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[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

INTRODUCTION

Generaly for power transmission, circular shafts are used because there is uniform stress
distribution along any radius of the shaft. Plane sections of the shaft remain plane after the
application of twisting moment, as a result there is no distortion in the sections of shafts and
change in volume of the shaft is zero. For stationary torque application, non-circular shafts of
different sections such as square, rectangular, triangular, elliptical solid, or hollow are used.

The assumption that transverse sections of the shaft remain plane after the applications of
torque does not hold good for shafts of non-circular section. Only the lines of symmetry
remain straight; all other lines in the section go out of plane and the section gets severely
distorted. Figure 1 shows the undeformed shaft of square section and deformed shape after
the application of a twisting moment along the axis of the shaft.

Figure 1 Formation of ridges and valleys


[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

We shall consider an isotropic homogeneous long prismatic bar. According to the tradi- tion in
mechanics the axis of the bar coincides with x-axis, the cross-section denoted by Ω is a set in
the y, z plane, see Fig. 1. The bar is fixed at x = 0 base, the opposite base x = A is twisted by
angle A α. We adopt the following assumptions:

–the cross-sections in the y, z-plane rotates as a rigid body. In the case of a non-circular shape
Ω, the cross-section is not planar, it is deflected in the x-direction,

–the deflection and the twist rate α is constant along the whole length of the bar. Thus, the
problem is reduced to a two-dimensional one.

Fig.1: Orientation of the axis

2.1. Strain analysis

Let us assume the following geometrical behavior : According to the Saint-Venant hypoth-
esis, the displacements u, v, w in directions x, y, z under these assumptions can be written in
the form

where ϕ(y, z) is an unknown function describing the deflection. It is supposed to be dif-


ferentiable. Simple computation yields the corresponding strain (small deformation) tensor e
= {eij}
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Simple computation yields

2.2. Stress analysis


The Hooke’s law of linear elasticity is written in the form:

where Kronecker’s delta δij =1 for i = j, otherwise δij = 0, and λ, μ are the Lam´e constants.
The sheer modulus μ is also often denoted by tt. In our case the trace exx + eyy + ezz equals
to zero. Substituting (2) into (4) we obtain the components of the stress tensor τ = {τij}

The equilibrium equation ∂jτij = fi with zero forces fi reduce to

For a simply connected domain Ω the equalities in (6) yield existence of a function Φ(y, z)
independent of x such that the only nonzero stress components τxy and τxz given by

satisfy all the equilibrium equalities (6). Let us express the components exy and exz using (5)
by means of Φ
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

and using (3) we obtain

The last equality can be rewritten into an inhomogeneous second order partial differential
equation
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

1. Torsion Testing Rig, Apparatus above.


2. The device will apply a torque to the shaft fixed between the holding clamps. Torque
is developed by applying a force of F via load handle above the system thru a distance
spindle arm
3. The measuring dial will measure the displacement of an arm handle at a fixed distance
4. This displacement is proportionally related to the angle of twist of the rod.
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

PROCEDURE

1. The initial length and initial gauge length diameter of the specimen was measured.

2. The specimen between the loading device and the torque-measurement unit into the
straining hexagon sockets was set.

3. The hand-wheel is turned as required aligning the specimen.

4. The tailstock unit was slide so that the specimen is fully into the hexagon sockets.

5. No preload on the specimen was ensured.

6. The pointer on the zero-degree point on the protractor scale was zeroed.

7. The digital torque meter reads was adjusted zero

8. The hand-wheel clockwise was turned slowly to load the specimen. It is turned only for a
defined angle increment.

9. The torque value was read from the digital torque meter and is noticed together with the
indicated angle of twist.

10. The process of steps 8 and 9 was continued until fracture occurs.

11. The experiment for other specimens was repeated.


[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

RESULTS

Aluminum
Dimension 1 2 3 Average
Initial length 50.0 50.0 50.0
(mm)
Final length 49.8 49.6 50.0 49.8
(mm)

Theoretical Value – Experimental Value


Percentage Error =| | × 100%
Theoretical Value

A) Aluminium

Torque vs Angle of Twist

Torque against Angle of Twist


12
y = 0.0512x + 7.1636
10

0
3.1416

5.5851
0.3491
0.6981
1.0472
1.3963
1.7453
2.0944
2.4435
2.7925

3.4907
3.8397
4.1888
4.5379
4.8869
5.236

5.9341
6.2831
6.6323
6.9813
7.3303
7.6794
8.0285
8.3776
8.7266
9.0757
9.4248
0

Torque against Angle of Twist Linear (Torque against Angle of Twist)

FOR SPECIMEN A
𝑇
 Gradient from the graph, = 0.0512
𝜑
7.10𝑇𝐿
 Shear Modulus, G = = 29.08MPa
𝜑𝑎4

 Theoretical Value, G for Aluminium = 28GPa


28−0.02908
 Percentage error, % = x 100 =99.99%
28
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist


400000000
350000000
300000000
250000000
200000000
150000000
100000000
50000000
0
0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450 480 510 540

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist

Shear Stress vs Strain

Shear Stress against Shear Strain


400000000
350000000
300000000
250000000
200000000
150000000
100000000
50000000
0

Shear Stress vs Strain


[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Steel
Dimension 1 2 3 Average
Initial length 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0
(mm)
Final length 51.2 51.0 51.0 51.1
(mm)

B) Steel

Torque vs Angle of Twist

Torque against Angle of Twist


20 y = 0.0278x + 14.421
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
4.3633

11.3446
0
0.8727
1.7453
2.618
3.4907

5.236
6.1087
6.9813
7.854
8.7266
9.5993
10.472

12.2173
13.0899
13.9626

15.708
16.5806
17.4533
18.326
19.1986
20.0713
1408353

Torque against Angle of Twist Linear (Torque against Angle of Twist)

FOR SPECIMEN B
𝑇
 Gradient from the graph, = 0.0278
𝜑
7.10𝑇𝐿
 Shear Modulus, G = = 15.79MPa
𝜑𝑎4

 Theoretical Value, G for Steel = 78GPa


78−0.01579
 Percentage error, % = x100 =99.99%
78
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist


700000000
600000000
500000000
400000000
300000000
200000000
100000000
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist

Shear Stress vs Strain

Shear Stress against Shear Strain


700000000
600000000
500000000
400000000
300000000
200000000
100000000
0
37.5296

40.4977
0
35.3363
36.3111
36.7985

38.017
38.5044
38.7481
39.2355
39.4792
39.7229
39.9666
40.4536
40.6977

40.6977
40.9414
41.1851
39.9184
41.4288
39.9184
39.9184
39.9184

Shear Stress vs Strain


[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Brass
Dimension 1 2 3 Average
Initial length 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0
(mm)
Final length 49.32 49.3 49.34 49.32
(mm)

C) Brass

Torque vs Angle of Twist

Torque against Angle of Twist


16
14 y = 0.0938x + 6.1839
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
4.7123
2.618

5.236

7.854
0
0.5236
1.0472
1.5708
2.0944

3.1416
3.6652
4.1888

5.7596
6.2831
6.8067
7.3303

8.3776
8.9018
9.4248
9.9483
10.472
10.9956
11.5192
12.0428
12.5664
13.0899

Torque against Angle of Twist Linear (Torque against Angle of Twist)

FOR SPECIMEN C
𝑇
 Gradient from the graph, = 0.0938
𝜑
7.10𝑇𝐿
 Shear Modulus, G = = 58.28MPa
𝜑𝑎4

 Theoretical Value, G for Brass = 40GPa


40−0.05828
 Percentage error, % = x 100 = 99.85%
40
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist


600000000

500000000

400000000

300000000
Shear Stress vs Strain
200000000

100000000

0
0 40 80 120 160 200240 280 320 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 640 680 720 760

Shear Stress vs Angle of Twist

Shear Stress vs Strain

Shear Stress against Shear Strain


600000000

500000000

400000000

300000000

200000000

100000000

Shear Stress vs Strain


[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

DISCUSSION

Based on the results of this experiment, material A, B and C has an increase of torque when
the number of rotation of the hand gear increases. The percentage error obtained for specimen
A is 99.99% whereas for specimen B is also 99.99% which is the same as specimen C. Hence
the experiments were less accurate for specimen all specimen. The value of the percentage
error turned out to be high for all specimen, and this is due to human error. More torque is
needed to twist the specimen B specimen than specimen A and C. Specimen A is less ductile
compared specimen B.
Graphs of specimen A, B and C are expected to be same. We had errors that effected our result
in a small scale. From this experiment, the error we got was calibration error in the torque
measuring unit. Also, improper loading of the socket may lead to improper data, this can be
avoided by making sure the socket is properly fixed. Incorrect values from the WP500 is also
a very effective error. This can happen due to the wrong loading method of the specimen.
Wrong loading of the specimen can lead to uneven distribution of angle of twist. Make sure
the calibration device is tightening properly before starting the experiment.
Next, the mechanical properties of the specimen are change during the experiment due to the
shear force that come from the machine. Generally, the specimen is undergoing strain
hardening and necking. During the strain hardening, the specimen pass through the plastic
deformation. The specimen was dislocated within the material. The higher force applied bring
the higher dislocation move in result. The specimen become pinned and tangled. The mobility
of dislocations and a strengthening of the specimen become decrease. This situation happens
due to the plastic deformation at a temperature low enough that atoms cannot rearrange
themselves. But the plastic deformation also depends on the ductility of the specimen. The
ductility of the specimen is different due to their own properties. Furthermore, the specimen
also will undergo necking process. So generally, necking occurs after the ultimate (maximum
load) has been reached. The specimen starts to fail due to the force and the inter granular cracks
coalesce to the point where the effective cross section of the specimen is decreased. The
specimen starts cracks to the point where the stress is now concentrated on the reduced. Finally,
the specimen will have failed which is fracture. Each specimen gives different value of torque
and angle of fracture. But the specimen still undergoes the same process such as strain
hardening and necking process.
From the results obtained at table 1, the shear modulus, G for specimen A is 28MPa. Whereas
the shear modulus for material B is 78MPa and material C is 40MPa. The theoretical value of
shear modulus of specimen A is 67GPa, specimen B is 200GPa and for specimen C is 120GPa.
From this we can see that the experimented value of all specimens is higher than its theoretical
value. This is due to random errors.
The usage of torsion in real life engineering is very important, this is because it involves things
that rotate. One common mechanical part that are subject to torsion are the shafts. When a shaft
is subjected to a torque or twisting, a shearing stress is produced in the shaft. The shear stress
varies from zero in the axis to a maximum at the outside surface of the shaft.an example of
shaft usage is in cars which is the gear shaft. Another mechanical part is the bolt. Bolts are very
important in all types of applications.
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, this experiment is about torsion test. First the experiment was tested by using
loads to measure the read-out torque, then the graph of calibration curve was drawn the
specimens are first mounted between the device and torque measuring unit. Then the hand
wheel was rotated. Every angle of rotation was noted. specimen A is done first followed by
specimen B and then specimen C. From the experiment, we have obtained the values of the
torque for both specimen A, B and C Which A is aluminium, B is steel, and C is brass. The
calculation was mainly based on the shear modulus G and the percentage error. The modulus
of shear of specimen A was 29.08MPa, specimen B was 78MPa and specimen C was 40MPa.
From this we can state that specimen A is the most ductile material compared to specimen B
and specimen C which has a lesser modulus of shear.
Based on all this calculated value, we concluded that specimen B has the strongest and least
ductile property whereas specimen A has the most ductile property and least stronger property
compared to specimen B and specimen C. From this experiment we understood that specimen
A is to be Aluminium, specimen B is to be Steel whereas specimen C is Brass our understanding
was based on the results we obtained which the shear modulus G angle of twist. This specimen
selection was based on their property. Specimen B needs more rotation to overcome its twisting
force, because it’s a hard property. Whereas specimen A twist easily because of its ductility
property. From this experiment we understood the effect of torsion test on three different types
of specimen. The objective of this experiment which is to understand the principles of torsion
testing has been achieved. What we understood from the principle of torsion testing from this
experiment is that when a specimen is subjected to torsion it will produce an angle of twist
which is then calculated to know which specimen is more brittle. By Torsion testing
manufactures can simulate real life service condition, check product quality, verify designs,
and ensure proper manufacturing techniques. The other objective which is determine the
modulus of shear, G through measurement of the applied torque and angle of twist has been
also achieved.

This experiment plays a very important role in engineering applications, this is because the
effects of torsion applies to small parts such as shafts are used in ships. Whereas bolts and are
used in many applications for example the body of the ships. This experiment is very important
in every engineering applications as it the small parts like the bolts are the one that gives the
biggest effect in the machine.
[LAB EXPERIMENT: TORSION OF NON-CIRCULAR SHAFT] NOVEMBER 21, 2018

REFERENCES

1. [book] Morrow, H. W., & Kokernak, R. P. (2007). Statics and strength of materials.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
2. [book] TORSION. (2016). S.l.: LULU COM.
3. [book] Hibbeler, R. C. (2014). Statics and mechanics of materials. Singapore:
Pearson.
4. [website] (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/torsion-shafts-
d_947.html
5. [website] TORSION OF A NON-CIRCULAR BAR - Engineering Mechanics. (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.engineeringmechanics.cz/pdf/19_1_045.pdf
6. [journal] Case, J., Chilver, L., & Ross, C. T. (1999). Torsion of non-circular
sections. Strength of Materials and Structures,492-514. doi:10.1016/b978-
034071920-6/50024-8
7. [journal] Case, J. (2014). The Torsion Of Non-Circular Shafts. The Strength of
Materials,476-488. doi:10.1016/b978-1-4831-9652-7.50078-5