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Psychiatric nursing: ADDICTION

1. Differentiate among the following terms: substance use, addiction, psychological dependence,
tolerance, and physiologic dependence

2. Describe the treatment measures including nursing interventions for a client with a substance-related
disorder.

3. Describe masochistic and sadistic behaviour.

4. Differentiate among sexual harassment, sexual assault, rape, and statutory rape.

5. Describe the emotional and behavioural reactions of the following victims of physical abuse or
domestic violence: children, women, men, and elderly.

1. Substance Use - The term “substance use” refers to the use of drugs or alcohol, and
includes substances such as cigarettes, illegal drugs, prescription drugs, inhalants and solvents.
A substance use problem occurs when using alcohol or other drugs causes harm to you or to others

Addiction - is a complex condition, a brain disease that is manifested by compulsive substance use
despite harmful consequence. People with addiction (severe substance use disorder) have an intense
focus on using a certain substance(s), such as alcohol or drugs, to the point that it takes over their life.

Psychological Dependence - is a form of dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal


symptoms (e.g., a state of unease or dissatisfaction, a reduced capacity to experience pleasure, or
anxiety) upon cessation of drug use or exposure to a stimulus.

Physiologic Dependence - refers to the process throughout which a body becomes dependent upon a
foreign substance. This is the process through which a person becomes addicted to alcohol or drugs.

2. MAT - is the use of medications, along with counselling and behavioural therapies, to treat substance
use disorders and prevent opioid overdose. There are currently highly effective medications that are
used in the treatment of tobacco, alcohol, and opioid use disorders.

Nursing intervention - Ineffective health maintenance related to substance abuse as evidence by


patient reports to using heroin, skin lesions, loss of teeth, foul smelling breath, and chest rash.

3. Masochistic – the tendency to derive pleasure, especially sexual gratification, from one's own pain or
humiliation.

Sadistic - the tendency to derive pleasure, especially sexual gratification, from inflicting pain, suffering,
or humiliation on others

4. Sexual harassment – behaviour characterized by the making of unwelcome and inappropriate sexual
remarks or physical advances in a workplace or other professional or social situation.
Sexual Assault – takes many forms including attacks such as rape or attempted rape, as well as any
unwanted sexual contact or threats. Usually a sexual assault occurs when someone touches any part of
another person's body in a sexual way, even though clothes, without that person's consent.

Rape – unlawful sexual activity and usually sexual intercourse carried out forcibly or under threat of
injury against a person's will or with a person who is beneath a certain age or incapable of valid
consent because of mental illness, mental deficiency, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception

Statutory Rape - is no forcible sexual activity in which one of the rephrasing the definition of the offense
itself to completely exclude situations where the difference in age is less than a specific time period.

5. Children who have been abused or neglected may experience physical or emotional harm. The effects
can be short term but sometimes they last into adulthood. If someone has been abused as a child, it is
more likely that they will suffer abuse again. This is known as re-victimisation.

Long term effects of abuse and neglect include:

Emotional difficulties such as anger, anxiety, sadness or low self-esteem

Mental health problems such as depression, eating disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), self-
harm, suicidal thoughts

Problems with drugs or alcohol

Disturbing thoughts, emotions and memories that cause distress or confusion

Poor physical health such as obesity, aches and pains

Struggling with parenting or relationships

Worrying that their abuser is still a threat to themselves or others

Learning difficulties, lower educational attainment, difficulties in communicating

Behavioural problems including anti-social behaviour, criminal behaviour.