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August 09

€ Psychographics is the quantitative investigation of


consumers’ lifestyles, personality, values,
attitudes, and demographics.

€ Lifestyle and personality are different, yet are


closely related.
related
MKTG203
Week 9 € Lifestyle refers to the external manifestations of how
a person lives. In contrast, personality refers to the
internally based dispositions of the person.

€ Lifestyle refers to how people live, how they spend


their money, and how they allocate their time.

€ A set of human characteristics associated with a brand. € 5 dimensional instrument to assess the set of human
characteristics associated with a brand
€ Attaching a human personality (ie: traits) to a brand.

€ The personality of a brand enables the consumer to express his or her € Sincerity (Campbell's, Hallmark, Kodak, Kleenex)
own self, ideal self, or specific dimensions of the self through the use of ƒ Down-To-Earth: family-oriented, small-town, conventional,
a brand.
blue-collar, all-American
€ Key way to differentiate a brand in a product category. ƒ Honest: sincere,
sincere real,
real ethical
ethical, thoughtful
thoughtful, caring
ƒ Wholesome: original, genuine, ageless, classic, old-fashioned
€ A central driver of consumer preference and usage. ƒ Cheerful: sentimental, friendly, warm, happy

€ A common denominator that can be used to market a brand across


cultures. € Excitement (Porsche, Absolut, Benetton, Mazda, Apple)
ƒ Daring: trendy, exciting, off-beat, flashy, provocative
€ = the outward face of the brand, the characteristics most closely ƒ Spirited: cool, young, lively, outgoing, adventurous,
associated with human traits eg: fun, sophisticated, ruggedly
individualistic, exciting, sincere, funky. ƒ Imaginative: unique, humorous, surprising, artistic, fun
ƒ Up-To-Date: independent, contemporary, innovative,
€ Jennifer Aaker developed a scale to measure brand personality. aggressive

€ Competence (Amex, CNN, IBM, Insurance companies, € Lifestyle:


LG) ƒ A pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of
ƒ Reliable: hardworking, secure, efficient, trustworthy, careful how he or she spends time and money
ƒ Intelligent: technical, corporate, serious
ƒ Successful: leader, confident, influential € Lifestyle Marketing Perspective:
ƒ Recognises that people sort themselves into groups on
€ S hi ti ti (L
Sophistication (Lexus, M
Mercedes,
d R l
Revlon, Li dt)
Lindt) th b
the basis
i off thi
things th
they lik
like tto d
do, h
how th
they lik
like tto
ƒ Upper Class: glamorous, good-looking, pretentious, spend their leisure time, and how they choose to spend
sophisticated their disposable income
ƒ Charming: feminine, smooth, sexy, gentle
€ How we live is a reflection of not only who we are, but of
€ Ruggedness (Levi's, Marlboro, Nike, Harley Davidson, trends in society and reflections of our culture
Pajero, SUVs)
ƒ Outdoorsy: masculine. € Lifestyle is simply the way individuals live. And the way we
ƒ Western: active, athletic live is shaped and formed through social interaction as the
ƒ Tough: rugged, strong, no-nonsense individual moves through the lifecycle.

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August 09

Psychographics € Originally, research into


€ People have different consumer activities, interests
ƒ perceptions about benefits or value of products/services and opinions (AIO) were used as
ƒ motivations; what makes consumers want to buy
an approach to constructing
€ More precise target marketing efforts psychographic profiles.
ƒ beyond demographics
| demographics - age, sex, income, geography or other ‘quantifiable’ common
ƒ Activities
characteristics | Activity questions ask consumers
y identifying who buys (or who will buy) to indicate what they do, what
y usually more mass-market driven they buy, and how they spend
~ one communication is devised to reach the entire audience in the belief their time.
that they are all essentially very similar.
ƒ Interests
y simpler to devise the communication message and tool and to implement
| Interest questions focus on what
ƒ Includes:
| shared common habits, activities, interests, beliefs or desires
the consumers’ preferences and
priorities are.
| spending patterns, brand conscious, response to promotional efforts, how
they go about buying ƒ Opinions
€ Less communication (and budget) wastage | Opinion questions ask for

ƒ Capture insights; create profiles of consumers- vivid & practical profiles consumers’ views and feelings on
such things as world, local, moral,
ƒ Researchers use statements designed to identify relevant aspects of a consumers’ economic, and social affairs.
personalities, interests, attitudes, beliefs, values about a topic
ƒ Captures the why of CB, buyer behaviour

€ Marketers found the AIO dimensions too narrow to € VALS


fully capture consumer psychographics or lifestyles. ƒ 35 attitude and 4 demographic questions.
ƒ Classified respondents into three primary motivations:
€ Today, psychographic analysis includes: | 1. Ideals motivated: individuals guided in their choices by their beliefs and
principles rather than their feelings or desire for approval.
ƒ Attitudes: evaluations about other people, places,
ideas, products… | 2. achievement motivated: individuals heavily influences by the actions,
opinion and approval of others.
ƒ Values: widely held beliefs about what is acceptable
and/or desirable | 3. self-expression motivated: desire social or physical activity and variety and
are resistant to social controls that threaten their sense of self reliance.
ƒ Activities and interests: non-occupational behaviours to y These motivations determine the types of goals and behaviours that
which consumers devote time and effort. individuals will pursue and the types of products they are likely to buy.
ƒ Demographics: age, education, income, occupation,
family structure, ethnic background, gender and € Levels- reflect the ability of individuals to pursue their primary motives.
geographic location. ƒ Refers to the range of psychological, physical, demographic and material means
ƒ Media patterns: the specific media that consumers use upon which consumers can draw.
e.g. tv, magazines, internet. | High resources, high innovation

ƒ Usage rates: measurements of a consumers level of | Low resources, low innovation

consumption within a specific product category e.g. | Resources = energy, self-confidence, intellectualism, leadership, age,
light, medium, heavy, or non-users. education, and financial ability

Innovators: successful, sophisticated, active, take charge people


with high self esteem and abundant resources. Like the finer things

VALS
in life.

Thinkers and believers: Ideals motivated consumers who seek to


make their behaviour consistent with their views of how the world is
or should be.
•Thinkers: mature, satisfied, comfortable people who value
order, knowledge and responsibility.
• Choose product based on functionality, value and € Position and differentiate product based upon the
durability. dominant personality or psychographic characteristic of
•Believers: conservative, conventional people with concrete the target market.
beliefs based on traditional established codes from family,
church and community.

Achievers and Strivers: achievement motivated.


€ Psychographic analysis can be used to scan the
•Achievers: successful career and work-oriented people, deeply
environment to identify the dominant cultural values of
committed to work- provides sense of duty and prestige. the target market.
• Image is important.
important Like established
established, prestige goods
and services that demonstrate success to their peers.
•Strivers: look to others to indicate what they should be and € Use market research to identify the personality, self-
do. Seek motivation, self definition and approval from the concept, and psychographic characteristics that distinguish
world around them. the target market.
• Emulate those who own more impressive
possessions.

Experiencers and Makers: self expression motivated.


€ Develop promotions to be consistent with the dominant
•Experiencers: Young, vital, enthusiastic, impulsive and
personality characteristics of target market.
rebellious. ƒ Create products that fulfill the motivational needs of
• Spend income on clothing, fast food, music, movies target.
and videos.
•Makers: practical people, value self-sufficiency.
• Like practical and functional possessions. 42 € Use personality and psychographics to identify segments of
Survivors: Chronically poor, poorly educated, low-skilled. Their
consumers to target.
chief concerns are security and safety.
•Cautious consumers. Loyal to favourite brands.

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August 09

BRAND PERSONALITY???

EXAMPLE
http://www.burberry.com/

BRAND PERSONALITY
€ Sincere
ƒ Honest: sincere, real, ethical, thoughtful, caring
ƒ Wholesome: original, genuine, ageless, classic, old-
fashioned

€ Sophistication
S hi ti ti
ƒ Upper Class: glamorous, good-looking, pretentious,
sophisticated

€ Excitement
ƒ Daring: trendy, exciting, off-beat
ƒ Spirited: cool, young, lively, outgoing, adventurous,
ƒ Imaginative: unique
ƒ Up-To-Date: independent, contemporary, innovative

What are the segments targeted by


the brand? DEMOGRAPHICS
€Burberry has three segments
based on what consumers value:
ƒ Luxury as Functional

ƒ Luxury as Reward

ƒ Luxury as Indulgence

Source: Adapted from Gunter & Furnham (1992)

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August 09

ACTIVITIES INTERESTS

Source: Adapted from Gunter & Furnham (1992)


Source: Adapted from Gunter & Furnham (1992)

LUXURY AS REWARD LUXURY AS FUNCTONAL


Achievers: successful career and work-oriented people,
Innovators: successful, sophisticated, active,

OPINIONS VALS
deeply committed to work- provides sense of duty and
prestige. Image is important. Like established, prestige take charge people with high self esteem and
goods and services that demonstrate success to their abundant resources. Like the finer things in life.
peers.

LUXURY AS INDULGENCE

Experiencers: Young, vital, enthusiastic, impulsive and rebellious.


Spend income on clothing, fast food, music, movies and videos.

Source: Adapted from Gunter & Furnham (1992)

€ What is the target audience?


€ The pictures depict € What do they like about your product/service?
two very different € What do they like about your competitor's product/service?
What made them decide to buy your product/service?
“ideal” vacations. €
€ Did they know which brand they were buying before they
purchased it?
€ What advertising messages had they seen prior to buying?
€ How can psychographic € How much disposable or discretionary income do they have
available for this type of purchase?
segmentation help € What are their hobbies?
identify target markets € What emotional aspects impact their purchase?
for each type of € What is their social class or status?
Who is the actual decision-maker for this type of purchase?
vacation? €
€ What values and attitudes play a part in this type of
purchase?
€ Who do they look to when making purchasing decisions?