Você está na página 1de 64

LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION
In order to reduce and prevent the damage of landslides, landslide monitoring
is very important to the prediction and estimation of the landslide hazard and
prevention. Landslide monitoring is an important topic related at the hill slides.
Landslides are geological phenomena causing significant loss of life and loss of
properties in damages each year in many countries. Therefore technology has to be
developed to capture relevant signals with minimum monitoring delay. Wireless
sensors are one of the technologies that can quickly respond to rapid changes of data
and send the sensed data to the receiver section in areas where cabling is not available.
Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has the capability of quick capturing,
processing, and transmission of required data in real-time with high resolution.
However, it has its own limitations such as relatively low amounts of battery power
and low memory availability compared to many existing technologies. It does, though,
have the advantage of deploying sensors in hostile environments with a minimum of
maintenance. This fulfils a very important need for any real time monitoring, especially
in hazardous or remote scenarios.

1.1 Introduction About Embedded Systems

An embedded system is one that has computer hardware with software embedded
in it as one of its components. Or
▪ We can define an embedded system as “A microprocessor-based system that
does not look like a computer”.
Or
▪ we can say that it is “A combination of computer hardware and software, and
perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated
function. In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or
product, as is the case of an antilock braking system in a car “.
▪ An embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to
perform certain dedicated functions. It is usually embedded as part of a complete
device including hardware and mechanical parts.

Page no. 1
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Significance
Due to their compact dimension, low rate and easy design features made
embedded programs very general and encroached into human lives and have grow to
be integral. They are discovered the place from kitchen ware to house craft. To stress
this inspiration here are some illustrations
1.2 What Is Inside an Embedded System?
Every embedded system consists of custom-built hardware built around a
Central Processing Unit (CPU). This hardware additionally comprises reminiscence
chips onto which the software is loaded. The software residing on the reminiscence
chip is also called the ‘firmware’. The operating process runs above the hardware, and
the application software runs above the operating system. The equal structure is
relevant to any pc including a computer. However, there are massive differences. It
isn't obligatory to have an operating process in every embedded for small home
equipment such as remote manipulate units, air-conditioners, toys and many others.,
there is not any need for a working process, and we are able to write best the program
specific to that utility. For applications involving tricky processing, that you must have
an operating process. In any such case, you need to combine the appliance software
with the working method after which transfer the whole software on to the memory
chip. As soon as the application is transferred to the memory chip, the program will
proceed to run for a long time, and you don’t have to reload new application.
In any such case, you need to combine the appliance software with the working
method after which transfer the whole software on to the memory chip. As soon as the
application is transferred to the memory chip, the program will proceed to run for a long
time, and you don’t have to reload new application.

Page no. 2
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Fig1.1: Architecture of an embedded system

1.3 Features of An Embedded System

Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do


different things.

▪ Embedded systems have very restricted assets, certainly the reminiscence. In


general, they don't have secondary storage contraptions such because the
CDROM or the floppy disk.

Embedded systems must work in opposition to some time limits. A distinctive


job needs to be accomplished inside a distinct time. In some embedded systems, called
real-time techniques, the points in time are stringent. Missing a useless line may just
reason a disaster – loss of existence or injury to property.

▪ Embedded systems are constrained for power, as many embedded systems


operate through a battery, the power consumption has to be very low.

▪ Embedded systems need to be highly reliable. Once in a while, pressing ALT-


CTRL-DEL is OK on your desktop, but you cannot afford to reset your
embedded system.

Page no. 3
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

• Some embedded techniques must operate in severe environmental stipulations


such as very excessive temperatures and humidity. Embedded programs do a
very detailed task, they cannot be programmed to do exclusive matters.
• Embedded programs that handle the patron market (for illustration digital toys)
are very rate-potent. Even a discount of Rs.10 is lot of price saving, considering
that countless numbers or thousands of systems could also be sold.

Not like computing device desktops where the hardware platform is


dominated through Intel and the working method is dominated by Microsoft,
there's a large kind of processors and operating programs for the embedded
programs. So, making a choice on the correct platform is essentially the most
intricate task.

Page no. 4
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

CHAPTER – 2
LANDSLIDE DETECTION

2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM

Block Diagram:

LCD DISPLAY
POWER SUPPLY
(16*2 LINES)

WEBSERVER
ACCELEROMETER
GSM MODULE
SENSOR
RASPBERRY-PI
TEMPERATURE
BUZZER

WATER LEVEL
SENSOR

Fig 2.1: Block diagram

2.2 Block Diagram Description:

2.2.1 Raspberry Pi:

History of Raspberry pi:


Around 2005 Eeben Upton was Director of Studies in Computer Science at
Cambridge. Incoming students had relatively few programming and/or hardware skills
vs. “the old days”, creating vision of “something like the BBC Computer, but running
a modern language like Python.” The name “Raspberry Pi” is a grouping of “a fruit
name” and a play on “Python”. Between 2006-2011 the vision turned into highly
capable single board computer design Interest in RPI exploded as production plans
became more and more enthusiastic, reaching the initial run of 10k boards by a
partnership with Element14 and RS Components in the UK.
● The day sales began 100k orders were chasing the first 10k boards.

Page no. 5
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

● Support hardware and software development have been proportionating to the


estimated 1Mboards shipped.
● But this is all really just STEP ONE.

Description:

The Raspberry Pi has made quite a splash since it was first announced. The
credit score-card sized pc is competent of most of the things that your computer does,
like spreadsheets, word-processing and video games. It moreover performs excessive-
definition video. It would run a couple of flavors of Linux and is getting used to train
youngsters in each single place the field easy methods to software… Oh yeah, and it
does all that for below $50.The key sauce that makes this pc so small and strong is the
Broadcom BCM2835, a procedure-on-Chip that comprises an ARM1176JZFS with
floating point, going for walks at 700MHz, and a Video core 4 GPU. The GPU offers
Open GL ES 2. Zero, hardware-accelerated Open VG, and 1080p30 H.264 immoderate-
profile decode and is ready of 1Gpixel/s, 1.5Gtexel/s or 24 GFLOPs of usual intent
compute. What’s that everyone means? It means that when you plug the Raspberry Pi
into your HDTV, you might watch Blue Ray satisfactory video, utilizing H.264 at
40MBits/s.But wait, there’s more. The model B additionally has a 10/a hundred
Ethernet port so which you could surf the online (or serve web pages) from proper there
on the Pi. The process volume lives on an SD card, so it’s easy to arrange, run and
debug a number of distinct running programs on the equal hardware. Most Linux
distributions for the Pi will fortunately survive a 2GB SD card nonetheless higher
playing cards are supported. The mannequin B’s two developed-in USB ports provide
ample connectivity for a mouse and keyboard, nonetheless if you wish to add extra you
can use a USB hub. It's recommended that you simply use a powered hub in order not
to overtax the on-board voltage regulator.

Powering the Raspberry Pi is easy, readily plug any USB vigor give into the
micro-USB port. There’s no vigor button so the Pi will to boot as quickly as vigor is
utilized, to show it off without difficulty get rid of energy. On top of all that, the low-
degree peripherals on the Pi make it exceptional for hardware hacking. The 0.1" spaced
GPIO header on the Pi offers you access to eight GPIO, UART, I2C, SPI as well
as3.Three and 5V sources. Mating ribbon cables will also be discovered in the
associated merchandise under. Dimensions: eighty-five.60mm x 56mm x 21mm.

Page no. 6
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

CHAPTER - 3
REQUIREMENTS

3.1HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

3.1.1 GSM (Global System for Mobile communications)

Introduction:

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a cellular network, which


means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity.
GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate
in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas use the 850 MHz
and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already
allocated.

The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries,
where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems.

GSM-900 uses 890–915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to
the base station (uplink) and 935–960 MHz for the other direction (downlink),
providing 124 RF channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Duplex
spacing of 45 MHz is used. In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to
cover a larger frequency range. This 'extended GSM', E-GSM, uses 880–915 MHz
(uplink) and 925–960 MHz (downlink), adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to
1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. Time division multiplexing is used to allow
eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. There
are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a
TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel
data rate is 270.833 Kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms.

GSM Advantages:

GSM also pioneered a low-cost, to the network carrier, alternative to voice calls,
the Short t message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"), which is now
supported on other mobile standards as well. Another advantage is that the standard
includes one worldwide Emergency telephone number, 112. This makes it easier for

Page no. 7
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

international travelers to connect to emergency services without knowing the local


emergency number.

The GSM Network:

GSM provides recommendations, not requirements. The GSM specifications


define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the
hardware. The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system
(SS), the base station system (BSS), and the operation and support system (OSS).

Fig: 3.1 GSM NETWORK

Page no. 8
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

3.1.2 The Switching System:

The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and
subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional
units.

Home location register (HLR): The HLR is a database used for storage and
management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, as
it stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile,
location information, and activity status. When an individual buy a subscription from
one of the PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator.

Mobile services switching center (MSC): The MSC performs the telephony switching
functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems.
It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel
signaling, and others.

Visitor location register (VLR): The VLR is a database that contains temporary
information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting
subscribers. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams
into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the
mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will
have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each
time.

Authentication center (AUC): A unit called the AUC provides authentication and
encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of
each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in
today's cellular world.

Equipment identity register (EIR): The EIR is a database that contains information
about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or
defective mobile stations. The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or
as a combined AUC/EIR node.

Page no. 9
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

The Base Station System (BSS):

All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station
controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs).

• BSC: The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between
the MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as
handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power
levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC.

• BTS: The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the
radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the
network. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC.

3.1.3 The Operation and Support System:

The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in


the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the
operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the
network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the
customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional and local operational and
maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. An important function of
OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of
different operation and maintenance organizations.

ADDITIONAL BASE SETTINGS:

• Message center (MXE): The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice,
fax, and data messaging. Specifically, the MXE handles short message service,
cell broadcast, voice mail, fax mail, e-mail, and notification.

• Mobile service node (MSN): The MSN is the node that handles the mobile
intelligent network (IN) services.

• Gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC): A gateway is a node


used to interconnect two networks. The gateway is often implemented in an
MSC. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC.

Page no. 10
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

• GSM inter-working unit (GIWU): The GIWU consists of both hardware and
software that provides an interface to various networks for data
communications. Through the GIWU, users can alternate between speech and
data during the same call. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located
at the MSC/VLR which consists of the hardware requirements of the system.
3.1.4 GSM Network Areas:

The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. As shown in bellow figure,


these areas include cells, location areas (LAs), MSC/VLR service areas, and public land
mobile network (PLMN) areas.

Fig: 3.2 GSM NETWORK AREAS

Location Areas:

The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. The
GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to
each cell. The location area is a group of cells. It is the area in which the subscriber is
paged. Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers, yet only by a single
MSC Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number.

Page no. 11
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

MSC/VLR service areas:

An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is
covered by one MSC and which is reachable, as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC.

PLMN service areas:

The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator.

GSM Specifications:

Specifications for different personal communication services (PCS) systems vary


among the different PCS networks. Listed below is a description of the specifications
and characteristics for GSM.

• Frequency band: The frequency range specified for GSM is 1,850 to 1,990
MHz (mobile station to base station).

• Duplex distance: The duplex distance is 80 MHz. Duplex distance is the


distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel has two
frequencies, 80 MHz apart.

• Channel separation: The separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In


GSM, this is 200 kHz.

• Modulation: Modulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the


characteristics of a carrier frequency. This is done in GSM via Gaussian
minimum shift keying (GMSK).

• Transmission rate: GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270
kbps.

• Access method: GSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA)
concept. TDMA is a technique in which several different calls may share the
same carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time slot.

• Speech coder: GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC
is to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics
the vocal tract. The signal passes through this filter, leaving behind a residual
signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.

Page no. 12
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

GSM Subscriber Services:

Dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF):

DTMF is a tone signaling scheme often used for various control purposes via
the telephone network, such as remote control of an answering machine. GSM supports
full-originating DTMF.

Facsimile group III—

GSM supports CCITT Group 3 facsimile. As standard fax machines are


designed to be connected to a telephone using analog signals, a special fax converter
connected to the exchange is used in the GSM system. This enables a GSM–connected
fax to communicate with any analog fax in the network.

Short message services: A convenient facility of the GSM network is the short
message service. A message consisting of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters
can be sent to or from a mobile station. This service can be viewed as an advanced form
of alphanumeric paging with a number of advantages. If the subscriber's mobile unit is
powered off or has left the coverage area, the message is stored and offered back to the
subscriber when the mobile is powered on or has reentered the coverage area of the
network. This function ensures that the message will be received.

Cell broadcast: A variation of the short message service is the cell broadcast facility.
A message of a maximum of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobile subscribers
in a certain geographic area. Typical applications include traffic congestion warnings
and reports on accidents.

Voice mail: This service is actually an answering machine within the network, which
is controlled by the subscriber. Calls can be forwarded to the subscriber's voice-mail
box and the subscriber checks for messages via a personal security code.

Fax mail: With this service, the subscriber can receive fax messages at any fax
machine. The messages are stored in a service center from which they can be retrieved
by the subscriber via a personal security code to the desired fax number

Page no. 13
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Supplementary Services:

GSM supports a comprehensive set of supplementary services that can


complement and support both telephony and data services.

Call forwarding: This service gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming
calls to another number if the called mobile unit is not reachable, if it is busy, if there
is no reply, or if call forwarding is allowed unconditionally.

Barring of outgoing calls: This service makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to
prevent all outgoing calls.

Barring of incoming calls: This function allows the subscriber to prevent incoming
calls. The following two conditions for incoming call barring exist: baring of all
incoming calls and barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN.

Advice of charge (AOC): The AOC service provides the mobile subscriber with an
estimate of the call charges. There are two types of AOC information: one that provides
the subscriber with an estimate of the bill and one that can be used for immediate
charging purposes. AOC for data calls is provided on the basis of time measurements.

Call hold: This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then
subsequently reestablish the call. The call hold service is only applicable to normal
telephony.

Call waiting: This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming
call during a conversation. The subscriber can answer, reject, or ignore the incoming
call. Call waiting is applicable to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit-
switched connection.

Multiparty service: The multiparty service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a


multiparty conversation—that is, a simultaneous conversation between three and six
subscribers. This service is only applicable to normal telephony.

Calling line identification presentation/restriction: These services supply the called


party with the integrated services digital network (ISDN) number of the calling party.

Page no. 14
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

The restriction service enables the calling party to restrict the presentation. The
restriction overrides the presentation.

Closed user groups (CUGs): CUGs are generally comparable to a PBX. They are a
group of subscribers who are capable of only calling themselves and certain numbers

Main AT commands:

"AT command set for GSM Mobile Equipment” describes the Main AT
commands to communicate via a serial interface with the GSM subsystem of the phone.
AT commands are instructions used to control a modem. AT is the abbreviation of
Attention. Every command line starts with "AT" or "at". That's why modem commands
are called AT commands. Many of the commands that are used to control wired dial-
up modems, such as ATD (Dial), ATA (Answer), ATH (Hook control) and ATO
(Return to online data state), are also supported by GSM/GPRS modems and mobile
phones. Besides this common AT command set, GSM/GPRS modems and mobile
phones support an AT command set that is specific to the GSM technology, which
includes SMS-related commands like AT+CMGS (Send SMS message), AT+CMSS
(Send SMS message from storage), AT+CMGL (List SMS messages) and AT+CMGR
(Read SMS messages).

Note that the starting "AT" is the prefix that informs the modem about the start
of a command line. It is not part of the AT command name. For example, D is the actual
AT command name in ATD and +CMGS is the actual AT command name in
AT+CMGS. However, some books and web sites use them interchangeably as the name
of an AT command.

Here are some of the tasks that can be done using AT commands with a GSM/GPRS
modem or mobile phone:

• Get basic information about the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For
example, name of manufacturer (AT+CGMI), model number (AT+CGMM),
IMEI number (International Mobile Equipment Identity) (AT+CGSN) and
software version (AT+CGMR).

Page no. 15
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

• Get basic information about the subscriber. For example, MSISDN


(AT+CNUM) and IMSI number (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
(AT+CIMI).
• Get the current status of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example,
mobile phone activity status (AT+CPAS), mobile network registration status
(AT+CREG), radio signal strength (AT+CSQ), battery charge level and battery
charging status (AT+CBC).
• Establish a data connection or voice connection to a remote modem (ATD,
ATA, etc).
• Send and receive fax (ATD, ATA, AT+F*).
• Send (AT+CMGS, AT+CMSS), read (AT+CMGR, AT+CMGL), write
(AT+CMGW) or delete (AT+CMGD) SMS messages and obtain notifications
of newly received SMS messages (AT+CNMI).
• Read (AT+CPBR), write (AT+CPBW) or search (AT+CPBF) phonebook
entries.
• Perform security-related tasks, such as opening or closing facility locks
(AT+CLCK), checking whether a facility is locked (AT+CLCK) and changing
passwords (AT+CPWD).
(Facility lock examples: SIM lock [a password must be given to the SIM card
every time the mobile phone is switched on] and PH-SIM lock [a certain SIM
card is associated with the mobile phone. To use other SIM cards with the
mobile phone, a password must be entered.])
• Control the presentation of result codes / error messages of AT commands. For
example, you can control whether to enable certain error messages
(AT+CMEE) and whether error messages should be displayed in numeric
format or verbose format (AT+CMEE=1 or AT+CMEE=2).
• Get or change the configurations of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem.
For example, change the GSM network (AT+COPS), bearer service type
(AT+CBST), radio link protocol parameters (AT+CRLP), SMS center address
(AT+CSCA) and storage of SMS messages (AT+CPMS).
• Save and restore configurations of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem.
For example, save (AT+CSAS) and restore (AT+CRES) settings related to SMS
messaging such as the SMS center address

Page no. 16
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

3.2 Temperature Sensors (LM35)

3.2.1 Introduction:

The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose


output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The
LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as
the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain
convenient centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or
trimming to provide typical accuracies of ±1/4°C at room temperature and ±3/4°C over
a full -55 to +150°C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration
at the wafer level. The LM35’s low output impedance, linear output, and precise
inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry especially easy. It
can be used with single power supplies, or with plus and minus supplies. As it draws
only 60 µA from its supply, it has very low self-heating, less than 0.1°C in still air. The
LM35 is rated to operate over a -55° to +150°C temperature range, while the LM35C
is rated for a -40° to +110°C range (-10° with improved accuracy). The LM35 series is
available packaged plastic TO-92 transistor package. The LM35D is also available in
an 8-lead surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220 package.

Features:

1. Calibrated directly in ° Celsius (Centigrade)


2. Linear + 10.0 mV/°C scale factor
3. 0.5°C accuracy guarantee able (at +25°C)
4. Rated for full -55° to +150°C range
5. Suitable for remote applications
6. Low cost due to wafer-level trimming
7. Operates from 4 to 30 volts
8. Less than 60 µA current drain
9. Low self-heating, 0.08°C in still air
10. Nonlinearity only ±1/4°C typical
11. Low impedance output, 0.1 for 1 mA load

Page no. 17
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Pin diagram:

Fig: 3.3 Small outline molded package

Applications:

The LM35 can be applied easily in the same way as other integrated-circuit
temperature sensors. It can be glued or cemented to a surface and its temperature will
be within about 0.01°C of the surface temperature. This presumes that the ambient air
temperature is almost the same as the surface temperature; if the air temperature were
much higher or lower than the surface temperature, the actual temperature of the LM35
die would be at an intermediate temperature between the surface temperature and the
air temperature. This is especially true for the TO-92 plastic package, where the copper
leads are the principal thermal path to carry heat into the device, so its temperature
might be closer to the air temperature than to the surface temperature. To minimize this
problem, be sure that the wiring to the LM35, as it leaves the device, is held at the same
temperature as the surface of interest. The easiest way to do this is to cover up these
wires with a bead of epoxy which will insure that the leads and wires are all at the same
temperature as the surface, and that the LM35 die’s temperature will not be affected by
the air temperature. The TO-46 metal package can also be soldered to a metal surface
or pipe without damage. Of course, in that case the V- terminal of the circuit will be
grounded to that metal. Alternatively, the LM35 can be mounted inside a sealed-end
metal tube and can then be dipped into a bath or screwed.

Page no. 18
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

3.3 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

3.3.1 PROGRAM:

# facerec.py
import sys,os
import time
import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
# Import SPI library (for hardware SPI) and MCP3008 library.
import Adafruit_GPIO.SPI as SPI
import Adafruit_MCP3008
import Adafruit_ADXL345
import serial
from time import sleep
import re
from decimal import *
import subprocess
global MNo
Msg = ""
#user mobile number
Mobile_No1 = "8919074081"
Mobile_No2 = "9703586587"
Mobile_No3 = "7288027470"
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setwarnings(False)
Water_level_1 = 18
Water_level_2 = 23
Water_level_3 = 24
buz = 25
GPIO.setup(Water_level_1,GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.setup(Water_level_2,GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.setup(Water_level_3,GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.output(Water_level_1,GPIO.HIGH)

Page no. 19
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

GPIO.output(Water_level_2,GPIO.HIGH)
GPIO.output(Water_level_3,GPIO.HIGH)
GPIO.setup(buz,GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.output(buz,GPIO.HIGH)
#ADC GPIO pins
CLK = 11
MISO = 9
MOSI = 10
CS = 8#25
mcp = Adafruit_MCP3008.MCP3008(clk=CLK, cs=CS, miso=MISO, mosi=MOSI)
accel = Adafruit_ADXL345.ADXL345()
def buzzer_on():
GPIO.output(buz,GPIO.LOW)
time.sleep(5)
GPIO.output(buz,GPIO.HIGH)

class Adafruit_CharLCD(object):
# commands
LCD_CLEARDISPLAY = 0x01
LCD_RETURNHOME = 0x02
LCD_ENTRYMODESET = 0x04
LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL = 0x08
LCD_CURSORSHIFT = 0x10
LCD_FUNCTIONSET = 0x20
LCD_SETCGRAMADDR = 0x40
LCD_SETDDRAMADDR = 0x80
# flags for display entry mode
LCD_ENTRYRIGHT = 0x00
LCD_ENTRYLEFT = 0x02
LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT = 0x01
LCD_ENTRYSHIFTDECREMENT = 0x00
# flags for display on/off control
LCD_DISPLAYON = 0x04
Page no. 20
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

LCD_DISPLAYOFF = 0x00
LCD_CURSORON = 0x02
LCD_CURSOROFF = 0x00
LCD_BLINKON = 0x01
LCD_BLINKOFF = 0x00
# flags for display/cursor shift
LCD_DISPLAYMOVE = 0x08
LCD_CURSORMOVE = 0x00
# flags for display/cursor shift
LCD_DISPLAYMOVE = 0x08
LCD_CURSORMOVE = 0x00
LCD_MOVERIGHT = 0x04
LCD_MOVELEFT = 0x00
# flags for function set
LCD_8BITMODE = 0x10
LCD_4BITMODE = 0x00
LCD_2LINE = 0x08
LCD_1LINE = 0x00
LCD_5x10DOTS = 0x04
LCD_5x8DOTS = 0x00
def __init__(self, pin_rs=13, pin_e=19, pins_db=[26, 21, 20, 16], GPIO=None):
# Emulate the old behavior of using RPi.GPIO if we haven't been given
# an explicit GPIO interface to use
if not GPIO:
import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
GPIO.setwarnings(False)
self.GPIO = GPIO
self.pin_rs = pin_rs
self.pin_e = pin_e
self.pins_db = pins_db
self.GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
self.GPIO.setup(self.pin_e, GPIO.OUT)
self.GPIO.setup(self.pin_rs, GPIO.OUT)
for pin in self.pins_db:
Page no. 21
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

self.GPIO.setup(pin, GPIO.OUT)
self.write4bits(0x33) # initialization
self.write4bits(0x32) # initialization
self.write4bits(0x28) # 2 line 5x7 matrix
self.write4bits(0x0C) # turn cursor off 0x0E to enable cursor
self.write4bits(0x06) # shift cursor right
self.displaycontrol = self.LCD_DISPLAYON | self.LCD_CURSOROFF |
self.LCD_BLINKOFF
self.displayfunction = self.LCD_4BITMODE | self.LCD_1LINE |
self.LCD_5x8DOTS
self.displayfunction |= self.LCD_2LINE
# Initialize to default text direction (for romance languages)
self.displaymode = self.LCD_ENTRYLEFT |
self.LCD_ENTRYSHIFTDECREMENT
self.write4bits(self.LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode) # set the entry
mode
self.clear()
def begin(self, cols, lines):
if (lines > 1):
self.numlines = lines
self.displayfunction |= self.LCD_2LINE
def home(self):
self.write4bits(self.LCD_RETURNHOME) # set cursor position to zero
self.delayMicroseconds(3000) # this command takes a long time!
def clear(self):
self.write4bits(self.LCD_CLEARDISPLAY) # command to clear display
self.delayMicroseconds(3000) # 3000 microsecond sleep, clearing the display
takes a long time
def setCursor(self, col, row):
self.row_offsets = [0x00, 0x40, 0x14, 0x54]
if row > self.numlines:
row = self.numlines - 1 # we count rows starting w/0
self.write4bits(self.LCD_SETDDRAMADDR | (col + self.row_offsets[row]))
def noDisplay(self):
Page no. 22
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

""" Turn the display off (quickly) """


self.displaycontrol &= ~self.LCD_DISPLAYON
self.write4bits(self.LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def display(self):
""" Turn the display on (quickly) """
self.displaycontrol |= self.LCD_DISPLAYON
self.write4bits(self.LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def noCursor(self):
""" Turns the underline cursor off """
self.displaycontrol &= ~self.LCD_CURSORON
self.write4bits(self.LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def cursor(self):
""" Turns the underline cursor on """
self.displaycontrol |= self.LCD_CURSORON
self.write4bits(self.LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def noBlink(self):
""" Turn the blinking cursor off """
self.displaycontrol &= ~self.LCD_BLINKON
self.write4bits(self.LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def blink(self):
""" Turn the blinking cursor on """
self.displaycontrol |= self.LCD_BLINKON
self.write4bits(self.LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL | self.displaycontrol)
def DisplayLeft(self):
""" These commands scroll the display without changing the RAM """
self.write4bits(self.LCD_CURSORSHIFT | self.LCD_DISPLAYMOVE |
self.LCD_MOVELEFT)
def scrollDisplayRight(self):
""" These commands scroll the display without changing the RAM """
self.write4bits(self.LCD_CURSORSHIFT | self.LCD_DISPLAYMOVE |
self.LCD_MOVERIGHT)
def leftToRight(self):
""" This is for text that flows Left to Right """
self.displaymode |= self.LCD_ENTRYLEFT
Page no. 23
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

self.write4bits(self.LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode)
def rightToLeft(self):
""" This is for text that flows Right to Left """
self.displaymode &= ~self.LCD_ENTRYLEFT
self.write4bits(self.LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode)
def autoscroll(self):
""" This will 'right justify' text from the cursor """
self.displaymode |= self.LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT
self.write4bits(self.LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode)
def noAutoscroll(self):
""" This will 'left justify' text from the cursor """
self.displaymode &= ~self.LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT
self.write4bits(self.LCD_ENTRYMODESET | self.displaymode)
def write4bits(self, bits, char_mode=False):
""" Send command to LCD """
self.delayMicroseconds(1000) # 1000 microsecond sleep
bits = bin(bits)[2:].zfill(8)
self.GPIO.output(self.pin_rs, char_mode)
for pin in self.pins_db:
self.GPIO.output(pin, False)
for i in range(4):
if bits[i] == "1":
self.GPIO.output(self.pins_db[::-1][i], True)
self.pulseEnable()
for pin in self.pins_db:
self.GPIO.output(pin, False)
for i in range(4, 8):
if bits[i] == "1":
self.GPIO.output(self.pins_db[::-1][i-4], True)
self.pulseEnable()
def delayMicroseconds(self, microseconds):
seconds = microseconds / float(1000000) # divide microseconds by 1 million for
seconds
sleep(seconds)
Page no. 24
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

def pulseEnable(self):
self.GPIO.output(self.pin_e, False)
self.delayMicroseconds(1) # 1 microsecond pause - enable pulse must be >
450ns
self.GPIO.output(self.pin_e, True)
self.delayMicroseconds(1) # 1 microsecond pause - enable pulse must be >
450ns
self.GPIO.output(self.pin_e, False)
self.delayMicroseconds(1) # commands need > 37us to settle
def message(self, text):
""" Send string to LCD. Newline wraps to second line"""
for char in text:
if char == '\n':
self.write4bits(0xC0) # next line
else:
self.write4bits(ord(char), True)
def program_exit():
# You may do some clean-up here, but you don't have to.
print ("\n")
print ("Exiting application...")
GPIO.cleanup()
subprocess.call('setterm -cursor on', shell=True)
subprocess.call('spincl -ib', shell=True)
print( " ")

def ctrlCHandler(*whatever):
# Just sets the value of CONTROL_C
global CONTROL_C
CONTROL_C = True

THREEPLACES = Decimal(10) ** -3
subprocess.call('setterm -cursor off', shell=True)
subprocess.call('spincl -ib', shell=True)

Page no. 25
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

# change these as desired - they're the pins connected from the SPI port on the ADC
to the RPi
SPICLK = 11
SPIMISO = 9
SPIMOSI = 10
SPICS = 8
# set up the SPI interface pins
GPIO.setup(SPIMOSI, GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.setup(SPIMISO, GPIO.IN )
GPIO.setup(SPICLK, GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.setup(SPICS, GPIO.OUT)
# 10k trim pot connected to adc #0
def lcd_display():
lcd.clear()
lcd.message("T: S: ")
lcd.write4bits(0xC0) # next line
lcd.message("M: IR: ")

#-------------------------------------------------------
class gsm():
echo_on = 1
def __init__(self,serialPort):
self.serialPort = serialPort
def sendCommand(self,at_com):
self.serialPort.write(at_com + '\r')
def getResponse(self):
self.serialPort.flushInput()
self.serialPort.flushOutput()
if gsm.echo_on == 1:
response = self.serialPort.readline() # comment this line if echo off
response = self.serialPort.readline()
response = response.rstrip()
# lcd.clear()
# lcd.message(response)
Page no. 26
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

return response
def getPrompt(self):
if gsm.echo_on == 1:
response = self.serialPort.readline() # comment this line if echo off
if (self.serialPort.readline(1) == '>'):
return True
else:
return False
def sendMessage(self,phone_number, message):
flag = False
self.sendCommand('AT+CMGS=\"' + phone_number + '\"')
time.sleep(2)
print 'SUCCESS'
self.serialPort.write(message)
self.serialPort.write('\x1A') # send messsage if prompt received
flag = True
time.sleep(5)
print self.getResponse

return flag

lcd = Adafruit_CharLCD()
lcd.clear()
lcd.message(" LANDSLIDE")
lcd.write4bits(0xC0)
lcd.message("DETECTION SYSTEM..")
time.sleep(3)
gsm_ser = serial.Serial()
gsm_ser.port = "/dev/ttyAMA0"
gsm_ser.baudrate = 9600
gsm_ser.timeout = 3
gsm_ser.xonxoff = False
gsm_ser.rtscts = False
Page no. 27
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

gsm_ser.bytesize = serial.EIGHTBITS
gsm_ser.parity = serial.PARITY_NONE
gsm_ser.stopbits = serial.STOPBITS_ONE
#---------------------------------------------------------------------

gsm_ser.open()
gsm_ser.flushInput()
gsm_ser.flushOutput()

print 'GSM Checking ...'


lcd.clear()
lcd.message("GSM Checking..")
GSM = gsm(gsm_ser)
GSM.sendCommand("AT+IPR=9600;&W")
print GSM.getResponse()
time.sleep(2)
GSM.sendCommand("AT+CMGF=1;&W")
print GSM.getResponse()
time.sleep(2)
GSM.sendCommand("AT+CREG?")
print GSM.getResponse()
time.sleep(2)
GSM.sendCommand("AT+CMGD=1")
print GSM.getResponse()
print 'GSM connected successfully'
buzzer_on()
lcd.clear()
lcd.message("T: X: ")
lcd.write4bits(0xC0) # next line
lcd.message("Water Level:")
while True:
lcd.clear()
lcd.message("T: X: ")
lcd.write4bits(0xC0) # next line
Page no. 28
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

lcd.message("Water Level:")
lm35_cel = adc = mcp.read_adc(0)
lm35_cel = (3*lm35_cel*100.0)/4095
lm35_cel = round(lm35_cel,2)
time.sleep(0.2)
time.sleep(0.2)
time.sleep(0.2)

Water_level_1_status = GPIO.input(Water_level_1)
Water_level_2_status = GPIO.input(Water_level_2)
Water_level_3_status = GPIO.input(Water_level_3)
if Water_level_1_status== 0 and Water_level_2_status== 0 and
Water_level_3_status== 0:
level_status = '3'
if Water_level_1_status== 0 and Water_level_2_status== 0 and
Water_level_3_status== 1:
level_status = '2'
if Water_level_1_status== 0 and Water_level_2_status== 1 and
Water_level_3_status== 1:
level_status = '1'
if Water_level_1_status== 1 and Water_level_2_status== 1 and
Water_level_3_status== 1:
level_status = '0'
print "water level: ",level_status
x,y,z = accel.read()
print('x={0},y={1},z={2}'.format(x,y,z))

if lm35_cel > 40:


print "Over Temperature"
GPIO.output(buz,GPIO.LOW)
lcd.clear()
lcd.message("Over Temperature")

Page no. 29
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No1, "Over Temperature")


GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No2, "Over Temperature")
GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No3, "Over Temperature")
time.sleep(3)
GPIO.output(buz,GPIO.HIGH)
lcd_display()
if level_status=='3':
lcd.clear()
lcd.message("WATER OVERFLOW")
lcd.write4bits(0xc0) # next line
lcd.message("ON BRIDGE..")
buzzer_on()
GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No1, "Water OverFlow on bridge Please Alert!!")
GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No2, "Water OverFlow on bridge Please Alert!!")
GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No3, "Water OverFlow on bridge Please Alert!!")

if x>200:
lcd.clear()
lcd.message("landslide")
lcd.write4bits(0xc0) # next line
lcd.message("Falling down")
buzzer_on()
GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No1, "LANDSLIDE Falling Down Please Alert!!")
GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No2, "LANDSLIDE Falling Down Please Alert!!")
GSM.sendMessage(Mobile_No3, "LANDSLIDE Falling Down Please Alert!!")
buzzer_on()

print "TEMP:" + str(lm35_cel) + " Water Level " + level_status


lcd.write4bits(0x82) # next line
lcd.message(str(lm35_cel))
lcd.write4bits(0x8b) # next line
lcd.message(str(x))
lcd.write4bits(0xcd) # next line
Page no. 30
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

lcd.message(str(level_status))
time.sleep(2)
3.3.2 LCD DISPLAY:

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO


from time import sleep
class elegant_CharLCD(object):
# commands
LCD_CLEARDISPLAY = 0x01
LCD_RETURNHOME = 0x02
LCD_ENTRYMODESET = 0x04
LCD_DISPLAYCONTROL = 0x08
LCD_CURSORSHIFT = 0x10
LCD_FUNCTIONSET = 0x20
LCD_SETCGRAMADDR = 0x40
LCD_SETDDRAMADDR = 0x80
# flags for display entry mode
LCD_ENTRYRIGHT = 0x00
LCD_ENTRYLEFT = 0x02
LCD_ENTRYSHIFTINCREMENT = 0x01
LCD_ENTRYSHIFTDECREMENT = 0x00
# flags for display on/off control
LCD_DISPLAYON = 0x04
LCD_DISPLAYOFF = 0x00
LCD_CURSORON = 0x02
LCD_CURSOROFF = 0x00
LCD_BLINKON = 0x01
LCD_BLINKOFF = 0x00
# flags for display/cursor shift
LCD_DISPLAYMOVE = 0x08
LCD_CURSORMOVE = 0x00
# flags for display/cursor shift
LCD_DISPLAYMOVE = 0x08
LCD_CURSORMOVE = 0x00

Page no. 31
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

LCD_MOVERIGHT = 0x04
LCD_MOVELEFT = 0x00
# flags for function set
LCD_8BITMODE = 0x10
LCD_4BITMODE = 0x00
LCD_2LINE = 0x08
LCD_1LINE = 0x00
LCD_5x10DOTS = 0x04
LCD_5x8DOTS = 0x00
# GPIO connections for LCD
def __init__(self, pin_rs=13, pin_e=19, pins_db=[26, 21, 20, 16]):

self.pin_rs = pin_rs
self.pin_e = pin_e
self.pins_db = pins_db

GPIO.setwarnings(False)
GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
GPIO.setup(self.pin_e, GPIO.OUT)
GPIO.setup(self.pin_rs, GPIO.OUT)
for pin in self.pins_db:
GPIO.setup(pin, GPIO.OUT)
self.write4bits(0x33) # initialization
self.write4bits(0x32) # initialization
self.write4bits(0x28) # 2 line 5x7 matrix
self.write4bits(0x0C) # turn cursor off 0x0E to enable cursor
self.write4bits(0x06) # shift cursor right
self.clear()
def clear(self):
self.write4bits(self.LCD_CLEARDISPLAY) # command to clear display
self.delayMicroseconds(3000) # 3000 microsecond sleep, clearing the display
takes a long time
def write4bits(self, bits, char_mode=False):
""" Send command to LCD """
Page no. 32
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

self.delayMicroseconds(1000) # 1000 microsecond sleep


bits = bin(bits)[2:].zfill(8)
GPIO.output(self.pin_rs, char_mode)
for pin in self.pins_db:
GPIO.output(pin, False)
for i in range(4):
if bits[i] == "1":
GPIO.output(self.pins_db[::-1][i], True)
self.pulseEnable()
for pin in self.pins_db:
GPIO.output(pin, False)
for i in range(4, 8):
if bits[i] == "1":
GPIO.output(self.pins_db[::-1][i-4], True)
self.pulseEnable()
def delayMicroseconds(self, microseconds):
seconds = (microseconds / float(1000000)) # divide microseconds by 1 million
for seconds
sleep(seconds)
def pulseEnable(self):
GPIO.output(self.pin_e, False)
self.delayMicroseconds(1) # 1 microsecond pause - enable pulse must be >
450ns
GPIO.output(self.pin_e, True)
self.delayMicroseconds(1) # 1 microsecond pause - enable pulse must be >
450ns
GPIO.output(self.pin_e, False)
self.delayMicroseconds(1) # commands need > 37us to settle
def message(self, text):
""" Send string to LCD. Newline wraps to second line"""
for char in text:
if char == '\n':
self.write4bits(0xC0) # next line
else:
Page no. 33
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

self.write4bits(ord(char), True)

'''
if __name__ == '__main__':
lcd = Adafruit_CharLCD()
lcd.clear()
lcd.message("Elegant ")
lcd.write4bits(0xC0)
lcd.message("LCD test")
sleep(2)

Page no. 34
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

3.3.3 GSM:

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO


import serial
import sys
import os
import time
import lcd
class elegant_gsm():
echo_on = 1
def __init__(self,serialPort):
self.serialPort = serialPort

def sendCommand(self,at_com):
self.serialPort.write(at_com + '\r')
def getResponse(self):
self.serialPort.flushInput()
self.serialPort.flushOutput()
lcd_t = lcd.elegant_CharLCD()
if elegant_gsm.echo_on == 1:
response = self.serialPort.readline() # comment this line if echo off
response = self.serialPort.readline()
response = response.rstrip()
lcd_t.clear()
lcd_t.message(response)
return response
def getPrompt(self):
if elegant_gsm.echo_on == 1:
response = self.serialPort.readline() # comment this line if echo off
if (self.serialPort.readline(1) == '>'):
return True
else:
return False

Page no. 35
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

def sendMessage(self,phone_number, message):


flag = False
self.sendCommand('AT+CMGS=\"' + phone_number + '\"')
time.sleep(2)
self.serialPort.write(message)
self.serialPort.write('\x1A') # send messsage if prompt received
flag = True
time.sleep(5)
print 'SUCCESS
# print self.getResponse
return flag

Page no. 36
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

CHAPTER – 4

IMPLEMENTATON

4.1 RASPBERRY PI:

4.1.1 History of Raspberry pi:

Around 2005 Eben Upton was Director of Studies in Computer Science at


Cambridge. Incoming students had relatively few programming and/or hardware skills
vs. “the old days”, creating vision of “something like the BBC Computer, but running
a modern language like Python.” The name “Raspberry Pi” is a combination of “a fruit
name” and a play on “Python". Between 2006-2011 the vision turned into highly
capable single board computer design Interest in RPi exploded as production plans
became more and more enthusiastic, reaching the initial run of 10k boards by a
partnership with Element14 and RS Components in the UK.
● The day sales began 100k orders were chasing the first 10k boards.
● Support hardware and software development have been proportionate to the estimated
1Mboards shipped.
● But this is all really just STEP ONE.

Description:

The Raspberry Pi has made particularly a splash given that it used to be first
introduced. The credit score-card sized laptop is able of some of the matters that your
laptop computer does, like spreadsheets, word-processing and video games. It
additionally performs excessive-definition video. It'll traditionally run a few flavors of
Linux and is getting used to coach kids some distance and large the field suggestions
on tips on how to software… Oh yeah, and it does all that for under $50.The key sauce
that makes this computer so small and robust is the Broadcom BCM2835, a system-on-
Chip that contains an ARM1176JZFS with floating point, jogging at 700MHz, and a
Video core 4 GPU. The GPU presents Open GL ES 2.0, hardware-accelerated Open
VG, and 1080p30 H.264 high-profile decode and is ready of 1Gpixel/s, 1.5Gtexel/s or
24 GFLOPs of general reason compute. What’s that every one mean? It means that for
those who plug the Raspberry Pi into your HDTV, you could watch Blue Ray excellent
video, utilizing H.264 at 40MBits/s.But wait, there’s

Page no. 37
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

The approach volume lives on an SD card, so it’s easy to organize, run and
debug a couple of distinct working systems on the identical hardware. Most Linux
distributions for the Pi will happily live to tell the tale a 2GB SD card however bigger
cards are supported.

Table 4.1: Comparison between Different Raspberry pi Models

Raspberry pi Model A+ Model B Model B+ 2 Model B

Chip Broadcom BCM2835 BroadcomBCM2836

Processor ARMv6 Single core ARMv7 quad core

Processor

Speed 700MHz 900MHz

Voltage and

Power ratings 600mA@5V 650mA@5V

GPU Dual core video core IV multimedia co-processor

Size 65X56mm 85x56mm

Memory 256MB SDRAM@400 512MB SDRAM@400MHz 1GB SDRAM@400MHz

MHz

Storage Micro SD Card SD Card Micro SD Card Micro SD Card

(not included) (not included) (included) (not included)

GPIO 40 26 40

USB 2.0 1 2 4

Ethernet None 10/100mb Ethernet RJ45 Jack

Audio Multi channel HD audio over HDMI, Analog stereo from 3.5mm audio jack

Page no. 38
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

The model B’s two developed-in USB ports furnish enough connectivity for a
mouse and keyboard, but in case you desire to add more you should utilize a USB hub.
It is recommended that you simply conveniently use a powered hub so as to not overtax
the on-board voltage regulator. Powering the Raspberry Pi is easy, just plug any USB
vigor give into the micro-USB port. Dimensions: 85.60mm x 56mm x 21mm

Currently there are 5 items of Raspberry pi boards are on hand on the planet.
On this undertaking we're using raspberry pi 2 mannequin B. The below table illustrates
the assessment between exceptional items.

Raspberry pi 2 model B:

The Raspberry Pi 2 Model B is the second-generation Raspberry Pi. It changed


the fashioned Raspberry Pi 1 model B+ in February 2015. Compared to the Raspberry
Pi 1 it has: A 900MHz quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 CPU and 1GB RAM like the (Pi
1) model B+. It does not comprise a constructed in difficult pressure, but it makes use
of an SD card for booting and chronic storage, with the model B+ making use of a micro
SD card. it also has:

• 4 USB ports
• 40 GPIO pins
• Full HDMI port
• Ethernet port
• Combined 3.5mm audio jack and composite video
• Camera interface (CSI)
• Display interface (DSI)
• Micro SD card slot
• Video Core IV 3D graphics core
Because it has an ARMv7 processor, it can run the full range of ARM GNU/Linux
distributions, including Snappy Ubuntu Core, as well as Microsoft Windows 10.

Page no. 39
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Features:

• Broadcom BCM2836 ARMv7 Quad Core Processor Powered Single


Board computer jogging at 900MHz
• 1GB RAM so you could now run bigger and extra powerful functions
• equal board layout and footprint because the mannequin B+, so all
circumstances and third social gathering add-on boards designed for the
mannequin B+ shall be absolutely suitable.
• wholly HAT compatible
• 40pin accelerated GPIO to enhance your “actual world” tasks. GPIO is
100% compatible with the mannequin B+ and A+ boards. First 26 pins
are identical to the model A and model B boards to provide full
backward compatibility across all boards.
• join a Raspberry Pi digital camera and touch display display (each and
every offered separately)
• stream and watch hello-definition video output at 1080P
• Micro SD slot for storing knowledge and loading your operating
techniques.
• evolved vigor management:
• which you could now provide up to 1.2 AMP to the USB port – enabling
you to attach extra vigor hungry USB devices straight to the Raspberry
PI. (this selection requires a 2Amp micro USB vigor provide)
• 10/100 Ethernet Port to speedily join the Raspberry Pi to the web
• mixed 4-pole jack for connecting your stereo audio out and composite
video out.

Page no. 40
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Raspberry pi 2 model B hardware:

Fig 4.1: Raspberry pi 2 model B hardware

Processor/system on chip(soc):

Raspberry pi 2 model B has a Broadcom BCM2836 system on chip module. It


has a quad core ARM cortex A7 processor. BCM2836 contains the following
peripherals which may safely be accessed by the ARM:
• Timers
• Interrupt controller
• GPIO
• USB
• PCM / I2S
• DMA controller
• I2C master
• I2C / SPI slave
• SPI0, SPI1, SPI2
• PWM
• UART0, UART1

Page no. 41
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

The Broadcom soc used in the raspberry is similar to a chip utilized in an ancient
shrewd mobile phone (Android or phone). At the same time operating at 900MHz, the
raspberry provides a real-world performance roughly identical to the 0.041GFLOPS.
On the CPU level the efficiency is similar to 300MHz Pentium II, but the GPU presents
1Gpixels/s, 1.5Gtexel/s or 24GFLOPS of basic motive compute and the photo
capabilities of the raspberry pi are roughly an identical to the extent of efficiency of the
Xbox of 2001. The raspberry pi chip working at 900MHz through default, will not
emerge as sizzling adequate to desire a heat sink or specific cooling.

Key features of the Cortex-A7 core are:

• Partial dual-issue, in-order micro architecture with an 8-stage pipeline


• NEONSIMD instruction set extension (64 bit wide)
• VFPv4 Floating Point Unit
• Thumb-2 instruction set encoding
• Gazelle RCT
• Hardware virtualization
• Large Page Address Extensions (LPAE)
• Integrated level 2 Cache (0–1 MB)
• Speed: 1.9 DMIPS / MHz
• 8 Stage pipeline implementations

Power source:

The Raspberry pi device which consumes 700mA present and 3W of energy.


It's powered a micro USB charger. Any excellent clever cell charger will do the work
of powering the pi.

SD card:

The raspberry pi does now not have any onboard storage on hand. The running
system is loaded in a SD card and which is inserted into the SD card slot on the
raspberry pi. The operating method loaded on the card utilizing a card reader on any
pc.

Page no. 42
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Fig 4.2: GPIO pin connector ON

RPi GPIO PINS:

GPIO pins can be configured as either normal-purpose input, common-motive


output or as one in all up to 6 detailed alternate settings, the capabilities of which might
be pin-dependent. There are three GPIO banks on BCM2836.

Each and every of the 3 banks has its own VDD enter pin. On Raspberry Pi, all
GPIO banks are provided from 3.3V. Connection of a GPIO to a voltage higher than
3.3V will possible destroy the GPIO block inside the SOC.

GPIO capabilities may include:

• GPIO pins can be configured to be input or output

• GPIO pins can be enabled/disabled

• Input values are readable (typically High=1, low=0)

Page no. 43
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

• Output values are writable/readable

• Input values can be often be used as IRQs (typically for wakeup events)

The raspberry pi 2 model B has a 40 GPIO pin expansion header, arranged in a


2x20 strip. They provide 8 GPIO pins plus access to I2C, SPI, UART, as well as +3.3V,
+5V and GND supply lines. Pin one is the pin in the first column and on the bottom
row.

DSI Connector:

Display serial interface (DSI) is the specification by the mobile industry


processor interface (MIPI) alliance aimed at reducing the cost of display controllers in
a mobile device. It is commonly targeted at LCD and similar display technologies, it
defines a serial bus and communication protocol between the host (source of the image
data) and the device (destination of the image data). A DSI compatible LCD screen can
be connected through the DSI connector, although it may require additional drivers to
drive the display. CA video outputs (PAL and NTSC) are available in all models of
raspberry pi. Any television or screen with RCA jack can be connected with raspberry
pi.

Audio Jack:

A standard 3.5mm TRS connector available in the raspberry pi for stereo audio
output. Any headphone or 3.5mm audio cable can be connected directly. Although this
jack cannot be used for taking audio input, USB mics or USB sound cards can be used.

USB 2.0 port:

USB 2.0 ports are the means to connect accessories such as mouse and keyboard
to the raspberry pi. There is a one port on model A, two on model B, four on B+ and pi
2 model B.

Ethernet:

It can be connected to a network or internet using a standard LAN cable on the


Ethernet port. The Ethernet ports are controlled by microchip LAN9512 controller chip.

CSI connector:

Page no. 44
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Camera serial interface is a serial interface designed by MIPI(mobile industry


processor interface) alliance aimed at interfacing digital cameras with a mobile
processor.

The Raspberry pi foundation provides a camera specially made for the pi which
can be connected with the pi using a CSI connector.

JTAG headers:

Joint test action group (JTAG) is an organization that started back in the mid 1980’s
to address test point access issues on PCB with surface mount device. The institution
devised a procedure of entry to gadget pins by way of a serial port that became often
called faucet (experiment access port). In 1990 the approach grew to be recognized
international typical (IEEE std 1149.1). Many 1000s of devices now include this
standardized port as a characteristic to enable scan and design engineers to access pins.

HDMI:

High definition multimedia interface (HDMI) port is provided on the board for
connecting raspberry pi to the HDMI screen.

Requirements to Setup Raspberry PI:

SD CARD:

We recommend an 8GB class four SD card – ideally preinstalled with NOOBS.


That you could buy a card with NOOBS pre-established, or which down load it without
cost from our download’s web page. Notice that the customary Raspberry Pi mannequin
A and Raspberry Pi mannequin B require full-measurement SD playing cards. The
newer Raspberry Pi mannequin A+, Raspberry Pi model B+, Raspberry Pi 2 model B,
Raspberry Pi Zero, and Raspberry Pi 3 model B require micro SD cards.

Display and connectivity cables:

Any HDMI/DVI monitor or TV should work as a display for the Pi . For best
results, use one with a HDMI input, but other connections are available for older
devices. Use a standard Ethernet cable for internet access. The Pi 3 includes built-in
wireless LAN.

Page no. 45
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Keyboard and mouse:

Any standard USB keyboard and mouse will work with your Raspberry Pi

Power supply:

Use a 5V micro USB power supply to power your Raspberry Pi. Be careful that
whatever power supply you use outputs at least 5V; insufficient power will cause your
Pi to behave in strange way.

4.2 Buzzer:

A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device, which may be mechanical,


electromechanical, or piezoelectric. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm
devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke.

Mechanical:

A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer.

Electromechanical:

Early devices were based on an electromechanical system identical to an electric


bell without the metal gong. Similarly, a relay may be connected to interrupt its own
actuating current, causing the contacts to buzz. Often these units were anchored to a
wall or ceiling to use it as a sounding board. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping
noise that electromechanical buzzers made.

Piezoelectric:
Piezoelectric disk beeper:

A piezoelectric element may be driven by an oscillating electronic circuit or


other audio signal source, driven with a piezoelectric audio amplifier. Sounds
commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed are a click, a ring or a beep.

Uses:

• Annunciator panels
• Electronic metronomes
• Game shows
Page no. 46
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

• Microwave ovens and other household appliances


• Sporting events such as basketball games
• Electrical alarms
• Buzzers

4.3MEMS SENSOR

FIG: 4.3 Mem sensor


Small Scale Electro-Mechanical Systems, or MEMS, is an advancement
that in its most wide casing can be portrayed as downsized mechanical and
electro-mechanical segments (i.e., contraptions and structures) that are made
using the techniques for scaled down scale creation. The key physical
estimations of MEMS gadgets can change from well underneath one micron on
the lower end of the dimensional range, the detachment to two or three
millimeters.
In like way, the sorts of MEMS contraptions can contrast from for the
most part direct structures having no moving segments, to incredibly complex
electromechanical systems with various moving segments under the control of
joined microelectronics.
The one fundamental model of MEMS is that there are in any event a few
components having a type of mechanical usefulness regardless of whether these
components can move. The term used to characterize MEMS shifts in various
parts of the world. In the United States they are dominatingly called MEMS,
while in some different parts of the world they are called "Microsystems
Technology" "micro machined gadgets

Page no. 47
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

4.4 POWER SUPPLY:

4.4.1 Introduction:

A device or system that gives energy to an output load or cluster of loads is


called a power supply unit or PSU. The term is most regularly functional to electrical
energy provides, less regularly to mechanical ones and infrequently to others.

This power supply unit change the AC signal into DC signal and also by
decrease the signal. The available voltage signal from the mains is 230V/50Hz which
is an AC voltage, but we are wanted DC voltage (no frequency) with the amplitude of
+5V or +12V for various applications.

The power supply unit consists of Transformer, Bridge rectifier are connected
consecutively and voltage regulator via a capacitor (1000µF) in similar are connected
similar as shown in the circuit diagram below.

Fig 4.4: Circuit Diagram of Power Supply

Transformer:

A transformer is a module that transfers electrical power from one circuit to a


different through inductively coupled electrical conductors. A various present in the
first circuit (the most important) creates a changing magnetic field; in turn, this
magnetic subject induces a changing voltage within the second circuit (the secondary).

Page no. 48
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Including a load to the secondary circuit, you possibly can make present float in the
transformer, as a result transferring energy from one circuit to the other.
Working Principle:
The transformer is based on two types of ideas: first one that an electric present
can boost an electromagnetism and ultimate one is a various magnetic field amongst a
coil of wire makes a voltage across the completing of a the coil. By way of various the
current in fist coil, it various the intensity of its magnetic discipline, in a while the
varying magnetic discipline extends into the 2nd coil, a voltage is made in the course
of the 2d.

Fig 4.5: Step-down Transformers

Actually, The DC voltages are needed to process different electronic


instruments and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. Just these voltages can be receives
directly. Thus, the AC input usable at the mains supply, 230V is to be contributed down
to the needed voltage level. This is made by a transformer. Thus, a step-down
transformer is worked with voltages to a required level.

Bridge Rectifier:

The purpose of a rectifier is to convert AC current or voltages into DC current


or voltage. A rectifier contains diodes for changing AC into DC. On this mission we
are using it consists of 4 diodes linked in the type of bridge. When the AC input is
optimistic, diodes A and B are forward-biased, whilst diodes C and D are reverse-

Page no. 49
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

biased. When the AC enter is negative, the diodes C and D are forward-biased, whilst
diodes A and B are reverse-biased. Bridge rectifier supplies the identical polarity of
output voltage for any polarity of enter voltage. The under diagram represents the bridge
rectifier and its enter and output waveforms.

Fig 4.6: Bridge Rectifier

Filter:

Filters are used to remove unwanted or undesired frequencies from a signal.


This can be done by using a capacitor at the output of the rectifier. This capacitor is
also called as “capacitor filter” or “smoothing capacitor” or “reservoir capacitor”.
Capacitor offers low reactance to the AC component of the rectifier output while it
offers infinite reactance to the DC component.

Voltage Regulator:

Voltage regulator is a device which converts the varying input voltage into
constant regulated output voltage level. Most of the projects required power supplies of
5V or 12V. We are intended to get these voltage levels, LM7805 and LM7812 voltages
regulators are to be using. The series 78xx and 79xx are the most commonly used and
well-known voltage regulators. The digit 78 indicates the positive voltage regulator,
while 79 indicates the negative voltage regulator. The last two digits represent the

Page no. 50
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

voltage rating. In this project we are using LM7805 for getting constant DC voltage.
The regulator consists of three pins.

Those are:

1. Input pin
2. ground pin
3. output pin, through this pin we are getting constant voltage.

Fig 4.7: LM7805 Regulator

4.5 LCD DISPLAY:

Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are widely used in now a days as compared to
LEDs. This is due to low price of LCD and in most of embedded applications LCD
used as graphical user interface, LCD can display numbers, characters and by using
graphical LCD we can display special characters and inside there is a refreshing
controller.

In this way diminishing the CPU of the assignment of invigorating the LCD
furthermore the simplicity of programming for characters and representation.

LCD Pin Description:

The LCD contains 16 pins in a row and generally for microcontroller


applications an LCD with 2 rows and 16 columns is used.

Page no. 51
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Pin
Function Name
No
1 Ground (0V) Ground
2 Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V) Vcc
3 Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor VEE
Selects command register when low; and data register Register
4
when high Select
5 Low to write to the register; High to read from the register Read/write
6 Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable
7 DB0
8 DB1
9 DB2
10 DB3
8-bit data pins
11 DB4
12 DB5
13 DB6
14 DB7
15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+
16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-

Table 4.2: LCD Pin Description

Fig 4.8: LCD screen

Page no. 52
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

VDD, VSS, VEE:

The voltage VCC and VSS provide +5V and ground respectively, while VEE
controlling LCD contrast. Variable voltage between Ground and Vcc specify the
contrast (or "darkness") of the characters on the LCD screen.

RS (register select):

There are two very important registers inside the LCD. The RS pin their register
selection. If RS=0, the command register is selected, this mode allows programmer /
user to initialize, blinking, shifting, home to cursor etc.. If RS=1, the data register is
selected or mode is selected, this mode allows the user or programmer to display data
on LCD.

R/W (read/write):

The R/W (read/write) input allows the user / programmer to read the
information from the LCD and writes the information to the LCD. The pin R/W=1 for
reading the data from LCD and R/W=0 for selecting write mode. Mostly will perform
LCD read operation , LCD write are do when we want to pass LCD information as input
to the another devices or micro controllers.

EN (enable):

The LCD contains 8-data pins, whenever data passed on to this lines we need to
latch the information on LCD pin. This is done by using enable pin of LCD. A high-to-
low pulse must be applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the data presented
at the data pins.

D0-D7 (data lines):

The LCD have 8 data pins which are D0-D7, by using this pins we can send
information to the LCD and we can read the information stored in the internal registers
of LCD.

Page no. 53
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

LCD Basic Commands:


The data transferred to LCD through data pins D0-D7 are called as commands
or as data and which depends on logic states on pin RS.
RS=1-bits D0-D7 are addresses for displaying characters. Built in processor addresses
built in “map of characters” and displays corresponding symbols. DDRAM address
determines the displaying position. This address is either previously defined or the
address of previously transferred character is automatically incremented.
RS=0 - bits D0-D7 are commands to determine the display mode. The below table
represents the list of commands recognized by the LCD.

Table 4.3: LCD Commands

4.6 SOFTWARE TOOLS:

4.6.1 Raspbian OS:

Raspbian is the recommended operating system for normal use on a Raspberry


Pi.

Page no. 54
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

Raspbian is a free operating system based on Debian, optimized for the


Raspberry Pi hardware. Raspbian comes with over 35,000 packages; precompiled
software bundled in a nice format for easy installation on your Raspberry Pi.
Raspbian is a community project under active development, with an emphasis
on improving the stability and performance of as many Debian packages as possible.
OS Setup:

To get started with Raspberry Pi, you need an operating system. NOOBS (New Out Of
Box Software) is an easy operating system install manager for the Raspberry Pi.

How to get and install NOOBS:

• Buy preinstalled SD card

SD cards with NOOBS preinstalled are available from many of our distributors and
independent retailers, such as Pomeron, Adafruit and The Pi Hut. For older models of
Raspberry Pi, you’ll need a full-size SD card; for the Pi Zero, A+, B+, Pi 2 and Pi 3
you’ll need a micro SD card. We recommend using an SD card with a minimum
capacity of 8GB.

• Using a computer with an SD card reader, visit the Downloads page.

• click on the download ZIP button beneath ‘NOOBS (offline and network set
up)’ and opt for a folder to put it aside to.
• Extract the files from the zip.
• format your SD card. It's great to format your SD card before copying the
NOOBS files onto it. To do this: talk over with the SD association’s website
and down load SD Formatter four. Zero for both windows or Mac.

Comply with the instructional materials to put in the application.

• Insert your SD card into the laptop or computing device’s SD card reader and
make an observation of the pressure letter allocated to it, e.g. G:/
• In SD Formatter, choose the drive letter on your SD card and structure it.
• Drag and drop NOOBS records
• once your SD card has been formatted, drag the entire documents within the
extracted NOOBS folder and drop them onto the SD card force.

Page no. 55
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

• The crucial documents will then be transferred to your SD card.


• When this procedure has completed, safely get rid of the SD card and insert
it into your Raspberry Pi.

First boot:

Plug in your keyboard, mouse, and monitor cables.

• Now plug the USB power cable into your Pi.

• Your Raspberry Pi will boot, and a window will appear with a list of different
operating systems that you can install. We recommend that you use Raspbian
– tick the box next to Raspbian and click on Install.

• Raspbian will then run through its installation process. Note that this can take
a while.

When the install approach has completed, the Raspberry Pi configuration menu
(raspy-config) will load. Right here you might be competent to set the time and date on
your neighborhood, permit a Raspberry Pi digital camera board, or even create
customers. That you could exit this menu by utilizing Tab on your keyboard to
maneuver to conclude.

4.6.2 Python:

Python is a extensively used high-degree, general-motive, interpreted, dynamic


programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its
syntax allows programmers to specific concepts in fewer lines of code than possible in
languages equivalent to C++ or Java. The language provides constructs supposed to
permit clear programs on each a small and colossal scale.

Python helps more than one programming paradigms, together with object-
oriented, relevant and sensible programming or procedural patterns. It features a
dynamic type process and automated reminiscence management and has a massive and
complete normal library.

Python interpreters are on hand for a lot of operating methods, permitting


Python code to run on a broad style of programs. Utilizing 1/3-social gathering
instruments, akin to Py2exe or Py installer, Python code can also be packaged into
Page no. 56
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

stand-alone executable packages for one of the vital most standard running techniques,
so Python-founded software can also be allotted to, and used on, those environments
and not using a must set up a Python interpreter.

Advantages/Benefits of Python

The diverse software of the Python language is a influence of the combo of


facets which provide this language an facet over others. Probably the most advantages
of programming in Python include:

Presence of Third-Party Modules:

The Python Package Index (PYPI) contains numerous third-party modules that
make Python capable of interacting with most of the other languages and platforms.

Extensive Support Libraries:

Python supplies a significant general library which includes areas like web
protocols, string operations, web offerings tools and running method interfaces. Many
high use programming tasks have already been scripted into the common library which
reduces size of code to be written tremendously.

Open Source and Community Development:

Python language is developed under an OSI-approved open source license,


which makes it free to use and distribute, including for commercial purposes.

Further, its development is driven by the community which collaborates for its
code through hosting conferences and mailing lists and provides for its numerous
modules.

Learning Ease and Support Available:

Python offers excellent readability and uncluttered simple-to-learn syntax


which helps beginners to utilize this programming language. The code style guidelines,
PEP 8, provide a set of rules to facilitate the formatting of code. Additionally, the wide
base of users and active developers a rich internet resource bank to encourage
development and the continued adoption of the language.

Page no. 57
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

User-friendly Data Structures:

Python has built-in list and dictionary data structures which can be used to
construct fast runtime data structures. Further, Python additionally supplies the choice
of dynamic excessive-level knowledge typing which reduces the length of aid code
that's needed.

Productivity and speed:

Python has smooth object-oriented design, supplies stronger method manipulate


capabilities, and strong addition and text dispensation ability and its own unit checking
out framework, all of which contribute to the increase in its pace and productivity.
Python is regarded a workable choice for building tricky multi-protocol network
applications.

Page no. 58
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

CHAPTER - 5
RESULTS

FIG: 5.1 CHECKING INFO

➢ Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.


➢ Whenever we connect to power supply it will check all the information
And it will show in the display.

Page no. 59
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

FIG: 5.2 LANDSLIDE FALLING DOWN

➢ When the natural causes occurs like, tsunami , earthquake etc , we will get a
message to the mobiles those live in the surroundings.

Page no. 60
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

FIG: 5.3 WATER OVER FLOW ON BRIDGE

➢ When the tsunami will occur water over flow will occur an we will get a
message to mobiles who are living in the surroundings.

Page no. 61
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

FIG: 5.4 OVER TEMPERTURE

➢ When the temperature change in the atmosphere because of tsunami,


earthquake, we will get a message to mobiles those who are living in the
surrounding.

Page no. 62
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

CHAPTER - 6
CONCLUSION
This system is developed using Raspberry pi, Wireless sensor network for landslide

detection is one of the challenging research areas available today in the field of geophysical
research. Landslides have become very serious problem at hill and mountain area. Because of
landslide and thunderstorms disaster many people lost their lives and also property. This
system uses raspberry pi, interfaced with sensors, LCD and GSM module for real time
monitoring of data. Data from sensors is sent to raspberry pi and displaying alert message on
LCD. The results of the analysis in the form of landslide and lightning warnings will be provided
to the user with the help of GSM. Hence landslide and lightning detection system alert before
landslide and lightning by using sensor values.

FUTURE SCOPE
This system can be connect to internet for real time application and the
information related to land slide is available on the internet after the use of the this
system can be connect to a barrier if there is land slide occur the alarm will on and the
barrier get down and due to this we can save many life of human.

Page no. 63
LANDSLIDE DETECTION USING RASPBERRY PI

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] Charles M. Hammond, P.G., C.E.G, L.H.G, “Geology in Landslide Engineering”,


North American Landslides Conference presentations held at Vail, Colorado, June 3-8,
2007.
[2] Su Baishun, Pang Zheng duo, MengGuoying “Design of the mine gas sensor based
on Zigbee” Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Computer Science
and Computational Technology(ISCSCT ’10) Jiaozuo, P. R. China, 14-15,August
2010.
[3] AbishekThekkeyilKunnath, Maneesha V. Ramesh, “Integrating Geophone
Network to Real-Time Wireless Sensor Network System for Landslide Detection”,
2010 First International Conference on Sensor Device Technologies and Applications
[4] Zhuan Chen, Liping Deng, “The Design of Landslide Monitoring and Early-warning
System in Opencast Based on Nonmetric Digital Camera”, 2012, Science of Surveying
and Mapping.

Page no. 64