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TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT PAGE

4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………...……….

4.2 Theoretical Background ………………………………………………….

4.3 Experimental Apparatus …………………………………………………..

4.4 Procedure ……………………………………………………………………

4.5 Result and Discussion …………………………………………………….

4.6 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………..

4.7 References ………………………………………………………………….

4.8 Appendix ……………………………………………………………………


1.1 INTRODUCTION

The flow rate in pipes and ducts is controlled by various kinds of valves.
Liquid flow in open channels, however, is not confined, and thus the flow rate is
controlled by partially blocking the channel. This is done by either allowing the
liquid to flow over the obstruction or under it. An obstruction that allows the liquid
to flow over it is called a weir, and an obstruction with an adjustable opening at
the bottom that allows the liquid to flow underneath it is called an underflow gate.
Such devices can be used to control the flow rate through the channel as well as
to measure it. A weir is a flow control device in which the water flows over the
obstruction.

In this experiment, the rectangular weirs and triangular weirs are been used.
Rectangular weirs and triangular or v-notch weirs are often used in water supply,
wastewater and sewage systems. They consist of a sharp-edged plate with a
rectangular, triangular or v-notch profile for the water flow. Broad-crested weirs
can be observed in dam spillways where the broad edge is beneath the water
surface across the entire stream. Flow measurement installations with broad-
crested weirs will meet accuracy requirements only if they are calibrated.
1.3. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

1) F1-13 Stilling baffle


2) Rectangular notch
3) V- notch
4) Stopwatch
5) Spirit level
6) F1-10 Hydraulics Bench

Figure 1.3.1 Hydraulics Bench

1. Stilling Baffle 5. Hydraulic Bench

2. Vernier 6. Flow Control Valve

3. Hook 7. Water Channel

4. Weir Plate (V or rectangular 8. Sump Tank