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THE PERFORMANCE OF

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
WHEN PUMPING ULTRA
VISCOUS PASTE SLURRIES
J. Crawford FLSmidth Krebs, USA
F. van Sittert Paterson & Cooke Consulting Engineers, South Africa
M. van der Walt Paterson & Cooke Consulting Engineers, South Africa

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
This paper demonstrates that it is possible to pump
very viscous, high yield stress slurries with limited
head and efficiency de-rating using centrifugal
pumps, provided that positive suction conditions are
maintained at all times.

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Talk Outline

§  Background  
§  Rheology  
§  Kaolin  material  proper6es  
§  millMAX  6”  x  4”  
§  Pump  test  rig  and  procedure  
§  Clear  water  test  data  
§  Kaolin  paste  test  data  
§  Pump  performance  
§  Summary  of  findings  
§  Acknowledgements  

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Background

§  Measure  centrifugal  pump  performance  when  pumping  ultra  viscous  paste  slurry    
§  kaolin  paste  slurry  
§  Yield  Stress  Range:  580  Pa  to    1  120  Pa  
§  FLSmidth  Krebs  millMAX  centrifugal  pump  

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Rheology

§  Anton  Paar  RheoLAB  QC  


§  Rota6onal  Bob,  Sta6onary  Cup  
§  Temperature  control  bath  
§  Herschel–Bulkley  model  
       
§  Bingham  plas6c:  n  =  1  

𝜏0 = 𝜏𝑦 + 𝐾𝛾 𝑛  

𝜏0 = 𝜏𝑦 + 𝐾𝐵𝑃 𝛾  

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Rheology
1800
Bingham  yield stress
1600
τy = 8.20 × 104  Cw
9.6
 

1400

1200
Bingham Yield Stress, τy (Pa)

1000

800
Tested Range
600

400

200

0
35%m 40%m 45%m 50%m 55%m 60%m 65%m 70%m
Mass Solids Concentration, Cw
Pump Test Data Kaolin @ Ambient Temp Data

Kaolin @ 50°C Data Kaolin Rheology


The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Rheology
3.00
Plastic  viscosity
K BP = µμw + 1.56 × 102  Cw
10.4
 
2.50
Plastic Viscosity, KBP (Pa.s) .

2.00

1.50

1.00 Tested Range

0.50

0.00
35%m 40%m 45%m 50%m 55%m 60%m 65%m 70%m

Mass Solids Concentration, C w .


Pump Test Data Kaolin @ Ambient Temp Data

Kaolin @ 50°C Data Kaolin Rheology


The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Material Properties

§  Solids  Density:  2.6  t/m3  


§  d90  Par6cle  size:  34.5  µm  
§  d50  Par6cle  size:  2.2  µm  

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Material Properties

100%

90%

80%
Cumulative Percentage Passing

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
1 10 100

Particle Size (µm)


The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Material Properties

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Material Properties

§  Paste  Kaolin:  Yield  Stress  =  1120  Pa  

§  75  mm  Boger  slump  cylinder  

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
millMAX Pump
Attribute millMAX Pump
Suction Size 100 NB
Discharge Size 150 NB
Impeller Size 400 mm
Impeller Tipe Closed
Number of Vanes 4
Max. Solids Passing 45 mm

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Pump Test Rig
TAG DESCRIPTION COMMENTS
KGV KNIFE GATE VALVE
BFV BUTTERFLY VALVE
50 NB BV

BV BALL VALVE
FIT FLOW INDICATING TRANSMITTER
PT PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

150 NB KGV TT TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER


VFD VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE
50 NB BV

150 NB
MAG FLOW

FIT
VENTURI

TT 200 LITER DRUMS

150 NB BFV
PT
PROGRESSIVE CAVITY PUMP
VFD PT
150x100
150 NB MILD STEEL PIPE

CENTRIFUGAL
PUMP
25 NB BV

150 NB RUBBER HOSE

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Clear Water Test Data – Efficiency
100%
Impellar tip speed - 29.3 m/s
90%

80%
Pump Head, (m/metres of mixture)

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Flow Rate, (m3/h)
P&C Clear Water Data Published Curve @ 1400 RPM

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Clear Water Test Data – Head

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Clear Water Test Data – Head

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Test Data – Head
60
Head Curves Impeller tip speed - 29.3 m/s
55

50

45
Pump Head, (metres of mixture)

40

35

30
NPSHa Curves
25

Measured  Slurry  
20

Measured  
Water  BEP
15 Cw τy Cw τy

BEP  Range
10 63.9%  m 1120  Pa 61.5%  m 766  Pa
63.4%  m 1031  Pa 89.7%  m 578  Pa
5
62.8%  m 940  Pa NPSH r Curve
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Flow Rate, (l/sec)
63.9% 63.4% 62.8%
61.5% 59.7% Water - 1400 RPM
The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Test Data – Head
35
Impeller tip speed - 29.3 m/s

30

NPSHa Curves
Pump Head, (metres of mixture)

25

20

15

10

NPSH r Curve
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Flow Rate, (l/sec)
63.9% 63.3% 62.7% 61.4% 59.6%

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Test Data – Head
60
Impeller tip speed - 29.3 m/s
55

50

45
Pump Head, (metres of mixture)

40

35

30

25

Measured  Slurry  
20

Measured  
Water  BEP
15

BEP  Range
10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Flow Rate, (l/sec)
63.9% 63.4% 62.8%
61.5% 59.7% Water - 1400 RPM
The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Kaolin Test Data – Efficiency
80%
Impeller tip speed - 29.3 m/s

70%

60%
ER = 0.80
Pump Efficiency, (%)

50%

ER = 0.60
40%

30%
ER = 0.40

20%

Measured  

Measured  
Slurry  BEP  

Water  BEP
Range
10%

0%
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Flow Rate, (l/sec)

63.9% 63.4% 62.8% 61.5% 59.7% Water - 1400 RPM

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Pump Performance

Cw   KBP   τy Pump  HR  data   Pump  ER  data  


 
63.9%m   1.491  Pa.s   1,120  Pa   0.83   0.47  
63.4%m   1.363  Pa.s   1,031  Pa   0.91   0.65  
62.8%m   1.234  Pa.s   940  Pa   0.88   0.62  
61.5%m   0.989  Pa.s   766  Pa   0.91   0.68  
59.7%m   0.728  Pa.s   578  Pa   0.97   0.78  

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Pump Performance

1.00 1.00

0.90 0.90

0.80 0.80

0.70 0.70
Head and Efficiency Ratio

Head and Efficiency Ratio


0.60 0.60

0.50 0.50

0.40 0.40

0.30 0.30

0.20 0.20

0.10 0.10

0.00 0.00
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6

Kaolin Bingham Yield Stress (Pa) Kaolin Slurry Plastic Viscosity (Pa.s)

Pump Hr Data Pump Er Data Pump Hr Data Pump Er Data

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Comparison with Walker & Goulas

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70
Head and Efficiency Ratio

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10
Walker & Goulas Tested Rep Range
0.00
1.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.0E+06 1.0E+07
Pump Reynolds Number
Walker & Goulas Hr Walker & Goulas Er

Pump Hr Data Pump Er Data


The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Summary of Findings

§  Centrifugal  pumps  can  pump  very  viscous  high  yield  stress  slurries  
§  if  sufficient  NPSHa  is  provided  
§  The  slurry  head  curves  derate  more  at  the  low  flow  rate  than  at  high  flow  rates  
§  The  pump’s  BEP  shics  to  the  lec  of  the  water  performance  curve  
§  The  pump  head  and  efficiency  ra6os  are  calculated  at  the  pump  BEP  for  slurry  
§  The  pump  head  and  efficiency  performance  decreases  as  the  Bingham  yield  stress  
and  plas6c  viscosity  increases,    
§  Theore6cal  method  provided  by  Walker  and  Goulas  remains  a  very  useful  design  
tool  
§  over  predicts  efficiency  dera6ng  by  more  than  20%  based  on  the  measured  data  
§  provide  a  conserva6ve  lower  bound  for  head  dera6ng  es6mates  

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
This paper demonstrates that it is possible to pump
very viscous, high yield stress slurries with limited
head and efficiency de-rating using centrifugal
pumps, PROVIDED THAT POSITIVE SUCTION
CONDITIONS ARE MAINTAINED AT ALL TIMES.

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
millMAX:
PATENTED ON-LINE ADJUSTABLE
WEAR RING BENEFITS

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
CONVENTIONAL FLOW
RECIRCULATION

Based on Clearance Versus Pump


Speed
CLEARANCE 1400 RPM 1700 RPM
.300 mm 0.012" 3.52% 4.03%
.432 mm 0.017" 6.06% 6.65%
.508 mm 0.020" 7.92% 8.62%
.737 mm 0.029" 13.20% 13.90%
1.000 mm 0.040" 18.70% 19.60%

Ref: R.J. Stepanoff – Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps


The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.

27
SOLIDS CONCENTRATION IS HIGHEST
AT IMPELLER SHROUDS

Concentration of
Slurry is Cv= 10%
Concentration at
Suction Shroud is
Cv= 24.6%

Reference: University of Kentucky Hydraulics Laboratory The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.

28
SUCTION SIDE WEAR PATTERN

BEFORE AFTER

Suction-Side
Wear Zones

Solids Quickly
Erode Running
Clearances

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.

29
millMAX PATENTED SOLUTION

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.

30
EXTERNAL WEAR ADJUSTMENT SCREW

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.

31
SETTING CLEARANCES

Adjustments Can be Done


Throughout the Service Life of the
Parts:

§  While the pump is running.

§  Without disconnecting the drive.

§  Without moving the impeller and


shaft assembly.

§  Without disturbing guards or v-belt


drive.

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.

32
KREBS millMAX RESULTS

Wear Life Increases 11/2 to 3 Times

millMAX Impeller after GIW at 550-750 hours


1700-2000 hours

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.

33
millMAX™ Patented Solution

Integrated in the slurryMAX, High Head and


gravelMAX designs

slurryMAX High Head

gravelMAX

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.
Acknowledgements

§  FLSmidth  
§  P&C  Laboratory  Personal  
§  Australian  Centre  for  Geomechanics,  University  of  Western  Australia  for  
permission  to  use  paper  first  presented  at  PASTE  2012    

The information contained or referenced in this presentation is confidential and proprietary to FLSmidth and is protected by copyright or trade secret laws.