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value of the $10 million?

PV 10,000,000.00

Rate 7.30%

Maturity (yrs.) 4.0

FV 13,255,584.66

2. Suppose that a life insurance company has guaranteed a payment of $14 million to a pension fund 4.5 years

insurance company receives a premium of $10.4 million from the pension fund and can invest the entire premi

annual interest rate of 6.25%, will it have sufficient funds from this investment to meet the $14 million obligati

PV 10,400,000.00

Rate 6.25%

Maturity (yrs.) 4.5

FV 13,661,977.43

Amount required 14,000,000.00

Over/(Under) (338,022.57) It will not have sufficient funds

o pay 7.3% per year for four years. What is the future

d can invest the entire premium for 4.5 years at an

meet the $14 million obligation?

3. (a) The portfolio manager of a tax-exempt fund is considering investing $500,000 in a debt instrument that p

of 5.7% for four years. At the end of four years, the portfolio manager plans to reinvest the proceeds for three

that for the three-year period, an annual interest rate of 7.2% can be earned. What is the future value of this in

PV 500,000.00

Rate 5.70%

Maturity (yrs.) 4.0

FV 624,122.66 at the end of 4 years

Rate 7.20%

Maturity (yrs.) 3.0

FV 768,872.47 at the end of 7 years

(b) Suppose that the portfolio manager in Question 3, part a, has the opportunity to invest the $500,000 for sev

obligation that promises to pay an annual interest rate of 6.1% compounded semiannually. Is this investment a

than the one in Question 3, part a?

PV 500,000.00

Rate 6.10%

Maturity (yrs.) 7.0

FV 761,450.98

Investment (b) is LESS attractive than (a) by (7,421.49)

0 in a debt instrument that pays an annual interest rate

nvest the proceeds for three more years and expects

at is the future value of this investment?

annually. Is this investment alternative more attractive

4. Suppose that a portfolio manager purchases $10 million of par value of an eight-year bond that has a coupo

interest once per year. The first annual coupon payment will be made one year from now. How much will the p

she (1) holds the bond until it matures eight years from now, and (2) can reinvest all the annual interest payme

rate of 6.2%?

Par 10,000,000.00

Coupon 7.00%

Maturity (yrs.) 8.0

Reinvestment rate 6.20%

FV of coupon pmts. 6,978,160.38

Add par 10,000,000.00

Total Value 16,978,160.38

-year bond that has a coupon rate of 7% and pays

m now. How much will the portfolio manager have if

all the annual interest payments at an annual interest

5. (a) If the discount rate that is used to calculate the present value of a debt obligation’s cash flow is increased

of that debt obligation?

The price will fall. A fundamental property of a bond is that its price changes in the opposite direction from the chang

reason is that the price of the bond is the present value of the cash flows. As the required yield increases, the present v

decreases; thus the price decreases. The opposite is true when the required yield decreases: The present value of the c

therefore the price of the bond increases.

(b) Suppose that the discount rate used to calculate the present value of a debt obligation’s cash flow is x%. Su

cash flows for this debt obligation are $200,000 four years from now and $200,000 five years from now. For wh

the present value be greater?

Cash flows that come earlier will have a greater value. As long as x% is positive and the amount is the same, the pres

the $200,000 four years from now compared to five years from now.

ation’s cash flow is increased, what happens to the price

ed yield increases, the present value of the cash flow

ses: The present value of the cash flows increases, and

five years from now. For which of these cash flows will

6. The pension fund obligation of a corporation is calculated as the present value of the actuarially projected b

paid to beneficiaries. Why is the interest rate used to discount the projected benefits important?

It is important because the present value increases as the discount rate (or interest rate) decreases and it decreases as t

Thus, in order to project the benefits accurately, we need an accurate estimate of the discount rate. If we underestimat

will be projecting more available pension funds than we will actually have.

of the actuarially projected benefits that will have to be

its important?

decreases and it decreases as the discount rate increases.

scount rate. If we underestimate the discount rate then we

7. A pension fund manager knows that the following liabilities must be satisfied. Suppose that the pension fund

sum of money that will satisfy this liability stream. Assuming that any amount that can be invested today can e

of 7.6%, how much must be invested today to satisfy this liability stream?

Years from Now Liability (in M$) Rate PV

1 2.0 7.6% 1,858,736.06

2 3.0 2,591,174.80

3 5.4 4,334,679.04

4 5.8 4,326,920.42

Total 13,111,510.33

uppose that the pension fund manager wants to invest a

t can be invested today can earn an annual interest rate

8. Consider a bond selling at par ($1000) with a coupon rate of 6% and 10 years to maturity.

Par 1,000.00

Coupon 6.0%

Maturity (yrs.) 10.0

Required yield 15.0% 16.0% 5.0% 6.0%

PV of coupon $305.83 $294.54 $467.67 $446.32

PV of Par $235.41 $214.55 $610.27 $553.68

Total Value 541.25 509.09 1,077.95 1,000.00

Delta Price -5.9% -7.2%

(a) (b) (c) (d)

From your answers to Question 9, parts b and d, what can you say about the relative price volatility of a

bond in a high-interest-rate environment compared to a low-interest-rate environment?

We can say that there is more volatility in a low-interest-rate environment because there was a greater fall of

-7.23% for the 5% to 6% rise compared to the fall of only -5.94% for the 15% to 16% rise.

o maturity.

ment?

e was a greater fall of

% rise.

9. Suppose that you purchased a debt obligation three years ago at its par value of $100,000 and nine years rem

market price of this debt obligation today is $90,000. What are some reasons why the price of this debt obligat

from time you purchased it three years ago?

The price of a bond will change for one or more of the following three reasons:

(i) There is a change in the required yield owing to changes in the credit quality of the issuer.

(ii) There is a change in the price of the bond selling at a premium or a discount, without any change in the required y

bond is moving toward maturity. In case, the bond is selling at a discount.

(iii) There is a change in the required yield owing to a change in the yield on comparable bonds (i.e., a change in the

market).

The first and third reasons are the most likely reasons for the drop in value since the bond is still nine years away from

has plummeted from $100,000 to $90,000 mainly because the credit quality of the issuer has fallen and/or the bond h

yield on comparable bonds has increased.

$100,000 and nine years remaining to maturity. The

the price of this debt obligation could have declined

issuer.

ut any change in the required yield, simply because the

er has fallen and/or the bond has plummeted because the

10. Suppose that you are reviewing a price sheet for bonds and see the following prices (per $100 par value) rep

seem to be several errors. Without calculating the price of each bond, indicate which bonds seem to be reporte

why.

Bond Price Coupon Rate (%) Required Yield (%)

U 90 6 9

V 96 9 8

W 110 8 6

X 105 0 5

Y 107 7 9

Z 100 6 6

If the required yield is the same as the coupon rate then the price of the bond should sell at its par value. This is the ca

values are typical at or near a $100 quote. If the required yield decreases below the coupon rate then the price of a bo

the case for bond W. This is not the case for bond V so this bond is not reported correctly. If the required yield increas

then the price of a bond should decrease. This is the case for bond U. This is not the case for bonds X and Y so these

correctly. Thus, bonds V, X, and Y are incorrectly reported because the change in the bond price is not consistent with

coupon rate and the required yield.

rices (per $100 par value) reported. You observe what

ich bonds seem to be reported incorrectly, and explain

pon rate then the price of a bond should increase. This is

ly. If the required yield increases above the coupon rate

se for bonds X and Y so these bonds are not reported

ond price is not consistent with the difference between the

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