5 , 283292 (1977)
SUMMARY
A new family of unconditionally stable onestep methods for the direct integration of the equations of structural
dynamics is introduced and is shown to possess improved algorithmic damping properties which can be
continuously controlled. The new methods are compared with members of the Newmark family, and the
Houbolt and Wilson methods.
INTRODUCTION
In many structural dynamics applications only low mode response is of interest. For these cases the use of
implicit unconditionally stable algorithms is generally preferred over conditionally stable algorithms.
Conditionally stable algorithms require that the size of the time step employed be inversely proportional
to the highest frequency of the discrete system. In practice this is a severe limitation as accuracy in the lower
modes can be attained with time steps which are very large compared with the period of the highest mode.
For unconditionally stable algorithms a time step may be selected independent of stability considerations
and thus can result in a substantial saving of computational effort.
In addition to being unconditionally stable, when only low mode response is of interest it is often
advantageous for an algorithm to possess some form of numerical dissipation to damp out any spurious
participation of the higher modes. Examples of algorithms commonly used in structural dynamics which
possess these properties are Houbolt’s method: the Wilson &method2 and the Newmark family of methods
restricted to parameter values of y > and /3 2 (y + +)2/4; see Reference 3. Another unconditionally stable
method of some interest has been proposed by Park.4 This method has characteristics similar to the Wilson
and Houbolt methods in linear problems, but we have not yet had an adequate opportunity to study it in
detail and thus have not included it in our comparisons.
The Newmark family of methods allows the amount of dissipation to be continuously controlled by a
parameter other than time step. For example, set3!, = ( ~ + + ) ~ /and
4 y > & ; then the amount of dissipation,
for a fixed time step, is increased by increasing y. On the other hand, the dissipative properties of this family
of algorithms are considered to be inferior to both the Houbolt and the Wilson methods, since the lower
modes are affected too strongly. (It seems all of these algorithms adequately damp the highest modes;
see Bathe and Wilson.2)
In the Wilson method, 0 must be selected greater than or equal to 1.37 to maintain unconditional stability.
It is recommended in Reference 2 that 0 = 14 be employed as further increasing 0 reduces accuracy and
further increases dissipation; but even for 6 = 1.4 the method is highly dissipative. For example, the commonly
used ruleofthumb for nondissipative algorithms requires at least ten time steps per period be taken for
accuracy. Employing this ruleofthumb, we conclude from results presented in Reference 2 that the trapezoidal
rule (p = 4 and y = 8 in the Newmark family), which is nondissipative, would result in a period elongation

of  3 per cent and no amplitude decay, which is acceptable in many engineering situations. On the other
hand, Wilson’s method, with 0 = 1.4, results in 5 per cent period elongation and 7 per cent amplitude
N
283
284 H. M. HILBER, T. J. R. HUGHES AND R. L. TAYLOR
decay. From this we conclude that the Wilson method is generally too dissipative in the lower modes,
requiring a time step to be taken that is smaller than that needed for accuracy.
Houbolt’s method is even more highly dissipative than Wilson’s method and does not permit parametric
control over the amount of dissipation present. Thus despite its shortcoming, the Wilson method is considered
by many to be the best available unconditionally stable onestep algorithm when numerical dissipation is
desired.
Since it seemed that the commonly used unconditionally stable, dissipative algorithms of structural
dynamics all possessed some drawbacks, a research effort was undertaken to see if an improved onestep
method could be constructed. The requirements of the desired algorithm were delineated as follows:
1. It should be unconditionally stable when applied to linear problems.
2. It should possess numerical dissipation which can be controlled by a parameter other than the time
step. In particular, no numerical dissipation should be possible.
3. The numerical dissipation should not affect the lower modes too strongly.
We have been able to develop an algorithm which achieves the above requirements and this paper is
devoted to a description of its properties.
In the section ‘Analysis’ we define and analyse a threeparameter family of algorithms which contains the
Newmark family. A new form of dissipation, called adissipation, is introduced by way of these algorithms.
The new oneparameter family of methods which is advocated here is a subclass contained in the three
parameter family.
In the section ‘Comparison of dissipative algorithms’ the unfavourable algorithmic dissipation possessed
by the Newmark family is demonstrated. Furthermore, we show that adissipation is similar to linear
viscous damping and, in itself, is ineffective in the higher modes. The dissipation of our new algorithms,
which consists of a combination of positive Newmark ydissipation and negative adissipation, is shown to
have improved characteristics. Results of a stability analysis of the new family are presented and its
algorithmic damping ratio and relative period error are shown to compare favourably with those of the
Wilson and Houbolt methods.
The present developments are summarized in the section ‘Conclusions’.
ANALYSIS
Consider the linear undamped matrix equations of structural dynamics
Mii+Ku = F
where M is the mass matrix, K is the stiffness matrix, F is the vector of external forces (a given function of
time), u is the displacement vector and superposed dots signify time differentiation (e.g. u = d2u/dt2 is the
acceleration vector). The initial value problem for (1) consists of finding a function u = u(t), where
t E [0, TI, T > 0, satisfying (1) and the initial conditions:
=d
~(0)
h(0) = v I
We are interested in obtaining approximate solutions of (1) by onestep difference methods. To this end
consider the family of algorithms defined by the following relations:
Ma,+l +(1 + a)Kd,n+l aKd, = F,+l, n E (0,1, ...,N  l} (3a)
do = d
v, = v
a, = Ml(F,, Kd,)
TIME INTEGRATION ALGORITHMS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 285
where N is the number of time steps, At = 7 / N , d,, v, and a, are the approximations to u(t,), u(t,) and ii(t,),
respectively in which t , = nAt, F, = F(t,), and a, ,B and y are free parameters which govern the stability
and numerical dissipation of the algorithm. If a = 0 this family of algorithms reduces to the Newmark
family. In this case if y = 4 the algorithms possess no numerical dissipation (in a sense made precise later on)
whereas if y > $ numerical dissipation is present; if /3 2 &(y + &)2 the algorithm in question is unconditionally
stable. Elaboration on these points and further properties of the Newmark family of algorithms may be
found in Reference 3.
To analyse systems such as (l), or equivalently (3a), it is convenient to invoke the property of
orthogonality of the eigenvectors and reduce down to a single degreeoffreedom. Employing the obvious
notations, the single degreeoffreedom analogues of (1) and (3a)(3c) are
MU+ KU = F (4)
M a , + 1 + ( 1 + ~ ) K d n + 1  d d n= F,+1, n€{O,l ,...,N1} (54
do = d
v, = v
UO = M l( Fo Kd,)
Dissipative and dispersive characteristics of the above algorithm can be evaluated in terms of the solution
it generates to simple pilot problems in which F= 0. In these cases (5a)(5c) can be succinctly written in the
recursive form
Xn+l = Ax,, nE{O,l, ..., N  l } (6a)
where
X, = (d,, Atv,, At2a,)T (6b)
and A is called the amplification matrix. Stability and accuracy of an algorithm depend upon the eigenvalues
of the amplification matrix. The characteristic equation for A is
det(AhI) = h 3  2 A l h 2 + A , h  A , =0 (7)
where I is the identity matrix, h denotes an eigenvalue and
A, = 4 trace A
A , = sum of principal minors of A
A, = determinant A
are invariants of A.
The spectral radius p = max{ I A,, 1 I A,l ,I A31} where A,, A, and A, are the eigenvalues of A.
The velocities and accelerations may be eliminated by repeated use of (6a) to obtain a difference equation
in terms of the displacements:
+
1 apR2 1 sB
A = ID[ yQ2 1(1+a)(y/3)Q2 1y(1+a)(ayB)Q2
R2  (1 + a ) Q2  (1 + 4 (4B) Q2
in which
D = 1 +(1 +a)BQ2
IR = wAt
w = (K/M)*
Explicit forms corresponding to (8) and (9), respectively, can be computed from (1 1):
1
A, = 1 Q2[(1 + a ) (3/+&) a/3]/2D
A, = lIR2[3/4+2a(yfl)]/D
A3 = aQ2@y $)/D +
and
dn+12dn+dn, wQ(aSy4) dndnl
5 d, A3 dn  241
+u2 +dn2 = O
At2 + D At At2
Example
Consider the case in which /3 = 0 and y = 4. For these values (12) and (13) become, respectively:
A,= 1(1+a)Q2/2
A, = 1aR2 (14)
A, =0
and
Since A, = 0 there are only two nontrivial eigenvalues of A. Thus the solution of (15) has the form
where
Al,,5 (A; A,)*
= A,
If A : < A , the eigenvalues are complex conjugate and (16a) can be written
d, = pn(docos Gt, + c sin 8 t n )
where
p=Ag
G =a/At
I2 = arctan  I)*
c = (dlA1do)/(A,A:)*
It is clear from (17) and (18) that the requirement for stable oscillatory response is A: < A , < 1 or, equivalently,
Q < 2/(1 + a ) and 0 < a. With 01 = 0 this algorithm becomes the familiar central difference method which is
nondissipative, i.e. p = 1. For positive values of a the algorithm is dissipative; the algorithm with a = +
has been used successfully in the finite difference work of Aboudi5 on elastic shockwave propagation.
TIME INTEGRATION ALGORITHMS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 287
In general, A , # 0 for the family of algorithms defined by (5) and therefore the amplification matrix has
three nonzero eigenvalues. In this case we define stability in terms of spectral stability which requires that
I
p < 1 and double roots (eigenvalues of multiplicity two) satisfy A \ < 1 ; see GeaP for further details. If the
algorithm in question is spectrally stable for all R > 0, it is said to be unconditionally stable.
It is a standard exercise to show that the algorithms defined by (5) are conuergent, i.e. for I , fixed and
n = t,/At, d,+u(t,) as AttO. A consequence of convergence is that there exists an Q,>O such that if
O<R<Q, then (7) has two complex conjugate roots ,,,XI principal roots, and a socalled spurious root A,,
which satisfy I A, I <I A,, I < 1. Under these circumstances the principal roots of (7) are
Al, = A Bi = exp [a( 5 i)] z (19)
and the solution of (9) may be written in the form
d,, = [exp ( zGt,)] (c, cos Gt, + c, sin 6tn)+ c3 A?J
where
6 =Q A t
 I
+
( = In (A2 B2)/2Q (20b)
Q = arctan @/A)
and the ti's are defined by the initial data.
As measures of the numerical dissipation and dispersion we consider the algorithmic damping ratio and z
relative period error (TT)/T,respectively, where T = 2r/w and T = 2 4 6 . Note that from (20b), both andz
T are defined in terms of the principal roots. Thus these measures of accuracy are defined only for values
of R such that 0 < R < R,. Outside this region accuracy is not an issue and we are concerned only about
stability; here p is the most important quantity since it provides information about stability and
concomitantly about dissipation.
+
For completeness we note that the logarithmic decrement 8 = In [d(t,)/d(t, r ) ]and amplitude decay
function AD = 1  d(t, + T)/d(t,) are also commonly used measures of algorithmic dissipation. Either of
these measures determines the other as AD = 1exp(8). As is clear from their definitions, AD and S can
only be determined from the discrete solution of an initialvalue problem, see Reference 2. This entails post
processing involving approximate interpolation to ascertain consecutive peak values. Since 4 is defined in
terms of the principal roots, it seems to be the preferable measure of dissipation. For small time steps all
three measures are equivalent for practical purposes. This can be seen as follows. First of all, as At/T+O,
8+0; therefore for sufficiently small At/T, the definition of AD implies that ADw8. Furthermore, for
convergent algorithms the effects of the spurious roots vanish in the limit At/T+O. Thus neglecting As in
(20a) yields 8 ~237s.
The period of the discrete solution T can also be determined analytically from (20b), rather than by solving
initialvalue problems and approximately ascertaining consecutive peak values.
In the sequel we shall show that the dissipation incurred by positive values of or is not too effective. Its
qualitative behaviour is the same as that of linear viscous damping; see Hilber’. However, by appropriately
combining negative ordissipation with particular values of j? and y a oneparameter family of algorithms with
the attributes enumerated in the Introduction can be constructed. Specifically, we take j? = (1  or)2/4 and
y = 3 a. Then the invariants of the amplification matrix become
1
A , = 1R2/2D+ A3/2
A, = 1 +2A3 (21)
A, = a( 1 + a)2R2/4D
where D = 1 + (1 or) (1  a,) R2/4.Substituting (21) into (7) yields
(AAJ(A1)2+R2A2/D = 0 (22)
In the limit Rt.0, A,,+ 1 and >,to. (In the Wilson and Houbolt algorithms A3 does not vanish in this limit.
288 H. M. HILBER, T. J. R. HUGKES AND R. L. TAYLOR
The significance of this fact does not seem to be well understood.) On the other hand, in the limit SZ +. co,for
fixed a # 1, (22) becomes
[(1 a)(1  a2)h a ( l + a)2](X 1)'+4h2 = 0 (23)
The roots of (23) are real and are depicted in Figure 1 as functions of a. This figure indicates that the
+
proposed algorithm is stable in the limit At/T+co whenever  < a < 0. It is clear from Figure 1 that decreas
ing a below  increases the spectral radius. Moreover, it was found by numerical experimentation that for
small Ar/T, 5 cannot be increased by reducing a below 5. Thus we conclude that the range of practical
interest is  5 < a < 0.
a
Figure 1. Eigenvalues of the amplification matrix in the limit h / T + w us a
0.7 1 I I I
Id2 lo' I 10 toe Id
At/T
Figure 2. Spectral radii us AtlT for new method and Newmark schemes
I .o
0.9 
0.7 
p 0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3  HOUBOLT METHOD
0.2. I
does the Wilson method indicating that it is more accurate in the lower modes yet for large At/T the
dissipation is stronger.
The point at which the spectral radius attains its minimum in Wilson's method (AtlTw3) marks the
bifurcation of the complex conjugate principal roots into real roots.
In Figure 4 the damping ratios us At/T are plotted for cases (a), (b), (c) and (d). Desirable properties for an
algorithmic damping ratio graph to possess are a zero tangent at the origin and subsequently a controlled
12
290 H. M. HILBER, T. J. R. HUGHES AND R. L. TAYLOR
0.06 
NEWMARK METHOD
( a o , P =0.3025,y=0.61
0.05 

TRAPEZOIDAL RULE WITH ODISSIPATION
( a o.i,P = 0 . 2 5 , y 8 0 . 5 )
0.03 
NEW ALGORITHM
( a =  o . i , P = 0 . 3 0 2 5 , y . 0.6)
TRAPEZOIDAL RULE
( a= 0 . P
0 . 2 5 , *~0 . 5 )
Figure 4. Damping ratios us At/T for new method and Newmark schemes
4
At/T
Figure 5. Damping ratios us At/T for new methods and Houbolt and Wilson schemes
TIME INTEGRATION ALGORITHMS IN STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 29 1
turn upward. This ensures adequate dissipation in the higher modes and at the same time guarantees that the
lower modes are not affected too strongly. Notice that for case (c) the dissipation ratio curve has positive
slope at the origin. This is typical for Newmark ydamping and is the reason why the Newmark family is felt
to possess ineffective numerical dissipation. Case (b) also possesses this property and, in addition, turns
downward as At/T increases, which further emphasizes the ineffectiveness of adissipation. On the other
hand, the dissipation ratio for case (d) has a zero slope at the origin and then turns upward.
In Figure 5 damping ratios for various values of a in the present scheme are compared with those for the
Wilson and Houbolt methods. The continuous control of numerical dissipation possible in the present scheme
is evident and the graphs show that the proposed family of algorithms possesses the desirable numerical
dissipation characteristics cited previously.
Finally, in Figure 6 the relative period error is plotted us At/T for the various cases.
CONCLUSIONS
A new family of unconditionally stable onestep algorithms for structural dynamics has been developed
which possesses improved algorithmic damping properties that can be continuously controlled. In particular,
it is possible to achieve zero damping. It is shown that there are members of the new family which are more
accurate in the lower modes than the Wilson method, yet are more strongly dissipative in the higher modes.
The new methods involve commensurate storage when compared with the Newmark and Wilson methods,
and are no more difficult to implement.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to acknowledge the support for this work provided by the United States Energy Research
and Development Administration through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
292 H. M. HILBER, T. J. R. HUGHES AND R. L. TAYLOR
REFERENCES
1. J. C. Houbolt, ‘A recurrence matrix solution for the dynamic response of elastic aircraft’. J. Aeronaut. Sci. 17. 540550
(1950).
2. K. J. Bathe and E. L. Wilson, ‘Stability and accuracy analysis of direct integration methods’, Earthq. Engng Struct. Dyn.
1. 283291 (1973).
3. 6. L. Goudreauand R. L. Taylor, ‘Evaluation of numerical methods in elastodynamics’, Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech.
Eng. 2, 6997 (1973).
4. K. C . Park, ‘Evaluating time integration methods for nonlinear dynamic analysis’, ASMEAMD, 14,3558.
5. J. Aboudi, ‘Twodimensional wave propagation in a nonlinear elastic halfspace’, J. Comp. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng.
9, 4764 (1976).
6. C. W. Gear, Numerical Initial Value Problems in Ordinary Differential Equations, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,
1971.
7. H. M. Hilber, ‘Analysis and design of numerical integration methods in structural dynamics’, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of
California, Berkeley, November, 1976.
8. R. D. Krieg and S. W.Key, ‘Transient shell response by numerical time integration’, Int. J. num. Meth. Engng, 7,273287
(1973).
Note added in proof. Since this paper was accepted for publication, Dr. S. W. Key of Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque,
New Mexico, kindly pointed out to the authors that the displacement difference equation corresponding to the algorithm
of (3) falls within a very general fourparameter class of threestep displacement difference equations considered in
Reference 8.