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INTRODUCTION

Generaly for power transmission, circular shafts are used because there is uniform stress

distribution along any radius of the shaft. Plane sections of the shaft remain plane after the

application of twisting moment, as a result there is no distortion in the sections of shafts and

change in volume of the shaft is zero. For stationary torque application, non-circular shafts of

different sections such as square, rectangular, triangular, elliptical solid, or hollow are used.

The assumption that transverse sections of the shaft remain plane after the applications of

torque does not hold good for shafts of non-circular section. Only the lines of symmetry

remain straight; all other lines in the section go out of plane and the section gets severely

distorted. Figure 1 shows the undeformed shaft of square section and deformed shape after

the application of a twisting moment along the axis of the shaft.

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

We shall consider an isotropic homogeneous long prismatic bar. According to the tradi- tion in

mechanics the axis of the bar coincides with x-axis, the cross-section denoted by Ω is a set in

the y, z plane, see Fig. 1. The bar is ﬁxed at x = 0 base, the opposite base x = A is twisted by

angle A α. We adopt the following assumptions:

–the cross-sections in the y, z-plane rotates as a rigid body. In the case of a non-circular shape

Ω, the cross-section is not planar, it is deﬂected in the x-direction,

–the deﬂection and the twist rate α is constant along the whole length of the bar. Thus, the

problem is reduced to a two-dimensional one.

Let us assume the following geometrical behavior : According to the Saint-Venant hypoth-

esis, the displacements u, v, w in directions x, y, z under these assumptions can be written in

the form

ferentiable. Simple computation yields the corresponding strain (small deformation) tensor e

= {eij}

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

The Hooke’s law of linear elasticity is written in the form:

where Kronecker’s delta δij =1 for i = j, otherwise δij = 0, and λ, μ are the Lam´e constants.

The sheer modulus μ is also often denoted by tt. In our case the trace exx + eyy + ezz equals

to zero. Substituting (2) into (4) we obtain the components of the stress tensor τ = {τij}

For a simply connected domain Ω the equalities in (6) yield existence of a function Φ(y, z)

independent of x such that the only nonzero stress components τxy and τxz given by

satisfy all the equilibrium equalities (6). Let us express the components exy and exz using (5)

by means of Φ

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

The last equality can be rewritten into an inhomogeneous second order partial diﬀerential

equation

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

2. The device will apply a torque to the shaft fixed between the holding clamps. Torque

is developed by applying a force of F via load handle above the system thru a distance

spindle arm

3. The measuring dial will measure the displacement of an arm handle at a fixed distance

4. This displacement is proportionally related to the angle of twist of the rod.

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

PROCEDURE

1. The initial length and initial gauge length diameter of the specimen was measured.

2. The specimen between the loading device and the torque-measurement unit into the

straining hexagon sockets was set.

4. The tailstock unit was slide so that the specimen is fully into the hexagon sockets.

6. The pointer on the zero-degree point on the protractor scale was zeroed.

8. The hand-wheel clockwise was turned slowly to load the specimen. It is turned only for a

defined angle increment.

9. The torque value was read from the digital torque meter and is noticed together with the

indicated angle of twist.

10. The process of steps 8 and 9 was continued until fracture occurs.

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

RESULTS

Aluminum

Dimension 1 2 3 Average

Initial length 50.0 50.0 50.0

(mm)

Final length 49.8 49.6 50.0 49.8

(mm)

Percentage Error =| | × 100%

Theoretical Value

A) Aluminium

12

y = 0.0512x + 7.1636

10

0

3.1416

5.5851

0.3491

0.6981

1.0472

1.3963

1.7453

2.0944

2.4435

2.7925

3.4907

3.8397

4.1888

4.5379

4.8869

5.236

5.9341

6.2831

6.6323

6.9813

7.3303

7.6794

8.0285

8.3776

8.7266

9.0757

9.4248

0

FOR SPECIMEN A

𝑇

Gradient from the graph, = 0.0512

𝜑

7.10𝑇𝐿

Shear Modulus, G = = 29.08MPa

𝜑𝑎4

28−0.02908

Percentage error, % = x 100 =99.99%

28

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

400000000

350000000

300000000

250000000

200000000

150000000

100000000

50000000

0

0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

400000000

350000000

300000000

250000000

200000000

150000000

100000000

50000000

0

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Steel

Dimension 1 2 3 Average

Initial length 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0

(mm)

Final length 51.2 51.0 51.0 51.1

(mm)

B) Steel

20 y = 0.0278x + 14.421

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

4.3633

11.3446

0

0.8727

1.7453

2.618

3.4907

5.236

6.1087

6.9813

7.854

8.7266

9.5993

10.472

12.2173

13.0899

13.9626

15.708

16.5806

17.4533

18.326

19.1986

20.0713

1408353

FOR SPECIMEN B

𝑇

Gradient from the graph, = 0.0278

𝜑

7.10𝑇𝐿

Shear Modulus, G = = 15.79MPa

𝜑𝑎4

78−0.01579

Percentage error, % = x100 =99.99%

78

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

700000000

600000000

500000000

400000000

300000000

200000000

100000000

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

900

950

1000

1050

1100

1150

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist

700000000

600000000

500000000

400000000

300000000

200000000

100000000

0

37.5296

40.4977

0

35.3363

36.3111

36.7985

38.017

38.5044

38.7481

39.2355

39.4792

39.7229

39.9666

40.4536

40.6977

40.6977

40.9414

41.1851

39.9184

41.4288

39.9184

39.9184

39.9184

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Brass

Dimension 1 2 3 Average

Initial length 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0

(mm)

Final length 49.32 49.3 49.34 49.32

(mm)

C) Brass

16

14 y = 0.0938x + 6.1839

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

4.7123

2.618

5.236

7.854

0

0.5236

1.0472

1.5708

2.0944

3.1416

3.6652

4.1888

5.7596

6.2831

6.8067

7.3303

8.3776

8.9018

9.4248

9.9483

10.472

10.9956

11.5192

12.0428

12.5664

13.0899

FOR SPECIMEN C

𝑇

Gradient from the graph, = 0.0938

𝜑

7.10𝑇𝐿

Shear Modulus, G = = 58.28MPa

𝜑𝑎4

40−0.05828

Percentage error, % = x 100 = 99.85%

40

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

600000000

500000000

400000000

300000000

Shear Stress vs Strain

200000000

100000000

0

0 40 80 120 160 200240 280 320 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 640 680 720 760

600000000

500000000

400000000

300000000

200000000

100000000

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

DISCUSSION

Based on the results of this experiment, material A, B and C has an increase of torque when

the number of rotation of the hand gear increases. The percentage error obtained for specimen

A is 99.99% whereas for specimen B is also 99.99% which is the same as specimen C. Hence

the experiments were less accurate for specimen all specimen. The value of the percentage

error turned out to be high for all specimen, and this is due to human error. More torque is

needed to twist the specimen B specimen than specimen A and C. Specimen A is less ductile

compared specimen B.

Graphs of specimen A, B and C are expected to be same. We had errors that effected our result

in a small scale. From this experiment, the error we got was calibration error in the torque

measuring unit. Also, improper loading of the socket may lead to improper data, this can be

avoided by making sure the socket is properly fixed. Incorrect values from the WP500 is also

a very effective error. This can happen due to the wrong loading method of the specimen.

Wrong loading of the specimen can lead to uneven distribution of angle of twist. Make sure

the calibration device is tightening properly before starting the experiment.

Next, the mechanical properties of the specimen are change during the experiment due to the

shear force that come from the machine. Generally, the specimen is undergoing strain

hardening and necking. During the strain hardening, the specimen pass through the plastic

deformation. The specimen was dislocated within the material. The higher force applied bring

the higher dislocation move in result. The specimen become pinned and tangled. The mobility

of dislocations and a strengthening of the specimen become decrease. This situation happens

due to the plastic deformation at a temperature low enough that atoms cannot rearrange

themselves. But the plastic deformation also depends on the ductility of the specimen. The

ductility of the specimen is different due to their own properties. Furthermore, the specimen

also will undergo necking process. So generally, necking occurs after the ultimate (maximum

load) has been reached. The specimen starts to fail due to the force and the inter granular cracks

coalesce to the point where the effective cross section of the specimen is decreased. The

specimen starts cracks to the point where the stress is now concentrated on the reduced. Finally,

the specimen will have failed which is fracture. Each specimen gives different value of torque

and angle of fracture. But the specimen still undergoes the same process such as strain

hardening and necking process.

From the results obtained at table 1, the shear modulus, G for specimen A is 28MPa. Whereas

the shear modulus for material B is 78MPa and material C is 40MPa. The theoretical value of

shear modulus of specimen A is 67GPa, specimen B is 200GPa and for specimen C is 120GPa.

From this we can see that the experimented value of all specimens is higher than its theoretical

value. This is due to random errors.

The usage of torsion in real life engineering is very important, this is because it involves things

that rotate. One common mechanical part that are subject to torsion are the shafts. When a shaft

is subjected to a torque or twisting, a shearing stress is produced in the shaft. The shear stress

varies from zero in the axis to a maximum at the outside surface of the shaft.an example of

shaft usage is in cars which is the gear shaft. Another mechanical part is the bolt. Bolts are very

important in all types of applications.

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, this experiment is about torsion test. First the experiment was tested by using

loads to measure the read-out torque, then the graph of calibration curve was drawn the

specimens are first mounted between the device and torque measuring unit. Then the hand

wheel was rotated. Every angle of rotation was noted. specimen A is done first followed by

specimen B and then specimen C. From the experiment, we have obtained the values of the

torque for both specimen A, B and C Which A is aluminium, B is steel, and C is brass. The

calculation was mainly based on the shear modulus G and the percentage error. The modulus

of shear of specimen A was 29.08MPa, specimen B was 78MPa and specimen C was 40MPa.

From this we can state that specimen A is the most ductile material compared to specimen B

and specimen C which has a lesser modulus of shear.

Based on all this calculated value, we concluded that specimen B has the strongest and least

ductile property whereas specimen A has the most ductile property and least stronger property

compared to specimen B and specimen C. From this experiment we understood that specimen

A is to be Aluminium, specimen B is to be Steel whereas specimen C is Brass our understanding

was based on the results we obtained which the shear modulus G angle of twist. This specimen

selection was based on their property. Specimen B needs more rotation to overcome its twisting

force, because it’s a hard property. Whereas specimen A twist easily because of its ductility

property. From this experiment we understood the effect of torsion test on three different types

of specimen. The objective of this experiment which is to understand the principles of torsion

testing has been achieved. What we understood from the principle of torsion testing from this

experiment is that when a specimen is subjected to torsion it will produce an angle of twist

which is then calculated to know which specimen is more brittle. By Torsion testing

manufactures can simulate real life service condition, check product quality, verify designs,

and ensure proper manufacturing techniques. The other objective which is determine the

modulus of shear, G through measurement of the applied torque and angle of twist has been

also achieved.

This experiment plays a very important role in engineering applications, this is because the

effects of torsion applies to small parts such as shafts are used in ships. Whereas bolts and are

used in many applications for example the body of the ships. This experiment is very important

in every engineering applications as it the small parts like the bolts are the one that gives the

biggest effect in the machine.

[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

REFERENCES

1. [book] Morrow, H. W., & Kokernak, R. P. (2007). Statics and strength of materials.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

2. [book] TORSION. (2016). S.l.: LULU COM.

3. [book] Hibbeler, R. C. (2014). Statics and mechanics of materials. Singapore:

Pearson.

4. [website] (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/torsion-shafts-

d_947.html

5. [website] TORSION OF A NON-CIRCULAR BAR - Engineering Mechanics. (n.d.).

Retrieved from http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/pdf/19_1_045.pdf

6. [journal] Case, J., Chilver, L., & Ross, C. T. (1999). Torsion of non-circular

sections. Strength of Materials and Structures,492-514. doi:10.1016/b978-

034071920-6/50024-8

7. [journal] Case, J. (2014). The Torsion Of Non-Circular Shafts. The Strength of

Materials,476-488. doi:10.1016/b978-1-4831-9652-7.50078-5

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