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Nam Cam IS considered one of the most powerful figures in Vietnam. Nam Cam,"according to local
press reports, rose to become a widely feared mob boss at the heart of a web of underground casino
operators, cockfighters, loan sharks and debt-collectors Truong Van Cam, also known as Nam Cam, is arguably
Vietnam’s most well-known gangster. Based in Ho Chi Minh City and executed in 2004, he ran a criminal
empire complete with gambling dens, hotels and restaurants that fronted for brothels. He was reportedly so
well connected to police in Ho Chi Minh City that authorities from other provinces had to be brought in to
arrest him. According to the BBC, Nam Cam has been portrayed as Vietnam's version of the Godfather. The
56-year-old mafia boss is said to have been at the heart of a 15-year killing spree in Ho Chi Minh City - as well
harbouring fugitives and being involved in gambling, bribery and prostitution rackets.


Headed by Khun Sa, one of the most ruthless drug lords during the height of his dominance.He was
considered as the King Of Golden triangle. Before his rise as a drug lord, he was a fighter with the Chinese and
even had weapons of mass destruction at his disposal for a brief time. In the 1960s, he worked with others in
the opium trade in an area known as “the golden triangle.” This area was where most of the drug trade in
Burma, Laos, and Thailand was taking place. Less than two decades later, he was heading up more than half of
the triangle’s opium trade, which was also being made into heroin.


The 14K was formed by Kuomintang Lieutenant-General Kot Siu-wong in Guangzhou, China in 1945 as
an anti-Communist action group. 14 stands for the “road number of a former headquarters” and K stands for
Kowloon. The 14K (十四K) is a Triad group based in Hong Kong but active internationally. It is the second
largest Triad group in the world with around 25,000 members split into thirty subgroups. They are the main
rival of the Sun Yee On, which is the largest Triad.


This is the oldest of Wo Group Triad Society. It has the longest history in Hong Kong Transnational
Criminal. Members are found in UK,Canada and USA. There is a small number of local born Indian and
Pakistan. It has a Central Committee composed of a body of influential and senior official. Individual Wo Shing Wo
members may get involved in drugs pirated VCD/DVD trade in the street, London Gold Scams, Money Laundering,
Vehicle Theft and Smuggling, Prostitution, Extortion, Illegal Gambling and so on. Dominates pirated VCD/DVD industry.
They not only involved in on street distribution but also the manufacturing of pirated VCD/DVD. Wo Shing Wo had
become Hong Kong's No. 1 drug trader. WSW's drug dealing activities and key criminal activities spread to China, Japan,
Thailand and Australia .This is also the year when Wo Shing Wo began to emerged in the United States.


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Chen Chi-li (11 May 1943 – 4 October 2007), nicknamed King Duck, was a gangster from
Taiwan, best known for heading the United Bamboo Gang. The United Bamboo is the largest of Taiwan's three
main Triads. They are reported to have roughly 10,000 members. The membership consists largely of
waishengren, and has close ties to the Kuomintang; they are said to be motivated as much by political
ideology as by profit. The gang gained global notoriety when it became directly involved in politics in the early
1980's. The Bamboo Union is the country's biggest organized crime group, with 68 branches and 1,171 known members
-- or more than one out of five of the nation's known gangsters -- according to recently compiled police statistics. The
United Bamboo gang has a headquarters and numerous local branches in Taiwan. The original source of the gang's
capital accumulation came from traditional organized crime activities in the 1980s, such as extortion, debt-collection,
gambling, protection, and prostitution. In the 1990s the gang added operations in legitimate businesses, such as
security, investments, bid-rigging, construction, underground banking, and the entertainment industry. There is both
intergang and intragang violence, with the main weapon being guns. The gang is not strictly hierarchical in structure:
instead, it is divided into 24 separate tongs. The gang's spiritual leader or honorary godfather is Zhang An-lo, aka the
"White Wolf".


Yakuza, also called bōryokudan or gokudō, Japanese gangsters, members of what are formally called
bōryokudan (“violence groups”), or Mafia-like criminal organizations. In Japan and elsewhere, especially in the West, the
term yakuza can be used to refer to individual gangsters or criminals as well as to their organized groups and to
Japanese organized crime in general. Yakuza adopt samurai-like rituals and bear elaborate body tattoos.

The word yakuza (“good for nothing”) is believed to have derived from a worthless hand in a Japanese card
game similar to baccarat or blackjack: the cards ya-ku-sa (“eight-nine-three”), when added up, give the worst possible
total. The origin of the yakuza themselves is difficult to determine, but they are thought to have descended either from
gangs of rōnin (masterless samurai) who turned to banditry or from bands of do-gooders who defended villages from
those same wayward samurai during the early 17th century. Their lineage may also be traced to bands of grifters and
gamblers in Japan’s feudal period.

Despite their criminal activities, the yakuza style themselves as ninkyō dantai (literally “chivalrous
organization”). While their methods are often questionable, they have been known to perform charitable acts, such as
donating and delivering supplies to earthquake victims during the Kōbe earthquake of 1995 and the earthquake and
tsunami of 2011. Over time the yakuza have shifted towardwhite-collar crime, relying more and more on bribery in lieu
of violence, and indeed in the early 21st century they were one of the least murderous criminal groups in the world.
These activities make the relationship between yakuza and police in Japan a complicated one; yakuza membership itself
is not illegal, and yakuza-owned businesses and gang headquarters are often clearly marked. The yakuza have a firm
hand in the pornography industry in japan. But that’s not all, they also have a big role in sex traffickingand firearms

The yakuza are adept at corporate blackmail and extortion. They have a specific group dedicated for this, called
sokaiya. The sokaiya gather information about the company — especially on the officers. Once they get details on
mistresses, violations swept under the rug, secret meetings, financial problems, they extort the management for
“compensation.” And the sokaiya always gets what they want.

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 Yamaguchi-gumi - created in 1915, the yamaguchi-gumi is the biggest yakuza family, accounting
for 50% of all yakuza in japan, with more than 55,000 members divided into 850 clans. Despite
more than one decade of police repression, the yamaguchi-gumi has continued to grow. From its
headquarters in kobe, it directs criminal activities throughout japan. Shinobu Tsukasa, known as the
current head of theYamaguchi, the largest yakuza syndicate since the mid 20th century. The
yamaguchi family is successful to the point where its name has become synonymous with japanese
organized crime in many parts of asia outside of japan. Many chinese or korean persons who do not
know the name "yakuza" would know the name "yamaguchi-gumi", which is frequently portrayed in
gangster filMS.
 Sumiyoshi-kai-sumiyoshi-rengo is the second largest yakuza family, with 20,000 members divided
into 277 clans. The sumiyoshi-kai, as it is sometimes called, is a confederation of smaller yakuza
groups. Its current oyabun is shigeo nishiguchi.
 Inagawa-kai-the inagawa-kaï is the third largest yakuza family in japan, with roughly 15,000
members divided into 313 clans. It is based in the tokyo-yokohama area and was one of the first
yakuza families to expand its operations to outside of japan. Its current oyabun is kiyota jiro.

o These tattoos, known as irezumi in Japan, are still often "hand-poked", that is, the ink is
inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and handheld tools with needles of
sharpened bamboo or steel. The procedure is expensive, painful, and can take years to
o Yubitsume, or the cutting off of one's finger, is a form of penance or apology. Upon a first
offense, the transgressor must cut off the tip of his left little finger and give the severed
portion to his boss. Sometimes an underboss may do this in penance to the oyabun if he
wants to spare a member of his own gang from further retaliation.

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Since their appearance in the 1800s, the Italian criminal societies known as the Mafia have infiltrated
the social and economic fabric of Italy and now impact the world. They are some of the most notorious and
widespread of all criminal societies. There are several groups currently active in the U.S.: the Sicilian
Mafia; the Camorra or Neapolitan Mafia; the ’Ndrangheta or Calabrian Mafia; and the Sacra Corona
Unita or United Sacred Crown.
The four groups have approximately 25,000 members total, with 250,000 affiliates worldwide. There are more
than 3,000 members and affiliates in the U.S., scattered mostly throughout the major cities in the Northeast,
the Midwest, California, and the South. Their largest presence centers around New York, southern New
Jersey, and Philadelphia.
Their criminal activities are international with members and affiliates in Canada, South America,
Australia, and parts of Europe. They are also known to collaborate with other international organized crime
groups from all over the world, especially in drug trafficking.
The major threats to American society posed by these groups are drug trafficking and money laundering. They
have been involved in heroin trafficking for decades. Two major investigations that targeted Italian organized
crime drug trafficking in the 1980s are known as the “French Connection” and the “Pizza Connection.” These
groups don’t limit themselves to drug running, though. They’re also involved in illegal gambling, political
corruption, extortion, kidnapping, fraud, counterfeiting, infiltration of legitimate businesses, murders, bombings,
and weapons trafficking. Industry experts in Italy estimate that their worldwide criminal activity is worth more
than $100 billion annually.

A Long History
These enterprises evolved over the course of 3,000 years during numerous periods of invasion and
exploitation by numerous conquering armies in Italy. Over the millennia, Sicilians became more clannish and
began to rely on familial ties for safety, protection, justice, and survival. An underground secret society formed
initially as resistance fighters against the invaders and to exact frontier vigilante justice against oppression. A
member was known as a “Man Of Honor,” respected and admired because he protected his family and friends
and kept silent even unto death. Sicilians weren’t concerned if the group profited from its actions because it
came at the expense of the oppressive authorities. These secret societies eventually grew into the Mafia.
Since the 1900s, thousands of Italian organized crime figures—mostly Sicilian Mafiosi—have come illegally in
USA. Many who fled here in the early 1920s helped establish what is known today as La Cosa Nostra or the

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American Mafia. Charles “Lucky” Luciano, a Mafioso from Sicily, came to the U.S. during this era and is
credited for making the American La Cosa Nostra what it is today. Luciano structured the La Cosa Nostra after
the Sicilian Mafia. When Luciano was deported back to Italy in 1946 for operating a prostitution ring, he
became a liaison between the Sicilian Mafia and La Cosa Nostra.

Sicilian Mafia
The Sicilian Mafia formed in the mid-1800s to unify the Sicilian peasants against their enemies. In
Sicily, the word Mafia tends to mean “manly.” The Sicilian Mafia changed from a group of honorable Sicilian
men to an organized criminal group in the 1920s.In the 1950s, Sicily enjoyed a massive building boom. Taking
advantage of the opportunity, the Sicilian Mafia gained control of the building contracts and made millions of
dollars. Today, the Sicilian Mafia has evolved into an international organized crime group. Some experts
estimate it is the second largest organization in Italy.
he Sicilian Mafia specializes in heroin trafficking, political corruption, and military arms trafficking—and
is also known to engage in arson, frauds, counterfeiting, and other racketeering crimes. With an estimated
2,500 Sicilian Mafia affiliates it is the most powerful and most active Italian organized crime group in the U.S.
The Sicilian Mafia is infamous for its aggressive assaults on Italian law enforcement officials. In Sicily the term
“Excellent Cadaver” is used to distinguish the assassination of prominent government officials from the
common criminals and ordinary citizens killed by the Mafia. High-ranking victims include police commissioners,
mayors, judges, police colonels and generals, and Parliament members. On May 23, 1992, the Sicilian Mafia
struck Italian law enforcement with a vengeance. At approximately 6 p.m., Italian Magistrate Giovanni Falcone,
his wife, and three police body guards were killed by a massive bomb. Falcone was the director of Criminal
Affairs in Rome. The bomb made a crater 30 feet in diameter in the road. The murders became known as the
Capaci Massacre.
Less than two months later, on July 19, the Mafia struck Falcone’s newly named replacement, Judge
Paolo Borsellino in Palermo, Sicily. Borsellino and five bodyguards were killed outside the apartment of
Borsellino’s mother when a car packed with explosives was detonated by remote control.Under Judge
Falcone’s tenure the FBI and Italian law enforcement established a close working relationship aimed at
dismantling Italian organized crime groups operating in both countries. That relationship has intensified since

Camorra or Neapolitan Mafia (based in Naples)

The word “Camorra” means gang. The Camorra first appeared in the mid-1800s in Naples, Italy, as a
prison gang. Once released, members formed clans in the cities and continued to grow in power. The Camorra
has more than 100 clans and approximately 7,000 members, making it the largest of the Italian organized
crime groups.

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In the 1970s, the Sicilian Mafia convinced the Camorra to convert their cigarette smuggling routes into drug
smuggling routes with the Sicilian Mafia’s assistance. Not all Camorra leaders agreed, leading to the Camorra
Wars that cost 400 lives. Opponents of drug trafficking lost the war.
The Camorra made a fortune in reconstruction after an earthquake ravaged the Campania region in 1980. Now
it specializes in cigarette smuggling and receives payoffs from other criminal groups for any cigarette traffic
through Italy. The Camorra is also involved in money laundering, extortion, alien smuggling, robbery,
blackmail, kidnapping, political corruption, and counterfeiting.
It is believed that nearly 200 Camorra affiliates reside in this country, many of whom arrived during the
Camorra Wars.

’Ndrangheta or Calabrian Mafia (based in Calabria)

The word “’Ndrangheta” comes from the Greek meaning courage or loyalty. The ’Ndrangheta formed in
the 1860s when a group of Sicilians was banished from the island by the Italian government. They settled in
Calabria and formed small criminal groups. There are about 160 ’Ndrangheta cells with roughly 6,000
members. They specialize in kidnapping and political corruption, but also engage in drug trafficking, murder,
bombings, counterfeiting, gambling, frauds, thefts, labor racketeering, loansharking, and alien smuggling. Cells
are loosely connected family groups based on blood relationships and marriages. In the U.S., there are an
estimated 100-200 members and associates, primarily in New York and Florida.

Sacra Corona Unita or United Sacred Crown (based in the Puglia region)
Law enforcement became aware of the Sacra Corona Unita in the late 1980s. Like other groups, it
started as a prison gang. As its members were released, they settled in the Puglia region in Italy and continued
to grow and form links with other Mafia groups. The Sacra Corona Unita is headquartered in Brindisi, located in
the southeastern region of Puglia.
The Sacra Corona Unita consists of about 50 clans with approximately 2,000 members and specializes in
smuggling cigarettes, drugs, arms, and people. It is also involved in money laundering, extortion, and political
corruption. The organization collects payoffs from other criminal groups for landing rights on the southeast
coast of Italy, a natural gateway for smuggling to and from post-Communist countries like Croatia, Yugoslavia,
and Albania.
Very few Sacra Corona Unita members have been identified in the U.S., although some individuals in Illinois,
Florida, and New York have links to the organization.

La Cosa Nostra
La Cosa Nostra is the foremost organized criminal threat to American society. Literally translated into
English it means “this thing of ours.” It is a nationwide alliance of criminals—linked by blood ties or through

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conspiracy—dedicated to pursuing crime and protecting its members.La Cosa Nostra, or the LCN as it is
known by the FBI, consists of different “families” or groups that are generally arranged geographically and
engaged in significant and organized racketeering activity. It is also known as the Mafia, a term used to
describe other organized crime groups.The LCN is most active in the New York metropolitan area, parts of
New Jersey, Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago, and New England. It has members in other major cities and is
involved in international crimes.

History of La Cosa Nostra

Although La Cosa Nostra has its roots in Italian organized crime, it has been a separate organization
for many years. Today, La Cosa Nostra cooperates in various criminal activities with different criminal groups
that are headquartered in Italy.
Giuseppe Esposito was the first known Sicilian Mafia member to emigrate to the U.S. He and six other Sicilians
fled to New York after murdering the chancellor and a vice chancellor of a Sicilian province and 11 wealthy
landowners. He was arrested in New Orleans in 1881 and extradited to Italy.
New Orleans was also the site of the first major Mafia incident in this country. On October 15, 1890, New
Orleans Police Superintendent David Hennessey was murdered execution-style. Hundreds of Sicilians were
arrested, and 19 were eventually indicted for the murder. An acquittal generated rumors of widespread bribery
and intimidated witnesses. Outraged citizens of New Orleans organized a lynch mob and killed 11 of the 19
defendants. Two were hanged, nine were shot, and the remaining eight escaped.
The American Mafia has evolved over the years as various gangs assumed—and lost—dominance over the
years: the Black Hand gangs around 1900; the Five Points Gang in the 1910s and ‘20s in New York City; Al
Capone’s Syndicate in Chicago in the 1920s. By the end of the ‘20s, two primary factions had emerged,
leading to a war for control of organized crime in New York City.
The murder of faction leader Joseph Masseria brought an end to the gang warfare, and the two groups united
to form the organization now dubbed La Cosa Nostra. It was not a peaceful beginning: Salvatore Maranzano,
the first leader of La Cosa Nostra, was murdered within six months.
Charles “Lucky” Luciano became the new leader. Maranzano had established the La Cosa Nostra code of
conduct, set up the “family” divisions and structure, and established procedures for resolving disputes. Luciano
set up the “Commission” to rule all La Cosa Nostra activities. The Commission included bosses from six or
seven families.
Luciano was deported back to Italy in 1946 based on his conviction for operating a prostitution ring. There, he
became a liaison between the Sicilian Mafia and La Cosa Nostra.

Other Historical Highlights:

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1951: A U.S. Senate committee led by Democrat Estes Kefauver of Tennessee determined that a “sinister
criminal organization” known as the Mafia operated in this nation.
1957: The New York State Police uncovered a meeting of major LCN figures from around the country in the small
upstate New York town of Apalachin. Many of the attendees were arrested. The event was the catalyst that
changed the way law enforcement battles organized crime.
1963: Joseph Valachi became the first La Cosa Nostra member to provide a detailed looked inside the
organization. Recruited by FBI agents, Valachi revealed to a U.S. Senate committee numerous secrets of the
organization, including its name, structure, power bases, codes, swearing-in ceremony, and members of the
Today, La Cosa Nostra is involved in a broad spectrum of illegal activities: murder, extortion, drug trafficking,
corruption of public officials, gambling, infiltration of legitimate businesses, labor racketeering, loan sharking,
prostitution, pornography, tax-fraud schemes, and stock manipulation schemes.

The Genovese Crime Family

` Named after legendary boss Vito Genovese, the Genovese crime family was once considered the most
powerful organized crime family in the nation. Members and their numerous associates engaged in drug
trafficking, murder, assault, gambling, extortion, loansharking, labor racketeering, money laundering, arson,
gasoline bootlegging, and infiltration of legitimate businesses.
Genovese family members are also involved in stock market manipulation and other illegal frauds and
schemes as evidenced by the recent FBI investigation code named “Mobstocks.”
The Genovese crime family has its roots in the Italian criminal groups in New York controlled by Joseph
Masseria in the 1920s. The family history is rife with murder, violence, and greed.

Early History—Masseria and Maranzano

Masseria sparked the so-called “Castellammarese War” in 1928 when he tried to gain control of organized
crime across the country. The war ended in 1931 when Salvatore Maranzano conspired with Masseria’s top
soldier, Charles “Lucky” Luciano, to have Masseria killed. Maranzano emerged as the most powerful Mafia
boss in the nation, setting up five separate criminal groups in New York and calling himself “Boss of Bosses.”
Two of the most powerful La Cosa Nostra families—known today as the Genovese and Gambino families—
emerged from Maranzano’s restructuring efforts. Maranzano named Luciano the first boss of what would later
be known as the Genovese family. Luciano showed his appreciation less than five months later by sending five
men dressed as police officers to Maranzano’s office to murder him.

Luciano, Costello, and Genovese

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With Maranzano out of the way, Luciano become the most powerful Mafia boss in America and used his
position to run La Cosa Nostra like a major corporation. He set up the LCN Commission, or ruling body,
composed of seven bosses, and divided the different rackets among the families.In 1936, Luciano was
sentenced to 30 to 50 years in prison. Ten years later, he was released from prison and deported to Italy,
never to return. When he was convicted, Frank Costello became acting boss because Genovese—then just an
underboss—had fled to Italy to avoid a murder charge. His return to the states was cleared when a key witness
against him was poisoned and the charges were dropped. Costello led the family for approximately 20 years
until May of 1957 when Genovese took control by sending soldier Vincent “the Chin” Gigante to murder him.
Costello survived the attack but relinquished control of the family to Genovese. Attempted murder charges
against Gigante were dismissed when Costello refused to identify him as the shooter.In 1959, it was
Genovese’s turn to go to prison following a conviction of conspiracy to violate narcotics laws. He received a 15-
year sentence but continued to run the family through his underlings from his prison cell in Atlanta, Georgia.
Valachi Sings—and Lombardo Leads
About this time, Joseph Valachi, a “made man,” was sent to the same prison as Genovese on a
narcotics conviction. Labeled an informer, Valachi survived three attempts on his life behind bars. Still in prison
in 1962, he killed a man he thought Genovese had sent to kill him. He was sentenced to life for the murder.The
sentencing was a turning point for Valachi, who decided to cooperate with the U.S. government. On September
27, 1963, he appeared before the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations and testified that
he was a member of a secret criminal society in the U.S. known as La Cosa Nostra. In 1969, several years
after Valachi began cooperating with the FBI, Vito Genovese died in his prison cell. By then the Genovese
family was under the control of Philip “Benny Squint” Lombardo. Unlike the bosses before him, Lombardo
preferred to rule behind his underboss. His first, Thomas Eboli, was murdered in 1972. Lombardo promoted
Frank “Funzi” Tieri, and later Anthony “Fat Tony” Salerno as his front men. Throughout the 1980s, the
Genovese family hierarchy went through several changes. Tieri, recognized on the street as the Genovese
family boss in the late 1970s, was convicted for operating a criminal organization through a pattern of
racketeering that included murder and extortion.Salerno then fronted as boss until he had stroke in 1981. In
1985, Salerno and the bosses of the other four New York families were convicted for operating a criminal
enterprise—the LCN Commission. Lombardo, his two captains in prison and his health failing, turned full
control of the Genovese family over to Gigante—the man who tried to kill Costello 30 years earlier.

Fish on the Hook

In 1986, a second member turned against the Genovese family when Vincent “Fish” Cafaro, a soldier
and right-hand-man to Anthony Salerno, decided to cooperate with the FBI and testify. According to Cafaro’s
sworn statement, Gigante ran the family from behind the scenes while pretending to be mentally ill. Cafaro said
this behavior helped further insulate Gigante from authorities while he ran the Genovese family’s criminal

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activities. Gigante’s odd behavior and mumbling while he walked around New York’s East Village in a bathrobe
earned him the nickname “the Odd Father.” After an FBI investigation, Gigante was convicted of racketeering
and murder conspiracy in December 1997 and sentenced to 12 years. Another FBI investigation led to his
indictment on January 17, 2002, accusing him of continuing to run the Genovese family from prison. He pled
guilty to obstruction of justice in 2003.
Gigante died in prison in December 2005 in the same federal hospital where Gambino family leader John Gotti
had died in 2002
The Italian American Working Group
Over the years, FBI investigations have revealed how organized criminal groups have proliferated and
impacted much of the world. Partnerships with foreign law enforcement agencies are essential to combat
global organized crime groups.Among the partnerships the FBI is involved with is the Italian American Working
Group, which meets every year. The group addresses organized crime, cyber crime, money laundering,
international terrorism, illegal immigration, cooperating witnesses, drug smuggling, art theft, extradition matters,
and cigarette smuggling. The U.S. and Italy take turns hosting the meetings.

Labor Racketeering
Labor racketeering is the domination, manipulation, and control of a labor movement in order to affect
related businesses and industries. It can lead to the denial of workers’ rights and inflicts an economic loss on
the workers, business, industry, insurer, or consumer.
The historical involvement of La Cosa Nostra in labor racketeering has been thoroughly documented:
 More than one-third of the 58 members arrested in 1957 at the Apalachin conference in New York listed
their employment as “labor” or “labor-management relations.”
 Three major U.S. Senate investigations have documented La Cosa Nostra’s involvement in labor
racketeering. One of these, the McClellan Committee, in the late-1950s, found systemic racketeering in
both the International Brotherhood of Teamsters and the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees
International Union.
 In 1986, the President’s Council on Organized Crime reported that five major unions—including the
Teamsters and the Laborers International Union of North America—were dominated by organized crime.
 In the early 1980s, former Gambino Family Boss Paul Castellano was overheard saying, “Our job is to run
the unions.”
Labor racketeering has become one of La Cosa Nostra’s fundamental sources of profit, national power, and
influence.FBI investigations over the years have clearly demonstrated that labor racketeering costs the
American public millions of dollars each year through increased labor costs that are eventually passed on to
consumers. Labor unions provide a rich source for organized criminal groups to exploit: their pension, welfare,
and health funds. There are approximately 75,000 union locals in the U.S., and many of them maintain their

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own benefit funds. In the mid-1980s, the Teamsters controlled more than 1,000 funds with total assets of more
than $9 billion. Labor racketeers attempt to control health, welfare, and pension plans by offering “sweetheart”
contracts, peaceful labor relations, and relaxed work rules to companies, or by rigging union elections. Labor
law violations occur primarily in large cities with both a strong industrial base and strong labor unions, like New
York, Buffalo, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Philadelphia. These cities also have a large presence of
organized crime figures.
Several investigative techniques to root out labor law violations: electronic surveillance, undercover
operations, confidential sources, and victim interviews. We also have numerous criminal and civil statutes to
use at our disposal, primarily through the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization (RICO) Statute. The
civil provisions of the RICO statute have proven to be very powerful weapons, especially the consent decrees.
They are often more productive because they attack the entire corrupt entity instead of imprisoning individuals,
who can easily be replaced with other organized crime members or associates. Consent decrees are most
effective when there is long-term, systemic corruption at virtually every level of a labor union by criminal
organizations. A civil RICO complaint and subsequent consent decree can restore democracy to a corrupt
union by imposing civil remedies designed to eliminate such corruption and deter its re-emergence.
The Teamsters are the best example of how efficiently the civil RICO process can be used. For
decades, the Teamsters has been substantially controlled by La Cosa Nostra. In recent years, four of eight
Teamster presidents were indicted, yet the union continued to be controlled by organized crime elements. The
government has been fairly successful at removing the extensive criminal influence from this 1.4 million-
member union by using the civil process.
We work closely with the Office of Labor Racketeering in the Department of Labor and with the U.S. Attorneys’
offices in investigating violations of labor law.



Roberto Suárez Goméz (1932 – July 20, 2000), sometimes spelled Roberto Suárez Gómez,
nicknamed "king of cocaine", was a Bolivian drug trafficker who played a major role in the expansion
of cocaine trafficking in Bolivia. He was descendent of the Suárez brothers the Madeira River in Bolivia.[1]

In the mid-1970s he began to conduct business with the Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar and after
that he started to recruit Bolivian coca producers into his company "La Corporación" (the Corporation).[2][3]

He financed the military coup that installed a dictatorship in 1980, in which Luis García Meza would be
president and Suarez's cousinLuis Arce Gómez was Minister of the Interior, and so he received political

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protection for his enterprise.[4] Arce Gómez ordered the killings of many Bolivians, including union leaders and
intellectuals such as Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz. According to some sources, the CIA knew about the coup in
advance (Straitfeild).

In a letter to Ronald Reagan in 1983 he offered to pay Bolivia's foreign debt of more than $3 billion if he
and his son got amnesty.[3][5]He was also under protection of the DEA through most of the eighties until his
activities were too notorious. In 1988 he was arrested and sentenced to 15 years in the San Pedro prison for
drug crimes, but he was released in 1996 during the government of Sánchez de Lozada. Four years later he
died of a heart attack.[3][5] The character Alejandro Sosa in the 1983 American crime film Scarfaceand the 2006
video game Scarface: The World Is Yours has been inspired from Goméz.[6]


Hesus Hernando Gutierrez Mansilla was a Bolivian drug lord, cocaine trafficker, and at one point head of
the Santa Cruz Drug Cartel. He was the son of Alfredo "Cutuchi" Gutierrez who was also a notorious drug lord.
Commonly known as "Nando" he gained notoriety when he was arrested in 1993 for his alleged involvement in
the Narco Statue case where authorities seized a large amount of cocaine concealed inside tiny statues that
were to be exported. According to Gutiérrez, he was taken to a detention house immediately after his arrest
where he was tortured by Bolivian FELCN and DEA agents. He was never convicted and was out on parole
within a few years.

In December 2007 Gutierrez was arrested in Paraguay when he was caught with 20 kilos of cocaine at the
port of Mariano Roque Alonso, just North of the capital city of Asunción. In November 2008 Gutierrez was
killed during a prison riot along with two of his henchmen at the Tacumbu Prison in Asuncion Paraguay. It is
suspected that the riot was orchestrated and financed by someone outside of the prison for the sole purpose of
killing Gutierrez.In 2011 Vice President of Bolivia Garcia Lineras gave a speech on how his administration
inherited a government penetrated by drug trafficking in which he partly blames Gutierrez and the Narco Statue

Oscar Danilo Blandón Reyes (born 1952) was the head of Nicaragua's agricultural imports
under Anastasio Somoza. He has a master's degree in marketing. When the Somoza government was
overthrown in 1979, Blandón fled to the United States,[1] and then raised money for the Nicaraguan Democratic
Force (FDN), a Contra group. As part of his fundraising activities Blandón sold drugs and weapons (via Ronald
Lister and "Freeway" Rick Ross) to the Crips in Los Angeles. Blandón claimed that the Central Intelligence
Agency protected him, allowing him to operate without fear of reprisal. Journalist Gary Webb substantiated the
claim in his book Dark Alliance.[2]

Mary Grace Guevarra-Escabel 12

In 1986, Blandón was arrested on drug charges by the FBI. In May 1992, Blandón was convicted in US District
Court (San Diego) on the federal charge of "conspiracy to possess cocaine with intent to distribute." He was
sentenced to 24 months in federal prison, but was released due to time served. Following his imprisonment,
Blandón was hired by theDrug Enforcement Administration and salaried at $42,000. He worked for the DEA to
take down drug kingpin Rick Ross in a sting operation, for which Ross was convicted in 1997.[3]

Jorge Solano Moreta (born c. 1970), also commonly known as Wes Solano, is an
admitted drug seller from Puerto Rico. Gorge Solano Moreta came into the Puerto Rican public's eye during
the late 1980s and early 1990s, as many violent events took place in the Bayamon area. The newspapers
commonly pointed Solano Moreta and his gang as the perpetrators of many criminal acts, and linked Solano
Moreta with the Puerto Rican mafia. It was during that era that he became widely known as Wes by the
general Puerto Rican public.

According to United States law records, Solano Moreta controlled drug trafficking at the Virgilio
Dávila residential since 1992. This caused for a drug war between his allegued gang and other gangs
of Puerto Rico's metropolitan area. From 1992 to 1995, Solano Moreta was featured on many articles on the
crime section of Puerto Rico's newspapers
What is a drug cartel?
>Drug cartel is any criminal organization developed with the primary purpose of promoting and
controlling drug trafficking operations. They range from loosely managed agreements among various drug
traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises. The term was applied when the largest trafficking
organizations reached an agreement to coordinate the production and distribution of cocaine.

The Medellín Cartel was an organized network of drug suppliers and smugglers originating in the city
of Medellín, Colombia. Thedrug cartel operated in Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Honduras, the United States, as
well as Canada and Europe throughout the 1970s and 1980s. It was founded and run by Ochoa Vázquez
brothers Jorge Luis, Juan David, and Fabio together with Pablo Escobar. By 1993, the highly effective
resistance group Los Pepes and the Colombian government, in collaboration with the Cali Cartel, right-wing
paramilitary groups, and the United States government, had successfully dismantled the cartel by imprisoning
or assassinating its members.

At the height of its operations, it smuggled tons of cocaine each week into countries all over the world and
brought in at least $420,000,000 per week.[1] For a time the Medellin Cartel supplied at least 84%-90% of the
United States and 80% of the global cocaine marke

Mary Grace Guevarra-Escabel 13


The Cali Cartel was a drug cartel based in southern Colombia, around the city of Cali and the Valle del
Cauca Department. Its founders were the Rodríguez Orejuela brothers, Gilberto and Miguel, and José
Santacruz Londoño, also known as "Chepe". They broke away from Pablo Escobar and his Medellin
associates in the late 1980s when Hélmer Herrera, also known as "Pacho", joined what became a four-man
executive board that ran the cartel.[1]

With connections to British mercenaries, allies among countries, countless spies and informants in the
government and its vast intelligence and surveillance network throughout the city of Santiago de Cali, the cartel
was once renowned and compared to the Russian KGB by the American DEA, calling it "The most powerful
crime syndicate in history", later called "The Cali KGB".

At the height of the Cali Cartel's reign, they were cited as having control over 90% of the world's cocaine
market and for being directly responsible for the growth of the cocaine market in Europe, controlling 90% of the
market.[2] By the mid-1990s, the trafficking empire of the Cali Cartel was a multibillion-dollar enterprise. he Cali
Cartel leadership was made up by Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela El Ajedrecista (The Chess Player), Miguel
Rodriguez Orejuela El Señor (The Lord),José Santacruz Londoño El Estudiante (The Student), or Chepe
Santacruz, Jorge Alberto Rodriguez "Don Cholito", Helmer Herrera Buitrago Pacho. Some top associates
were Victor Patiño-Fomeque El Quimico (The Chemist) or La Fiera (The Beast), Henry Loaiza Ceballos El
Alacrán (The Scorpion), andPhanor Arizabaleta-Arzayus.


The Norte del Valle Cartel, or North Valley Cartel, was a drug cartel that operated principally in the
north of the Valle del Caucadepartment of Colombia. It rose to prominence during the second half of the
1990s, after the Cali and Medellín Cartels fragmented, and it was known as one of the most powerful
organizations in the illegal drugs trade. The drug cartel was led by the brothers Luis Enrique and Javier
Antonio Calle Serna, alias "Los Comba", until its takedown in 2012 by the authorities of the United States. It is
alleged that the Norte del Valle cartel was formed after an event where the brothers Miguel Rodríguez
Orejuela and Gilberto Rodríguez Orejuela, leaders of the Cali Cartel, came to an agreement with the
Colombian government that if they surrendered themselves and their organization to the Colombian justice
system they would be given perks, such as imprisonment in Colombian prisons for not more than five years
and the promise of no expropriation of their substantial assets. It is stated that they organized a meeting with
their lieutenants, main subordinates, and junior partners in the business, to inform them that the decision had
already been taken to stop all the illicit business immediately. Those members who refused this sudden

Mary Grace Guevarra-Escabel 14

dissolution, including Carlos Alberto Rentería Mantilla, Juan Carlos Ortiz Escobar, Juan Carlos Ramírez
Abadía, Diego León Montoya Sánchez, and Orlando Henao Montoya, formed the North Valley cartel.


The North Coast Cartel (Spanish: Cartel de la Costa or Cartel de la Costa Atlántica) was a drug
cartel operating in northernColombia between in 1980 and 2010, mostly controlling the area of the Colombian
Caribbean coast illegal drug trade flow from other regions of Colombia and neighboring countries and local
production. Its operations center was the city of Barranquilla. Other name was the Barranquilla's cartel (in
Spanish cartel de Barranquilla). The leader of this cartel Alberto Orlandez Gamboa aka El Caracol (The Snail),
who in a vendetta eliminated the Valdeblanquez family. He was arrested on June 6, 1998 and extradited later
to the United States where he pleaded guilty for numerous drug-related crimes.



The Sinaloa Cartel (Spanish: Cártel de Sinaloa or CDS)[7] is an international drug trafficking, money
laundering, and organized crime syndicate.[8] Established during the mid-1980s,[9] the Sinaloa Cartel is based
primarily in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa,[10] with operations in the Mexican states of Baja
California, Durango, Sonora, and Chihuahua.[11][12] The cartel is also known as theGuzmán-Loera
Organization and the Pacific Cartel, the latter due to the coast of Mexico from which it originated. The cartel
has also been called the Federation and the Blood Alliance.[11][13][14][15] The 'Federation' was partially
splintered when the Beltrán-Leyva brothers broke apart from the Sinaloa Cartel.[16]

The United States Intelligence Community considers the Sinaloa Cartel "the most powerful drug trafficking
organization in the world"[17] and in 2011, the Los Angeles Times called it "Mexico's most powerful organized
crime group."[18] The Sinaloa Cartel is associated with the label "Golden Triangle", which refers to the states
of Sinaloa, Durango, and Chihuahua. The region is a major producer of Mexican opium and marijuana. [16] The
Sinaloa Cartel used to be known as La Alianza de Sangre ("Blood Alliance").[24] When Héctor Luis Palma
Salazar (a.k.a. El Güero) was arrested on 23 June 1995, by elements of the Mexican Army, his
partner Joaquín Guzmán Loera took leadership of the cartel.[12][25]Guzmán was captured in Guatemala on 9
June 1993, and extradited to Mexico, where he was jailed in a maximum security prison, but on 19 January
2001, Guzmán escaped and resumed his command of the Sinaloa Cartel. Guzmán has two close
associates, Ismael Zambada García and Ignacio Coronel Villareal.[26][27] Guzman and Zambada became
Mexico's top drug kingpins in 2003, after the arrest of their rival Osiel Cardenas of the Gulf Cartel.

Mary Grace Guevarra-Escabel 15

The Tijuana Cartel (Spanish: Cártel de Tijuana) or Arellano-Félix Organization (Spanish: Cártel
Arellano Félix - CAF) is now a small Mexican drug cartel based in Tijuana. The cartel once was described as
"one of the biggest and most violent criminal groups in Mexico"[4] however since the 2006 Sinaloa Cartel
incursion in Baja California and the fall of the Arellano-Félix brothers, the Tijuana Cartel has been reduced to a
small group of scattered cells.
The Guadalajara Cartel (Spanish: Cártel de Guadalajara) was a Mexican drug cartel which was
formed in the 1980s by Rafael Caro Quintero, Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo and Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo in
order to ship heroin and marijuana to the United States. Among the first of the Mexican drug trafficking groups
to work with the Colombian cocaine mafias, the Guadalajara cartel prospered from the cocaine trade.


The Gulf Cartel (Spanish: Cártel del Golfo, Golfos, or CDG)[3][4] is a criminal syndicate and drug
trafficking organization in Mexico,[5]and perhaps the oldest organized crime group in the country.[6] It is
currently based in Matamoros, Tamaulipas, directly across the border from Brownsville, Texas.

Their network is international, and are believed to have dealings with crime groups in Europe, West
Africa, Asia, Central America,South America, and the United States.[7][8] Besides drug trafficking, the Gulf
Cartel operates through protection rackets,assassinations, extortions, kidnappings, and other criminal
activities.[9] The Gulf Cartel is known for intimidating the population and for being "particularly violent."[10]

Although its founder Juan Nepomuceno Guerra smuggled alcohol in small quantities to the United
States during the Prohibitionera,[11] it was not until the 1970s that the cartel was formed

e.Los Zetas

Los Zetas (pronounced: [los ˈsetas], Spanish for "The Zs") is a Mexican criminal syndicate,
considered by the US government to be "the most technologically advanced, sophisticated, and dangerous
cartel operating in Mexico."[6][7] The origins of Los Zetas date back to the late 1990s when commandos of
the Mexican Army deserted their ranks and began working as the enforcement arm of the Gulf Cartel.[8][9] In
February 2010, Los Zetas broke away from their former employer and formed their own criminal

Mary Grace Guevarra-Escabel 16

Unlike other traditional criminal organizations in Mexico, drug trafficking makes up only around 50% of the
revenue of Los Zetas, while a large portion of their income comes from other activities directed against rival
drug cartels and civilians.[8] Their brutal tactics, which include beheadings to terrorize their rivals and intimidate
them, torture, and indiscriminate slaughter, show that they often prefer brutality over bribery.[8] Los Zetas are
Mexico's largest drug cartel in terms of geographical presence, overtaking their rivals, the Sinaloa
Cartel.[12] Los Zetas also operate through protection rackets, assassinations, extortion, kidnappings and other
activities.[13] The organization is based in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, directly across the border from Laredo,

Mary Grace Guevarra-Escabel 17