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Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a research field within computer sciences that concentrates on
developing human-like machine intelligence. Even though AI's history has seen the rise and fall
of different research paradigms and methods, contemporary AI comprehends a set ofincludes
techniques of which data-mining and machine learning are dominantamong its principal
techniques. Such techniques allow for the automatic identification of implicit patterns in past
data (i.e., statistical correlations) --which are difficult for humans to infer--, and the recognition
of those patterns in future data (i.e., algorithmic predictions).

AI and machine learning systems today power web searches, social media feeds,
recommendation systems, speech and image recognition systems, virtual assistants, translation Commented [R1]: AU—do you mean, systems that target
consumers with personalized recommendations? Thanks for
systems, online advertising, and spam filtering and so forth. Furthermore, AI and machine clarifying.

learning systems have being deployed in less evident ways across critical social domains such as Commented [2]: Reply to Rose (02/06/2019, 13:16): "..."
Yes, it’s personalized recommendations. Though the
finance (e.g., credit risk assessment);, health care (e.g., medical imaging diagnostics);, education technical name is recommendation systems or recommender
systems.
(e.g., recruitment process assistance);, labor (e.g., automated management and hiring);, criminal
justice (e.g., risk assessment in criminal sentencing); and law enforcement (e.g., facial
recognition and crime-predicting), increasingly impacting the life chances of peopleindividuals
in often opaque ways. Thus, the ever increasing deployment of AI technologies across the social
field call for perspectives that illuminatenecessitates a discussion of the social power relations
inscribed withininherent in these systems and how they may inform cultural and social processes.

This entry places AI’s artificial intelligence (AI) in historical context, to assess then its impacts
and then explores its social, economic, media-related, political, and informational impact. in
terms of social control, discrimination, inequality, accountability and ethics.

Overview
Artificial Intelligence (AI) was initiated as a research field at the Dartmouth Summer Workshop
of 1956. The proposal for the workshop --written by John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Claude
Shannon, and Nathaniel Rochester-- embraced the vision that machines could simulate learning
and perform intelligent behavior. The classic AI model shared the basic assumption that the
complexity of human intelligence could be reduced to symbolic reasoning and logic, hence real-
world entities and concepts can be represented as symbols to be manipulated by a computer.
New Since … approaches, models, and meanings of AI have developed since then that do not Commented [R3]: AU—please include a year/timeframe.
Thanks.
pursue the imitation of human intelligence as such. Instead, they harness the affordances
Commented [4]: Reply to Rose (02/06/2019, 13:21): "..."
properties of computation to supplement human capabilities or even exceed them. Since 1990s when probabilistic models of AI started to
proliferate and dominate over symbolic models

Although AI is a branch of computer science, other disciplines have contributed to the its
foundations and development of AI: philosophy, mathematics, statistics, cybernetics, economics,
neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and linguistics. Since its emergence in the 1950s, AI
research has experience different waves of enthusiasm and disillusion. And despite the fact that
AI technologies in use today in the early 21st century date back decades, in recent years a new
surge of public excitement about the potentiality of AI has emerged mainly due to the
availability of exponentially growing volumes of data (Big Data), improved memory capacity,
cheaper and more powerful computation, and better algorithmic processing techniques. With few
techTech companies with access to those resources and infrastructures (Google, Amazon,
Facebook, Microsoft, Tencent, etc.) dominateing a trillion-dollar industry. While sinceSince
2017, several national states have released formulated policies to promote the use and
development of AI with the aim of becoming global leaders in this sector.

Social Impact
AI may seem automatic and objective, however machine learning’s workings involves human
intensive labor and its very production is embedded within certain socio-cultural contexts that
carry social values. Manual labeling or classification of data samples (training data) –mostly a
form of crowdsourced and low pay labor-- is required so human classification can be then
modeled by algorithms (learners) –then again entailing . This entails a continuous adjusting and
optimization of variables in models– in order to sort out data in the domains in which these
systems operate. Given that classifications are products of particular historic social orders,
people working on these systems— –mostly from Global North corporations with little gender, Commented [R5]: AU—can you please briefly
define/describe, for the sake of the novice reader? Thank
race, and class diversity—--, do shape how populations are classified and to what sort of you.

problems the technology is put to use. Commented [6]: Reply to Rose (02/06/2019, 13:45): "..."
That would be the economically developed countries of
Europe and North America
Critical studies of AI have considerably focused on the potential harms of reproducing social
prejudices and naturalizing existing power relations via automation. Commonly, the data fed into
AI and machine learning systems overrepresent the views of more privilege people over those of
the less privileged— –a fact that is not exclusive of AI but rather a historic social pattern (e.g.,
minorities have been historically less represented in other media like painting)--, thus replicating
thus forms of discrimination through automating these biases. For instance, Google’s AI
powered services have been shown to discriminate against women when it comes toon showing
ads for high paying jobs, associate ads for criminal background checks for searches of “black- Commented [R7]: Au—so Google shows ads for high
paying jobs less often to women (than to men)? Thanks for
sounding” names, and label the faces of black people faces onin photos as gorillas. Thus, AI and clarifying.

machine learning are basically social classification systems that ontologically representdivide the Commented [8]: Reply to Rose (02/06/2019, 13:47): "..."
Yes, that’s what we meant
world ordered into rigid and stable categories, which far from neutral reflect specific
worldviews—namely, –the values and institutional cultures of their designers, or the very
prejudices already implicit in training data.

Another key issue emerges from the opacity of AI’s inner processes. Machine learning
algorithms explore complex statistical correlations in vast volumes of data involving such a great
number of variables (high-dimensional patterns) that a human auditor cannot elucidate how the
machine produces a given result. As a way of exampleFor example, in 2017, Google’s Alpha
Go— --an AI program that plays the Chinese game Go—-- was able to defeat a world class Go
player. And though the AI produced the desired outcome, that is, beating the Go master, no
general rules of how to play as the machine could be deduced from its victory, since –its
reasoning was opaque both to the game audience and Google’s engineers. Therefore, algorithmic
inscrutability lays these systemseffectively makes these systems fairly closed for to public
oversight, while facilitating thatenabling those institutions deploying them in critical social
domains are exemptedto be exempt from accountability for their negative effects. Furthermore,
finding effective ways to enforce fairness into AI implementations and building a more
democratic AI become both critical and challenging.

Economic Impacts
Nowadays AI supposes a trillion-dollar sector that involves ais a growing market marked by he
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) with a potential value nowadays of 1 to 9
percent of global economic revenues with and an expected revenuesexpected revenue of $ 50
billion by 2020, more than any other technology through history. Some consulting agencies, like Commented [R9]: AU—can you include stats for actual
revenue in 2018? Please be sure to mention your source.
the International Data Corporation (IDC), marks the 2017 AI impacts in global revenues in 13 Thanks.

billion dollars. According to the Price Waterhouse Cooper simulations, the world economy will
suffer experience an approximate impact increase of 15.7 trillion dollars or a 14% GDP growth
for the year 2030 (other models, like McKinsey’s ups to 26% and 22 trillion dollars) due to the
direct impact of the AI technologies. This impact would be distributed betweenresult from the
gains to productivity by the introduction of AI (assisted, autonomous and augmented
intelligence) technologies, listed at 6.7%, and the increase in consumption due to customization
and higher-quality AI-enhanced products and services— -with an increase in consumption of
7.9%-.

Nevertheless, this impact will sufferwill have variations in the geopolitical context, being
USAwith the United States and China the ones that obtaining greater profits with the
introduction of the AI into their markets, increasing GDP by 26.1% (China) and 14.5% (North
America) in 2030. 2030. $ 10.7 trillion, almost 70% of the expected global impact.

Regarding AI impact on job impacts,jobslabor impacts, the gap in automation levels of the
different markets will result in a range from 4 to 57% of direct jobs impact (not just decrease, but
transformation and new skills) from less automated markets to the most AI integrated markets,
which may further increase the differences between the North and the Global South. In terms of Commented [R10]: AU—please edit to clarify. Are we
talking about 4 to 57 percent decrease in jobs? Thanks for
increased productivity, the differentiated conditions per market point to an impact on the clarifying.

introduction of AI technologies ten times higher for the Chinese market (approximately double
that of the USA U.S. market) than, for example, the Latin American region. In the same way, job
automation processes found in North America and Europe, the regions with the greatest potential
of AI impacts, with a range of 23 and 76% of current jobs (depending on the sector) in 2030, at Commented [R11]: AU—as of what year? 2018? We try
to avoid using words such as “current” which might date the
high risk of disappearing. On the contrary, the case of Asia shows a much lower range of current entry.

jobs risk: -11% to 29%-.

Media Impact
The global media sector has found in the AI technologies a new and effective tool to expand its
digitization and personalization of consumption strategies. Marked by structural dynamics of
hyper-concentration and a generalized deregulation of the communication sectors throughout the
world, the introduction of machine learning tools appears in a retraction scene of the plurality
and diversity of contents in favor of global market liberalization and multisector convergence
processes over the plurality and diversity of contents.

These structural dynamics turns out into the development ofhave resulted in the development of
great giants of the global multi-sectorial media and services industry oligopolies (such as
Disney’s acquisitions of ABC Television Group, Lucasfilm, Marvel or 20th Century Fox or the Formatted: Superscript

Google acquisitions of Motorola Mobility, Youtube or Waze), in sacrifice of a large sector of


small-local producers, especially since the convergence, liberalization and entrance to the Commented [R12]: Au—can you include some examples?
Thank you.
different media markets of mixed companies of content and services, and the success of the
Over-The-Top services (OTT) or internet-based services that bypasses traditional distribution Commented [R13]: AU—can you briefly define? Thank
you.
(e.g.: Netflix or Hulu for video; Spotify or Deezer for audio). This unusual multisectorial
concentration has made possible, thanks to the large number of personal data collected from
consumers and users, the inclusion of increasingly accurate automated learning tools in the
processes of selection and offer of media communication, as well as the capacity forof more
accurate predictions in the generation of consumption trends, like the production of audiovisual Commented [R14]: AU—briefly define here, for the
novice reader. Thank you.
contents based on users data and behavior prediction by Netflix or other OTTs.

Informational and Political Impact


AI systems are being used for the computation and analysis of Big Data, from machine learning
tools—- whether supervised or automated— – to generate processing of information such as
automated sentiment analysis, automated content analysis, or natural language processing. Due
to their complexity and processing cost, these procedures are usually concentrated in
monopolistic agents and institutions (e.g., -global service companies, political parties or mass
media)-, causing a mutation in the consideration of public debate, based on the introduction of Commented [R15]: AU—please edit to clarify. Thank
you.
Artificial Intelligences (bots) in several political scenarios and the personalization of political
information and propaganda techniques.
While these tools can help to the development and strength of data journalism and the
construction of more accurate accountability mechanisms (e.g., -fact checking), -, in recent years
during the last decade they have been almost exclusively used to promote a very broad and quick
development of elements of information and political control, causing, occasionally, situations of
crisis and collapse of the democratic-State model and establishing new challenges to the public
space. The well-known fakeFake news (false information that pretend to be a new) and post-truth Commented [R16]: AU—please provide brief
parenthetical definitions of each. Thank you.
(political communication strategy that appeal to the emotions rather than the details and data) are
terms related to the information processing and referred to a new novel approach to the public
opinion building.

Relevant cases such asinclude Cambridge Analytica’s trends generation and information
personalization and its fundamental influence on the outcome of the 2016 United StatesU.S.
Presidential Elections andor the relevance of the fake news campaign on WhatsApp during the
2018 Brazil Presidential Elections, which shows the huge power of sentiment analysis and Big
Data in the political trends' generation. Other examples, such as the massive irruption ofrole of
AI AI bots (automated software programed to perform repetitive tasks) in the public debate in Commented [R17]: AU—please define/describe for the
novice reader. Thank you.
the FCC U.S. Federal Communications Commission for the end ofregarding net neutrality
Commented [R18]: AU—can you please add a year to this
between April and October 2017, are helpful to in understanding the importance and influence of debate/AI bot situation?

the AI in the new management of public space., in which, as The data scientist Jeff Kao warns Commented [R19]: AU—please identify Jeff Kao. Is he a
historian? Industry commentator? Thank you.
that, its the more and more often that human authentic voices are beingrisk being substituted in
public debate by chorus of spambots, controlled mostly by powerful and concentrated decision-
makers.
Juan Ramos-Martín Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Formatted: Spanish (Spain)

(Colombia) and Carlos Barreneche. Pontificia Universidad


Javeriana (Colombia).

See also

Computer Networks;, Data Journalism;, Data Privacy, Digital Revolution;, Digital Media Ethics,
Fake News;, Internet;, Mediated Culture;, Political Economy of Communication;, Sillicon
Valley;, Software;, Technology Development, Influence on Mass Media
Further Readings
Bratton, B. (2015). Outing Artificial Intelligence: Reckoning with Turing Tests. In: Alleys of
your mind: augmented intelligence and its traumas. Lüneburg: Meson Press.

Crawford, K.; Whittaker, M.; Elish, M.C.; Barocas, S.; Plasek, A. & Ferryman, K. (2016). The
AI Now Report: The social and economic implications of artificial intelligence technologies in
the near term. New York: New York University’s Information Law Institute.

Domingos, P. (2015). The Master Algorithm. How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine
Will Remake Our World. New York: Basic Books.

Eubanks, V. (2018). Automating inequality: How high-tech tools profile, police, and punish the
poor. London: St. Martin's Press.

Gillham, J. et al (2018). The macroeconomic impact of artificial intelligence. London: Price


Waterhouse Cooper.

Graham, M. (Ed.) (2019). Digital Economies at Global Margins. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Kao, J. (2017). More than a Million Pro-Repeal Net Neutrality Comments were Likely Faked.
Hackernmoon. Retrieved from: https://hackernoon.com/more-than-a-million-pro-repeal-net-
neutrality-comments-were-likely-faked-e9f0e3ed36a6

Mackenzie, A. (2015). The production of prediction: What does machine learning want?
European Journal of Cultural Studies, 18(4-5), 429-445. doi: 10.1177/1367549415577384

Mcquillan, D. (2015) Algorithmic States of Exception. European Journal of Cultural Studies,


18(4/5), pp. 564-576. doi: 10.1177/1367549415577389

Noble, S. (2016) Algorithms of Oppression: Race, Gender and Power in the Digital Age. New
York: NYU Press.