Abstract This paper deals with the problem of system bus where the problem is originated, or mostly related to, is
voltage security. In this sense, load margin, QV curve and important. These critical buses constitute the set of candidate
system loss reduction are focused. The idea is to use these buses for reinforcement against voltage collapse. In addition to
tools in the planning scenario to determine the best
these buses another set of buses of interest are the ones most
locations for installation of distributed generation . For
this purpose, from a base case, the system load margin and likely for loss reduction when reactive power compensation is
its losses are calculated. Besides that, the reactive power considered.
margin of each bus is obtained by using the QV curve,
such that all the necessary information may be collected. The effects of the reinforcement in the voltage stability may
In particular, the application of these techniques to the be assessed by the system load margin, obtained with the help
Paraguayan system is appealing, since this system contains of the continuation method. Such a method is based on a
a metropolitan system radially connected to a weak area, predictor and a corrector step and traces the bifurcation path
which raises some important issues associated with voltage from a base case. The load/generation increase direction may
stability.
consider different scenarios, so it may emulate interesting
Keywords: voltage stability, QV curve, loss reduction operating situations.
Predictor step is used to indicate a direction to move. Tangent δ (ij)k represents the phase angle between buses i and j .
vector may be used for this purpose, and is given by
If equation (8) is derived in relation to system
⎡ Δθ ⎤ 1 1
⎡ Po ⎤ parameter λ , it is obtained:
TV= ⎢ ⎥ =J ⎢ ⎥ (2)
⎣ΔV ⎦ Δλ ⎣Qo ⎦
d P system nl d V ik d V jk dA
where J is the load flow Jacobian, θ and V the state variables
dλ
= ∑
k =1
(
dλ
Vjk +
dλ
Vik ) A + Vik Vjk
dλ

(angle phase and voltage magnitude, respectively), and Po and
Qo are the net active and reactive powers connected to each d V ik d V jk
bus. TV is the shortage for tangent vector. The length of 2 Gk (Vik + Vjk ) (4)
dλ dλ
predictor step is then given by
where
Δλ = 1/TV
1602
A = Gk ( cos( δ (ij)k ) + cos( δ (ji)k ) where:
1603
Buses candidate for active power injection aiming the system 15 57 33 57 31 33 57
losses reduction.
20 57 32 53 53 53 30
IEEE Test Systems From Table I one can see that adopting the RPM as the
criterion of compensation, injection above 30 MW does not
The proposed methodologies have been firstly tested by using produce good results. If the other indices are used to identify
the IEEE test systems. Because the qualitative results obtained the best buses for active power injection, a better distribution
are similar for all the test systems, only the 57 bus system is of the injected MW is observed. This also happens for the
IEEE 14 and 30 bus systems, as depicted in Fig. 1.
discussed. The idea is to consider small generating units in the
Fig.1 depicts the results obtained when 30 MW are distributed
buses indicated by the following indices:
according to the proposed methodologies. Note that the largest
Tangent vector, base case (TVB): The bus with the largest increase in the LM as well as the largest loss reduction is
entry in the tangent vector calculated at the base case. obtained by the MixPV Group. These results are similar to the
ones obtained by the SLR and TVC groups. This flags an
Reactive Power Margin (RPM): Bus with the least reactive interesting signal for planners, since a reduced set of PV buses
power margin at the base case. is considered for control actions.
Sensitivity to loss reduction (SLR): Bus most sensitive with In order to assess the methodology proposed, the small
respect to loss reduction when an active power injection is units summing 30MW have been either randomly placed or
considered. located in some buses with low voltage levels. The results
obtained
Tangent vector at the voltage collapse point (TVC): The most
critical bus at the voltage collapse point indicated by the
tangent vector.
In general, for the IEEE test system, the best results are
capacityer
Case 1: Case 2: Case Case 4: Case 5: Case 6: obtained when the MixPV, TVC and SLR groups are
TVB RPM 3: TVC MIXPV MIX considered to experiment the control actions.
SLR
10 33 32 33 57 57 31
1604
This section presents the results obtained when the only described here for academic purposes, but has not been
Paraguayan Subsystem 1 (SS1) is employed. considered for planning scenarios.
Employing the continuation method from the base case yields It is important to mention that the two only reactive power
a small load margin about 5%, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, for sources of the Metropolitan Region present a negative RPM
some buses of 220 and 66 kV, respectively. since the base case. This may have some impact if
contingency analysis is carried out [8]. The ANDE system is
Convergence problems are observed when the load/generation dependent on these reactive power reserves, so if they reach
increase produces an operating point close to the bifurcation. their limits, the system becomes unstable.
This point is reached because bus SVC installed at SLO
As a function of this “strong dependence” of these
sources, an extra criterion has been proposed. It considers bus
candidates based on the impact of generation injection to the
system static var compensators (SVCs) performance. Figs 4 to
6 show that better results are obtained when the increase of the
RPM of these PV buses is the focus, alleviating the system
voltage control.
substation reaches its limit of 150 MVAr. From this point on,
the only reactive power reserve for the Metropolitan Region is
the SVC installed at LIM Substation (250 MVAr). When this
source is depleted, the system voltage control is lost, reaching
an induced bifurcation point [9][11].
1605
Fig. 6: Loss reduction in the ANDE system [11] R. A. Schlueter, “A Voltage Stability Security Assessment
Method”, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 13, No. 4,
pp. 14231438, November 1998.
VII. CONCLUSION
VIII. REFERENCES
1606