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# 2.

0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

## The flow of fluids such as water can be determined by making their

streamlines visible and easy to be visualize. A pathline is the path or trajectory
traced out by a moving fluid particle. So, in order to make a pathline of a water
visible, the use of dye or ink can be applied, so that then a long exposure
photograph of its subsequent motion and flow can be taken easily. The line
traced out by the particle is a path line of the fluid. This method usually utilize a
water table (model HM 150 flow visualization).[1]

Generally, it is known that the velocity at each point in the flow field remains
constant with time in a steady flow. However, the closer the streamlines of a
fluid situated to each other, that faster the flow speed of the fluid. As for this
experiment, the flow rate of the fluid was to be determined if a few obstacle
models of different shape are applied (square, triangle and wing).

In the water table, the reservoir tank was filled with mixed blue ink to
visualize the flow in a variety of configurations. This is called the color dye
technique. As the obstacle models applied, the blockage effects occur in flow
of the fluid. The effects occur due to the solid wall of the obstacle models that
constrained the flow of the fluid that move around the model.[2]

## Figure 2: The flow visualization of fluid with a wing-shaped obstacle

Reynolds number:
Reynolds number for a fluid flow is defined as:

u/
Re 

Where;

## u = fluid flow  = density of water  = dynamic viscosity

1. https://www.scribd.com/document/146255725/EXPERIMENTAL-FLUID-
DYNAMICS-FLOW-VISUALIZATION

2. https://www.scribd.com/document/127285999/Exp-2-Flow-Visualization-
2012
4.0 PROCEDURE
Figure 3: Apparatus setup structure

1. The flat gasket is positioned exactly onto the boreholes of the flow
chamber.
2. An obstacle models is chosen and press firmly onto the plastic plate.

3. The glass pane is laid onto the gasket on one side at supply side. The
supply valve is ensured to supply water and the glass pane is slowly
lowed down on the other side. It is vital to make sure that there are no
air bubbles. This step was repeated a few times to avoid the formation
of air bubbles.
4. All the knurled-head screws were tighten by hand. Make sure that there
no any leaks and the water does not spill over the top.

5. The water was run through the apparatus and the flow rate was
measured.
6. The blue ink was mixed with a water before it was filled into the tank.
7. The mixed blue ink was filled :
a) The valve (B) was closed.

b) The valve (9a) was slightly opened. Water flowed through the
flow chamber.
c) The reservoir tank was filled with diluted ink.
d) The valve (C) was opened and the valve (B) was slightly
opened to make the ink flow through the thin hose to the
injection bore holes.
e) The valves (B) and (C) are closed as the water at valves (C)
has a bluish colour.

## f) It is vital to make sure that there is always enough ink in the

reservoir tank to avoid the formation of air bubbles.

g) Make sure that the valve (9a) was the only opened valve during
the flow observation.

## 8. The pictures/videos of the streamlines around the selected body are

taken.
9. Steps 5 - 8 are repeated for another two different flow rates. (in
ascending order)
8.0 APPENDICES
Figure 4: Experimental results

## Figure 5: Obstacle models that used for the experiment

Figure 6: Fluid flow visualization of a square-shaped obstacles model

## Figure 7: Fluid flow visualization of a triangle-shaped obstacle model

Figure 8: Fluid flow visualization of a wing-shaped obstacle model