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1.

Astronomer: Observations of the Shoemaker-Levi comet on its collision course with Jupiter showed
that the comet broke into fragments before entering Jupiter's atmosphere in 1994, but they did not
show how big those fragments were. In hopes of gaining some indication of the fragments' size,
astronomers studied spectrographic analyses of Jupiter's outer atmosphere. These analyses revealed
unprecedented traces of sulfur after the fragments' entry. ​The fragments themselves almost certainly
contained no sulfur​, but many astronomers believe that the cloud layer below Jupiter's outer
atmosphere does contain sulfur. Since sulfur would have seeped into the outer atmosphere if comet
fragments had penetrated this cloud layer, ​it is likely that some of the fragments were at least large
enough to have passed through Jupiter's outer atmosphere without being burned up.

In the astronomer's argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
A. The first presents a circumstance for which the astronomer offers an explanation; the second is part
of that explanation.
B. The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the conclusion of the argument; the
second is that conclusion.
C. The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the conclusion of the argument; the
second provides evidence in support of that conclusion.
D. The first provides evidence in support of the conclusion of the argument; the second acknowledges a
consideration that weighs against that conclusion.
E. The first is a judgment advanced in support of the conclusion of the argument; the second is that
conclusion

2. Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commercial aircraft, are made with
low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the vacuum-tube circuitry found in
older planes. ​During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide the
plane to the runway​. Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing, its
dials dimming, when a passenger turned on a laptop computer. ​Clearly, modern aircraft navigation
systems are being put at risk by the electronic devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette
players and laptop computers​.
The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
(A) The first is a principle that the argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that can be drawn
from the first.
(B) The first is a fact that argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that must be drawn from this
argument.
(C) The first acknowledges a consideration that supports that main position; the second is that
conclusion.
(D) The first is an evidence that supports the conclusion, the second is that conclusion.
(E) The first is a principle that is necessary for this argument, the second is a conclusion that could be
drawn from this argument.
3. Museums that house Renaissance oil paintings typically store them in environments that are carefully
kept within narrow margins of temperature and humidity to inhibit any deterioration. Laboratory tests
have shown that the kind of oil paint used in these paintings actually adjusts to climatic changes quite
well. If, as some museum directors believe,​ paint is the most sensitive substance in these works​, then
by relaxing the standards for temperature and humidity control, ​museums can reduce energy costs
without risking damage to these paintings​. Museums would be rash to relax those standards, however,
since results of preliminary tests indicate that gesso, a compound routinely used by Renaissance artists
to help paint adhere to the canvas, is unable to withstand significant variations in humidity.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is an objection that has been raised against the position taken by the argument; the second
is the position taken by the argument.
(B) The first is the position taken by the argument; the second is the position that the argument calls
into question.
(C) The first is a judgment that has been offered in support of the position that the argument calls into
question; the second is a circumstance on which that judgment is, in part, based.
(D) The first is a judgment that has been offered in support of the position that the argument calls into
question; the second is that position.
(E) The first is a claim that the argument calls into question; the second is the position taken by the
argument

4. One of the limiting factors in human physical performance is the amount of oxygen that is 
absorbed by the muscles from the bloodstream. Accordingly, entrepreneurs have begun selling 
at gymnasiums and health clubs bottles of drinking water, labeled “SuperOXY,” that has extra 
oxygen dissolved in the water. Such water would be useless in improving physical 
performance, however, since ​the only way to get oxygen into the bloodstream so that it 
can be absorbed by the muscles is through the lungs. 
 
Which of the following, if true, would serve the same function in the argument as the 
statement in boldface? 
 
A. the water lost in exercising can be replaced with ordinary tap water 
B. the amount of oxygen in the blood of people who are exercising is already more than the 
muscle can absorb 
C. world-class athletes turn in record performance without such water 
D. frequent physical exercise increases the body’s ability to take in and use oxygen 
E. lack of oxygen is not the only factor limiting human physical performance
5. ​Public health advocate:​ It is generally true that medications that undergo the extensive FDA
Phase III clinical safety testing are much safer than less-researched drugs. It is also true that
whenever such trials are conducted, fewer people have experienced unexpected harmful side
effects, thus reducing public health risks. ​However, eliminating the requirement that even
FDA-tested medications continue to include extensive warnings about individual risk factors
would almost certainly harm rather than help public health. Consumers would tend to rely on
the FDA’s general certification of safety, and ​if no longer encouraged to read about individual
risks and drug interactions, many patients would suffer serious adverse reactions.

The two bolded statements serve what purpose in the context of the public health advocate’s
argument?

A The first is a general pattern that the advocate accepts as true; the second is said to be a
natural consequence that must follow if the general pattern applies.

B The first is a causal relationship that the advocate believes will happen again in the case at
issue; the second admits a situation in which the relationship would not hold.

C The first describes a cause and effect relationship that the advocate believes will not hold in
the case at issue; the second suggests a consideration that supports that belief.

D The first is proof that the advocate uses to support a prediction; the second states that
prediction.

E The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the stance that the advocate
supports; the second is that stance.
6. Business Consultant: ​Some corporations shun the use of executive titles ​because they fear
that the use of titles indicating position in the corporation tends to inhibit communication up
and down the corporate hierarchy. Since an executive who uses a title is treated with more
respect by outsiders, however, use ​of a title can facilitate an executive’s dealings with external
businesses. ​Clearly, corporations should adopt the compromise of encouraging their executives
to use their corporate titles externally but not internally, since even if it is widely known that
the corporation’s executives use titles outside their organization, this knowledge does not by
itself inhibit communication within the corporation.

In the consultant’s reasoning, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first describes a strategy that has been adopted to avoid a certain problem; the second
presents a drawback to that strategy.
(B) The first describes a strategy that has been adopted to avoid a certain problem; the second
is a consideration raised to call into question the effectiveness of that strategy as a means of
achieving that goal.
(C) The first describes a strategy that has been adopted to avoid a certain problem; the second
is a consideration the consultant raises in questioning the significance of that problem.
(D) The first is part of an explanation that the consultant offers for a certain phenomenon; the
second is that phenomenon.
(E) The first describes a policy for which the consultant seeks to provide a justification; the
second is a consideration the consultant raises as part of that.
7​. A product that represents a clear technological advance over competing products can
generally command a high price. Because ​technological advances tend to be quickly surpassed
and companies want to make large profits while they still can, many companies charge the
greatest price the market will bear when they have such a product. ​But large profits on the
new product will give competitors a strong incentive to quickly match the new product’s
capabilities.​ Consequently, the strategy to maximize overall profit from a new product is to
charge less than the greatest possible price.

In the argument above, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument
criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second is a
consideration raised to call into question the wisdom of adopting that strategy.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to justify a certain strategy; the second is a
consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
D. The first is a consideration raised in support of a strategy the argument endorses; the second
presents grounds in support of that consideration.
E. The first is a consideration raised to show that adopting a certain strategy is unlikely to
achieve the intended effect; the second is presented to explain the appeal of that strategy.
8​. In the past ​five years, ​Peak Productions profits from recorded music sales has steadily
declined. Peak cannot increase the number of recordings it releases, so it cannot increase
revenue that way​. Therefore, Peak has decided to drastically cut back on the number of
recordings it releases. It will save on costs by only releasing recordings by its most popular
artists. ​Thus, because the most popular artists bring in the most revenue on a per-recording
basis, Peaks plan is likely to increase its annual profits.

In the argument above, the two portions in ​boldface​ play which of the following roles?

(A) The ​first and the second are both evidence offered by the argument as support for its main
conclusion.
(B) The first presents a problem a response to which the argument assesses; the second is the
judgment reached by that assessment.
(C) The ​first is the position the argument seeks to establish; the second is a judgment the
argument uses to support that position.
(D) The first is a development that the argument seeks to explain; the second is a prediction the
argument makes in support of the explanation it offers.
(E) The ​first presents a development whose likely outcome is at issue in the argument; the
second is a judgment the argument uses in support of its conclusion about that outcome.

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