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A Success Story Of Low Resistivity Reservoir Development Through Hydraulic

Fracturing In Kl Field

Conference Paper · November 2018


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Didit Putra Kusuma Wingky Suganda


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The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018



Farasdaq Sajjad1, Didit Putra Kusuma1, Amrizal1, Wahyu Jatmiko2, Wingky Suganda3
Pertamina Hulu Energi Offshore North West Java
Pertamina Hulu Energi
Institut Teknologi Bandung

This paper was selected for presentation by the SPWLA Asia Pacific program INTRODUCTION
committee following review of an abstract submitted by the author(s).

ONWJ is located off the north coast of Java Island in

ABSTRACT Indonesia, produces approximately 30,000 barrels oil per
day. Currently, to sustain production is very challenging
KL Field is located at Offshore North West Java (ONWJ) work to do. Most of reservoirs condition is, to a large
and has been producing since 1986. The field consists of degree, experiencing massive declining in both reservoir
several reservoir zones which had been producing in pressure and production rate. It is at this moment that
commingle scheme. While considered to be more several alternatives are proposed to boost the production
economical, commingle production has its own from available upset potential. One good example is the
drawback. The most common challenge of commingle bypassed zone, which is illustrated as a zone which has
production is to allocate the production for each reservoir been produced but does not give substantial contribution
and to locate the remaining oil reserves throughout the to overall production.
field. This scheme may also leave some bypassed zones,
such as low resistivity reservoirs. As pressure monitoring is conducted, it is discovered that
the pressure condition at specific depth experiences
The following study is applied in KL-56 shaly sand slight depletion from its initial reservoir pressure after
reservoir which has been perforated in several wells with being produced for some time. Such condition is
commingle production scheme. In the past, out of four common to be happened in the well with commingle
exploratory wells targeting KL-56, only one well that production scheme, especially if several productive
showed positive result of Drill Stem Test (DST), even zones exist within the same range of depth. Additionally,
with very low tubing pressure. Further analysis also the facts that this bypassed zone possesses low resistivity
indicates that KL-56 reservoir has low resistivity and low characteristic, make it a relatively unattractive zone
permeability value. The integration of available data and compared to the other productive zone nearby. Albeit
aforementioned analysis confirms that KL-56 reservoir having low possibility of hydrocarbon presence, deep
has not been produced optimally. Infill wells were then analysis is conducted in this study to conceive the reason
generated to recover KL-56 reserve only. Hydraulic behind the fact. Example of this occurrence is the KL-56
fracturing was selected to enhance KL-56 productivity. reservoir which was first perforated on 1986.
In 2012, three development wells were drilled and Low Resistivity Zone - The term low resistivity is used to
produced at 2100 BOPD with 0% water cut. The drilling describe a pay zone that either has relatively low
result also confirms that no reservoir pressure depletion resistivity or calculated wet using conventional well log
occurred. This suggests that KL-56 reservoir has not calculations (Etnyre, 1996). In application, the very
contributed yet to overall production. As a bypassed zone, definition of low resistivity zone is often viewed as a
KL-56 leaves significant hydrocarbon reserves. For zone containing high water saturation (above 50% of
future strategy, new development wells are planned to be water saturation), and therefore viably not economic
completed as horizontal wells with multistage fracturing (Boyd, 2010).
to increase the productivity.
There are many causes that resistivity from well logging
The success of KL-56 re-development leads to a new revealing a relatively low resistivity reading. Some usual
approach in low resistivity reservoir management at occurrences suggest the presence of heavy mineral, high
ONWJ. Several bypassed zones prospect need to be clay content, and thin bed-lamination. Shale and shaly
re-evaluated which may increase future production. sand type of rocks are prone to have a long period of
compaction and suspension in relatively wet and
Keywords: commingle, bypassed reservoir, low mineral-rich depositional environment, causing the rock
resistivity, hydraulic fracturing grains to possess fine distribution (Zangerl, 1956). Clay

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018

mineral itself is often found in marine and lacustrine After twenty-five years being on production, one of the
deposits. This mineral also requires the presence of water challenges is to enhance oil production as efficiently and
along with several organic materials for its composition. economically as possible. This challenge relates not only
As the result, these heavy minerals and clay the subsurface aspect but also surface facilities and
concentrations are often found in shale-based rock and, operation. In KL field, most of the wells are produced by
given the characteristic of water to be electrically commingle scheme from multilayer reservoirs. The most
conductive, shale-based rock is prone to exhibit low common challenge of commingle production is to
resistivity. As for the latter reason, thin bed lamination allocate the production for each reservoir and to locate
defines a partially shaly rock, where a slim portion of the remaining oil reserves throughout the filed.
shale can contribute to give a high electrically
conductive rock, resulting in the low resistivity data Bypassed Reservoir - However, after 25 years of
obtained. production there is no significant difference between
wells that only producing from KL-54 and those
Therefore, a deep understanding is needed, taking into commingled with KL-56. Production Logging Tools
account that the zone still has potential to increase the (PLT) cannot be performed to validate the production
production with a proper development plan and allocation due to commingle behind Sliding Sleeve Door
maintenance. Several advances in development plan will (SSD) as presented in Fig. 4.
not be discussed in detail due to the focus on the zone
being on the development on the low resistivity reservoir. With the case mentioned, KL-56 reservoir is suspected to
be a bypassed reservoir, which has the potential to
increase production. With the methodology mentioned
METHODOLOGY before, analysis on this reservoir will be performed.
Several additional data, such as logging data and DST
To conduct the analysis, several sequential approaches data of these fields will be displayed along with the
are made to analyze the prospect of the mentioned low results and discussion section.
resistivity zone. The analysis will be divided into three
steps, consisting of reservoir re-characterization,
production history and reserves estimation. Subsequently, DISCUSSION
from the reserves estimation, we can decide if the zone is
prospective enough to produce hydrocarbon with current Reservoir Characteristics - Several analyses were
technology and limitation. If the condition is fulfilled, a conducted based on available log data, as shown in Fig. 5.
suitable development plan can be carried to produce the Log data shows that KL-54 is a clean-sand reservoir and
zone. has resistivity ranging from 4.0 Ω.m to 7.0 Ω.m. In the
other hand, KL-56 is a shaly-sand reservoir, which has
At reservoir re-characterization, the rock’s petrophysical low resistivity ranging from 1.8 Ω.m to 2.5 Ω.m, while
data is analyzed once more time to evaluate the causes the formation water resistivity is around 1.4 Ω.m. Even
behind this low resistivity condition. Log data (open-hole though these reservoirs have low resistivity value, it has
log, mud log) and core data from Scanning Electron good oil-show from the cuttings and significant gas
Microscope (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) are reading from its mud log. A comprehensive approach
taken and processed. From the process, a comprehensive by using well logging data, mud log data, core data, Drill
analysis to the total amount and distribution of clay Stem Test (DST) and production history are used to
minerals are obtained. Current porosity and permeability evaluate this low resistivity pays performance.
data after years of production also can be estimated. Drill
Stem Test (DST) and production history data are used for In the past, only one out of four exploratory wells
dynamic evaluation. targeting KL-56 reservoir, which is KLA-1 that showed
successful Drill Stem Test result. It flowed with 370
BOPD at a very low tubing pressure. While at the other
CASE STUDY three wells, KLA-4, KLA-5, and KLA-6, nitrogen
kick-off and matrix acid stimulation were unsuccessful to
KL field is one of the producing fields of ONWJ that has flow the KL-56 to the surface.
been producing since 1986. The structure has been
developed from three platforms through thirty wells. The The KL-56 is the thickest reservoir in Massive formation
peak of production is 12,000 BOPD in 1986. KL field with ranging from 180 feet - 210 feet. The core data
depth structure map and its production profile data are shows that KL-56 reservoir characterized by low
presented in Fig. 1 & Fig. 2. Currently, most of reservoir resistivity sand, which ranging from 1.8 Ω.m to 2.5 Ω.m.
pressure has already depleted. This condition has placed It is because the existence of glauconitic minerals that
the field to the rejuvenation stage. categorized as heavy minerals. Its permeability is also
relatively low, which ranges from 6 mD - 12 mD. The

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018

sands are fine to very fine grain and the matrix is wells which indicated oil from log data. Hydraulic
dominated by clay laminar and minor dispersed. KL-56 fracturing stimulation was selected to improve and
reservoir has good porosity quality varies from 16% to ensure economic production rate from all the
20%. development wells. The fracturing interval was proposed
in 20 feet length over the best interval interpreted from
KL-56 core sample was obtained at depth between 5810 logs. The average total thickness of KL-56 is about 150
feet to 5838 feet with total 28 feet core sample. The feet. No oil water contact was identified from the well
whole core log image is shown in Fig. 6. The analysis of log therefore no water is expected to be produced from
bulk mineralogy from X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) the wells.
indicates that its major mineral component is quartz with
sample ranges from 65% to 85% weight percent The three development wells were successfully produced
(Table-1). The second major component is Feldspar (5% KL-56 with total initial rate of 2100 BOPD. The
to 10%). The total clay content ranges from 10% to 20%. fracturing data confirms that KL-56 reservoir is still in
Analysis of clay mineral fraction was performed to original pressure. After seven years of production life,
determine the type of clay mineral existed in this the total cumulative production from those development
reservoir (Table-2). The analysis indicates four types of wells is around 1.5 MMBO, increasing KL field overall
clay minerals; Kaolinite, Illite, Chlorite, and mixed-layer production.
Illite-Smectite. The Chlorite mineral (AlSi3O10)Mg5
(Al,Fe)(OH)8 as shown in Fig. 7, is the predominant clay Future Plan - Commingle production may leave some
mineral that occupies 50% to 60%. The presence of the bypassed zones, such as low resistivity reservoirs, that
chlorite clay mineral within the rock could be still hold some potential reserve. There are many causes
responsible for the low magnitude of resistivity reading of this low resistivity aspect that might render the zone
on electric logs. unattractive, such as heavy mineral and considerable clay
concentration presence, as well as thin bed lamination.
Reserves Estimation - The Original Oil In Place (OOIP)
of KL-56 reservoir is estimated using the volumetric Drilling result confirms KL-56 as bypassed zone, even
method. From all the exploratory wells, there was no though it was perforated 25 years ago. New development
Water Oil Contact (WOC) observed, therefore the proven wells and hydraulic fracturing succeed to boost the
vertical boundary is calculated from Lowest Tested Oil KL-56 production from zero to 2100 BOPD.
(LTO) at KLA-1 Well (Fig. 8). Net reservoir volume is
calculated from porosity and Vshale. Log and core data
from all exploratory wells show that KL-56 reservoir CONCLUSION
properties are relatively homogeneous.
Commingle production may leave some bypassed zones,
Based on Dual-Water Equation (Waxman, 1968), water such as low resistivity reservoirs, that still hold some
saturation is as high as 84%, which is caused by low potential reserve. There are many causes of this low
resistivity, while based on core data, water saturation is resistivity aspect that might render the zone unattractive,
only around 54%. It indicates that water saturation such as heavy mineral and considerable clay
calculation using the equation in low resistivity reservoir concentration presence, as well as thin bed lamination.
can be overestimate. From all those parameters above,
the calculated OOIP of KL-56 is around 30 MMBO. Drilling result confirms KL-56 as bypassed zone, even
though it was perforated 25 years ago. New development
Drilling Campaign - ONWJ field has drilled thousand wells and hydraulic fracturing succeed to boost the
wells from clusters of platforms and currently the KL-56 production from zero to 2100 BOPD.
availability slot is limited to drill a new well. Workover
from existing wells in KL-56 reservoir will require
massive effort due to complexity in completion (mostly ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
regarding multiple packer and well integrity issue). To
develop the KL-56 low resistivity pay, KLB-9ST, The authors wish to thank the respective management of
KLB-11 and KLB-12 non-producing wells were PHE ONWJ for permission to publish this work.
abandoned. In 2012, those wells were side at 9-5/8”
casing to the KL-56 zone. The existing well architecture
and study in drilling operation have made KLB-9ST2,
KLB-11ST and KLB-12ST to be completed as 3-1/2”
monobore deviated wells.

The placement of the development wells was based on

the structure culmination, drainage area, and the existing

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018


Allen, T.O. and Robert, A.P., 1982. “Production

Operations, Well Completion, Workover and
Stimulation”, Volume I & II, Second Edition. Tulsa: Oil
and gas Consultans International, Inc.

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Resistivity Pay”. Oilfield Review Journal.

Bassiouni, Zaki., Velic, Josipa., 1996. “Prospecting for

Bypassed Oil and Gas”. Geologia Croatia 49/2. Page

Guo, B., Lyons, W., Ghalambor, Ali., 2007. “Petroleum

Production Engineering A Computer assisted Approach”.

Hamada, G., Al-Awad, M., 2000. “Petrophysical

Evaluation of Low Resistivity Sandstone Reservoirs”.
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Michele G. Bishop, 2000. “Petroleum System of the

Northwest Java Province, Java and Offshore Southeast
Sumatra, Indonesia”. U.S. Geological Survey.

Olare, Jemine., et all, 2014. “Evolution and Evaluation of

a Shallow-Marine LRLC Reservoir with Advanced
Well-Log Measurements: A Case Study from Offshore
Nigeria”. AAPG International Conference & Exhibition,
Istanbul, Turkey, September 14tKL-527th, 2014.

Salman, Hafiz., 2015. “Hydraulic Fracturing Design:

Best Practices for a Field Development Plan”, Tecnico

Schechter R. S., 1992. “Oil Well Stimulation”, New

Jersey: Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs.

Worthington, Paul., 1997. “Recognition and

Development of Low-Resistivity Pay”. SPE Asia Pasific
Oil and Gas Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April
14tKL-526th, 1997. SPE 38035.

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Reservoirs Using GR Spectrometry Logs: A Case Study”.
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Exhibition, March 10tKL-522th 2014.

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018


Figure 1: Depth Structure Map of KL Field

Figure 2: Production Profile of KL Feld

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018

Figure 3: Stratigraphic Column of KL Field

Figure 4: Typical Completion at KL Field

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018

Figure 5: KL-54 and KL-56 Reservoirs Log

Figure 6: Core at KL-56 Reservoir

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018

Table 1: KL-56 Reservoir XRD

Table 2: Clay Content in KL-56 Reservoir

Figure 7: KL-56 Sand Thin Section Shale Portion dominated with Chlorite minerals

The 2nd SPWLA Asia Pacific Technical Symposium – Indonesia, November 7-8, 2018

Figure 8: KL-56 Reservoir Net Pay Map


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