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• Manufacturing in its broadest sense is the process of converting raw materials into useful
• It includes

i) Design of the product

ii) Selection of raw materials and
iii) The sequence of processes through which the product will be manufactured.

Casting Processes:
 The casting process involves pouring of liquid metal in to a mold cavity and allowing it
to solidify to obtain the final casting.
 The flow of molten metal into the mold cavity depends on several factors like minimum
section thickness of the part, presence of corners, non-uniform cross-section of the cast,
and so on.
 The casting processes can be broadly classified into expendable mold casting and
permanent mold casting processes

Expendable Mold Casting:

 Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, plastic, shell,
plaster, and investment (lost-wax technique) molds.
 All these methods use temporary, non-reusable molds.
 After the molten metal in the mold cavity solidifies, the mold is broken to take out the
solidified cast.
 Expendable mold casting processes are suitable for very complex shaped parts and
materials with high melting point temperature.
 However, the rate of production is often limited by the time to make mold rather than the
casting itself.
 Following are a few examples of expendable mold casting processes.

 Sand Casting:
 Sand casting is widely used for centuries because of the simplicity of the process.
 The sand casting process involves the following basic steps: (a) place a wooden or
metallic pattern in sand to create a mold, (b) fit in the pattern and sand in a gating system,


(c) remove the pattern, (d) fill the mold cavity with molten metal, (e) allow the metal to
cool, and (f) break the sand mold and remove the casting.
 The sand casting process is usually economical for small batch size production.
 The quality of the sand casting depends on the quality and uniformity of green sand
material that is used for making the mold. a two-part sand mold, also referred to as a cope-
and-drag sand mold.
 The molten metal is poured through the pouring cup and it fills the mold cavity after
passing through down sprue, runner and gate.
 The core refers to loose pieces which are placed inside the mold cavity to create internal
holes or open section.
 The riser serves as a reservoir of excess molten metal that facilitates additional filling of
mold cavity to compensate for volumetric shrinkage during solidification. Sand castings
process provides several advantages.
 It can be employed for all types of metal. The tooling cost is low and can be used to cast
very complex shapes. However sand castings offer poor dimensional accuracy and surface

Shell molding

Shell molding:
 It is similar to sand casting.
 Normally a machined pattern of grey iron or aluminum is used in this process.
 The pattern is heated to 2500 C to 2600 C and the sand resin mixture is poured over its
 The heated pattern melts the resin creating bonds between the sand grains.
 After a dwell period the pattern and sand inverted and extra sand is cleaned off.
 The mold cavity is now formed by a hardened shell of sand.
 The mold is then heated in an oven for further curing.
 The shell thus formed constitutes one half of the mold.
 Two such halves are placed over one another to make the complete mold.


 The sands used in shell molding process are usually finer than the same used in sand
 This process is ideal for complex shaped medium sized parts.
 This method can be employed for making an integrate shapes, thin and sharp corners small
projection which are not possible in green sand mold.
 Subsequent machining operations are also reduced due to more dimensional accuracy.

Investment casting:
 Investment casting is also referred to as lost-wax casting since the pattern is made
of wax.
 The wax patterns are first dipped into a slurry of refractory material and
subsequently, heated so that the wax melts away keeping a refractory mold.
 The mold is then further cured to achieve proper strength. Very high melting
temperature material can be cast in investment casting process because of the
refractory mold.
 The molten metal is poured into the mold and is taken out after solidification by
breaking the mold.
 Very high dimensional accuracy and surface finish can be achieved in investment
casting process. However, the tooling cast is usually high and hence, investment
casting process is primarily used for large size batch production or for specific
requirements of complex shape or casting of very high melting temperature
Vacuum Casting:


 In this process, a mixture of fine sand and urethane is molded over metal dies and
cured with amino vapor.
 The molted metal is drawn into the mold cavity through a gating system from the
 bottom of the mold.
 The pressure inside the mold is usually one-third of the atmospheric pressure.
Because the mold cavity is filled under vacuum, the vacuum casting process is very
suitable for thin walled, complex shapes with uniform properties.


Plaster mold casting
 Plaster mold casting, also called rubber plaster molding (RPM), is a method of
producing aluminum or zinc castings by pouring liquid metal into typical plaster
(gypsum) molds.
 The plaster molds used as negative molds are created from gypsum and water.
 After mixing and forming the mold shape, the plaster molds are dried and baked in an
oven to remove any water remaining in the mold.
 Often, the molds are made in two halves – i.e. cope and drag molds – and the halves of
the plaster molds are clamped together with any required cores positioned appropriately
in the mold.
 Molten metal is subsequently poured into the negative plaster mold and allowed to dry.
The final part is taken out after breaking the mold.
 The final cast may require machining operation depending upon the requisite
dimensional accuracy.
 This process is often used for producing prototypes of final part or component.
 Ceramic mold casting .
 The ceramic mold casting is used to produce split molds from a quick-setting ceramic
 Blended ceramic particles are mixed rapidly with liquid binder to form free flowing
slurry that is poured quickly over a pattern.
 The casting does not require wax patterns and there are no limits to size or alloy.
 Foundry applications are large and complex impellers, valve bodies, and military
 The green strength of ceramic mold casting is high. Ceramic mold casting.
 method uses a ceramic slurry prepared by mixing fine grained refractory powders of
Zircon (ZrSiO4), Alumina (Al2O3), Fused Silica (SiO2) and a liquid chemical binder
(Alcohol based Silicon Ester) for making the mold.

Permanent Mold Casting processes :

 Permanent mold casting processes involve the use of metallic dies that are permanent in
nature and can be used repeatedly.


 The metal molds are also called dies and provide superior surface finish and close
tolerance than typical sand molds.
 The permanent mold casting processes broadly include pressure die casting, squeeze
casting, centrifugal casting, and continuous casting.
Pressures die casting:
 The pressure die casting process is the most common for Al, Zn and Mg castings (low
melting point).
 The liquid metal is injected into the mold under high pressure and allowed to solidify at
the high pressure.
 The solidified cast is then taken out of the mold or the die which is ready for the next
 Pressure die casting is suitable for large batch size production. Two types of pressure
die casting are generally common in the industry – (a) high pressure die casting and (b)
low pressure die casting.
 Very high production rates can be achieved in pressure die casting process with close
dimensional control of the casting.
 However, the process is not suitable for casting of high melting temperature materials
as the die material has to withstand the melting (or superheated) temperature of the
casting. Pressure die castings also contain porosity due to the entrapped air.
Furthermore, the dies in the pressure die casting process are usually very costly.
 In the hot-chamber die casting process, the furnace to melt material is part of the die
itself and hence, this process is suitable primarily for low-melting point temperature
materials such as aluminum, magnesium etc.

Squeeze casting:
 Molten metal is poured into a metallic mold or die cavity with one-half of the die
squeezing the molten metal to fill in the intended cavity under pressure .
 Fiber reinforced casting with SiC or Al2O3 fibers mixed in metal matrix have been
successfully squeeze cast and commercially used to produce automobile pistons.
 However, squeeze casting is limited only to shallow part or part with smaller dimensions.


Centrifugal casting:
In centrifugal casting process, the molten metal poured at the center of a rotating mold or die.
Because of the centrifugal force, the lighter impurities are crowded towards the center of the
case. For producing a hollow part, the axis of rotation is placed at the center of the desired
casting. The speed of rotation is maintained high so as to produce a centripetal acceleration of
the order of 60g to 75g. The centrifuge action segregates the less dense nonmetallic inclusions
near to the center of rotation that can be removed by machining a thin layer. No cores are
therefore required in casting of hollow parts although solid parts can also be cast by this
process. The centrifugal casting is very suitable for axisymmetric parts. Very high strength of
the casting can be obtained. Since the molten metal is fed by the centrifugal action, the need for
complex metal feeding system is eliminated. Both horizontal and vertical centrifugal castings
are widely used in the industry.


Continuous casting
 Continuous casting process is widely used in the steel industry.
 In principle, continuous casting is different from the other casting processes in the fact that
there is no enclosed mold cavity.
 Molten steel coming out from the furnace is accumulated in a ladle.
 After undergoing requisite ladle treatments, such as alloying and degassing, and arriving at
the correct temperature, the ladle is transported to the top of the continuous casting set-
 From the ladle, the hot metal is transferred via a refractory shroud (pipe) to a holding bath
called a tundish.
 The tundish allows a reservoir of metal to feed the casting machine.
 Metal is then allowed to pass through a open base copper mold.
 The mold is water-cooled to solidify the hot metal directly in contact with it and removed
from the other side of the mold.
 The continuous casting process is used for casting metal directly into billets or other similar
shapes that can be used for rolling.
 The process involves continuously pouring molten metal into a externally chilled copper
mold or die walls and hence, can be easily automated for large size production.
 Since the molten metal solidifies from the die wall and in a soft state as it comes out of the
die wall such that the same can be directly guided into the rolling mill or can be sheared
into a selected size of billets.


Defects in Casting Processes:

There are various defects that are experienced during casting, in particular, sand casting
processes. A brief explanation of some of the significant defects and their possible remedial
measures are indicated in the text to follow.
Shrinkage of molten metal as it solidifies is an important issue in casting. It can reduce the 5-
10% volume of the cast. Gray cast iron expands upon solidification due to phase changes.
Need to design part and mold to take this amount into consideration. The thickness of the
boss or pad should be less than the thickness of the section of the boss adjoins and the
transition should be gradual. The radius for good shrinkage control should be from one half
to one third of the section thickness. Shrinkage defect can be reduced by decreasing the
number of walls and increasing the draft angle.


Porosity is a phenomenon that occurs in materials, especially castings, as they change state
from liquid to solid during the manufacturing process. Casting porosity has the form of
surface and core imperfections which either effects the surface finish or as a leak path for
gases and liquids. The poring temperature should be maintained properly to reduce porosity.
Adequate fluxing of metal and controlling the amount of gas-producing materials in the
molding and core making sand mixes can help in minimizing this defect.

Hot tear
Hot tears are internal or external ragged discontinuities or crack on the casting surface,
caused by rapid contraction occurring immediately after the metal solidified. They may be
produced when the casting is poorly designed and abrupt sectional changes take place; no
proper fillets and corner radii are provided, and chills are inappropriately placed. Hot tear
may be caused when the mold and core have poor collapsibility or when the mold is too hard
causing the casting to undergo severe strain during cooling. Incorrect pouring temperature
and improper placement of gates and risers can also create hot tears. Method to prevent hot
tears may entail improving the casting design, achieving directional solidification and even
rate of cooling all over, selecting proper mold and poured materials to suit the cast metal, and
controlling the mold hardness in relation to other ingredients of sand.


It is usually found on the flat casting surface. It is a shallow blow.

Blowholes are smooth round holes that are clearly perceptible on the surface of the casting.
To prevent blowholes, moisture content in sand must be well adjusted, sand of proper grain
size should be used, ramming should not be too hard and venting should be adequate.

This is a scar covered by the thin layers of the metal.

The lighter impurities are appearing on the top of the cast surface is called the dross. It can be
taken care of at the pouring stage by using items such as a strainer and a skim bob.

Sometimes sand particles dropping out of the cope get embedded on the top surface of a
casting. When removed, these leave small angular holes is known as dirts.

It is a low projection on the drag surface of a casting commencing near the gate. It is caused
by the erosion of sand due to high velocity liquid metal.

It refers to a long fairly shallow broad depression at the surface of a casting of a high
temperature metal. Due to very high temperature of the molten metal, expansion of the thin
layered of the sand at the mold face takes place. As this expansion is obstructed by the flux,
the mold tends to bulge out forming a V shape.

Rat tail
It is a long shallow angular depression found in a thin casting. The cause is similar to buckle.

A shift results in a mismatch of the sections of a casting usually as a parting line.
Misalignment is common cause of shift. This defect can be prevented by ensuring proper
alignment of the pattern for die parts, molding boxes, and checking of pattern flux locating
pins before use.

Warped casting
Warping is an undesirable deformation in a casting which occurs during or after
solidification. Large and flat sections are particularly prone to wrap edge. Wrap edge may
also be due to insufficient gating system that may not allow rapid pouring of metal or due to


low green strength of the sand mold or inadequate / inappropriate draft allowance in the
pattern / mold cavity.

Metal Penetration and Rough Surfaces

This defect appears as an uneven and rough external surface of the casting. It may be caused
when the sand has too high permeability, large grain size, and low strength. Soft ramming
may also cause metal penetration.

A thin projection of metal, not intended as a part of casting, is called a fin. Fins occur at the
parting of the mold or core sections. Molds and cores in correctly assembled will cause the
High metal pressures due to too large downsprue, insufficient weighing of the molds or
improper clamping of flasks may again produce the fin defect.

Cold Shut and Mis-Run

A cold shut is a defect in which a discontinuity is formed due to the imperfect fusion of two
streams of metal in the mold cavity. The reasons for cold shut or mis-run may be too thin
sections and wall thickness, improper gating system, damaged patterns, slow and intermittent
pouring , poor fluidity of metal caused by low pouring temperature, improper alloy
composition, etc.

Inspections of Casting:

Visual inspection
Visible defects that can be detected provide a means for discovering errors in the pattern
equipment or in the molding and casting process. Visual inspection may prove inadequate
only in the detection of sub surface or internal defects.

Dimensional inspection
Dimensional inspection is one of the important inspections for casting. When precision
casting is required, we make some samples for inspection the tolerance, shape size and also
measure the profile of the cast. This dimensional inspection of casting may be conducted by
various methods:
• Standard measuring instruments to check the size of the cast.
• Contour gauges for the checking of profile, curves and shapes
• Coordinate measuring and Marking Machine
• Special fixtures


X-Ray Radiography

In all the foundries the flaw detection test are performed in the casting where the defects are
not visible. This flaw detection test is usually performed for internal defects, surface defects
etc. These tests are valuable not only in detecting but even in locating the casting defects
present in the interior of the casting. Radiography is one of the important flaw detection test
for casting. The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy (shorter wavelength)
version of the electromagnetic waves that we see as visible light. The radiation can come
from an X-ray generator or a radioactive source.

Magnetic particle inspection

This test is used to reveal the location of cracks that extend to the surface of iron or steel
castings, which are magnetic nature. The casting is first magnetized and then iron particles
are sprinkled all over the path of the magnetic field. The particles align themselves in the
direction of the lines of force. A discontinuity in the casting causes the lines of the force to
bypass the discontinuity and to concentrate around the extremities of the defect.

Fluorescent dye-penetration test

This method is very simple and applied for all cast metals. It entails applying a thin
penetration oil-base dye to the surface of the casting and allowing it to stand for some time so
that the oil passes into the cracks by means of capillary action. The oil is then thoroughly
wiped and cleaned from the surface. To detect the defects, the casting is pained with a coat of
whitewash or powdered with tale and then viewed under ultraviolet light. The oil being
fluorescent in nature, can be easily detect under this light, and thus the defects are easily

Ultrasonic Testing
Ultrasonic testing used for detecting internal voids in casting is based on the principle of
reflection of high frequency sound waves. If the surface under test contains some defect, the
high frequency sound waves when emitted through the section of the casting, will be
reflected from the surface of defect and return in a shorter period of time. The advantage this
method of testing over other methods is that the defect, even if in the interior, is not only
detected and located accurately, but its dimension can also be quickly measured without in
any damaging or destroying the casting.

Fracture test
Fracture test is done by examining a fracture surface of the casting. it is possible to observe
coarse graphite or chilled portion and also shrinkage cavity, pin hole etc. The apparent
soundness of the casting can thus be judged by seeing the fracture.


Macro-etching test (macroscopic examination)
The macroscopic inspection is widely used as a routine control test in steel production
because it affords a convenient and effective means of determining internal defects in the
metal. Macro-etching may reveal one of the following conditions:
 Crystalline heterogeneity, depending on solidification
 Chemical heterogeneity, depending on the impurities present or localized
segregation and
 Mechanical heterogeneity, depending on strain introduced on the metal, if any.

Sulphur Print test

Sulphur may exist in iron or steel in one of two forms; either as iron sulphide or manganese
sulphide. The distribution of sulphur inclusions can easily examined by this test.

Microscopic Examination
Microscopic examination can enable the study of the microstructure of the metal alloy,
elucidating its composition, the type and nature of any treatment given to it, and its
mechanical properties. In the case of cast metals, particularly steels, cast iron, malleable iron,
and SG iron, microstructure examination is essential for assessing metallurgical structure and
composition. Composition analysis can also be done using microscopic inspection.
Distribution of phase can be observed by metallographic sample preparation of cast product.
Grain size and distribution, grain boundary area can be observed by this procedure.
Distribution of nonmetallic inclusion can also be found from this process of inspection.

Chill Test
Chill test offers a convenient means for an approximate evaluation of the graphitizing
tendency of the iron produced and forms an important and quick shop floor test for
ascertaining whether this iron will be of the class desired. In chill test, accelerated cooling
rate is introduced to induce the formation of a chilled specimen of appropriate dimension. It
is then broken by striking with a hammer in such a manner that the fracture is straight and
midway of its length. The depth of chill obtained on the test piece is affected by the carbon
and silicon present and it can therefore be related to the carbon equivalent, whose value in
turn determines the grade of iron.

Design Recommendations for Casting:

1. Compensate the shrinkage of the solidified molten metal by making patterns of slightly
2. In sand casting, it is more economical and accurate if the parting line is on a flat plane
Contoured parting lines are not economical. Further, some degree of taper, or draft is


recommended to provide to the pattern for its easy removal. The recommended draft angles
for patters under various conditions are given elsewhere.
3. In sand casting, it is recommended to attach the raiser near to the heavier section. The
thinnest sections are farthest from the raiser and solidify first and then the solidification
proceeds toward the direction of raiser i.e. towards the heavier section.
4. Sharp corners in a casting design cause uneven cooling and lead to formation of hot
spots in the final cast structure. Moreover sharp corner in a casting structure acts as a stress
raiser. Rounding the corner decreases the severity of the hot spot and lessens the stress
concentration. Abrupt changes in sections should be avoided. Fillets and tapers are
preferable to sharp steps.
5. The interior walls and sections are recommended to be 20% thinner than the outside
members to reduce the thermal and residual stresses, and metallurgical changes .
6. The interior walls and sections are recommended to be 20% thinner than the outside
members to reduce the thermal and residual stresses, and metallurgical changes.
7. When a hole is placed in a highly stressed section, add extra material around the hole as
8. To minimize the residual stresses in the gear, pulley or wheel casting, a balance between
the section size of the rim, spokes and hub is maintained.
9. An odd number of curved wheel spokes reduce cast-in-residual stresses.
10. Similar to sand casting, permanent mold castings also require draft for the easy
withdrawal of the casting from the mold. The recommended draft angles are given
11. Due to pattern shrinkage, investment shrinkage and metal shrinkage during
solidification, there is always a tendency for an investment part to “dish” (develop concave
surfaces where flat surfaces are specified). This condition takes place in areas of thick cross
section. Dishing is minimized by designing parts with uniformly thin walls.


12. When keys and keyways are required, the recommended ratio of width to depth is 1.0 or
more. The minimum castable key width is 2.3 mm for ferrous metals and 1.5 mm for nonferrous
13. Heavy bosses connecting to the surface can cause “sinks” due to the shrinkage of the large
mass of the metal in the boss during cooling. This shrinkage problem can be reduced by moving
the boss away from the surface and connecting it to the surface with a short rib.





Welding is a materials joining process which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to
suitable temperatures with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure
alone, and with or without the use of filler material.
Welding is used for making permanent joints.
It is used in the manufacture of automobile bodies, aircraft frames, railway wagons, machine
frames, structural works, tanks, furniture, boilers, general repair work and ship building.
Classification of welding processes :
(i) Arc welding

• Carbon arc
• Metal arc
• Metal inert gas
• Tungsten inert gas
• Plasma arc
• Submerged arc
• Electro-slag
(ii) Gas Welding
• Oxy-acetylene
• Air-acetylene
• Oxy-hydrogen
iii) Resistance Welding
 Butt
 Spot
 Seam
 Projection
 Percussion


(iv) Thermit Welding
(v) Solid State Welding
 Friction
 Ultrasonic
 Diffusion
 Explosive

(vi) Newer Welding

 Electron-beam
 Laser
(vii)Related Process
 Oxy-acetylene cutting
 Arc cutting
 Hard facing
 Brazing
 Soldering

Welding practice & equipment :

• Prepare the edges to be joined and maintain the proper position

• Open the acetylene valve and ignite the gas at tip of the torch

• Hold the torch at about 45deg to the work piece plane

• Inner flame near the work piece and filler rod at about 30 – 40 deg

• Touch filler rod at the joint and control the movement according to the flow of the material

Two Basic Types of AW Electrodes :

Consumable – consumed during welding process
Source of filler metal in arc welding
Nonconsumable – not consumed during welding process
Filler metal must be added separately

Consumable Electrodes
Forms of consumable electrodes
• Welding rods (a.k.a. sticks) are 9 to 18 inches and 3/8 inch or less in diameter and must be changed


• Weld wire can be continuously fed from spools with long lengths of wire, avoiding frequent
 In both rod and wire forms, electrode is consumed by arc and added to weld joint as filler metal.

No consumable Electrodes
Made of tungsten which resists melting
Gradually depleted during welding (vaporization is principal mechanism)
A substance that prevents formation of oxides and other contaminants in welding, or dissolves them and
facilitates removal
Provides protective atmosphere for welding
Stabilizes arc
Reduces spattering
Arc welding
Uses an electric arc to coalesce metals
Arc welding is the most common method of welding metals
Electricity travels from electrode to base metal to ground

Arc welding Equipments

• A welding generator (D.C.) or Transformer (A.C.)
• Two cables- one for work and one for electrode
• Electrode holder
• Electrode
• Protective shield
• Gloves
• Wire brush
• Chipping hammer
• Goggles

 Most efficient way to join metals
 Lowest-cost joining method
 Affords lighter weight through better utilization of materials
 Joins all commercial metals


 Provides design flexibility

• Manually applied, therefore high labor cost.
• Need high energy causing danger
• Not convenient for disassembly.
• Defects are hard to detect at joints.


Sound weld is obtained by selecting proper size of flame, filler material and method of moving torch
The temperature generated during the process is 33000c.
When the metal is fused, oxygen from the atmosphere and the torch combines with molten metal and
forms oxides, results defective weld
Fluxes are added to the welded metal to remove oxides
Common fluxes used are made of sodium, potassium. Lithium and borax.
Flux can be applied as paste, powder, liquid. solid coating or gas.


1. Gas Cylinders Pressure

 Oxygen – 125 kg/cm2


 Acetylene – 16 kg/cm2
2. Regulators
 Working pressure of oxygen 1 kg/cm2
 Working pressure of acetylene 0.15 kg/cm2
 Working pressure varies depends upon the thickness of the work pieces welded.
3. Pressure Gauges
4. Hoses
5. Welding torch
6. Check valve
7. Non return valve
Types of Flames

• Oxygen is turned on, flame immediately changes into a long white inner area (Feather) surrounded
by a transparent blue envelope is called Carburizing flame (30000c)
• Addition of little more oxygen give a bright whitish cone surrounded by the transparent blue
envelope is called Neutral flame (It has a balance of fuel gas and oxygen) (32000c)
• Used for welding steels, aluminium, copper and cast iron.
• If more oxygen is added, the cone becomes darker and more pointed, while the envelope becomes
shorter and more fierce is called Oxidizing flame
• Has the highest temperature about 34000c
• Used for welding brass and brazing operation

Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames used in oxyfuel-gas welding and cutting operations:
(a) neutral flame; (b) oxidizing flame; (c) carburizing, or reducing flame

Fusion welding processes


• Definition : Fusion Welding is defined as melting together and coalescing materials by means of
• Energy is supplied by thermal or electrical means
• Fusion welds made without filler metals are known as autogenous welds

Filler Metals:
• Additional material to weld the weld zone
• Available as rod or wire
• They can be used bare or coated with flux
• The purpose of the flux is to retard the

Shielded metal arc welding process

• An electric arc is generated between a coated electrode and the parent metal
• The coated electrode carries the electric current to form the arc, produces a gas to control the
atmosphere and provides filler metal for the weld bead
• Electric current may be AC or DC. If the current is DC, the polarity will affect the weld size and

• Intense heat at the arc melts the tip of the electrode
• Tiny drops of metal enter the arc stream and are deposited on the parent metal
• As molten metal is deposited, a slag forms over the bead which serves as an insulation against air
contaminants during cooling
• After a weld „pass‟ is allowed the cool, the oxide layer is removed by a chipping hammer and then
cleaned with a wirebrush before the next pass.

Fig: Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process. About 50% of all large-scale
industrial welding operations use this process.


Fig: Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process (also known as stick
welding, because the electrode is in the shape of a stick).

Submerged arc welding

• Weld arc is shielded by a granular flux, consisting of silica, lime, manganese oxide, calcium fluoride
and other compounds.
• Flux is fed into the weld zone by gravity flow through nozzle.
• Thick layer of flux covers molten metal
• Flux acts as a thermal insulator, promoting deep penetration of heat into the work piece
• Consumable electrode is a coil of bare round wire fed automatically through a tube
• Power is supplied by 3-phase or 2-phase power lines


Fig: Schematic illustration of the submerged-arc welding process and equipment. The unfused flux is
recovered and reused

Gas metal arc welding

• GMAW is a metal inert gas welding (MIG)
• Weld area shielded by an effectively inert atmosphere of argon,helium,carbon dioxide,various other
gas mixtures
• Metal can be transferred by 3 methods :
• Spray transfer
• Globular transfer
• Short circuiting

Process capabilities
• GMAV process is suitable for welding a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous metals
• Process is versatile, rapid, economical, welding productivity is double that of SMAW

Flux cored arc welding

• Flux cored arc welding is similar to a gas metal arc welding
• Electrode is tubular in shape and is filled with flux
• Cored electrodes produce more stable arc improve weld contour and produce better mechanical
• Flux is more flexible than others

Fig: Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc-welding process. This operation is similar to gas
metal-arc welding.

Electro gas Welding


• EGW is welding the edges of sections vertically in one pass with the pieces placed edge to edge
• Similar to Electro gas welding
• Weld metal is deposited into weld cavity between the two pieces to be joined
• Difference is Arc is started between electrode tip and bottom part of the part to be welded
• Flux added first and then melted by the heat on the arc
• Molten slag reaches the tip of the electrode and the arc is extinguished
• Heat is then continuously produced by electrical resistance of the molten slag
• Single or multiple solid as well as flux-cored electrodes may be used

Process capabilities
• Weld thickness ranges from 12mm to 75mm
• Metals welded are steels, titanium, aluminum alloys
• Applications are construction of bridges, pressure vessels, thick walled and large diameter pipes,
storage tanks and ships.

Fig : Schematic illustration of the electrogas welding process.

It is a low temperature joining process. It is performed at temperatures above 840º F and it generally
affords strengths comparable to those of the metal which it joins. It is low temperature in that it is done
below the melting point of the base metal. It is achieved by diffusion without fusion (melting) of the
Brazing can be classified as
Torch brazing
Dip brazing
Furnace brazing
Induction brazing


• Dissimilar metals which canot be welded can be joined by brazing
• Very thin metals can be joined
• Metals with different thickness can be joined easily
• In brazing thermal stresses are not produced in the work piece. Hence there is no distortion
• Using this process, carbides tips are brazed on the steel tool holders

• Brazed joints have lesser strength compared to welding
• Joint preparation cost is more
• Can be used for thin sheet metal sections

• It is a low temperature joining process. It is performed at temperatures below 840ºF for joining.
• Soldering is used for,
• Sealing, as in automotive radiators or tin cans
• Electrical Connections
• Joining thermally sensitive components
• Joining dissimilar metals


Inert Gas Welding
For materials such as Al or Ti which quickly form oxide layers, a method to place an inert atmosphere
around the weld puddle had to be developed
Metal Inert Gas (MIG)
• Uses a consumable electrode (filler wire made of the base metal)
• Inert gas is typically Argon

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

Uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and an inert gas for arc shielding
Melting point of tungsten = 3410C (6170F)
A.k.a. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding
In Europe, called "WIG welding"
Used with or without a filler metal
When filler metal used, it is added to weld pool from separate rod or wire
Applications: aluminum and stainless steel most common

High quality welds for suitable applications
No spatter because no filler metal through arc
Little or no post-weld cleaning because no flux

Generally slower and more costly than consumable electrode AW processes
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
Special form of GTAW in which a constricted plasma arc is directed at weld area

Tungsten electrode is contained in a nozzle that focuses a high velocity stream of inert gas (argon)
into arc region to form a high velocity, intensely hot plasma arc stream
Temperatures in PAW reach 28,000C (50,000F), due to constriction of arc, producing a plasma jet
of small diameter and very high energy density


Resistance Welding (RW)
A group of fusion welding processes that use a combination of heat and pressure to accomplish
Heat generated by electrical resistance to current flow at junction to be welded
Principal RW process is resistance spot welding (RSW)

Fig: Resistance welding, showing the components in spot welding, the main process in the RW
Components in Resistance Spot Welding
Parts to be welded (usually sheet metal)
Two opposing electrodes
Means of applying pressure to squeeze parts between electrodes
Power supply from which a controlled current can be applied for a specified time duration

No filler metal required
High production rates possible
Lends itself to mechanization and automation
Lower operator skill level than for arc welding
Good repeatability and reliability


High initial equipment cost
Limited to lap joints for most RW processes

Resistance Seam Welding

Electron Beam Welding (EBW)

Fusion welding process in which heat for welding is provided by a highly-focused, high-intensity stream
of electrons striking work surface
Electron beam gun operates at:
High voltage (e.g., 10 to 150 kV typical) to accelerate electrons
Beam currents are low (measured in milliamps)
Power in EBW not exceptional, but power density is

High-quality welds, deep and narrow profiles
Limited heat affected zone, low thermal distortion
High welding speeds
No flux or shielding gases needed

High equipment cost
Precise joint preparation & alignment required
Vacuum chamber required
Safety concern: EBW generates x-rays

Laser Beam Welding (LBW)

Fusion welding process in which coalescence is achieved by energy of a highly concentrated, coherent
light beam focused on joint
Laser = "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation"
LBW normally performed with shielding gases to prevent oxidation

Filler metal not usually added
High power density in small area, so LBW often used for small parts
Comparison: LBW vs. EBW
No vacuum chamber required for LBW
No x-rays emitted in LBW
Laser beams can be focused and directed by optical lenses and mirrors


LBW not capable of the deep welds and high depth-to-width ratios of EBW
Maximum LBW depth = ~ 19 mm (3/4 in), whereas EBW depths = 50 mm (2 in)

Thermit Welding (TW)

FW process in which heat for coalescence is produced by superheated molten metal from the chemical
reaction of thermite
Thermite = mixture of Al and Fe3O4 fine powders that produce an exothermic reaction when ignited
Also used for incendiary bombs
Filler metal obtained from liquid metal
Process used for joining, but has more in common with casting than welding

Fig: Thermit welding: (1) Thermit ignited; (2) crucible tapped, superheated metal flows into mold;
(3) metal solidifies to produce weld joint.

Joining of railroad rails
Repair of cracks in large steel castings and forgings
Weld surface is often smooth enough that no finishing is required

Diffusion Welding (DFW)

SSW process uses heat and pressure, usually in a controlled atmosphere, with sufficient time for
diffusion and coalescence to occur
Temperatures 0.5 Tm
Plastic deformation at surfaces is minimal
Primary coalescence mechanism is solid state diffusion
Limitation: time required for diffusion can range from seconds to hours
Joining of high-strength and refractory metals in aerospace and nuclear industries
Can be used to join either similar and dissimilar metals
For joining dissimilar metals, a filler layer of different metal is often sandwiched between base
metals to promote diffusion

Friction Welding (FRW)

SSW process in which coalescence is achieved by frictional heat combined with pressure
When properly carried out, no melting occurs at faying surfaces
No filler metal, flux, or shielding gases normally used
Process yields a narrow HAZ
Can be used to join dissimilar metals
Widely used commercial process, amenable to automation and mass production


Fig: Friction welding (FRW): (1) rotating part, no contact; (2) parts brought into contact to generate
friction heat; (3) rotation stopped and axial pressure applied; and (4) weld created.

Shafts and tubular parts
Industries: automotive, aircraft, farm equipment, petroleum and natural gas

At least one of the parts must be rotational
Flash must usually be removed
Upsetting reduces the part lengths (which must be taken into consideration in product design)

Weld Defects
• Undercuts/Overlaps
• Grain Growth
A wide T will exist between base metal and HAZ. Preheating and cooling
methods will affect the brittleness of the metal in this region
• Blowholes
Are cavities caused by gas entrapment during the solidification of the weld
puddle. Prevented by proper weld technique (even temperature and speed)
• Inclusions
Impurities or foreign substances which are forced into the weld puddle during the welding process. Has
the same effect as a crack. Prevented by proper technique/cleanliness.
• Segregation
Condition where some regions of the metal are enriched with an alloy ingredient and
others aren‟t. Can be prevented by proper heat treatment and cooling.
• Porosity
The formation of tiny pinholes generated by atmospheric contamination.
Prevented by keeping a protective shield over the molten weld puddle.







The main function of a lathe is to remove metal from a piece of work to give it the required
shape and size.
Lathes of various designs and constructions have been developed to suit the various
conditions of metal machining.
1. Speed lathe.
 Woodworking
 Centering.
 Polishing.
 Spinning.
2. Bench lathe.
3. Tool room lathe.
4. Capstan and Turret lathe.
5. Special purpose.
 Wheel lathe.
 Gap bed lathe.
 T-lathe.
6. Engine lathe.
 Belt drive.
 Individual motor drive.
 Duplicating lathe.


 Gear head lathe.
 Spinning.
1. Automatic lathe.

The Speed Lathe:

 The speed lathe, in construction and operation, is the simplest of all types of lathe. It consists
of a bed, a headstock, a tailstock and a tool-post mounted on an adjustable slide.
 There is no feed box, lead screw or conventional type of carriage. The tool is mounted on the
adjustable slide and is fed into work purely by hand control.
 This characteristic of the lathe enables the designer to give high spindle speeds which usually
range from 1200 to 3600 r.p.m. As the tool is controlled by hand, the depth of cut and the
thickness of chip is very small

The engine lathe or centre lathe :

 This lathe is the most important member of the lathe family and is the most widely used.
 The term “engines is associated with the lathe owing to the fact that early lathes were driven
by steam engines. Similar to the speed lathe, the engine lathe has got all the basic parts
 This is a small lathe usually mounted on a bench. It has practically all the parts of an engine
lathe or speed lathe and it performs almost all the operations, its only difference being in the
 This is used fur small and precision work.


The bench lathe:

 This is a small lathe usually mounted on a bench. It has practically all the parts of an engine lathe
or speed lathe and it performs almost all the operations, its only difference being in the size.
 This is used fur small and precision work.
The tool room lathe:
 A tool room lathe having features similar to an. engine lathe is much more accurately built and
has a wide range of spindle speeds ranging from a very low to a quite high speed up to 2500 r.p.m.
 This is equipped, besides other things, with a chuck, taper turning attachment, draw in collet
attachment, thread chasing dial, relieving attachment, steady and follower rest, pump for coolant,
 This lathe is mainly used for precision work on tools, dies, gauges and in machining work where
accuracy is needed. The machine is costlier than an engine lathe of the same size.

The capstan and turret lathe:

 These lathes are development of the engine lathe and are used for production work.
 The distinguishing feature of this type of lathe is that the tailstock of an engine lathe is replaced
by a hexagonal turret, on the face of which multiple tools may be fitted and fed into the work in
proper sequence.
 The advantage is that. several different types of operations can be done on a work piece without
re- setting of work or tools, and a number of identical parts can be produced in the minimum time.

Special purpose lathe:
 As the name implies, they are used for special purposes and for jobs which cannot be
accommodated or conveniently machined on a standard lathe.
 The wheel is made for finishing the journals and turning the tread on railroad car and
locomotive wheels. The gap bed lathe, in which a section of the bed adjacent to the headstock is
recoverable, is used to swing extra-large diameter pieces.
 The T-lathe, a new member of the lathe family, is intended for machining of rotors for jet
engines. The axis of the lathe bed is at right angles to the axis of the headstock spindle is the form
of a T.
 The duplicating lathe is one for duplicating the shape of a flat. or round template on to the
workpiece. Mechanical, air, and hydraulic devices are all used to coordinate the movements of the
tool to reproduce accurately.

Automatic lathe :
 These are high speed, heavy duty, mass production lathes with complete automatic control. Once
the tools are set and the machine is started it performs automatically all the operations to finish the


 The changing of tools, speeds, and feeds are also done automatically. After the job is complete,
the machine will continue to repeat the cycles producing identical parts even without the attention
of an operator.
 An operator who has to look after five or six automatic lathes at a time will simply look after the
general maintenance of the machine and cutting tool, load up a bar stock and remove finished
products from time to time.


The size of a lathe is expressed or specified by the following items
1. The height of the centres measured from the lathe bed
2. The swing diameter over bed.

This is the largest diameter of work that will FEED MECHANISM

 The movement of the tool relative to the work is termed as„ feed”. A lathe tool may have three
types of feed —longitudinal, cross, and angular.
 When the tool moves parallel to the lathe axis, the movement is termed as Longitudinal! feed
and is effected by the movement of the carriage.
 When the tool moves at right angle to the lathe axis with the help of the cross slide the
movement is termed across feed, while the movement of the tool by compound slide when it is
swiveled at an angle to the lathe axis is termed as angular feed. Cross and longitudinal feed are
both hand and power operated, but angular feed is only hand operated.

The feed mechanism has different units through which motion is transmitted from the headstock spindle
to the carriage. Following are the units:
1. End of bed gearing.
2. Feed gearbox.
3. Feed rod and lead screw
4. Apron mechanism.
End of bed gearing: This gearing serves the purpose of transmitting the drive to the lead screw and
feed shaft, either direct or through a gear box. In modern lathes, tumbler gear mechanism or bevel gear
feed reversing mechanism is incorporated to reverse the direction of feed.
Tumbler gear mechanism:.
 Tumbler gears are used to give the desired direction of movement to the lathe carriage, via lead
screw or the feed shaft.
 Apron mechanism Different designs of apron mechanism for transforming rotary motion of the
feed rod and the lead screw into feed motion of the carriage are constructed by different makers
of the lathe


The rotation of the lead screw is used to transverse the tool along the work to produce screw thread. The
half-nut mechanism illustrated in Fig makes the carriage to engage or disengage with the lead screw. it
comprises a pair of half nuts 7 capable of moving in or out of mesh with the lead screw.



 Lathe accessories include centers, catch plates and carriers, chutes, collets, face plates, angle
plates, mandrels, and rests.
 They are used either for holding and supporting the work or for holding the tool. Attachments
are additional equipment used for specific purposes.
 They include stops, ball turning rests, thread chasing dials, and taper turning, milling, grinding,
gear cutting, turret, cutter, relieving a id crank pin turning attachments.

Operations which are performed in a lathe either by holding the workpiece between centres or
by a chuck are:
 Straight turning.
 Shoulder turning.
 Chamfering.
 Thread cutting.
 Facing.
 Knurling.
 Filing.
 Taper turning.
 Eccentric turning.
 Polishing.
 Grooving.
 Spinning.
 Spring winding.
 Forming.


Operation which is performed by holding the work by a chuck era faceplate or an angle plate are:
 Drilling
 Reaming
 Boring
 Counterboring
 Taperboring
 Internal thread cutting
 Tapping
 Undercutting
 Parting-off
Operations which are performed by using special attachments
 Grinding
 Milling


Work Holding Devices:

Fig : (a) and (b) Schematic illustrations of a draw-in-type collets. The workpiece is placed
in the collet hole, and the conical surfaces of the collet are forced inward by pulling it with
a draw bar into the sleeve. (c) A push-out type collet. (d) Workholding of a part on a face

Three jaw chuck: -

-For holding cylindrical stock centered.
– For facing/center drilling the end of your aluminum stock


Four-Jaw Chuck - This is independent chuck generally has four jaws, which are adjusted
individually on the chuck face by means of adjusting screws

Collet Chuck:
Collet chuck is used to hold small workpieces

Magnetic Chuck
Thin jobs can be held by means of magnetic chucks


Where the work is required to be turned between centres or between a chuck and a centre, conical
shaped holes must be provided at the ends of lbs workpiece to provide bearing surface for lathe
centres. Centering is the process of producing conical holes in workpieces.

Turning in a lathe is to remove excess material from the workpiece to produce a cone-shaped or
a cylindrical surface. The various types of turning made in lathe work for various purposes are
described below.

The work is turned straight when it is made to rotate about the lathe axis, and the tool is fed
parallel to the lathe axis The straight turning produces a cylindrical surface by removing excess
metal from the workpiece.


A taper may be turned by any one of the following methods: 1. By a broad nose form tool. 2. By
setting over the tailstock centre. 3. By swivelling the compound rest. 4. By a taper turning
attachment. 5. by combining longitudinal and cross feed in a special lathe. Taper Turning by a
form tool-
 A broad nose tool having straight cutting edge is set on to the work at half taper angle,
and is fed straight into the work to generate a tapered surface
 The half angle of taper will correspond to 90 minus side cutting edge angle of the tool. In
this method the tool angle should be properly checked before use.
 This method is limited to turn short length of taper only. This is due to the reason that the
metal is removed by the entire cutting edge, and any increase in the length of the taper will
necessitate the use of a wider cutting edge.
 This will require excessive cutting pressure, which may distort the work due to vibration
and spoil the work surface.

Taper turning by setting over the tailstock:

 The principle of turning taper by this method is to shift the axis of rotation of the
workpiece, at an angle to the lathe axis, feeding the tool parallel to the lathe axis.
 The angle at which the axis of rotation of the workpiece is shifted is equal to half angle of
the taper. This is done when the body of the tailstock is made to slide on its base towards or
away from the operator by a setover screw as illustrated
 The amount of setover being limited, this method is suitable for turning small taper on
long jobs.


 The main disadvantage of this method is that the live and dead centres are not equally
stressed and the wear is not uniform. Moreover, the lathe carrier being set at an angle, the
angular velocity of the work is not constant.

Taper turning by swiveling the compound rest:

 This method employs the principle of turning taper by rotating the workpiece on the lathe
axis and feeding the tool at an angle to the axis of rotation of the workpiece.
 The tool mounted on the compound rest is attached to a circular base, graduated in
degree, which may be swivelled and clamped at any desired angle.
 The setting of the compound rest is done by swivelling the rest at the half taper angle, if
this is already known. If the diameter of the small and large end and length of taper are
Taper turning by a taper attachment:
 The principle of turning taper by a taper attachment is to guide the tool in a straight path
set at an angle to the axis of rotation of the workpiece, while the work is being revolved
between centres or by a chuck aligned to the lathe axis. Consists essentially of a bracket or
frame which is attached to the rear end of the lathe bed and supports a guide bar pivoted at
the centre.
 The bar having graduations in degrees may be swivelled on either side of the zero
graduation and is set at the desired angle with the lathe axis.

Shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool in which the ram moves the cutting tool backwards
and forwards in a straight line. The basic components of shaper are shown in Fig. It is intended
primarily to produce flat surfaces. These surfaces may be horizontal, vertical, or inclined. In
general, the shaper can produce any surface composed of straight-line elements. The principal of
shaping operation is shown in Fig. Modern shapers can also generate contoured surface as shown in
Fig. A shaper is used to generate flat (plane) surfaces by means of a single point cutting tool similar
to a lathe tool.


A single point cutting tool is held in the tool holder, which is mounted on the ram. The workpiece is
rigidly held in a vice or clamped directly on the table. The table may be supported at the outer end.
The ram reciprocates and thus cutting tool held in tool holder moves forward and backward over the
workpiece. In a standard shaper, cutting of material takes place during the forward stroke of the
ram. The backward stroke remains idle and no cutting takes place during this stroke. The feed is
given to the workpiece and depth of cut is adjusted by moving the tool downward towards the
workpiece. The time taken during the idle stroke is less as compared to forward cutting stroke and
this is obtained by quick return mechanism. The cutting action and functioning of clapper box is
shown in Fig. during forward and return stroke.

Fig: Working Principle of Shaping Machine

Fig: Surface Produced by Shaper


Fig: Cutting action and functioning of clapper Box

Shapers are classified under the following headings:
(1) According to the type of mechanism used for giving reciprocating motion to the ram
(a) Crank type
(b) Geared type
(c) Hydraulic type
(2) According to the type of design of the table:
(a) Standard shaper
(b) Universal shaper
(3) According to the position and travel of ram:
(a) Horizontal type
(b) Vertical type
(c) Traveling head type
(4) According to the type of cutting stroke:
(a) Push type
(b) Draw type.
A brief description these shapers is given below-
Crank Shaper
This is the most common type of shaper. It employs a crank mechanism to change circular motion
of a large gear called “bull gear” incorporated in the machine to reciprocating motion of the ram.
The bull gear receives power either from an individual motor or from an overhead line shaft if it is a
belt-driven shaper.
Geared Shaper
Geared shaper uses rack and pinion arrangement to obtain reciprocating motion of the ram.
Presently this type of shaper is not very widely used.
Hydraulic Shaper
In hydraulic shaper, reciprocating motion of the ram is obtained by hydraulic power. For generation
of hydraulic power, oil under high pressure is pumped into the operating cylinder fitted with piston.
The piston end is connected to the ram through piston rod. The high pressure oil causes the piston
to reciprocate and this reciprocating motion is transferred to the ram of shaper. The important


advantage of this type of shaper is that the cutting speed and force of the ram drive are constant
from the very beginning to the end of the cut.
Standard Shaper
In standard shaper, the table has only two movements, horizontal and vertical, to give the fee
Universal Shaper
A universal shaper is mostly used in tool room work. In this type of shaper, in addition to the
horizontal and vertical movements, the table can be swiveled about an axis parallel to the ram
ways, and the upper portion of the table can be tilted about a second horizontal axis perpendicular
to the first axis
Horizontal Shaper
In this type of shaper, the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a horizontal axis.
Vertical Shaper
In vertical shaper, the ram reciprocates in a vertical axis. These shapers are mainly used for
machining keyways, slots or grooves, and internal surfaces.
Travelling Head Shaper
In this type of shaper, the ram while it reciprocates, also moves crosswise to give the required feed.
Push Type Shaper
This is the most general type of shaper used in common practice, in which the metal is removed
when the ram moves away from the column, i.e. pushes the work.
Draw Type Shaper
In this type of shaper, the cutting of metal takes place when the ram moves towards the column of
the machine, i.e. draws the work towards the machine. The tool is set in a reversed direction to that
of a standard shaper.


the parts of a standard shaper. The main parts are given as under.
1. Base
2. Column
3. Cross-rail
4. Saddle
5. Table
6. Ram
7. Tool head
8. Clapper box
9. Apron clamping bolt
10. Down feed hand wheel
11. Swivel base degree graduations
12. Position of stroke adjustment hand wheel
13. Ram block locking handle
14. Driving pulley
15. Feed disc
16. Pawl mechanism
17. Elevating screw


Some of important parts are discussed as under.

It is rigid and heavy cast iron body to resist vibration and takes up high compressive load. It
supports all other parts of the machine, which are mounted over it. The base may be rigidly bolted
to the floor of the shop or on the bench according to the size of the machine.
The column is a box shaped casting mounted upon the base. It houses the ram-driving mechanism.
Two accurately machined guide ways are provided on the top of the column on which the ram
Cross rail
Cross rail of shaper has two parallel guide ways on its top in the vertical plane that is perpendicular
to the rai1 axis. It is mounted on the front vertical guide ways of the column. It consists mechanism
for raising and lowering the table to accommodate different sizes of jobs by rotating an elevating
screw which causes the cross rail to slide up and down on the vertical face of the column. A
horizontal cross feed screw is fitted within the cross rail and parallel to the top guide ways of the
cross rail. This screw actuates the table to move in a crosswise direction.
The saddle is located on the cross rail and holds the table on its top. Crosswise movement of the
saddle by rotation the cross feed screw by hand or power causes the table to move sideways.
The table is a box like casting having T -slots both on the top and sides for clamping the work. It is
bolted to the saddle and receives crosswise and vertical movements from the saddle and cross rail.
It is the reciprocating part of the shaper, which reciprocates on the guide ways provided above the
column. Ram is connected to the reciprocating mechanism contained within the column.
Tool head
The tool head of a shaper performs the following functions-
(1) It holds the tool rigidly,


(2) It provides vertical and angular feed movement of the tool, and
(3) It allows the tool to have an automatic relief during its return stroke.

The various parts of tool head of shaper are apron clamping bolt, clapper box, tool post, down feed,
screw micrometer dial, down feed screw, vertical slide, apron washer, apron swivel pin, and swivel
base. By rotating the down feed screw handle, the vertical slide carrying the tool gives down feed or
angular feed movement while machining vertical or angular surface. The amount of feed or depth of
cut may be adjusted by a micrometer dial on the top of the down feed screw. Apron consisting of
clapper box, clapper block and tool post is clamped upon the vertical slide by a screw. The two
vertical walls on the apron called clapper box houses the clapper block, which is connected to it by
means of a hinge pin. The tool post is mounted upon the clapper block. On the forward cutting
stroke the clapper block fits securely to the clapper box to make a rigid tool support. On the return
stroke a slight frictional drag of the tool on the work lifts the block out of the clapper box a
sufficient amount preventing the tool cutting edge from dragging and consequent wear. The work
surface is also prevented from any damage due to dragging

A shaper is a machine tool primarily designed to generate a flat surface by a single point cutting
tool. Besides this, it may also be used to perform many other operations. The different operations,
which a shaper can perform, are as follows:
1. Machining horizontal surface
2. Machining vertical surface
3. Machining angular surface
4. Slot cutting
5. Key ways cutting
6. Machining irregular surface
7. Machining splines and cutting gears



A milling machine is a machine tool that removes metal as the work is fed against a rotating
multipoint cutter. The milling cutter rotates at high speed and it removes metal at a very fast rate
with the help of multiple cutting edges. One or more number of cutters can be mounted
simultaneously on the arbor of milling machine. This is the reason that a milling machine finds
wide application in production work. Milling machine is used for machining flat surfaces,
contoured surfaces, surfaces of revolution, external and internal threads, and helical surfaces of
various cross-sections. Typical components produced by a milling are given in Fig. In many
applications, due to its higher production rate and accuracy, milling machine has even replaced
shapers and slotters.

In milling machine, the metal is cut by means of a rotating cutter having multiple cutting edges. For
cutting operation, the workpiece is fed against the rotary cutter. As the workpiece moves against the


cutting edges of milling cutter, metal is removed in form chips of trochoid shape. Machined surface
is formed in one or more passes of the work. The work to be machined is held in a vice, a rotary
table, a three jaw chuck, an index head, between centers, in a special fixture or bolted to machine
table. The rotatory speed of the cutting tool and the feed rate of the workpiece depend upon the type
of material being machined

There are two distinct methods of milling classified as follows:
1. Up-milling or conventional milling, and
2. Down milling or climb milling.
UP-Milling or Conventional Milling Procedure
In the up-milling or conventional milling, as shown in Fig.the metal is removed in form of small
chips by a cutter rotating against the direction of travel of the workpiece. In this type of milling, the
chip thickness is minimum at the start of the cut and maximum at the end of cut. As a result the
cutting force also varies from zero to the maximum value per tooth movement of the milling cutter.
The major disadvantages of up-milling process are the tendency of cutting force to lift the work
from the fixtures and poor surface finish obtained. But being a safer process, it is commonly used
method of milling.

Down-Milling or Climb Milling

Down milling is shown in Fig. It is also known as climb milling. In this method, the metal is
removed by a cutter rotating in the same direction of feed of the workpiece. The effect of this is that
the teeth cut downward instead of upwards. Chip thickness is maximum at the start of the cut and
minimum in the end. In this method, it is claimed that there is less friction involved and
consequently less heat is generated on the contact surface of the cutter and workpiece. Climb
milling can be used advantageously on many kinds of work to increase the number of pieces per
sharpening and to produce a better finish. With climb milling, saws cut long thin slots more
satisfactorily than with standard milling. Another advantage is that slightly lower power
consumption is obtainable by climb milling, since there is no need to drive the table against the



Types of milling cutters along with workpieces. Milling cutters are made in various forms to
perform certain classes of work, and they may be classified as:
(1) Plain milling cutters,
(2) Side milling cutters,
(3) Face milling cutter,
(4) Angle milling cutters,
(5) End milling cutter,
(6) Fly cutter,
(7) T-slot milling cutter,
(8) Formed cutters,
(9) Metal slitting saw,
Milling cutters may have teeth on the periphery or ends only, or on both the periphery and ends.
Peripheral teeth may be straight or parallel to the cutter axis, or they may be helical, sometimes
referred as spiral teeth.


Milling machine rotates the cutter mounted on the arbor of the machine and at the same time
automatically feed the work in the required direction. The milling machine may be classified in
several forms, but the choice of any particular machine is determined primarily by the size of the
workpiece to be undertaken and operations to be performed. With the above function or
requirement in mind, milling machines are made in a variety of types and sizes. According to
general design, the distinctive types of milling machines are:
1. Column and knee type milling machines
(a) Hand milling machine
(b) Horizontal milling machine
(c) Universal milling machine
(d) Vertical milling machine


2. Planer milling machine
3. Fixed-bed type milling machine
(a) Simplex milling machine.
(b) Duplex milling machine.
(c) Triplex milling machine.
4. Machining center machines
5. Special types of milling machines
(a) Rotary table milling machine.
(b) Planetary milling machine.
(c) Profiling machine.
(d) Duplicating machine.
(e) Pantograph milling machine.
(f) Continuous milling machine.
(g) Drum milling machine
(h) Profiling and tracer controlled milling machine
Some important types of milling machines are discussed as under.


Column and Knee Type Milling Machine
A simple column and knee type milling machine. It is the most commonly used milling machine
used for general shop work. In this type of milling machine the table

is mounted on the knee casting which in turn is mounted on the vertical slides of the main column.
The knee is vertically adjustable on the column so that the table can be moved up and down to
accommodate work of various heights. The column and knee type milling machines are classified
on the basis of various methods of supplying power to the table, different movements of the table
and different axis of rotation of the main spindle. Column and knee type milling machine comprises
of the following important parts-
1. Base
2. Column
3. Saddle
4. Table
5. Elevating screw
6. Knee
7. Knee elevating handle
8. Cross feed handle
9. Front brace
10. Arbor support
11. Arbor
12. Overhanging arm
13. Cutter
14. Cone pulley
15. Telescopic feed shaft.
The principal parts of a column and knee type milling machine are described as under.
It is a foundation member for all the other parts, which rest upon it. It carries the column at its one
end. In some machines, the base is hollow and serves as a reservoir for cutting fluid.


The column is the main supporting member mounted vertically on the base. It is box shaped,
heavily ribbed inside and houses all the driving mechanism for the spindle and table feed. The front
vertical face of the column is accurately machined and is provided with dovetail guide way for
supporting the knee.
The knee is a rigid grey iron casting which slides up and down on the vertical ways of the column
face. An elevating screw mounted on the base is used to adjust the height of the knee and it also
supports the knee. The knee houses the feed mechanism of the table, and different controls to
operate it.
The saddle is placed on the top of the knee and it slides on guide ways set exactly at 90° to the
column face. The top of the saddle provides guide-ways for the table.
The table rests on ways on the saddle and travels longitudinally. A lead screw under the table
engages a nut on the saddle to move the table horizontally by hand or power. In universal machines,
the table may also be swiveled horizontally. For this purpose the table is mounted on a circular
base. The top of the table is accurately finished and T -slots are provided for clamping the work and
other fixtures on it

Overhanging arm
It is mounted on the top of the column, which extends beyond the column face and serves as a
bearing support for the other end of the arbor.

Front brace
It is an extra support, which is fitted between the knee and the over-arm to ensure further rigidity to
the arbor and the knee.
It is situated in the upper part of the column and receives power from the motor through belts,
gears. and clutches and transmit it to the arbor.
It is like an extension of the machine spindle on which milling cutters are securely mounted and
rotated. The arbors are made with taper shanks for proper alignment with the machine spindles
having taper holes at their nose. The draw bolt is used for managing for locking the arbor with the
spindle and the whole assembly. The arbor assembly consists of the following components.
1. Arbor
2. Spindle
3. Spacing collars
4. Bearing bush
5. Cutter
6. Draw bolt
7. Lock nut
8. Key block


9. Set screw
Planer Type Milling Machine
It is a heavy duty milling machine. It resembles a planer and like a planning machine it has a cross
rail capable of being raised or lowered carrying the cutters, their heads, and the saddles, all
supported by rigid uprights. There may be a number of independent spindles carrying cutters on the
rail as two heads on the uprights. The use of the machine is limited to production work only and is
considered ultimate in metal re-moving capacity.
Special Type Milling Machines
Milling machines of non-conventional design have been developed to suit special purposes. The
features that they have in common are the spindle for rotating the cutter and provision for moving
the tool or the work in different directions.


Unlike a lathe, a milling cutter does not give a continuous cut, but begins with a sliding motion
between the cutter and the work. Then follows a crushing movement, and then a cutting operation
by which the chip is removed. Many different kinds of operations can be performed on a milling
machine but a few of the more common operations will now be explained. These are:
Plain milling or slab milling
The plain and slab milling operation. It is a method of producing a plain, flat, horizontal surface
parallel to the axis of rotation of the cutter.
Face milling
Illustrates the face milling operation. It is a method of producing a flat surface at right angles to the
axis of the cutter.
Side milling
Illustrates the side milling operation. It is the operation of production of a flat vertical surface on the
side of a work-piece by using a side milling cutter.
Angular milling
Illustrates angular milling operation. It is a method of producing a flat surface making an angle to
the axis of the cutter.
Illustrates the gang milling operation. It is a method of milling by means of two or more cutters
simultaneously having same or different diameters mounted on the arbor of the milling machine.
Form milling
Illustrates the form milling operation. It is, a method of producing a surface having an irregular
End milling
Illustrates end milling operation. It is a method of milling slots, flat surfaces, and profiles by end
Profile milling
Illustrates profile milling operation. It is the operation of reproduction of an outline of a template or
complex shape of a master die on a workpiece.
Saw milling


Illustrates saw milling operation. It is a method of producing deep slots and cutting materials into
the required length by slitting saws.
T-slot milling
Illustrates T-slot milling operation.
Keyway milling
Illustrates keyway milling operation.
Gear cutting milling
Illustrates gear cutting milling operation.
Helical milling
Illustrates helical milling operation.
Flute milling
It is a method of grooving or cutting of flutes on drills, reamers, taps, etc,


Straddle milling
It is a method of milling two sides of a piece of work by employing two side-milling cutters at the
same time.

Thread milling
It is a method of milling threads on dies, screws, worms, etc. both internally and externally. As an
alternative to the screw cutting in a lathe, this method is being more extensively introduced now a
day in modern machine shops.
Grinding Machines

Grinding Machines are also regarded as machine tools. A distinguishing feature of grinding
machines is the rotating abrasive tool. Grinding machine is employed to obtain high accuracy along
with very high class of surface finish on the workpiece. However, advent of new generation of
grinding wheels and grinding machines, characterised by their rigidity, power and speed enables
one to go for high efficiency deep grinding (often called as abrasive milling) of not only hardened
material but also ductile materials. Conventional grinding machines can be broadly classified as:
(a) Surface grinding machine
(b) Cylindrical grinding machine
(c) Internal grinding machine
(d) Tool and cutter grinding machine

Surface grinding machine:

This machine may be similar to a milling machine used mainly to grind flat surface. However,
some types of surface grinders are also capable of producing contour surface with formed grinding
wheel. Basically there are four different types of surface grinding machines characterised by the
movement of their tables and the orientation of grinding wheel spindles as
• Horizontal spindle and reciprocating table
• Vertical spindle and reciprocating table
• Horizontal spindle and rotary table
• Vertical spindle and rotary table

Horizontal spindle reciprocating table grinder


this machine with various motions required for grinding action. A disc type grinding wheel
performs the grinding action with its peripheral surface. Both traverse and plunge grinding can be
carried out in this machine as shown in Fig

Vertical spindle reciprocating table grinder

This grinding machine with all working motions is shown in Fig. The grinding operation is similar to
that of face milling on a vertical milling machine. In this machine a cup shaped wheel grinds the
workpiece over its full width using end face of the wheel as shown in Fig. This brings more grits in
action at the same time and consequently a higher material removal rate may be attained than for
grinding with a peripheral wheel


Horizontal spindle rotary table grinder
Surface grinding in this machine is shown in Fig. In principle the operation is same as that for
facing on the lathe. This machine has a limitation in accommodation of workpiece and therefore
does not have wide spread use. However, by swivelling the worktable, concave or convex or
tapered surface can be produced on individual part as illustrated in Fig.


Vertical spindle rotary table grinder
The principle of grinding in this machine is shown in Fig.The machine is mostly suitable for small
workpieces in large quantities. This primarily production type machine often uses two or more
grinding heads thus enabling both roughing and finishing in one rotation of the work table

Creep feed grinding machine:

This machine enables single pass grinding of a surface with a larger down feed but slower table
speed than that adopted for multi-pass conventional surface grinding. This machine is characterised
by high stiffness, high spindle power, recirculating ball screw drive for table movement and
adequate supply of grinding fluid. A further development in this field is the creep feed grinding
centre which carries more than one wheel with provision of automatic wheel changing. A number
of operations can be performed on the workpiece. It is implied that such machines, in the view of
their size and complexity, are automated through CNC.


High efficiency deep grinding machine:
The concept of single pass deep grinding at a table speed much higher than what is possible in a
creep feed grinder has been technically realized in this machine. This has been made possible
mainly through significant increase of wheel speed in this new generation grinding machine

Cylindrical grinding machine

This machine is used to produce external cylindrical surface. The surfaces may be straight, tapered,
steps or profiled. Broadly there are three different types of cylindrical grinding machine as follows:
1. Plain centre type cylindrical grinder
2. Universal cylindrical surface grinder
3. Centreless cylindrical surface grinder
Plain centre type cylindrical grinder
this machine and various motions required for grinding action. The machine is similar to a centre
lathe in many respects. The workpiece is held between head stock and tailstock centres. A disc type
grinding wheel performs the grinding action with its peripheral surface. Both traverse and plunge
grinding can be carried out in this machine as shown in Fig.

Universal cylindrical surface grinder

Universal cylindrical grinder is similar to a plain cylindrical one except that it is more versatile. In
addition to small worktable swivel, this machine provides large swivel of head stock, wheel head
slide and wheel head mount on the wheel head slide.


This allows grinding of any taper on the workpiece. Universal grinder is also equipped with an
additional head for internal grinding. Schematic illustration of important features of this machine is
shown in Fig
Special application of cylindrical grinder
Principle of cylindrical grinding is being used for thread grinding with specially formed wheel that
matches the thread profile. A single ribbed wheel or a multi ribbed wheel can be used as shown in

Roll grinding is a specific case of cylindrical grinding wherein large workpieces such as shafts, spindles
and rolls are ground.
External centreless grinder
This grinding machine is a production machine in which out side diameter of the workpiece is
ground. The workpiece is not held between centres but by a work support blade. It is rotated by
means of a regulating wheel and ground by the grinding wheel.
In through-feed centreless grinding, the regulating wheel revolving at a much lower surface speed
than grinding wheel controls the rotation and longitudinal motion of the workpiece. The regulating
wheel is kept slightly inclined to the axis of the grinding wheel and the workpiece is fed
longitudinally as shown


The grinding wheel or the regulating wheel or both require to be correctly profiled to get the
required taper on the workpiece
Tool post grinder
A self powered grinding wheel is mounted on the tool post or compound rest to provide the
grinding action in a lathe. Rotation to the workpiece is provided by the lathe spindle. The lathe
carriage is used to reciprocate the wheel head

Internal grinding machine

This machine is used to produce internal cylindrical surface. The surface may be straight, tapered,
grooved or profiled.
Broadly there are three different types of internal grinding machine as follows:
1. Chucking type internal grinder
2. Planetary internal grinder
3. Centreless internal grinder

Chucking type internal grinder

This machine and various motions required for grinding action. The workpiece is usually mounted
in a chuck. A magnetic face plate can also be used. A small grinding wheel performs the necessary
grinding with its peripheral surface. Both transverse and plunge grinding can be carried out in this
machine as shown in Fig.


Planetary internal grinder
Planetary internal grinder is used where the workpiece is of irregular shape and can not be rotated
conveniently as shown in Fig. this machine the workpiece does not rotate. Instead, the grinding wheel
orbits the axis of the hole in the workpiece.

Centreless internal grinder

This machine is used for grinding cylindrical and tapered holes in cylindrical parts (e.g. cylindrical
liners, various bushings etc). The workpiece is rotated between supporting roll, pressure roll and
regulating wheel and is ground by the grinding wheel as illustrated in Fig.


Tool and cutter grinder machine
Tool grinding may be divided into two subgroups: tool manufacturing and tool resharpening. There
are many types of tool and cutter grinding machine to meet these requirements. Simple single point
tools are occasionally sharpened by hand on bench or pedestal grinder. However, tools and cutters
with complex geometry like milling cutter, drills, reamers and hobs require sophisticated grinding
machine commonly known as universal tool and cutter grinder. Present trend is to use tool and
cutter grinder equipped with CNC to grind tool angles, concentricity, cutting edges and dimensional
size with high precision.


Drilling is an operation of making a circular hole by removing a volume of metal from the job by
cutting tool called drill. A drill is a rotary end-cutting tool with one or more cutting lips and usually
one or more flutes for the passage of chips and the admission of cutting fluid. A drilling machine is
a machine tool designed for drilling holes in metals. It is one of the most important and versatile
machine tools in a workshop. Besides drilling round holes, many other operations can also be


performed on the drilling machine such as counter- boring, Counter sinking, honing, reaming,
lapping, sanding etc.


Workpiece. Different parts of a drilling machine are shown in Fig. and are discussed below:
(i) The head containing electric motor, V-pulleys and V-belt which transmit rotary motion to the
drill spindle at a number of speeds.
(ii) Spindle is made up of alloy steel. It rotates as well as moves up and down in a sleeve. A pinion
engages a rack fixed onto the sleeve to provide vertical up and down motion of the spindle and
hence the drill so that the same can be fed into the workpiece or withdrawn from it while drilling.
Spindle speed or the drill speed is changed with the help of V-belt and V-step-pulleys. Larger
drilling machines are having gear boxes for the said purpose.
(iii) Drill chuck is held at the end of the drill spindle and in turn it holds the drill bit.
(iv) Adjustable work piece table is supported on the column of the drilling machine. It can be
moved both vertically and horizontally. Tables are generally having slots so that the vise or the
workpiece can be securely held on it.
(v) Base table is a heavy casting and it supports the drill press structure. The base supports the
column, which in turn, supports the table, head etc.
(vi) Column is a vertical round or box section which rests on the base and supports the head and the
table. The round column may have rack teeth cut on it so that the table can be raised or lowered
depending upon the workpiece requirements.

This machine consists of following parts

1. Base
2. Pillar
3. Main drive
4. Drill spind
5. Feed handle
6. Work table


Fig: Construction of drilling machine


Drilling machines are classified on the basis of their constructional features, or the type
of work they can handle. The various types of drilling machines are:
(1) Portable drilling machine
(2) Sensitive drilling machine
(a) Bench mounting
(b) Floor mounting
(3) Upright drilling machine
(a) Round column section
(b) Box column section machine
(4) Radial drilling machine
(a) Plain
(b) Semi universal
(c) Universal
(5) Gang drilling machine
(6) Multiple spindle drilling machine
(7) Automatic drilling machine
(8) Deep hole drilling machine
(a) Vertical
(b) Horizontal

Few commonly used drilling machines are described as under.

Portable Drilling Machine


A portable drilling machine is a small compact unit and used for drilling holes in worpieces in any
position, which cannot be drilled in a standard drilling machine. It may be used for drilling small
diameter holes in large castings or weldments at that place itself where they are lying. Portable
drilling machines are fitted with small electric motors, which may be driven by both A.C. and D.C.
power supply. These drilling machines operate at fairly high speeds and accommodate drills up to
12 mm in diameter.

Sensitive Drilling Machine

It is a small machine used for drilling small holes in light jobs. In this drilling machine, the
workpiece is mounted on the table and drill is fed into the work by purely hand control. High
rotating speed of the drill and hand feed are the major features of sensitive drilling machine. As the
operator senses the drilling action in the workpiece, at any instant, it is called sensitive drilling
machine. A sensitive drilling machine consists of a horizontal table, a vertical column, a head
supporting the motor and driving mechanism, and a vertical spindle. Drills of diameter from 1.5 to
15.5 mm can be rotated in the spindle of sensitive drilling machine. Depending on the mounting of
base of the machine, it may be classified into following types:
1. Bench mounted drilling machine, and
2. Floor mounted drilling machine

Upright Drilling Machine

The upright drilling machine is larger and heavier than a sensitive drilling machine. It is designed
for handling medium sized workpieces and is supplied with power feed arrangement. In this
machine a large number of spindle speeds and feeds may be available for drilling different types of
work. Upright drilling machines are available in various sizes and with various drilling capacities
(ranging up to 75 mm diameter drills). The table of the machine also has different types of
adjustments. Based on the construction, there are two general types of upright drilling machine:
(1) Round column section or pillar drilling machine.
(2) Box column section.
The round column section upright drilling machine consists of a round column where as the upright
drilling machine has box column section. The other constructional features of both are same. Box
column machines possess more machine strength and rigidity as compared to those having round
section column.

Radial Drilling Machine

The radial drilling machine consists of a heavy, round vertical column supporting a horizontal arm
that carries the drill head. Arm can be raised or lowered on the column and can also be swung
around to any position over the work and can be locked in any position. The drill head containing
mechanism for rotating and clamped at any desired position. These adjustments of arm and drilling
head permit the operator to locate the drill quickly over any point on the work. The table of radial
drilling machine may also be rotated through 360 deg. The maximum size of hole that the machine
can drill is not more than 50 mm. Powerful drive motors are geared directly into the head of the
machine and a wide range of power feeds are available as well as sensitive and geared manual
feeds. The radial drilling machine is used primarily for drilling medium to large and heavy


workpieces. Depending on the different movements of horizontal arm, table and drill head, the
upright drilling machine may be classified into following types-
1. Plain radial drilling machine
2. Semi universal drilling machine, and
3. Universal drilling machine.

In a plain radial drilling machine, provisions are made for following three movements -
1. Vertical movement of the arm on the column,
2. Horizontal movement of the drill head along the arm, and
3. Circular movement of the arm in horizontal plane about the vertical column.
In a semi universal drilling machine, in addition to the above three movements, the drill head can be
swung about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the arm. In universal machine, an additional rotatory
movement of the arm holding the drill head on a horizontal axis is also provided for enabling it to
drill on a job at any angle.

Gang Drilling Machine

In gang drilling machine, a number of single spindle drilling machine columns are placed side by
side on a common base and have a common worktable. A series of operation may be performed on
the job by shifting the work from one position to the other on the worktable. This type of machine is
mainly used for production work.

Multiple-Spindle Drilling Machine

The multiple-spindle drilling machine is used to drill a number of holes in a job simultaneously and
to reproduce the same pattern of holes in a number of identical pieces in a mass production work.
This machine has several spindles and all the spindles holding drills are fed into the work
simultaneously. Feeding motion is usually obtained by raising the worktable.


A drill is a multi point cutting tool used to produce or enlarge a hole in the workpiece. It usually
consists of two cutting edges set an angle with the axis. Broadly there are three types of drills:
1. Flat drill,
2. Straight-fluted drill, and
3. Twist drill
Flat drill is usually made from a piece of round steel which is forged to shape and ground to size,
then hardened and tempered. The cutting angle is usually 90 deg. and the relief or clearance at the
cutting edge is 3 to 8 deg. The disadvantage of this type of drill is that each time the drill is ground
the diameter is reduced. Twist drill is the most common type of drill in use today. The various types
of twist drills (parallel shank type and Morse taper shank type) are shown in Fig

Number sizes
In metric system, the drill is generally manufactured from 0.2 to 100 mm. In British system the
drills sizes range from No. 1 to No. 80. Number 80 is the smallest having diameter equal to 0.0135
inch and the number 1 is the largest having diameter equal to 0.228 inch. Number 1 to number 60 is
the standard sets of drills. The numbers 61 to 80 sizes drills are not so commonly used. The
diameter of drills increases in steps of approximately by 0.002 inch.

Letter sizes
The drill sizes range from A to Z, A being the smallest having diameter equal to 0.234 inch and Z
being the largest having diameter equal to 0.413 inch, increasing in steps of approximately O.010
inch fractional sizes: The drill sizes range from 1/64" inch to 5 inch in steps of 1/64 inches up to
1.75 inches, then the steps gradually increase. The drill sizes range from A to Z, A being the
smallest having diameter equal to 0.234 inch and Z being the largest having diameter equal to 0.413
inch, increasing in steps of approximately O.010 inch fractional sizes: The drill sizes range from
1/64" inch to 5 inch in steps of 1/64 inches up to 1.75 inches, then the steps gradually increase. The


drill is generally removed by tapping a wedge shaped drift into the slot in the drilling machine
spindle as shown in Fig.

Twist Drill Geometry

Twist drill geometry and its nomenclature are shown in Fig. A twist drill has three principal parts:
(i) Drill point or dead center
(ii) Body
(iii) Shank.

Drill axis is the longitudinal centre line.

Drill point is the sharpened end of the drill body consisting of all that part which is shaped to
produce lips, faces and chisel edge.
Lip or cutting edge is the edge formed by the intersection of the flank and face
Lip length is the minimum distance between the outer corner and the chisel-edge corner of the lip.
Face is that portion of the flute surface adjacent to the lip on which the chip impinges as it is cut
from the work.
Chisel edge is the edge formed by the intersection of the flanks.
Flank is that surface on a drill point which extends behind the lip to the following flute.
Flutes are the grooves in the body of the drill, which provide lips, allow the removal of chips, and
permit cutting fluid to reach the lips.
Flute length is the axial length from the extreme end of the point to the termination of the flutes at
the shank end of the body.
Body is that portion of the drill nomenclature, which extends from the extreme cutting end to the
beginning of the shank.
Shank is that portion of the drill by which it is held and driven,
Heel is the edge formed by the intersection of the flute surface and the body clearance.
Body clearance is that portion of the body surface reduced in diameter to provide diametric
Core or web is the central portion of the drill situated between the roots of the flutes and extending
from the point end towards the shank; the point end of the core forms the chisel edge.
Lands are the cylindrically ground surfaces on the leading edges of the drill flutes. The width of the
land is measured at right angles to the flute.


Recess is the portion of the drill body between the flutes and the shank provided so as to facilitate
the grinding of the body. Parallel shank drills of small diameter are not usually provided with a
Outer corner is the corner formed by the intersection of the lip and the leading edge of the land.
Chisel edge comer is the corner formed by the intersection of a lip and the chisel edge.
Drill diameter is the measurement across the cylindrical lands at the outer corners of the drill. .
Lead of helix is the distance measured parallel to the drill axis between corresponding points on the
leading edge of a flute in one complete turn of the flute.
Helix angle is the angle between the leading edge of the land and the drill axis.
Rake angle is the angle between the face and a line parallel to the drill axis. It is bigger at the face
edges and decreases towards the center of the drill to nearly 0°. The result is that the formation of
chips grows more un-favorable towards the centre.
Lip clearance angle is the angle formed by the flank and a plane at right angles to the drill axis; the
angle is normally measured at the periphery of the drill. To make sure that the main cutting edges
can enter into the material, the clearance faces slope backwards in a curve. The clearance angle is
measured at the face edge, must amount to 5° up to 8°.
Point angle is the included angle of the cone formed by the lips


A drill machine is versatile machine tool. A number of operations can be performed on
it. Some of the operations that can be performed on drilling machines are:
1. Drilling
2. Reaming
3. Boring
4. Counter boring
5. Countersinking
6. Spot facing
7. Tapping
8. Lapping
9. Grinding
10. Trepanning.
The operations that are commonly performed on drilling machines are drilling, reaming,
lapping, boring, counter-boring, counter-sinking, spot facing, and tapping. These operations

This is the operation of making a circular hole by removing a volume of metal from the job by a
rotating cutting tool called drill as shown in Fig. Drilling removes solid metal from the job to
produce a circular hole. Before drilling, the hole is located by drawing two lines at right angle and a
center punch is used to make an indentation for the drill point at the center to help the drill
in getting started. A suitable drill is held in the drill machine and the drill machine is adjusted to
operate at the correct cutting speed. The drill machine is started and the drill starts rotating. Cutting
fluid is made to flow liberally and the cut is started. The rotating drill is made to feed
Into the job. The hole, depending upon its length, may be drilled in one or more steps. After the
drilling operation is complete, the drill is removed from the hole and the power

This is the operation of sizing and finishing a hole already made by a drill. Reaming is performed
by means of a cutting tool called reamer as shown in Fig. Reaming operation serves to make the
hole smooth, straight and accurate in diameter. Reaming operation is performed by means of a
multitooth tool called reamer. Reamer possesses several cutting edges on outer periphery and may
be classified as solid reamer and adjustable reamer.


Shows the boring operation where enlarging a hole by means of adjustable cutting tools with only
one cutting edge is accomplished. A boring tool is employed for this purpose

Counter boring operation is shown in Fig. It is the operation of enlarging the end of a hole
cylindrically, as for the recess for a counter-sunk rivet. The tool used is known as counter-bore.

Counter-sinking operation is shown in Fig. This is the operation of making a cone shaped
enlargement of the end of a hole, as for the recess for a flat head screw. This is done for providing a
seat for counter sunk heads of the screws so that the latter may flush with the main surface of the

This is the operation of sizing and finishing a hole by removing very small amounts of material by
means of an abrasive. The abrasive material is kept in contact with the sides of a hole that is to be
lapped, by the use of a lapping tool.


This is the operation of removing enough material to provide a flat surface around a hole
to accommodate the head of a bolt or a nut. A spot-facing tool is very nearly similar to the
It is the operation of cutting internal threads by using a tool called a tap. A tap is similar to a bolt
with accurate threads cut on it. To perform the tapping operation, a tap is screwed into the hole by
hand or by machine. The tap removes metal and cuts internal threads, which will fit into external
threads of the same size. For all materials except cast iron, a little lubricate oil is applied to improve
the action. The tap is not turned continuously, but after every half turn, it should be

reversed slightly to clear the threads. Tapping operation is shown in Fig. The geometry
and nomenclature of a tap is given in Fig.

Core drilling
Core drilling operation is shown in Fig. It is a main operation, which is performed on radial drilling
machine for producing a circular hole, which is deep in the solid metal by means of revolving tool
called drill.


Different parameters are being considered for different types of drilling machines to determine their
size. The size of a portable drilling machine is decided by the maximum diameter of the drill that it
can hold. The sensitive and upright drilling machines are specified by the diameter of the largest
workpiece which can be centered under the drill machine spindle. A radial drilling machine is
specified by the length of the arm and the diameter of the column. To specify a drilling machine
completely, following other parameters may also be needed:
1. Table diameter
2. Number of spindle speeds and feeds available
3. Maximum spindle travel
4. Morse taper number of the drill spindle
5. Power input
6. Net weight of the machine
7. Floor space required, etc.

The cutting speed in a drilling operation refers to the peripheral speed of a point on the surface of
the drill in contact with the work. It is usually expressed in meters/min. The cutting speed (Cs) may
be calculated as: Cs = ((22/7) × D × N)/1000 Where, D is the diameter of the drill in mm and N is
the rpm of the drill spindle.
The feed of a drill is the distance the drill moves into the job at each revolution of the spindle. It is
expressed in millimeter. The feed may also be expressed as feed per minute. The feed per minute
may be defined as the axial distance moved by the drill into the work per minute. The feed per
minute may be calculated as:
F = Fr × N
Where, F = Feed per minute in mm.
Fr = Feed per revolution in mm.
N = R.P.M. of the drill.


Computer-controlled lathes (CNC lathes)
Computer-controlled (numerically controlled, NC, CNC) lathes incorporate a computer system
to control the movements of machine components by directly inserted coded instructions in the
form of numerical data. A CNC lathe is especially useful in contour turning operations and
precise machining. There are also not chuck but bar modifications. A CNC lathe is essentially a
turret lathe. The major advantage of these machines is in their versatility - to adjust the CNC
lathe for a different part to be machined requires a simple change in the computer program and, in
some cases, a new set of cutting tools.




 Aircraft Materials
 • Knowledge and understanding of the uses, strengths, limitations, and other
characteristics of structural metals is vital to properly construct and maintain any
equipment, especially airframes. • In aircraft maintenance and repair, even a slight
deviation from design specification, or the substitution of inferior materials, may result
in the loss of both lives and equipment. • The selection of the correct material for a
specific repair job demands familiarity with the most common physical properties of
various metals.
 Properties of Metals
 • Of primary concern in aircraft maintenance are such general properties of metals and
their alloys as hardness, malleability, ductility, elasticity, toughness, density, brittleness,
fusibility, conductivity contraction and expansion, and so forth.

 Heat Treatment Terms
 • The following are the heat treatment terms which will be frequently used in the theory of
materials: • Critical Range • Annealing • Normalizing • Heat Treatment •
Hardening • Quenching • Tempering • Carburizing • Case Hardening
 Critical Range
 • Critical Range, applied to steel refers to the range of temperature between 1300⁰ F and
1600⁰ F. • When steel passes through this range, its internal structure is altered.
 Annealing
 • It is the process of heating steel above the critical range, holding it at that temperature
until it is uniformly heated and the grain is refined and then cooling it very slowly •
Other materials do not possess critical ranges, but all are annealed by similar heating
process which permits re-arrangement of internal structure, followed by cooling
 Normalizing
 • It is similar to annealing but the steel is allowed to cool in still air . • It is a method that
is somewhat faster than annealing cooling. Normalizing applies only to steel • It
relieves, softens the metal somewhat less than annealing and at the same time increases
the strength of the steel about 20% above that of annealed metal.
 Heat Treatment
 • It consists of series of operations which have as their aim the improvement of the
physical properties of a material • In the case of steel these operations are hardening
which includes heating and quenching
 Hardening
 • Hardening of steel is done by heating the metal to a temperature above the critical range
and then quenching it. • Aluminum alloys are hardened by heating to a temperature
about 900⁰ F and quenching.


 Quenching
 • Quenching is the immersion of the heated metal in a liquid, usually either oil or water, to
accelerate its cooling.
 Tempering
 • It is the reheating of hardened steel to a temperature below the critical range followed by
cooling as desired. • Tempering is sometimes reffered to as drawing.
 Carburizing
 • It is the addition of carbon to steel by heating it at a high temperature while in contact
with a carbonaceous material in either solid , liquid or gaseous form.
 Case Hardening
 • It consists of carburizing, followed by suitable heat treatment to harden the metal.


 Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0%
and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties. Alloy steels are broken down into
two groups: low-alloy steels and high-alloy steels.

 Advantages:
 Greater harden ability
 Less distortion and cracking
 Greater ductility at high strength
 Greater high temperature strength
 Greater stress relief at given hardness
 Better mach inability at high hardness
 High elastic ratio and endurance strength.
 Disadvantages:
 Tendency toward austenite retention
 Cost
 Special handling
 Temper brittleness in certain grades.
 Purpose of alloying:
 Strengthening of the ferrite
 Improved corrosion resistance
 Better harden ability
 Grain size control
 Greater strength
 Improved mach inability
 Improved ductility
 Improved toughness
 Better wear resistance


 Improved cutting ability
 Improved case hardening properties etc.
 Improved high or low temperature stability.

 Classification of alloy steels according to chemical composition:

Alloys steels are divided into three-component steels, containing one alloying element in
addition to iron and carbon: four component steels, containing two alloying elements,

 Classification of alloy steels according to structural class:

Alloys steels may be classified on the basis of the structure that is obtained when specimens
of small cross section are cooled in air.

They are classified as:

1. Pearlitic
2. Martensitic
3. Austentic
4. Ferritic
5. Carbidic

 Classification of alloy steels according to purpose:

Alloys steels are further classified according to their use.

 Structural Steels
 Tools Steels
 Steels with special physical properties
 Quenched and Tempered Steels
 Corrosion resistant steels

 Stainless steels
 Ultra-High Strength Steels
 Heat Resisting Steels
 Shock resisting Steels
 Magnet Steels


Alloying elements are added to effect changes in the properties of steels. The basis of this section is
to cover some of the different alloying elements added to the basic system of iron and carbon, and


what they do to change the properties or effectiveness of steel.

 Carbon :
 The presence of carbon in iron is necessary to make steel.
 Carbon is essential to the formation of cementite (as well as other carbides), and to the
formation of pearlite, spheroidite, bainite, and iron-carbon martensite, with martensite being
the hardest of the micro-structures, and the structure sought after by knife makers.
 The hardness of steel (or more accurately, the hardenability) is increased by the
addition of more carbon, up to about 0.65 percent.
 Wear resistance can be increased in amounts up to about 1.5 percent. Beyond this
amount, increases of carbon reduce toughness and increase brittleness.
 The steels of interest to knife makers generally contain between 0.5 and 1.5 percent
carbon. They are described as follows:
• Low Carbon: Under 0.4 percent
• Medium Carbon: 0.4 - 0.6 percent
• High Carbon: 0.7 - 1.5 percent
Carbon is the single most important alloying element in steel.

 Manganese
 Manganese slightly increases the strength of ferrite, and also increases the hardness
penetration of steel in the quench by decreasing the critical quenching speed.
 This also makes the steel more stable in the quench.
 Steels with manganese can be quenched in oil rather than water, and therefore are less
susceptible to cracking because of a reduction in the shock of quenching.
 Manganese is present in most commercially made steels.

 Chromium
 As with manganese, chromium has a tendency to increase hardness penetration.
 This element has many interesting effects on steel. When 5 percent chromium or
more is used in conjunction with manganese.
 The critical quenching speed is reduced to the point that the steel becomes air
 Chromium can also increase the toughness of steel, as well as the wear resistance.
 Probably one of the most well known effects of chromium on steel is the tendency
to resist staining and corrosion.
 Steels with 14 percent or more chromium are referred to as stainless steels. A more
accurate term would be stain.

 Silicon :
 Silicon is used as a deoxidizer in the manufacture of steel.


 It slightly increases the strength of ferrite, and when used in conjunction with other
alloys can help increase the toughness and hardness penetration of steel.

 Nickel :
 Nickel increases the strength of ferrite, therefore increasing the strength of the steel.
 It is used in low alloy steels to increase toughness and hardenability.
 Nickel also tends to help reduce distortion and cracking during the quenching phase
of heat treatment

 Molybdenum :
Molybdenum increases the hardness penetration of steel, slows the critical quenching speed, and
increases high temperature tensile strength.
 Vanadium
Vanadium helps control grain growth during heat treatment. By inhibiting
grain growth it helps increase the toughness and strength of the steel.

 Tungsten:
 Used in small amounts, tungsten combines with the free carbides in steel during heat
treatment, to produce high wear resistance with little or no loss of toughness.
 High amounts combined with chromium gives steel a property known as red
hardness. This means that the steel will not lose its working hardness at high
 An example of this would be tools designed to cut hard materials at high speeds,
where the friction between the tool and the material would generate high temperatures.

 Copper :
 The addition of copper in amounts of 0.2 to 0.5 percent primarily improves steels
resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
 It should be noted that with respect to knife steels, copper has a detrimental effect to
surface quality and to hot-working behavior due to migration into the grain boundaries of
the steel.

 Niobium :
 In low carbon alloy steels Niobium lowers the transition temperature and aids in a fine
grain structure.
 Niobium retards tempering and can decrease the hardenability of steel because it forms
very stable carbides. This can mean a reduction in the amount of carbon dissolved into the
austenite during heat treating.
 Boron :
 Boron can significantly increase the hardenability of steel without loss of ductility.
 Its effectiveness is most noticeable at lower carbon levels.


 The addition of boron is usually in very small amounts ranging from 0.0005 to 0.003

 Titanium :
This element, when used in conjunction with Boron, increases the effectiveness of
the Boron in the hardenability of steel

Carbon steel v/s Alloys Steels:

Carbon steel Alloys Steels

 Carbon steel is also known as plain steel  Alloy steel is a type of steel that has presence
 It is an alloy of steel where carbon is the of certain other elements apart from iron and
main constituent and no minimum carbon
percentage of other alloying elements is  Commonly added elements in alloy steel are
mentioned. manganese, silicon, boron, chromium,
 Carbon steel is not stainless steel as it is vanadium and nickel.
classified under alloy steels.  The quantity of these metals in alloy steel is
primarily dependent upon the use of such steel
 As the name implies, carbon content is  Alloy steels are divided into low alloy steels
increased in the steel making it harder and high alloy steels
and stronger through application of heat  When the percentage of added
treatments. elements goes past 8 (in terms of
 addition of carbon makes the steel less weight), the steel is referred to as high
ductile. alloy steel.
 The weldability of carbon steel is low  In cases where added elements remain
and higher carbon content also lowers below 8% by weight of the steel, it is a
the melting point of the alloy. low alloy steel.
 To keep the alloy steel wieldable,
carbon content needs to be reduced.

Heat Treatment of Steels:

 Steels can be heat treated to produce a great variety of microstructures and properties.
Generally, heat treatment uses phase transformation during heating and cooling to change a
microstructure in a solid state.
 In heat treatment, the processing is most often entirely thermal and modifies only
 Thermo mechanical treatments, which modify component shape and structure,
 Thermo chemical treatments which modify surface chemistry and structure are also
important processing approaches which fall into the domain of heat treatment.


 According to cooling rate we can distinguish two main heat treatment
annealing - upon slow cooling rate (in air or with a furnace)
- produces equilibrium structures according to the Fe-Fe3C diagram

Quenching - upon fast cooling (in oil or in water)

- gives non-equilibrium structures
Among annealing there are some important heat treatments processes like:
• normalising
• Spheroid sing
• stress relieving
 The soaking temperature is 30-50°C above A3 or A cm in austenite field range.
 The temperature depends on carbon content.
 After soaking the alloy is cooled in still air.
 This cooling rate and applied temperature produces small grain size.
 The small grain structure improve both toughness and strength (especially yield strength).
 During normalising we use grain refinement which is associated with allotropic
transformation upon heating .
 The process is limited to steels in excess of 0.5% carbon and consists of heating the steel to
temperature about A1 (727°C).
 At this temperature any cold worked ferrite will recrystallise and the iron carbide present in
pearlite will form as spheroids or “ball up”.
 As a result of change of carbides shape the strength and hardness are reduced

Quenching :
 Soaking temperature 30-50°C above A3 or A1, then fast cooling (in water or oil) with
cooling rate exceeding a critical value.
 The critical cooling rate is required to obtain non-equilibrium structure called marten site
 During fast cooling austenite cannot transform to ferrite and pearlite by atomic
 Martensite is supersaturated solid solution of carbon in α-iron (greatly supersaturated ferrite)
with tetragonal body centered structure.
 Martensite is very hard and brittle.
 Martensite has a “needle-like” structure.

 This process is carried out on hardened steels to remove the internal stresses and
brittleness created by the severe rate of cooling.
 The treatment requires heating the steel to a temperature range of between 200 and 600°C
depending upon the final properties desired.


 This heat energy allows carbon atoms to diffuse out of the distorted lattice
 Structure associated with martensite, and thus relieves some of the internal stresses.
 As a result the hardness is reduced and the ductility (which was negligible before
tempering treatment) is increased slightly.
 The combined effect is to “toughen” the material which is now capable of resisting certain
degree of shock loading.
 The higher the tempering temperature the greater the capacity for absorbing shock.

Aircraft Alloy Steels Selection &Applications:

Steel is considered to be an alloy if the maximum alloying element content within the steel
surpasses at least one of the following limits:

 1.65% Manganese
 0.6% Copper
 0.6% Silicon

It may also be considered an alloy steel if there is a prescribed minimum quantity of the
following elements added to produce a specific alloying effect:
 Up to 3.99% Chromium
 Up to 3.99% Aluminum
 Up to 3.99% Boron
and a definite minimum quantity of cobalt, columbium, molybdenum, nickel, titanium, tungsten,
vanadium, zirconium, and etc.

Ferrous Aircraft Metals

 • The term “ferrous" applies to the group of metals having iron as their principal constituent. •
Eg. 1. Iron 2. Steel and its alloys
 Iron
 • If carbon is added to iron, in percentages ranging up to approximately 1 percent, the product
is vastly superior to iron alone and is classified as carbon steel. • Carbon steel forms the base of
those alloy steels produced by combining carbon steel with other elements known to improve the
properties of steel. • A base metal (such as iron) to which small quantities of other metals have
been added is called an alloy. The addition of other metals changes or improves the chemical or
physical properties of the base metal for a particular use.
Steel and steel alloys


 • To facilitate the discussion of steels, some familiarity with their nomenclature is desirable. •
A numerical index, sponsored by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the American
Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), is used to identify the chemical compositions of the structural steels.
• In this system, a four-numeral series is used to designate the plain carbon and alloy steels; five
numerals are used to designate certain types of alloy steels.
 • The first two digits indicate the type of steel, the second digit also generally (but not always)
gives the approximate amount of the major alloying element, and the last two (or three) digits are
intended to indicate the approximate middle of the carbon range. • However, a deviation from the
rule of indicating the carbon range is sometimes necessary.
 • Small quantities of certain elements are present in alloy steels that are not specified as
required. • These elements are considered as incidental and may be present to the maximum
amounts as follows: • copper, 0.35 percent; • nickel, 0.25 percent; • chromium, 0.20 percent; •
molybdenum, 0.06 percent.
 • The list of standard steels is altered from time to time to accommodate steels of proven merit
and to provide for changes in the metallurgical and engineering requirements of industry.

Types, Characteristics and Uses of Alloyed Steels

Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.10 to 0.30 percent is classed as low carbon
steel. The equivalent SAE numbers range from 1010 to 1030. Steels of this grade are used for
making such items as safety wire, certain nuts, cable bushings, or threaded rod ends. T • his steel in
sheet form is used for secondary structural parts and clamps, and in tubular form for moderately
stressed structural parts. • Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.30 to 0.50 percent
is classed as medium carbon steel. • This steel is especially adaptable for machining or forging,
and where surface hardness is desirable. Certain rod ends and light forgings are made from SAE
1035 steel.
 • Steel containing carbon in percentages ranging from 0.50 to 1.05 percent is classed as high
carbon steel. The addition of other elements in varying quantities adds to the hardness of this steel.
• In the fully heat-treated condition it is very hard, will withstand high shear and wear, and will
have little deformation. It has limited use in aircraft. SAE 1095 in sheet form is used for making flat
springs and in wire form for making coil springs. • The various nickel steels are produced by
combining nickel with carbon steel. Steels containing from 3 to 3.75 percent nickel are commonly
used. • Nickel increases the hardness, tensile strength, and elastic limit of steel without appreciably
decreasing the ductility. It also intensifies the hardening effect of heat treatment. SAE 2330 steel is
used extensively for aircraft parts, such as bolts, terminals, keys, clevises, and pins.
 • Chromium steel is high in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistant properties, and is
particularly adaptable for heattreated forgings which require greater toughness and strength than
may be obtained in plain carbon steel. It can be used for such articles as the balls and rollers of
antifriction bearings. • Chrome-nickel or stainless steels are the corrosion resistant metals. The
anticorrosive degree of this steel is determined by the surface condition of the metal as well as by
the composition, temperature, and concentration of the corrosive agent. • The principal alloy of
stainless steel is chromium. The corrosion resistant steel most often used in aircraft construction is


known as 18-8 steel because of its content of 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel. • One of
the distinctive features of 18-8 steel is that its strength may be increased by cold working.
 • Stainless steel may be rolled, drawn, bent, or formed to any shape. Because these steels
expand about 50 percent more than mild steel and conduct heat only about 40 percent as rapidly,
they are more difficult to weld. Stainless steel can be used for almost any part of an aircraft. Some
of its common applications are in the fabrication of exhaust collectors, stacks and manifolds,
structural and machined parts, springs, castings, tie rods, and control cables.
 • The chrome-vanadium steels are made of approximately 18 percent vanadium and about 1
percent chromium. • When heat treated, they have strength, toughness, and resistance to wear and
fatigue. • A special grade of this steel in sheet form can be cold formed into intricate shapes. It can
be folded and flattened without signs of breaking or failure. • SAE 6150 is used for making
springs; chromevanadium with high carbon content, SAE 6195, is used for ball and roller bearings.
Molybdenum in small percentages is used in combination with chromium to form chrome-
molybdenum steel, which has various uses in aircraft. • Molybdenum is a strong alloying element. It
raises the ultimate strength of steel without affecting ductility or workability. • Molybdenum steels
are tough and wear resistant, and they harden throughout when heat treated. They are especially
adaptable for welding and, for this reason, are used principally for welded structural parts and
assemblies. • This type steel has practically replaced carbon steel in the fabrication of fuselage
tubing, engine mounts, landing gears, and other structural parts. • For example, a heat-treated SAE
X4130 tube is approximately four times as strong as an SAE 1025 tube of the same weight and size.
 • A series of chrome-molybdenum steel most used in aircraft construction is that series
containing 0.25 to 0.55 percent carbon, 0.15 to 0.25 percent molybdenum, and 0.50 to 1.10 percent
chromium. • These steels, when suitably heat treated, are deep hardening, easily machined, readily
welded by either gas or electric methods, and are especially adapted to high temperature service.
Inconel is a nickel-chromium-iron alloy closely resembling stainless steel (corrosion resistant
steel, CRES) in appearance. • Aircraft exhaust systems use both alloys interchangeably. Because
the two alloys look very much alike, a distinguishing test is often necessary. • The tensile strength
of Inconel is 100,000 psi annealed, and 125,000 psi when hard rolled. It is highly resistant to salt
water and is able to withstand temperatures as high as 1,600 °F. • Inconel welds readily and has
working qualities quite similar to those of corrosion resistant steels.

Aluminum alloys:
 Aluminum alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling
differences) are alloys in which aluminum (Al) is the predominant metal.
 The typical alloying elements are
copper, magnesium, manganese, silicon and zinc
 There are two principal classifications,
namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the
categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable.
 About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products, for
example rolled plate, foils and extrusions.


 Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to
the low melting point, although they generally have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys
 The most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al–Si,
where the high levels of silicon (4.0–13%) contribute to give good casting characteristics.
 Aluminium alloys are widely used in engineering
structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required
 Alloys composed mostly of aluminium have been very
important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal skinned aircraft.
 Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other
aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a very high percentage of
 Aluminium alloy surfaces will formulate a white, protective layer
of corrosion aluminium oxide if left unprotected by anodizing and/or correct painting procedures.
Heat Treatment of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys:
 The application of the term heat treatable to aluminum alloys, both wrought and cast, is restricted to
the specific operations employed to increase strength and hardness by precipitation hardening thus
the term heat treatable serves to distinguish the heat treatable alloys from those alloys in which no
significant strength improvement can be achieved by heating and cooling.
 The non-heat treatable alloys depend primarily on cold work to increase strength
 Annealing is applied to both grades to promote softening.
 Complete and partial annealing heat treatments are the only ones used for the non-heat
treatable alloys.
 The exception is the 5000 series alloys which are sometimes given low temperature
stabilisation treatment and this is carried out by the producer.
 Annealing is carried out in the range 300-410°C depending on the alloy.
 Heating times at temperature vary from 0.5 to 3 hours, conditional on the size of the load and
the alloy type.
 Generally, the time need not be longer than that required to stabilise the load at temperature.
Rate of cooling after annealing is not critical.
 Where parts have been solution heat-treated a maximum cooling rate of 20°C per hour
must be maintained until the temperature is reduced to 290°C.
 Below this temperature, the rate of cooling is not important.
Solution Heat Treatment:
 This is applicable to the heat treatable alloys and involves a heat treatment process whereby
the alloying constituents are taken into solution and retained by rapid quenching.
 Subsequent heat treatment at tower temperatures i.e. ageing or natural ageing at room
temperature allows for a controlled precipitation of the constituents thereby achieving increased
hardness and strength.
 Time at temperature for solution treatment depends on the type of alloy and the furnace


 Sufficient time must be allowed to take the alloys into solution if optimum properties are
to be obtained.
 The solution treatment temperature is critical to the success of the procedure.
 It is desirable that the solution heat treatment is carried out as close as possible to the
liquidus temperature in order to obtain maximum solution of the constituents.
 Accurate furnace temperature and special temperature variation must be controlled to
within a range of ±5°C for most alloys.
 Overheating must be avoided i.e. exceeding initial eutectic melting temperatures.
 Often the early stages of overheating are not apparent but will result in a deterioration of
mechanical properties.
 Proper solution heat treatment of the aluminium alloys requires an expert knowledge of the
alloy being treated plus the correct heat treatment plant.
 This is a critical operation and must be carried out to precise limits if optimum results are
to be obtained.
 The objective of the quench is to ensure that the dissolved constituents remain in solution
down to room temperature.
 The speed of quenching is important and the result can be affected by excessive delay in
transferring the work to the quench.
 The latitude for the delay is dependant on section and varies from 5 to 15 seconds for
items of thickness varying from 0.4mm to 12.7mm.
 Generally, very rapid precipitation of constituents commences at around 450°C for most
alloys and the work must not be allowed to fall below this temperature prior to quenching.
 Another factor to be considered in quenching is the work load and the ability of the
quenchant to extract the heat at sufficient rate to achieve the desired results.
 The usual quenching medium is water at room temperature.
 In some circumstances slow quenching is desirable as this improves the resistance to stress
corrosion cracking of certain copper-free Al-Zn-Mg alloys.
 Parts of complex shapes such as forgings, castings, impact extrusions and components
produced from sheet metal may be quenched at slower quenching rates to improve distortion
 Thus a compromise must be considered to achieve a balance of properties in some
 Quenchants used in slower quenching applications include water heated to 65-80°C,
boiling water, aqueous solutions of polyalkalene glycol or forced air blast.
Age Hardening
 After solution treatment and quenching, hardening is achieved either at room temperature
(natural ageing) or with a precipitation heat treatment (artificial ageing).
 In some alloys sufficient precipitation occurs in a few days at room temperature to yield
stable products with properties that are adequate for many applications.
 These alloys sometimes are precipitation heat treated to provide increased strength and
hardness in wrought and cast alloys.


 Other alloys with slow precipitation reactions at room temperature are always
precipitation heat treated before being used.
 In some alloys, notably those of the 2xxx series, cold working of freshly quenched
materials greatly increases its response to later precipitation treatment.
 Mills take advantage of this phenomenon by applying a controlled amount of rolling
(sheet and plate) or stretching (extrusion, bar and plate) to produce higher mechanical properties.
 However, if the higher properties are used in design, reheat treatment must be avoided.
 Where natural ageing is carried out the time may vary from around 5 days for the 2xxx
series alloys to around 30 days for other alloys.
 The 6xxx and 7xxx series alloys are considerably less stable at room temperature and
continue to exhibit changes in mechanical properties for many years.
 With some alloys, natural ageing may be suppressed or delayed for several days by
refrigeration at -18°C or lower.
 It is common practice to complete forming, straightening and coining before ageing
changes material properties appreciably.
 Conventional practice allows for refrigeration of alloys 2014 - T4 rivets to maintain good
driving characteristics.
 The artificial ageing or precipitation heat treatments are low temperature long time
processes. Temperatures range from 115-200°C and times from 5-48 hours.
 As with solution treatment accurate temperature control and spatial variation
temperatures are critical to the process and generally temperatures should be held to a range of
 The change of time-temperature parameters for precipitation treatment should receive
careful consideration.
 Larger particles or precipitates result from longer times and higher temperatures.
 The objective is to select the cycle that produces the optimum precipitate size and
distribution pattern.
 Unfortunately, the cycle required to maximise one property, such as tensile strength, is
usually different from that required to maximise others such as yield strength and corrosion
 Consequently, the cycles used represent compromises that provide the best combination of
Magnesium Alloys:

 Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by aerospace industry

requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions.
 Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only
two thirds that of aluminium.
 This has been a major factor in the widespread use of magnesium alloy castings and
wrought products.
 A further requirement in recent years has been for superior corrosion performance and
dramatic improvements have been demonstrated for new magnesium alloys.


 Improvements in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance have led to greater interest
in magnesium alloys for aerospace and speciality applications, and alloys are now being specified
on programmes such as the McDonnell Douglas MD 500 helicopter.
• Light weight
• Low density (two thirds that of aluminum)
• Good high temperature mechanical properties
• Good to excellent corrosion resistance

 For many years, RZ5 alloy has been the preferred material for helicopter transmission
casings due to the combination of low density and good mechanical properties.
 More recently, however, the requirement for longer intervals between overhauls and hence
improved corrosion properties has caused manufacturers to reconsider material choice.
 In the past, RZ5 was generally used for gearbox casings but many new programmes will use
WE43 instead including the main rotor gearbox castings. For this application, an aluminium
transmission would have been used but for the exceptional corrosion resistance of WE43.
 The Eurocopter EC 120 and NH90 helicopters have also flown with WE43 transmission
casings and WE43 is specified for the Sikorsky S92.
 Further applications for WE43 will go ahead in the future both on new programmes and also
to replace RZ5 on older helicopters.
Other Applications:
Other applications include electronics, sporting goods, nuclear applications, office equipment,
flares, sacrificial anodes for the protection of other metals, flash photography and tools

Titanium and its alloys

 • The use of titanium is widespread. It is used in many commercial enterprises and is in
constant demand for such items as pumps, screens, and other tools and fixtures where corrosion
attack is prevalent. In aircraft construction and repair, titanium is used for fuselage skins, engine
shrouds, firewalls, longerons, frames, fittings, air ducts, and fasteners. • Titanium is used for
making compressor disks, spacer rings, compressor blades and vanes, through bolts, turbine
housings and liners, and miscellaneous hardware for turbine engines.
 • Titanium, in appearance, is similar to stainless steel. One quick method used to identify
titanium is the spark test. Titanium gives off a brilliant white trace ending in a brilliant white burst.
• Also, identification can be accomplished by moistening the titanium and using it to draw a line on
a piece of glass. This will leave a dark line similar in appearance to a pencil mark. • Titanium falls
between aluminum and stainless steel in terms of elasticity, density, and elevated temperature
strength. It has a melting point of from 2,730 °F to 3,155 °F, low thermal conductivity, and a low


coefficient of expansion. It is light, strong, and resistant to stress corrosion cracking. • Titanium is
approximately 60 percent heavier than aluminum and about 50 percent lighter than stainless steel.
 • Because of the high melting point of titanium, high temperature properties are disappointing.
• The ultimate yield strength of titanium drops rapidly above 800 °F. The absorption of oxygen and
nitrogen from the air at temperatures above 1,000 °F makes the metal so brittle on long exposure
that it soon becomes worthless. • However, titanium does have some merit for short time exposure
up to 3,000 °F where strength is not important. Aircraft firewalls demand this requirement.
 • Titanium is nonmagnetic and has an electrical resistance comparable to that of stainless
steel. • Some of the base alloys of titanium are quite hard. Heat treating and alloying do not develop
the hardness of titanium to the high levels of some of the heat-treated alloys of steel. • It was only
recently that a heat-treatable titanium alloy was developed. Prior to the development of this alloy,
heating and rolling was the only method of forming that could be accomplished. • However, it is
possible to form the new alloy in the soft condition and heat treat it for hardness.
 • Iron, molybdenum, and chromium are used to stabilize titanium and produce alloys that will
quench harden and age harden. • The addition of these metals also adds ductility. The fatigue
resistance of titanium is greater than that of aluminum or steel. • Titanium becomes softer as the
degree of purity is increased. It is not practical to distinguish between the various grades of
commercially pure or unalloyed titanium by chemical analysis; therefore, the grades are determined
by mechanical properties.
 Titanium designations
 • The A-B-C classification of titanium alloys was established to provide a convenient and
simple means of describing all titanium alloys. Titanium and titanium alloys possess three basic
types of crystals: A (alpha), B (beta), and C (combined alpha and beta). Their characteristics are: •
A (alpha) — all-around performance; good weldability; tough and strong both cold and hot, and
resistant to oxidation. • B (beta)—bendability; excellent bend ductility; strong both cold and hot,
but vulnerable to contamination. • C (combined alpha and beta for compromise performances) —
strong when cold and warm, but weak when hot; good bendability; moderate contamination
resistance; excellent forgeability.
 • Titanium is manufactured for commercial use in two basic compositions: commercially pure
titanium and alloyed titanium. A-55 is an example of a commercially pure titanium. • It has a yield
strength of 55,000 to 80,000 psi and is a general purpose grade for moderate to severe forming. It is
sometimes used for non-structural aircraft parts and for all types of corrosion resistant applications,
such as tubing. • Type A-70 titanium is closely related to type A-55 but has a yield strength of
70,000 to 95,000 psi. It is used where higher strength is required, and it is specified for many
moderately stressed aircraft parts. • For many corrosion applications, it is used interchangeably
with type A-55. Both type A-55 and type A-70 are weldable.
 • One of the widely used titanium base alloys is designated as C-110M. It is used for primary
structural members and aircraft skin, has 110,000 psi minimum yield strength, and contains 8
percent manganese. • Type A-110AT is a titanium alloy which contains 5 percent aluminum and 2.5
percent tin. It also has a high minimum yield strength at elevated temperatures with the excellent
welding characteristics inherent in alpha-type titanium alloys. • The corrosion resistance of titanium
deserves special mention. The resistance of the metal to corrosion is caused by the formation of a


protective surface film of stable oxide or chemi-absorbed oxygen. Film is often produced by the
presence of oxygen and oxidizing agents. • Corrosion of titanium is uniform. There is little evidence
of pitting or other serious forms of localized attack. Normally, it is not subject to stress corrosion,
corrosion fatigue, intergranular corrosion, or galvanic corrosion. Its corrosion resistance is equal or
superior to 18-8 stainless steel.
Copper and Copper alloys
 • Copper is one of the most widely distributed metals. It is the only reddish colored metal and
is second only to silver in electrical conductivity. • Its use as a structural material is limited because
of its great weight. However, some of its outstanding characteristics, such as its high electrical and
heat conductivity, in many cases overbalance the weight factor. • Because it is very malleable and
ductile, copper is ideal for making wire. It is corroded by salt water but is not affected by fresh
water. The ultimate tensile strength of copper varies greatly.
 • For cast copper, the tensile strength is about 25,000 psi, and when cold rolled or cold drawn
its tensile strength increases to a range of 40,000 to 67,000 psi. • In aircraft, copper is used
primarily in the electrical system for bus bars, bonding, and as lockwire. • Beryllium copper is one
of the most successful of all the copper base alloys. It is a recently developed alloy containing about
97 percent copper, 2 percent beryllium, and sufficient nickel to increase the percentage of
elongation. • The most valuable feature of this metal is that the physical properties can be greatly
stepped up by heat treatment, the tensile strength rising from 70,000 psi in the annealed state to
200,000 psi in the heat-treated state. • The resistance of beryllium copper to fatigue and wear
makes it suitable for diaphragms, precision bearings and bushings, ball cages, and spring washers.
 • Brass is a copper alloy containing zinc and small amounts of aluminum, iron, lead,
manganese, magnesium, nickel, phosphorous, and tin. • Brass with a zinc content of 30 to 35
percent is very ductile, but that containing 45 percent has relatively high strength. • Muntz metal is
a brass composed of 60 percent copper and 40 percent zinc. It has excellent corrosion resistant
qualities in salt water. • Its strength can be increased by heat treatment. As cast, this metal has an
ultimate tensile strength of 50,000 psi, and it can be elongated 18 percent. • It is used in making
bolts and nuts, as well as parts that come in contact with salt water.
 • Red brass, sometimes termed “bronze" because of its tin content, is used in fuel and oil line
fittings. • This metal has good casting and finishing properties and machines freely. • Bronzes are
copper alloys containing tin. The true bronzes have up to 25 percent tin, but those with less than 11
percent are most useful, especially for such items as tube fittings in aircraft. • Among the copper
alloys are the copper aluminum alloys, of which the aluminum bronzes rank very high in aircraft
usage. • They would find greater usefulness in structures if it were not for their strength to weight
ratio as compared with alloy steels.
 • Wrought aluminum bronzes are almost as strong and ductile as medium carbon steel, and
they possess a high degree of resistance to corrosion by air, salt water, and chemicals. They are
readily forged, hot or cold rolled, and many react to heat treatment. • These copper base alloys
contain up to 16 percent of aluminum (usually 5 to 11 percent), to which other metals, such as iron,
nickel, or manganese, may be added. • Aluminum bronzes have good tearing qualities, great
strength, hardness, and resistance to both shock and fatigue. Because of these properties, they are


used for diaphragms, gears, and pumps. Aluminum bronzes are available in rods, bars, plates,
sheets, strips, and forgings.

Molybdenum alloys:
 Molybdenum based alloys are widely used, because they are cheaper than superior
tungsten alloys. The most widely used alloy of molybdenum is the Titanium-Zirconium-
Molybdenum alloy TZM, composed of 0.5% titanium and 0.08% of zirconium (with molybdenum
being the rest).
 The alloy exhibits a higher creep resistance and strength at high temperatures, making
service temperatures of above 1060°C possible for the material.
 The alloy exhibits a higher creep resistance and strength at high temperatures, making
service temperatures of above 1060°C possible for the material.
 The high resistivity of Mo-30W an alloy of 70% molybdenum and 30 tungsten against
the attack of molten zinc makes it the ideal material for casting zinc. It is also used to construct
valves for molten zinc
 Molybdenum is used in mercury wetted reed relays, because molybdenum does not
form amalgams and is therefore resistant to corrosion by liquid mercury
 Molybdenum is the most commonly used of the refractory metals. Its most important use
is as a strengthening alloy of steel.Structural tubing and piping often contains molybdenum, as do
many stainless steels.
 Its strength at high temperatures, resistance to wear and low coefficient of friction are
all properties which make it invaluable as an alloying compound
 Its excellent anti-friction properties lead to its in greases and oils where reliability and
performance are critical

Tungsten and its alloys

 Up to 22% rhenium is alloyed with tungsten to improve its high temperature strength
and corrosion resistance.
 Thorium as an alloying compound is used when electric arcs have to be established.
The ignition is easier and the arc burns more stable than without the addition of thorium. For
powder metallurgy applications binders have to be used for the sintering process.
 For the production of the tungsten heavy alloy a binder mixtures of nickel and iron or
nickel and copper are widely used.
 the tungsten content of the alloy is normally above 90%. The diffusion of the binder
elements into the tungsten grains is low even at the sintering temperatures and therefore the interior
of the grains is pure tungsten.
 Tungsten and its alloys are often used in applications where high temperatures are
present but still a high strength is necessary and the high density is not troublesome
 Tungsten's high density and strength is also a key property for its use in
weapon projectiles, for example as an alternative to depleted Uranium for tank guns.


 Its high melting point makes tungsten a good material for applications like rocket
nozzles, for example in the UGM-27 Polaris.
Niobium alloys
 Niobium is nearly always found together with tantalum, and was named after Niobe,
the daughter of the mythical Greek king Tantalus for whom tantalum was named.
 Niobium has many uses, some of which it shares with other refractory metals.
 It is unique in that it can be worked through annealing to achieve a wide range of
strength and elasticity, and is the least dense of the refractory metals.
 It can also be found in electrolytic capacitors and in the most practical
superconducting alloys.
 Niobium can be found in aircraft gas turbines, vacuum tubes and nuclear reactors
 An alloy used for liquid rocket thruster nozzles, such as in the main engine of
theApollo Lunar Modules, is C103, which consists of 89% niobium, 10% hafnium and 1% titanium.
 Another niobium alloy was used for the nozzle of the Apollo Service Module. As
niobium is oxidized at temperatures above 400 °C, a protective coating is necessary for these
applications to prevent the alloy from becoming brittle

Tantalum and its alloys

 Tantalum is one of the most corrosion resistant substances available.
 Many important uses have been found for tantalum owing to this property, particularly in
the medical and surgical fields, and also in harsh acidic environments.
 It is also used to make superior electrolytic capacitors
 Tantalum films provide the second most capacitance per volume of any substance
after Aerogel and allow miniaturization of electronic components and circuitry
 Many cellular phones and computers contain tantalum capacitors.

Nickel and Nickel Alloys

 •There are basically two nickel alloys used in aircraft. They are Monel and Inconel.
 •Monel contains about 68 percent nickel and 29 percent copper, plus small amounts of iron
and manganese.
 •Nickel alloys can be welded or easily machined. Some of the nickel Monel, especially the
nickel Monels containing small amounts of aluminum, are heat-treatable to similar tensile strengths
of steel.
 •Nickel Monel is used in gears and parts that require high strength and toughness, such as
exhaust systems that require high strength and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures.

Inconel alloys:

 Inconel is a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based super alloys

 Inconel alloys are typically used in high temperature applications. It is sometimes referred
to in English as "Inco" (or occasionally "Inconel").


 Common trade names for Inconel Alloy 625 include: Inconel 625, Chronin 625, Altemp
625, Haynes 625, Nickelvac 625 and Nicrofer 6020

 Inconel alloys are oxidation- and corrosion-resistant materials well suited for service in
extreme environments subjected to high pressure and kinetic energy.
 When heated, Inconel forms a thick and stable passivating oxide layer protecting the
surface from further attack.
 Inconel retains strength over a wide temperature range, attractive for high-temperature
applications where aluminum and steel would succumb to creep as a result of thermally-induced
crystal vacancies (see Arrhenius).
 Inconel's high temperature strength is developed by solid solution
strengthening or precipitation strengthening, depending on the alloy.
 In age-hardening or precipitation-strengthening varieties, small amounts of niobium
combine with nickel to form the intermetallic compound Ni3Nb or gamma prime (γ'). Gamma prime
forms small cubic crystals that inhibit slip and creep effectively at elevated temperatures.
 The formation of gamma-prime crystals increases over time, especially after three hours of
a heat exposure of 850 °C, and continues to grow after 72 hours of exposure.
Monel alloys:
 Monel is a series of nickel alloys, primarily composed of nickel (up to 67%) and copper,
with some iron and other trace elements.
 Monel alloy 400 is binary alloy of the same proportions of nickel and copper as is found
naturally in the nickel ore from the Sudbury (Ontario) mines and is therefore considered a puritan
 Compared to steel, Monel is very difficult to machine as it work-hardens very quickly.
 It needs to be turned and worked at slow speeds and low feed rates.
 It is resistant to corrosion and acids, and some alloys can withstand a fire in pure oxygen
 It is commonly used in applications with highly corrosive conditions. Small additions
of aluminum and titanium form an alloy (K-500) with the same corrosion resistance but with much
greater strength due to gamma prime formation on aging.
 Monel is typically much more expensive than stainless steel.
 Monel alloy 400 has a specific gravity of 8.83, an electrical conductivity of approximately
34% IACS, and (in the annealed state) a hardness of 65 Rockwell

K Monel:
 It Is a nickel-copper alloy which combines the excellent corrosion resistance of MONEL
alloy 400 with the added advantages of greater strength and hardness
 The increased properties are obtained by adding aluminum and titanium to the nickel-copper
base, and by heating under controlled conditions so that submicroscopic
 Particles of Ni3 (Ti, Al) are precipitated throughout the matrix.


 The thermal processing used to effect precipitation is commonly called age hardening or
 is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of nickel-
based high-temperature low creep superalloys.
 Nimonic alloys typically consist of more than 50% nickel and 20% chromium with
additives such astitanium and aluminium
 The main use is in gas turbine components and extremely high performance reciprocating
internal combustion engines.
 Due to its ability to withstand very high temperatures, Nimonic is ideal for use in aircraft
parts and gas turbine components such as turbine blades and exhaust nozzles on jet engines, for
instance, where the pressure and heat are extreme.
 It is available in different grades, including Nimonic 75, Nimonic 80A, and Nimonic 90.
 Nimonic 80a was used for the turbine blades on the Rolls-Royce Nene, Nimonic 90 on
the Bristol Proteus, and Nimonic 105 on the Rolls-Royce Spey aviation gas turbines
 Nimonic 263 was used in the combustion chambers of the Rolls-Royce/Bristol
Olympus used on the Concorde supersonic airliner.

Super alloy:
 A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits excellent mechanical
strength and resistance to creep (tendency for solids to slowly move or deform under stress) at high
temperatures; good surface stability; and corrosion and oxidation resistance.
 Superalloys typically have a matrix with an austenitic face-centered cubic crystal structure.
 A superalloy's base alloying element is usually nickel, cobalt, or nickel-iron.
 Superalloy development has relied heavily on both chemical and process innovations and has
been driven primarily by the aerospace and power industries.
 Typical applications are in the aerospace, industrial gas turbine and marine turbine industries,
e.g. for turbine blades for hot sections of jet engines, and bi-metallic engine valves for use in diesel
and automotive applications.
 Examples of superalloys are Hastelloy, Inconel (e.g. IN100, IN600, IN713), Waspaloy, Rene
alloys (e.g. Rene 41, Rene 80, Rene 95, Rene N5), Haynes alloys, Incoloy, MP98T, TMS alloys,
and CMSX (e.g. CMSX-4) single crystal alloys.
 Superalloys are commonly used in parts of gas turbine engines that are subject to high
temperatures and require high strength, excellent high temperature creep resistance, fatigue life,
phase stability, and oxidation and corrosion resistance
 Superalloys develop high temperature strength through solid solution strengthening. The
most important strengthening mechanism is through the formation of secondary phase precipitates
such as gamma prime and carbides through precipitation.
 Superalloys (such as Nimonic 80A) are also used in the poppet valves of piston engines, both
for diesel and gasoline e




Composite Materials
 A “composite" material is defined as a mixture of different materials or things.
This definition is so general that it could refer to metal alloys made from several
different metals to enhance the strength, ductility, conductivity or whatever
characteristics are desired. • Likewise, the composition of composite materials is a
combination of reinforcement, such as a fiber, whisker, or particle, surrounded and
held in place by a resin, forming a structure. • Separately, the reinforcement and the
resin are very different from their combined state. Even in their combined state, they
can still be individually identified and mechanically separated. One composite,
concrete, is composed of cement (resin) and gravel or reinforcement rods for the
reinforcement to create the concrete.

Advantages/Disadvantages of Composite Materials

Some of the many advantages for using composite materials are: • High strength
to weight ratio • Fiber-to-fiber transfer of stress allowed by chemical bonding •
Modulus (stiffness to density ratio) 3.5 to 5 times that of steel or aluminum • Longer
life than metals • Higher corrosion resistance • Tensile strength 4 to 6 times that of
steel or aluminum • Greater design flexibility • Bonded construction eliminates joints
and fasteners • Easily repairable
The disadvantages of composites include: • Inspection methods difficult to
conduct, especially delamination detection (Advancements in technology will
eventually correct this problem.) • Lack of long term design database, relatively new
technology methods • Cost • Very expensive processing equipment • Lack of
standardized system of methodology • Great variety of materials, processes, and
techniques • General lack of repair knowledge and expertise • Products often toxic
and hazardous • Lack of standardized methodology for construction and repairs


Glass-Fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP)

It is a composite material or fiber-reinforced plastic made of a plastic reinforced by

fine glass fibers. Like graphite-reinforced plastic, the composite material is
commonly referred to as fiberglass. The glass can be in the form of a chopped strand
mat (CSM) or a woven fabric.

As with many other composite materials (such as reinforced concrete), the two
materials act together, each overcoming the deficits of the other. Whereas the plastic
resins are strong in compressive loading and relatively weak in tensile strength, the
glass fibers are very strong in tension but tend not to resist compression. By
combining the two materials, GRP becomes a material that resists both compressive
and tensile forces well. The two materials may be used uniformly or the glass may be
specifically placed in those portions of the structure that will experience tensile loads.


Uses for regular glass fiber include mats and fabrics for thermal insulation, electrical
insulation, sound insulation, high-strength fabrics or heat- and corrosion-resistant
fabrics. It is also used to reinforce various materials, such as tent poles, pole
vault poles, arrows, bows and crossbows, translucent roofing
panels, automobile bodies, hockey sticks, surfboards, boat hulls, and paper
honeycomb. It has been used for medical purposes in casts. Glass fiber is extensively
used for making FRP tanks and vessels.

Open-weave glass fiber grids are used to reinforce asphalt pavement. Non-woven
glass fiber/polymer blend mats are used saturated with asphalt emulsion and overlaid
with asphalt, producing a waterproof, crack-resistant membrane. Use of glass-fiber
reinforced polymer rebar instead of steel rebar shows promise in areas where
avoidance of steel corrosion is desired.


Carbon fiber reinforced polymer

CFRPs are composite materials. In this case the composite consists of two parts: a
matrix and a reinforcement. In CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber, which
provides the strength. The matrix is usually a polymer resin, such as epoxy, to bind
the reinforcements together. Because CFRP consists of two distinct elements, the
material properties depend on these two elements.

The reinforcement will give the CFRP its strength and rigidity; measured
by stress and elastic modulus respectively. Unlike isotropic materials like steel and
aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties. The properties of CFRP depend
on the layouts of the carbon fiber and the proportion of the carbon fibers relative to
the polymer. The two different equations governing the net elastic modulus of
composite materials using the properties of the carbon fibers and the polymer matrix
can also be applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics.


 The Airbus A350 XWB is built of 52% CFRP including wing spars and
fuselage components, taking the lead from the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, for the
aircraft with the highest weight ratio for CFRP, which was held at 50%. This,
along with the Airbus A400M is one of the first commercial aircraft to have
the wing spars made from composites, although the A400M isn't the first
military aircraft to have structural composite components. Furthermore,
the Airbus A380 is one of the first commercial airliner to have a central wing
box made of CFRP

 Guitar Picks, such as those made by PickHeaven.

 Laptop cases by an increasing number of manufacturers.

 Audio components such as turntables and loudspeakers.


Glass laminate aluminium reinforced epoxy (GLARE)

It is a fiber metal laminate (FML) composed of several very thin layers of metal
(usually aluminium) interspersed with layers of glass-fiber pre-preg, bonded together
with a matrix such as epoxy. The uni-directional pre-preg layers may be aligned in
different directions to suit predicted stressconditions.

 Though GLARE is a composite material, its material properties and fabrication

are very similar to bulk aluminium metal sheets. It has far less in common with
composite structures when it comes to design, manufacture, inspection, or
maintenance. GLARE parts are constructed and repaired using mostly
conventional metal working techniques.

Its major advantages over conventional aluminium are:

 Better "damage tolerance" behavior (especially impact and metal fatigue, as

the elastic strain is larger than other metal material it can consume more impact
energy. It is dented easier but has a higher penetration resistance )

 Better corrosion resistance

 Better fire resistance

 Lower specific weight

 Furthermore, it is possible to "tailor" the material during design and

manufacture such that the number, type and alignment of layers can suit the
local stresses and shapes throughout the aircraft. This allows the production of
double-curved sections, complex integrated panels or very large sheets, for


 While a simple manufactured sheet of GLARE is more expensive than an
equivalent sheet of aluminium, considerable production savings can be made
using the aforementioned optimization. A structure properly designed for
GLARE is significantly lighter and less complex than an equivalent metal
structure, requires less inspection and maintenance, and has a longer lifetime-
till failure, often making it cheaper, lighter, and safer in the long run


 Besides the applications on the Airbus A380 fuselage, GLARE has multiple
'secondary' applications.

 GLARE is also the material used in the ECOS3 blast-resistant Unit Load
Device. This is freight container shown to completely contain the explosion
and fire resulting from a bomb such as that used over Lockerbie.

 Other applications include among others the application in the Learjet 45 and
in the past also in cargo floors of the Boeing 737.

Metal Matrix Composite (MMC)

 It is composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being

a metalnecessarily, the other material may be a different metal or another
material, such as a ceramic or organic compound. When at least three materials
are present, it is called a hybrid composite.

 MMCs are made by dispersing a reinforcing material into a metal matrix. The
reinforcement surface can be coated to prevent a chemical reaction with the
matrix. For example, carbon fibers are commonly used in aluminum matrix to
synthesize composites showing low density and high strength. However,
carbon reacts with aluminium to generate a brittle and water-soluble


compound Al4C3 on the surface of the fibre. To prevent this reaction, the
carbon fibres are coated with nickel or titanium boride.


 The F-16 Fighting Falcon uses monofilament silicon carbide fibers in a

titanium matrix for a structural component of the jet's landing gear
 Some tank armors may be made from metal matrix composites, probably steel
reinforced with boron nitride, which is a good reinforcement for steel because it is
very stiff and it does not dissolve in molten steel.

Non-metallic Aircraft materials

 • The use of magnesium, plastic, fabric, and wood in aircraft construction has
nearly disappeared since the mid-1950s. • Aluminum has also greatly diminished in
use, from 80 percent of airframes in 1950 to about 15 percent aluminum and
aluminum alloys today for airframe construction. • Replacing those materials are
non-metallic aircraft materials, such as reinforced plastics and advanced composites.

 • The earliest aircraft were constructed of wood and cloth. Today, except for
restorations and some homebuilt aircraft, very little wood is used in aircraft

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees,
and other woody plants. It has been used for thousands of years for both fuel and as a
construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers
(which are strong in tension) embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists
compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems
of trees or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere
such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function,
enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys
water and nutrientsbetween the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood
may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material
engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber.


It is a sheet material manufactured from thin layers or "plies" of wood veneer that are
glued together with adjacent layers having their wood grain rotated up to 90 degrees
to one another. It is an engineered wood from the family of manufactured boards
which includes medium-density fibreboard(MDF) and particle board (chipboard).

All plywoods bind resin and wood fibre sheets (cellulose cells are long, strong and
thin) to form a composite material. This alternation of the grain is called cross-
graining and has several important benefits: it reduces the tendency of wood to split
when nailed at the edges; it reduces expansion and shrinkage, providing improved
dimensional stability; and it makes the strength of the panel consistent across all
directions. There is usually an odd number of plies, so that the sheet is balanced—this
reduces warping. Because plywood is bonded with grains running against one another
and with an odd number of composite parts, it is very hard to bend it perpendicular to
the grain direction of the surface ply.

Smaller thinner plywoods and lower quality plywoods (see Average-quality plywood
photo below and right) may only have their plies (layers) arranged at right angles to
each other, though some better quality plywood products will by design have five
plies in steps of 45 degrees (0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 degrees), giving strength in
multiple axes.


Aircraft dope is a plasticised lacquer that is applied to fabric-covered aircraft. It

tightens and stiffens fabric stretched over airframes, which renders them airtight and


Typical doping agents include nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate
butyrate. Liquid dopes are highly flammable; nitrocellulose, for instance, is also
known as the explosive propellant "guncotton". Dopes often include colouring
pigments to facilitate even application, and are available in a wide range of colors.

Dope has been applied to various aircraft fabrics, including madapolam,but also more
recently on polyester and other fabrics with similar fine weave and absorbent


It may be used interchangeably with glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, and is any
substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds
them together and resists their separation. Adjectives may be used in conjunction
with the word "adhesive" to describe properties based on the substance's physical or
chemical form, the type of materials joined, or conditions under which it is applied.

The use of adhesives offers many advantages over binding techniques such
as sewing, mechanical fastening, thermal bonding, etc. These include the ability to
bind different materials together, to distribute stress more efficiently across the joint,
the cost effectiveness of an easily mechanized process, an improvement in aesthetic
design, and increased design flexibility. Disadvantages of adhesive use include
decreased stability at high temperatures, relative weakness in bonding large objects
with a small bonding surface area, and greater difficulty in separating objects during
testing. Adhesives are typically organized by the method of adhesion. These are then
organized into reactive and non-reactive adhesives, which refers to whether the
adhesive chemically reacts in order to harden. Alternatively they can be organized by


whether the raw stock is of natural or synthetic origin, or by their starting physical


Paint is more than aesthetics; it affects the weight of the aircraft and protects the
integrity of the airframe. The topcoat finish is applied to protect the exposed surfaces
from corrosion and deterioration. Also, a properly painted aircraft is easier to clean
and maintain because the exposed surfaces are more resistant to corrosion and dirt,
and oil does not adhere as readily to the surface. A wide variety of materials and
finishes are used to protect and provide the desired appearance of the aircraft. The
term “paint” is used in a general sense and includes primers, enamels, lacquers, and
the various multipart finishing formulas. Paint has three components: resin as coating
material, pigment for color, and solvents to reduce the mix to a workable
viscosity.Internal structure and unexposed components are finished to protect them
from corrosion and deterioration. All exposed surfaces and components are finished
to provide protection and to present a pleasing appearance. Decorative finishing
includes trim striping, the addition of company logos and emblems, and the
application of decals, identification numbers, and letters.

Finishing Materials
 Acetone
 Alcohol
 Benzene
 Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
 Methylene Chloride
 Toluene
 Turpentine
 Mineral Spirits
 Naphtha
 Linseed Oil
 Thinners
 Varnish

 Wash Primers
 Red Iron Oxide
 Gray Enamel Undercoat
 Urethane
 Epoxy
 Zinc Chromate

Identification of Paints
 Dope
 Synthetic Enamel
 Lacquers
 Polyurethane
 Urethane Coating
 Acrylic Urethanes
Methods of Applying Finish
 Dipping
 Brushing
 Spraying


 • Rubber is used to prevent the entrance of dirt, water, or air, and to prevent the
loss of fluids, gases, or air. It is also used to absorb vibration, reduce noise, and
cushion impact loads. • The term “rubber" is as all inclusive as the term “metal." It is
used to include not only natural rubber, but all synthetic and silicone rubbers.
 Natural Rubber
 • Natural rubber has better processing and physical properties than synthetic or
silicone rubber. • These properties include: flexibility, elasticity, tensile strength, tear
strength, and low heat buildup due to flexing (hysteresis). • Natural rubber is a
general purpose product; however, its suitability for aircraft use is somewhat limited
because of its inferior resistance to most influences that cause deterioration. •
Although it provides an excellent seal for many applications, it swells and often
softens in all aircraft fuels and in many solvents (naphthas, and so forth). • Natural
rubber deteriorates more rapidly than synthetic rubber. It is used as a sealing material
for water/methanol systems.
 • Synthetic rubber
 It is available in several types, each of which is compounded of different
materials to give the desired properties. The most widely used are the butyls, Bunas,
and neoprene. • Butyl is a hydrocarbon rubber with superior resistance to gas
permeation. It is also resistant to deterioration; however, its comparative physical
properties are significantly less than those of natural rubber. Butyl will resist oxygen,
vegetable oils, animal fats, alkalies, ozone, and weathering. • Like natural rubber,


butyl will swell in petroleum or coal tar solvents. It has a low water absorption rate
and good resistance to heat and low temperature. • Depending on the grade, it is
suitable for use in temperatures ranging from -65 °F to 300 °F. Butyl is used with
phosphate ester hydraulic fluids (Skydrol), silicone fluids, gases, ketones, and
 • Buna-S rubber resembles natural rubber both in processing and performance
characteristics. Buna-S is as water resistant as natural rubber, but has somewhat
better aging characteristics. • It has good resistance to heat, but only in the absence of
severe flexing. Generally, Buna-S has poor resistance to gasoline, oil, concentrated
acids, and solvents. Buna-S is normally used for tires and tubes as a substitute for
natural rubber. • Buna-N is outstanding in its resistance to hydrocarbons and other
solvents; however, it has poor resilience in solvents at low temperature. Buna-N
compounds have good resistance to temperatures up to 300 °F, and may be procured
for low temperature applications down to -75 °F.
 • Silicone rubbers are a group of plastic rubber materials made from silicon,
oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. The silicons have excellent heat stability and very low
temperature flexibility. • They are suitable for gaskets, seals, or other applications
where elevated temperatures up to 600 °F are prevalent. Silicone rubbers are also
resistant to temperatures down to 150 °F. • Throughout this temperature range,
silicone rubber remains extremely flexible and useful with no hardness or
gumminess. Although this material has good resistance to oils, it reacts unfavorably
to both aromatic and nonaromatic gasolines. • Silastic, one of the best known
silicones, is used to insulate electrical and electronic equipment. Because of its
dielectric properties over a wide range of temperatures, it remains flexible and free
from crazing and cracking. Silastic is also used for gaskets and seals in certain oil