Department of Physics

12 Prof. Dr. M. Riaz Khan

Peshawar University, Peshawar.

Dept. of Physics

13 Dr. M. Noman Sarwar Qureshi

GC University Lahore

14 Dr. Waqas Masood COMSATS IIT, Islamabad

15 Dr. M. Sabieh Anwar LUMS, Lahore Cantt.

Department of Physics

16 Dr. Muhammad Rafique University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir

Muzaffarabad.

Associate Prof. & Head Plasma

17 Dr. Muhammad Shafiq

Laboratory, QAU, Islamabad

Department of Physics

18 Prof. Dr. Nasir Amin

Agricultural University, Faisalabad.

Department of Physics

19 Dr. Yaser Jamil

Agricultural University Faisalabad

Department of Physics

20 Dr. Nek Muhammad Shaikh

University of Sind, Jamshoro

21 Dr. M. Ikram Shahzad PINSTECH, Niolre, Islamabad.

60 of 61

S. No. Name Address

22 Dr. Shahid Hussain Director, Centralized Resource Lab

Principal Scientist,

23 Dr. Nazir Hussain

Optics Lab. Niolre, Islamabad.

Department of Physics

24 Dr. M. Saleem Post Graduate College Satellite Town,

Rawalpindi.

Principal Scientist

Dr. Ali Nadeem

25 National Institute of Lasers and Optronics

(NILOP) Islamabad

26 Dr. Murtza Saleem LUMS, Lahore

27 Dr. Shahid Atiq CSSP. P.U. Lahore

Assistant Professor

28 Dr. Ijaz Ahmed Khan Dept. of Physics

GC University Faisalabad

29 Dr. Ishaq Ahmed Director EPD, NCP Islamabad

Dept. of Physics

30 Dr. Hidyat Ullah

University of Peshawar

Department of Physics

31 Dr. Muhammad Riaz

Federal Urdu University, Islamabad.

Department of Physics

32 Dr. Muhammad Jamil Alvi

COMSATS Lahore

Department of Physics

33 Dr. Zobia Kiran

G.C. University Lahore

Department of Physics

34 Dr. Muhammad Shahid

Women University Bagh AJK

Department of Physics

35 Dr. Umar Saeed Quershi

QAU Islamabad

Department of Physics

36 Dr. Ayaz Arif

University of AJK Muzaffarabad

Department of Physics

37 Dr. Shaista Nadeem Islamic International University,

Islamabad

Department of Physics

38 Dr. Abdul Waheed Anwar

UET, Lahore

39 Dr. Mushtaq Ahmed Director, NILOP, Islamabad

Assistant Prof. Department of Physics,

40 Dr. Gul Rehman

QAU, Islamabad

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