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EfEito ansiolítico da acupuntura rEduz ansiEdadE

Como no tratamento do stress e depressão, a acupuntura é forte aliada no combate aos transtornos de ansiedade. Associadas ou não
à psicoterapia e ao uso de drogas, as aplicações promovem relaxamento físico e mental, bem-estar e não causam efeitos colaterais. Apreensão,
inquietação, aperto no tórax, palpitações, desarranjo intestinal, cefaléia e suor excessivo são alguns dos desagradáveis sintomas da ansiedade. 0
tratamento recomendado é quase sempre a psicoterapia associada ao uso de ansiolíticos, com bons resultados até mesmo no curto prazo. No
entanto, os incômodos efeitos colaterais resultantes do uso destes remédios, entre eles sonolência e alteração da qualidade do sono, prisão de
ventre, excitação emocional, variações de apetite e até mesmo dependência física e psicológica, muitas vezes acabam gerando outras
complicações. Com a acupuntura, associada ao tratamento psiquiátrico e psicoterapêutico, ou utilizada exclusivamente, o uso de ansiolíticos
pode ser reduzido ou até mesmo suspenso, livrando assim o paciente de efeitos colaterais. Isso porque a acupuntura tem efeito sedativo e
ansiolítico, agindo na liberação de substâncias do sistema nervoso central, entre elas a endorfina, dopamina, encefalina e serotonina. A
encefalina, por exemplo, além de diminuir a dor, age no sistema límbico (a parte do encéfalo que controla as emoções), gerando bem-estar e
conseqüente relaxamento mental. A liberação de tais substâncias, promovida pelas aplicações, é fator importante no tratamento de distúrbios
como a ansiedade, depressão, síndrome de pânico e outros, além de atuar no controle de manifestações físicas como palpitação, distensão
abdominal e gastrite. A duração e intensidade do tratamento depende das características de cada pessoa, mas normalmente durante o primeiro
mês faz-se duas aplicações por semana, reduzindo-se a partir do segundo mês. Após a segunda semana de tratamento pode-se iniciar, de forma
lenta e progressiva, o processo de redução dos remédios.
Dr. Chen Sin Yuan

Doenças tratáveis pela Acupuntura


Para melhor compreensão dos leitores, alguns termos médicos estão acompanhados pelas denominações mais conhecidas. Além das
indicações abaixo, a Acupuntura apresenta ampla ação terapêutica em várias doenças e sintomas não incluídos nesta lista. A avaliação médica é
fundamental para o estabelecimento do diagnóstico correto e do tratamento adequado. Muitas vezes, o uso de outras terapias é indispensável.
Por isso, o papel de seu médico acupunturista é importante. Isso significa que a acupuntura é um recurso terapêutico importante, mas não é a
“cura de todos os males”. Quando houver dúvida, consulte sempre o seu médico.
REGIÃO CERVICAL, OMBROS E MEMBROS SUPERIORES

DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Dor muscular dor decorrente de traumatismo esportivo, por erro de postura e/ou
Relaxamento muscular e antiinflamatório
tensão emocional. Exemplo: dor no trapézio e distensão muscular.

Cervicalgia dor cervical de causas variadas, com duração curta ou crônica.


 limiar da dor, analgésico, relaxamento muscular e 
Dor do ombro dor no ombro por causas variadas. Exemplo: bursite, tendinite, inflamação
artrose

Tendinite (LER/DORT) inflamação dos tendões. Exemplo: tendinite no ombro,


tendinite nos antebraços e punhos.

Epicondilite lateral e medial (cotovelo de tenista ou cotovelo de golfista) dor na Analgésico, relaxamento muscular e antiinflamatório
região lateral e medial do cotovelo por esforço, repetições de movimento.

Ombro congelado perda da mobilidade e dor no ombro

REGIÃO LOMBAR E QUADRIL


DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Lombalgia aguda dor súbita na região lombar causada por esforço físico e/ou movimento
inadequado

Lombalgia crônica dor na região lombar de longa duração por causas variadas e complexas
Analgésico, relaxamento muscular e
Dor ciática dor na região lombar, glútea, coxa, perna e pé, pode ser causada por hérnia de antiinflamatório
disco, contratura do músculo piriforme

Espondilite anquilosante rigidez parcial ou total na coluna vertebral impossibilitando os


movimentos e causando dor

MEMBROS INFERIORES
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Tendinite patelar inflamação do tendão patelar Analgésico, relaxamento muscular e


antiinflamatório
Bursite patelar inflamação da bolsa que envolve a patela
Osteoartrose de joelho alteração não inflamatória da cartilagem do joelho causando dor e
estalidos

Distensão (entorse) do tornozelo: torção de grau leve sem lesão dos ligamentos do tornozelo.

Sinovite/tendinite do tornozelo inflamação do tornozelo

Fasciíte plantar inflamação da camada que cobre a musculatura da planta do pé

Dor no pé dor nos músculos, ligamentos, com ou sem lesão nessa estrutura.

OUTROS
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Dor no pós-operatório de qualquer origem


Analgésico, miorelaxante, ansiolítico (reduz a ansiedade),
Fibromialgia doença de causa desconhecida, que se caracteriza como dor e outras antiinflamatório (melhora do sono)
anormalidades, como insônia, depressão, alterações intestinais e ou urinárias, etc.

Osteoartrite osteoartrose, artrose.

Distrofia simpático reflexa dor muscular com alterações da pele (cor, suor, pelos,
Analgésico, antiinflamatório (melhora circulação local)
unhas), atrofia e edema muscular

Distúrbios circulatórios má- circulação

Dor pós-herpética dor que permanece após infecção pelo vírus da Herpes Zoster.
Analgésico, antiinflamatório, redução da ansiedade
Dor decorrente de lesão de nervos por diabetes

REUMATOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Dor articular (nas juntas) –reumatismo Artrites de causas variadas. Ex. artrite
Analgésico, relaxante muscular, antiinflamatório
reumatóide, artrite gotosa por depósito de ácido úrico.

Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Antiinflamatório, analgésico

Síndrome de Sjögren ausência da secreção das glândulas lacrimais, glândulas Analgésico, antiinflamatório, aumentar produção de
salivares e das vias digestivas superiores e poliartrite crônica secreções

CEFALÉIA (dor de cabeça)


DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Cefaléia do tipo tensão associada à tensão emocional e muscular aguda ou crônica

Enxaqueca (migrânea) dor de cabeça, latejante, geralmente unilateral, acompanhada de Analgésico, antiinflamatório, ansiolítico
náuseas, vômitos, sensibilidade à luz e som

Dor craniofacial dor situada na região do crânio e face de diversas causas

Cefaléia por disfunção têmporo-mandibular (alteração da função da articulação


têmporo-mandibular-ATM) Analgésico, antiinflamatório, relaxamento
Cefaléia cervicogênica causada por alteração de músculos, tendões e irritação de nervos muscular
occipitais

Outros tipos de cefaléia

APARELHO URINÁRIO
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Analgésico, antiinflamatório, atuação na motricidade do


Cólica renal dor provocada por “pedra” no rim
ureter

Prostatite inflamação da próstata


Analgésico, antiinflamatório
Cistite intersticial inflamação da bexiga crônica
Retenção urinária pós-parto Ansiolítico, relaxamento uretral

Dor e urgência urinária

Ejaculação precoce
Ansiolítico, melhora da função e da libido
Disfunção sexual masculina não orgânica alteração da ereção do pênis, de causa
emocional

Retenção urinária pós-traumática Ansiolítico, relaxamento uretral, analgésico

APARELHO GENITAL FEMININO (GINECOLÓGICO)


EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS
COMPROVADOS

Tensão pré-menstrual (TPM) alterações emocionais, cólicas, cefaléia, dor nas mamas, dores
musculares, etc.
Antiinflamatório, analgésico, ansiolítico
Dismenorréia primária cólicas menstruais, sem causa aparente

Síndrome do climatério irritabilidade, fogachos (calores), insônia, ansiedade, depressão

Hiperemese gravídica excesso de vômitos durante a gravidez Contra vômito

Hipogalagtorréia produção insuficiente de leite durante a amamentação Aumento da produção de leite

Dor durante o trabalho de parto Analgésico, ansiolítico

Dor causada por endometriose Analgésico, antiinflmatório

Indução do trabalho de parto Aumento das contrações uterinas

NÁUSEAS E VÔMITOS
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Pós-operatório, gestação, pós-quimioterapia e radioterapia Inibição dos vômitos, ansiolítico

GASTROENTEROLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Excesso de salivação (sialorréia) Equilíbrio da secreção salivar, ansiedade, estresse

Gastroenterite aguda (náuseas, vômitos, diarréia) Analgésico, antiinflamatório, equilibrio da motilidade gastrointestinal

Má-digestão (dispepsia), distúrbios da motilidade gástrica Equilíbrio da motilidade gastrointestinal

Dor de estômago (epigastralgia) úlcera péptica, gastrite, espasmo Analgésico, antinflamatório, alívio do estresse e da ansiedade,
gástrico equilíbrio da motilidade gástrica

Azia, hiperacidez ou diminuição da secreção gástrica Equilíbrio da secreção gástrica: inibição ou ativação. Analgésico

Constipação (prisão de ventre) diminuição da freqüência de evacuação

Síndrome do cólon irritável anormalidades intestinais, dores, cólicas,


empaxamento, alterações emocionais Analgésico, antiinflamatório, equilíbrio da motilidade intestinal, alívio da
ansiedade e do estresse
Cólica intestinal aguda ou crônica

Colite ulcerativa crônica (inflamação do cólon)

Dor de pancreatite crônica Analgésico, antiinflamatório, antiespasmódico

Cólica biliar (colecistite) inflamação da vesícula por cálculo Analgésico, antiinflamatório, equilíbrio da motilidade da vesícula biliar

Hemorróidas Analgésico, antiinflamatório

ODONTOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS
Dor de origem dental
Analgésico, antiinflamatório
Dor pós-operatória odontológica

Dor por disfunção têmporo-mandibular: alteração da função da ATM


Analgésico, relaxante muscular
Dor por anormalidades da oclusão (mordida)

DOR FACIAL (INCLUINDO ANORMALIDADES CRANIOFACIAIS E MANDIBULARES) – FACE - SEIOS DA FACE - BOCA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Dor facial de origem dentária


Analgésico, antiinflamatório
Neuralgia do trigêmeo

Dor facial atípica (de origem desconhecida) Analgésico, antiinflamatório, relaxante muscular

ALERGIA E IMUNOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU
EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS
SINTOMAS

Broncodilatação (dilatação dos brônquios), ansiolítico, antiinflamatório, melhora da


Asma, bronquite
imunidade

Rinite alérgica Antialérgico, melhora da imunidade

Urticária Antialérgico, ansiolítico

DERMATOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Acne (adolescentes), acne vulgar, eczema Antiinflamatório, ansiolítico

Dermatite de contato, coceira


Alívio de sintomas, antiinflamatório, ansiolítico
Psoríase

Herpes zoster lesão na pele, doença de origem


Analgésico, antiinflamatório
viral

TRANSTORNOS PSIQUIÁTRICOS
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Estresse, ansiedade, insônia, depressão, bulimia, compulsão por


comida

Hiperatividade infantil
Ansiolítico, antidepressivo
Manifestações psicossomáticas palpitações cardíacas

Enurese noturna

Tabagismo, alcoolismo, dependência química

SISTEMA NERVOSO
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Paralisia facial periférica paralisia da face decorrente de anormalidades


dos nervos faciais Antiinflamatório, relaxamento muscular. Ansiolítico
Dor na musculatura da face

Vertigem, zumbido Melhora da circulação cerebral

Síndrome do túnel do carpo lesão compressiva do nervo mediano no


punho Antiinflamatório, analgésico
Neuropatia diabética lesão neurológica causada por diabetes mellitus
Seqüelas de AVC (acidente vascular cerebral) Vasodilatador cerebral, relaxamento muscular, ansiolítico

Trigemialgia Analgésico, antiinflamatório

APARELHO CARDIOCIRCULATÓRIO
EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS
COMPROVADOS

Hipertensão arterial leve Ansiolítico, vasodilatador

Angina pectoris Vasodilatador, ansiolítico

Fenômeno de Raynaud (distúrbios circulatórios das


Vasodilatador
extremidades )

HEMATOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Leucopenia diminuição de glóbulos brancos Estimulação da produção de glóbulos brancos

PNEUMOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Asma, bronquite
Broncodilatador, ansiolítico
Doença cardiopulmonar crônica

ENDOCRINOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Obesidade Ansiolítico, redução do apetite

OTORRINOLARINGOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Dor de garganta (incluindo amigdalite)

Rinite Analgésico, antiinflamatório

Dor de ouvido

Zumbido, tontura e vertigem


Vasodilatador
Diminuição de audição não traumática

OFTALMOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Dor no olho, conjuntivite Analgésico, antiinflamatório

INFECTOLOGIA
DOENÇAS OU SINTOMAS EFEITOS PROVÁVEIS E COMPROVADOS

Infecções em geral Analgésico, antiinflamatório, ansiolítico sintomático, melhora da


Hepatite B, estado de portador imunidade

30 la puBlicaciÓn dE MEdicina cHina nuMEran 46


sEptiEMBrE dE 1994
El Tratamiento del emocional en psicópata Disturbio por Acupunctura con referencia particular para el Du Mai por Peter Deadman y
Mazin Al que los acupunturistas Khafaji Most tendrán convidados desordena del shen como episodios de insomnio, de epilepsia, manic,
depresión etcétera . usando proposiciones como BL-62 Baihui DU-20, Shenting DU-24, Renzhong DU-26, Wangu GB-12, Shenmai etcétera. Tales
tratamientos son a menudo poderosos y efectivos, pero imploran la pregunta de qué tan exactamente ellos afecte el shen. Como dice el dicho “ es
todo muy bien en la práctica, pero lega eso trabajo en teoría ”.
Este artículo breve, por consiguiente, está principalmente afectado con la paradoja aparente entre el Heart Shen y las tradiciones
brainshen en medicina china. Sucedió como resultado de intentar a entender las muchas indicaciones del psychoemotional encontradas en textos
tradicionales para las proposiciones del Du Mai y canales Bladder. Esta curiosidad, advertido nosotros a quien escribir a personas diversas que
consideramos tener un conocimiento y comprensión especial de tradiciones y lenguas clásicas chinas. De estos, Heiner Fruehauf (del Instituto
para el Tradicional Medicine en Portland, Oregon) en particular, respondido con una visión general profunda de la relación entre tradiciones
diferentes dentro de historia china de medicina y un número de citas traducidas de lenguas clásicas Daoist y otras fuentes históricas. Estamos
especialmente endeudados para su contribución. Giovanni Maciocia también respondió con muchas citas útiles y un énfasis en la interrelación
entre los Kidneys, jing, cerebro, Du Mai, Heart y shen. Este artículo, cuál es pretendido principalmente llevar la atención a este súbdito y
promocionar debate, es principalmente por consiguiente una combinación de estas contribuciones con el trabajo ejecutado en preparar el próximo
Manual de Acupuncture.
Un examen cuidadoso de las indicaciones de las proposiciones de acupuntura escoró en diversos derrames clásicos y modernos de
textos que un número considerable de ellos ha estado usado para el tratamiento de desórdenes emocionales en psicópata.
Hay proposiciones importantes en cada canal, pero ciertos generalisations pueden estar hechos que es de ayuda en la selección de
proposiciones adecuadas para el tratamiento.

1. Las proposiciones del Heart y los canales Pericardium son de importancia primaria desde que puedan directamente tratar al Heart y
shen. Por ejemplo:
• Tongli He-5: Gimiendo y la tristeza, el miedo de personas, zang disorder1 inquieto, dolor y agitación del Heart, tristeza y el susto,
disorder2 propenso a depresión, frecuentan palpitaciones de bostezo, de susto, el maceo del corazón.
• Shenmen He-7: Las palpitaciones, las palpitaciones de susto, martillando del corazón, insomnio, el desorden descontento del zang, la
conversación frecuente durante el sueño, la memoria escasa, la depresión de manía disorder3, la epilepsia, la demencia, el deseo a reírse, risa
alocada, las personas ofensivas, suspirando, tristeza, miedo y susto, la desorientación, la agitación Heart, la falta de voz.
• Shaofu He-8: La tristeza y la preocupación con qi disminuido, miedo, miedo de personas, excesivas suspirando, garganta plumstone,
epilepsia.
• Shaochong He-9: Las palpitaciones, martillando del corazón, desorden de depresión de manía, la epilepsia, la epilepsia de susto,
excesiva suspirando, susceptibilidad a la cólera, el susto y la tristeza con qi disminuido, enfermedad febril con agitación y la inquietud.
• Ximen P-4: Heart agitado, insomnio, melancolía, tristeza y miedo, miedo de personas, insuficiencia del shen qi, epilepsia.
• Jianshi P-5: Las palpitaciones repentinas, la opresión del pecho, aprensivo, la susceptibilidad al susto, el desorden repentino de susto
en children4, la epilepsia, la manía, la manía repentina, manic delirando, agitación e inquietud, distracción, memoria escasa, falta de voz, mal del
fantasma.
• Neiguan P-6: El insomnio, la epilepsia, la manía, la memoria escasa, el miedo y el susto, la pérdida de sabiduría, pérdida de voluntad,
pérdida de la memoria siguiendo windstroke.
• Laogong P-8: La epilepsia, el desorden de depresión de manía, el susto, la tristeza, lo aprensivo, la susceptibilidad a enojar, desorden
descontento del zang, risa incesante en la desgracia del otro.

2. Algunas proposiciones del Intestino Delgado canalizan, para el ejemplo Zhizheng SI-7 (el desorden de depresión de manía, el miedo
y el susto, la tristeza y la ansiedad, el desorden descontento del zang), también desórdenes del regalo del shen debido a la relación pareada
Intestine’s Pequeña con el Heart. Zhizheng SI-7 es el punto de luo-connect del canal del Intestino Delgado, asociándose con el canal Heart. Esto
se refleja en su nombre ‘ Branch del Upright ’, el ser ‘ derecho ’ el canal Heart. El Guide para los Classics de condiciones Acupuncture “que las
proposiciones de luo-connect son halladas entre dos canales ... si ellos es pinchado, entonces los síntomas del exteriorlyinteriorly relacionaron
canales pueden ser tratados ”. Zhizheng SI-7 tiene un efecto pronunciado en regular y calmando al Shen. Los Methods de Acupuncture y
Moxibustion del Golden Dan La Imagen de Medicine, más específicamente recomiendan a Zhizheng SI-7 para “ la depresión y anudamiento de
todas las siete emociones ”.

3. Las proposiciones de canal del yangming son fuertemente indicadas, especialmente en el tratamiento de desórdenes de shi-type
como la depresión de manía y de manía el desorden. Esto puede estar clarificado por cuatro factores: Yo . las proposiciones del canal Stomach,
para el ejemplo Fenglong ST-40, soy importante para resolver frialdad de ánimo - un factor etiológico importante en tales desórdenes, tales
proposiciones ii. del canal del Intestino Grueso es importante para aclarar calor del cuerpo, y es la combinación de flema y el calor que está bajo
de las manifestaciones más severas de desórdenes emocionales en psicópata; El iii.
El canal Stomach Divergent introduce el Corazón, la digestión armoniosa iv. se considera una condición previa para un shen tranquilo,
y así el Ling Shu (el Capítulo 30) declara “ Cuando el Stomach e Intestines son co-ordinated los cinco órganos del yin es tranquilo, la sangre es
armonizada y la actividad mental es estable. El Mind se deriva del ser refinado de agua y comida ” 5. Estos factores ayudan a explicar las
siguientes indicaciones:
• Yangxi L.I.- 5: El desorden de depresión de manía, la enfermedad febril con Heart agitado, manic delirando, propensión para la risa,
sedes los fantasmas, el susto.
• Taiyi ST-23: El desorden de depresión de manía, la agitación, la lengua empujando, manic caminando.
• Fenglong ST-40: Sitio hundido de manía el desorden, la risa alocada, la felicidad extrema, el deseo al que ascender templos semitas
y cantar, querer desvestirse y correr de un lado a otro, fantasmas de inquietud, de sedes, indolencia, epilepsia.
• Jiexi ST-41: La epilepsia, el espasmo, la manía, la agitación, la tristeza y el lagrimeo, las palpitaciones de susto, el calor Stomach con
desvarío, ven fantasmas.
• Chongyang ST-42: Sitio hundido de manía el desorden, el deseo a ascender para los templos semitas y cantar, desear desvestirse y
marchar aproximadamente.
• Lidui ST-45: El fantaseo excesivo, asustadizo con deseo a sueño, el insomnio, el mareo, el sitio hundido de manía el desorden, el
deseo a ascender para los templos semitas y cantar, querer desvestirse y correr de un lado a otro.

4. El canal Spleen se conecta con el zang Heart y su función salubre yun hua ambos provee la base para la nutrición correcta del Heart
por sangre, y asegura transformación y transporte correcto de fluidos corporales, así impidiendo la formación de flema (un factor etiológico
importante en los desórdenes emocionales en psicópata) y tratándolo una vez levantado. En caso de Gongsun SP-4, dos factores adicionales son
notables: Yo . que es el punto confluente del Chong Mai, que colchas en el pecho, e ii. que es el punto de luo-connect del canal Spleen, y él es
una única característica del luo-connect apunta de los canales del yin (Lieque LU-7, Tongli HE-5, Dazhong KID-4, Neiguan P-6 y Ligou LIV-5) que
tienen efectos importantes en los desórdenes emocionales en psicópata.
• Yinbai SP-1: La agitación, suspirando, la susceptibilidad para la melancolía, el desorden de depresión de manía, el fantaseo
excesivo, el insomnio, viento crónico de susto, el colapso del cadáver.
• Gongsun SP-4: El desorden de depresión de manía, manic hablando con muy deficiencia para beber, de insomnio y de inquietud, de
dolor en el corazón, de la Vesícula Biliar, muy suspirando.
• Shangqiu SP-5: El desorden de depresión de manía, la agitación con sed, manera de pensar excesiva, propensión para la risa, las
pesadillas, Heart melancólico, crónico, viento de susto de infancia, la epilepsia de susto de infancia.
• Sanyinjiao SP-6: Las palpitaciones, el insomnio, la deficiencia de la Vesícula Biliar.
• Daheng SP-15: La susceptibilidad para la tristeza, suspirando.

5. Ciertas proposiciones del canal Pulmonar son indicadas, ya sea por su efecto en el po alma / corpóreo (e.g.
Tianfu LU-3), o porque su influencia en el zong / recogiendo qi ayuda a resolver balance de sangre y malnourishment consiguiente del
Heart y shen (e.g. Taiyuan LU-9).
• Tianfu LU-3: La somnolencia, el insomnio, la tristeza, llorando, ghost-talk6 del cadáver distraído y olvidadizo, flotante, melancólica
conversación llorosa del fantasma.
• Taiyuan LU-9: La agitación con dolor en el corazón acompañó por el pulso agitado, manic delirando.

6. Las proposiciones del canal Renal son indicadas para su para habilidad para alimentar yin y armonizar y enfriar fuego Heart (e.g.
Taixi KID-3 y Zhaohai KID-6), para arraigar rebelión ascendente de fuego, yang y viento (e.g. Yongquan KID-1) o tratar el zhi / energizará (e.g.
Dazhong KID-4). Por ejemplo:
• Yongquan KID-1: La agitación, el insomnio, la memoria escasa, la incapacidad a hablar, susceptibilidad para temer, enoje con deseo
para matar a las personas, el desorden de depresión de manía, la falta de voz.
• Taixi KID-3: El insomnio, la excesiva memoria soñadora, escasa.
• Dazhong KID-4: Las palpitaciones, la agitación, la demencia, la somnolencia, la tendencia a cólera, miedo y susto, la susceptibilidad a
temer, desee cerrar la puerta y quedarse en casa.
• Zhaohai KID-6: El insomnio, la somnolencia, la epilepsia de la noche, la tristeza, el susto, las pesadillas.

7. Las proposiciones de la Vesícula Biliar y los canales Liver están indicados pues los desórdenes emocionales en psicópata
caracterizados por el estancamiento de qi y su subsiguiente transformación en calor que puede levantarse para disturbar el Heart, y para los
desórdenes del alma / etéreo huno (por ejemplo el insomnio y el miedo). Es interesante, sin embargo, para notar que un punto como LIV-3
Taichong que está muy usado en la práctica moderna para tratar desórdenes como la depresión, la irritabilidad, frustración etc . tiene muy pocas
indicaciones de este tipo en ya sea los textos tradicionales o modernos.
• Zhejin GB-23: Suspirando y la tendencia para la tristeza, el insomnio, calor en el bajo vientre.
• Riyue GB-24: Suspirando y la tendencia para la tristeza, calor en el bajo vientre.
• Zuqiaoyin GB-44: Las pesadillas, el insomnio, la agitación y la inquietud, la agitación y el calor de las manos y los pies.
• Xingjian LIV-2: La tendencia a enojar, tristeza, susceptibilidad para asustar, locura, insomnio, palpitaciones, epilepsia.
• Ligou LIV-5: La garganta del plumstone, la depresión, muy eructando, las palpitaciones de susto, el miedo y el susto.
• Zhangmen LIV-13: La agitación y el calor con una boca seca, tendencia a cólera, la susceptibilidad para temer, insomnio, manic
caminando, epilepsia, depresión con incapacidad para tomar una respiración satisfactoria.

8. Lo back-shu7 y proposiciones de front-mu, así como también ciertas proposiciones del Du Mai, es indicado en el tratamiento de
desórdenes emocionales en psicópata diversos, principalmente debido a su acción en su fu o zang correspondiente, por ejemplo:
Xinshu BL-15: La memoria escasa, la ansiedad, llorando con pesar, el insomnio, el fantaseo excesivo, no hablando en nombre de los
años, el xu del corazón asustado y el desarrollo vigilante (cuidadoso), atrasado de discurso, el desorden de la depresión - manía, la epilepsia, la
demencia, la alocada sensación andante, ansiosa y reducida en el pecho con incapacidad para tomar una respiración satisfactoria.
• Ganshu BL-18: Mucha cólera, mucho desorden de depresión de manía, mucha epilepsia.
• Danshu BL-19: Las palpitaciones de susto con sueño infundado, insomnio.
• Gaohuangshu BL-43: La memoria escasa, las palpitaciones, el insomnio, la manía del fuego de flema.
• Jinsuo DU-8: La cólera hiere al Liver, manía, el andar alocado, la epilepsia muy hablante,, la epilepsia de susto.
• Shendao DU-11: La tristeza y la ansiedad con memoria escasa, palpitaciones de susto, distracción, timidez con dificultad para
respirar, aprensivo, epilepsia.
• Shenzhu DU-12: El alocado desvarío andante, delirante, las sedes los fantasmas, se enfurece con deseo matar a las personas.
• Juque REN-14: Las palpitaciones de susto, la memoria escasa, la manía, el desorden de depresión de manía, la aversión a despedir,
tendencia para maldecir y regañar duramente otros, discurseando y delirando, cólera, epilepsia con vómito espumoso.
• Jiuwei REN-15: Los cinco tipos de epilepsia, manía, alocado canto andante, alocado, cosas que disgustan oyendo el sonido de
voces.
ADEMÁS DE las proposiciones listadas de arriba, quién es aquel cuyas indicaciones pueden estar clarificadas por su acción en qi,
sangre, flema, shen, huno, po y zhi, hay otro grupo de proposiciones que demandan una explicación muy diferente. Éstas son proposiciones en (o
haciendo mella) canales que introducen el i.e del cerebro.
Las proposiciones del Du Mai y los canales Bladder, y las proposiciones localizadas en la cabeza y el cuello. Por ejemplo:
• Houxi SI-3: La epilepsia, el desorden de depresión de manía.
• Tianzhu BL-10: La manía, la conversación incesante, las sedes los fantasmas, la epilepsia, la epilepsia de infancia.
• Shenmai BL-62: El desorden de depresión de manía, las palpitaciones, el insomnio.
• Yuzhen BL-9: La locura, manic caminando, epilepsia.
• Wangu GB-12: La epilepsia, la manía, la agitación mental, el insomnio.
• Changqiang DU-1: La epilepsia de manía, de susto, el andar alocado.
• Fengfu DU-16: La manía, el incesante andar hablante, alocado y el deseo para cometer suicidio, tristeza y tenga miedo con
palpitaciones de susto.
• Baihui DU-20: Las palpitaciones de susto, la memoria escasa, la falta de vigor mental, incapacidad para escoger palabras,
distracción, la tristeza muy llorosa, y gritando con deseo a morir, ventilar epilepsia, manía.
• Shenting DU-24: El desorden de depresión de manía, asciende para templos semitas y canta, descarta ropa y echa a andar
aproximadamente, mímica otro personas palpitaciones de discurso, de susto, insomnio, pérdida del conocimiento, thrusting8 de la lengua.
• Renzhong DU-26: El desorden de depresión de manía, la epilepsia, la risa impropia, la risa inesperada y el llanto, el habla sin
conciencia de estado alto o bajo de una persona, escribe para otro ataque.
Hay ciertamente una contradicción aparente aquí dentro de la teoría china de medicina. El concepto que el shen se guarda en el Heart
es de curso un axioma de teoría china de medicina y es sobre el que se dio testimonio en las lenguas clásicas diversas, para el ejemplo el Ling
Shu:
“El Heart monitorea las vasijas; Las vasijas son la residencia del shen 9 ”.
“Cuando la sangre y qi están ya en la armonía, el ying y wei ya comunicante, lo cinco zang ya formado, el shen residirán en el Heart10.
“El Heart es el master genial de lo cinco zang y seis el fu y la residencia del jing shen11 ”;
Y el Su Wen:
“El Heart almacena al shen12 ”.
Al mismo tiempo, hay muchas referencias clásicas para el concepto del shen siendo almacenados en la cabeza y golpean en el
cráneo, para el ejemplo el Su Wen:
“La cabeza es la residencia del intelligence13 ” el Xiuzhen Shishu:
“El cerebro es el antepasado de la forma del cuerpo y el lugar de reunión de lo 100 shen14 " el Neijing (no el Inner Canon pero Daoist
Internal Mirror) 15:
“El cerebro es el portal ancestral del cuerpo, el capital donde el concurso 10,000 shen ” Sun Si Miao, en los 1000 Ducados:
“La cabeza es la lídera suprema, el lugar donde los concentrados man’s shen ” Li Shi Zhen:
“El cerebro es la residencia del shen original ” el Ben Cao Bei Yao 16:
“Todo lo de memoria de una persona reside en el cerebro ”.
Tres factores principales pueden ayudar a clarificar esta dificultad teórica: Yo las tradiciones . diferentes dentro de medicina china, ii. la
influencia de medicina moderna, e iii . la interrelación del Heart, sangre, jing, cerebro y shen.
Las tradiciones diferentes dentro de medicina china Both antes y después la apariencia del Neijing, las tradiciones diferentes son
aparentes dentro de los campos anchos de medicina china, preservación de práctica espiritual y de salud.
En las veces Neijing, una más percepción estructural del cuerpo humano colocó el cerebro como el órgano principal en cargo de
activity17 mental. Del Neijing hacia adelante, cuando el estudio de medicina divergió y creció más independiente de sus raíces Daoist, una más la
vista funcional y del cuerpo desarrollada, basó en el predominio de lo cinco zang y seis el fu y sus correspondencias (especialmente cinco
correspondencias de fase), el cerebro siendo ‘ relegada ’ para el estado de un fu adicional, y el Heart convirtiéndose en el soberano del cuerpo y
la residencia del shen. Esta divergencia está reflejada en el Neijing que dice que entiendo eso hay algo de Daoists que tiene una comprensión
completamente diferente de la naturaleza de un zang y un fu. algún punto de vista que el cerebro y la médula son zang ... considerando la idea de
otros de ellos como fu. Si son presentados con una vista aparte de la de ellos, se afierran a que sólo su interpretación es right18.
Más tarde los textos esotéricos Daoist fuertemente los influenciaron a ciertos doctores geniales del Tang, Yuan y dinastías Ming como
Sun Simiao, Zhang Jingyue y Li Shizhen19, y su comprensión del papel del cerebro, y el canal principal de acupuntura que lo influencia a eso, el
Du Mai, otra vez introducido la longitud total de un violín de teoría china de medicina. Al mismo tiempo, ninguno de estos doctores desafiaron la
teoría del Heart Shen como ser esencialmente contradictorios para la teoría de brain-shen.
La influencia de medicina moderna Durante la dinastía Qing y la era Republicana, el conocimiento de anatomía de la novela del Oeste
comenzaron a infiltrar China. Un autor que es considerado para haber estado influenciado por estos desarrollos fue Wang Qingren20 que en el
capítulo ‘ On el Brain ’ (en Corregir a los Errors de Medicine 1830) declaró “que la inteligencia y la memoria confían en el cerebro ”.
El libro de Wang fue publicado y distribuyó junto con UN Treatise Nuevo en Anatomy, una traducción de textos básicos de medicina de
la novela del Oeste por un Benjamin Hobson misional médico inglés y su Chen Xiutang asistente.
La interrelación del Heart, Kidneys, Jing, cerebro y Shen.
Todos los aspectos del organismo humano se derivan de la integración del jing de los padres.
Los puntos de vista Ling Shu:
“La vida sucede a través del jing; Cuando lo dos jing (de madre y padre) se une, forjan al shen21 ”.
Los puntos de vista Zhang Jie Bin:
“Lo dos jing, un yin y un yang, se unen ... a forjar vida;
El jing de madre y padre se unen a forjar al shen22 ”.
En otras palabras el jing prenatal, derivativo de los padres, está el origen de la existencia del ser humano y la fuente originaria del
shen.
Hasta donde la teoría del zangfu es afectada, son los Kidneys que almacenan jing, y al mismo momento que producen médula y llenan
el cerebro. Así las condiciones Ling Shu: “El cerebro es la Sea de Marrow23 ”.
Éste es el significado, por consiguiente, de las declaraciones por Li Shizhen:
“El cerebro es la residencia del shen original ”.
Y Yangxing Yanming Lu:
“Shen, ese es jing. Si podemos conservar a jing, entonces luego el shen será brillante; Si el shen es brillante, habrá life24 largo ”.
Otros autores han acentuado la relación entre el cerebro y el Heart, lo cual es otra reflexión de la relación vital entre el Heart y Kidneys,
fuego y agua. Los puntos de vista Leizheng Zhizai25:
“El shen del ser humano radica en el Corazón, y jing de Heart confía enteramente en el Kidney. Así, el cerebro es la casa de la tienda
del shen original, el mar de médula del jing, y esto está donde la memoria viene de ”.
El Ling Jian Zi26 clásico Daoist declaró:
“El Qi del Heart está vinculado con el Niwan Palace por encima de ”.
‘Niwan ’ (‘ el Pegajoso Pellet ’ o ‘ Mud Forma En Forma De Bola Palacio ’), es conocido como ‘ Huangting ’ (El Palace Amarillo). El
Niwan en la tradición Daoist es el central de los nueve palacios del cerebro donde todo el concurso diversos del shen, y considera es la posición
de la base material del shen. Niwan es debatido en lenguas clásicas diversas Daoist, por ejemplo:
“El origen de jing-shen en el cerebro es también llamado Niwan27 ”.
“El shen entero que expresa en la cara tiene su origen en Niwan ” 27.
“En lo alto del cuerpo humano, hay Tiangu Niwan, esto lo lo donde el shen se guarda ... Tiangu, ese es el Palace Original, la residencia
del Original Shen, donde el brillo mental y espiritual existe, el aspecto más importante de Shen ” 28.
Es el canal extraordinario, el Du Mai, lo cual sirve del enlace entre los Kidneys, Heart y cerebro. Cuatro sendas están clásicamente
descritas para este canal. Su primera parte se origina en el bajo vientre, emerge en el perineo, el posteriorly de carreras a lo largo del midline del
sacro y el interior de la columna vertebral para Fengfu DU-16 en la nuca, entra en el cerebro, asciende para el vértice, baja a lo largo del midline
de la cabeza para el puente de la nariz y el philtrum y termina en la unión del labio superior y la goma. Su segunda senda se origina en el bajo
vientre, baja hasta el perineo, vientos alrededor del ano, asciende el interior de la columna vertebral e introduce las Disposiciones. Su tercera
senda se origina en el bajo vientre, asciende para el centro del ombligo, atraviesa el Corazón, asciende para la garganta, los vientos alrededor de
la boca y asciende para debajo del centro del ojo. Su cuarta senda emerge en Jingming BL-1, sigue el canal Bladder bilateralmente a lo largo de
la frente, las ramas bilaterales convergen en el vértice y entran en el cerebro, el solo canal emerge en Fengfu DU-16 y divide otra vez,
descendiendo el directo Dazhu BL-11 y Fengmen BL-12 a lo largo de ya sea lado de la columna vertebral para los Kidneys.
Esta vinculación del Heart y cerebro fue a la que se aplicó por Cheng Xing Gan que dijo:
“Cuándo Marrow está lleno, pensante es claro. Demasiadas pistas de manera de pensar para fuego Heart que quema el cerebro ... el
Marrow están arraigadas en el jing y conectan hacia abajo con el Du Mai; Cuando el ming los hombres calientan y alimentan, la médula está llena
”.
En conclusión, por consiguiente, el Du Mai es el canal que media entre el cerebro y el Heart. Clínicamente muchos de sus
proposiciones puede estar acostumbrado a tratar una colección variada de desórdenes del psychoemotional, en muy del mismo modo que
proposiciones de los doce canales principales puede estar usado, especialmente esos del Heart y Pericardium. Si hacemos un intento y somos
más precisos acerca del uso de las proposiciones Du Mai, entonces podemos sugerir que uno) sus indicaciones generalmente reflejan pataleos
del shi de disonancia Shen como el desorden de depresión de manía, y b) son especialmente indicados cuando los desórdenes emocionales en
psicópata están acompañados por la llenura y la incomodidad de la cabeza, mareo, disturbio de conciencia y epilepsia.
Nota 1. Una la mayoría mental episódica de desorden comúnmente ocurriendo en mujeres caracterizadas por una variedad de
síntomas posibles como la agitación, la inquietud, la opresión del pecho, sueño perturbado, la irritabilidad, el comportamiento impulsivo e
impetuoso, el discurso anormal, frecuente bostezando y desperezándose, desorientación, preocupación, pena, llorando, suspirando y aun
convulsiones sin pérdida del conocimiento completa.
Generalmente considerado para ser debido a la frustración emocional que deteriora el flujo muy fácil de qi Liver o preocupación que
hiere Heart Yin, acompañó por PUBLICACIÓN del defi34 de sangre DE NÚMERO CHINO de MEDICINA 46 SEPTIEMBRE 1994 ciency.
Históricamente esta condición fue también asociada específicamente con deficiencia de la sangre del útero, sacando paralelos con el origen del
concepto de la novela del Oeste de histeria que es cómo zang zao es algunas veces traducido.
2. Dian.
3. Dian-Kuang.
4. Esta primera parte de término mostrada en los 1000 Ducados. Es debido a la debilidad o la inmadurez del shen qi en un niño que
repentinamente ve una persona extraña o un objeto extraño, u oye un ruido extraño. Esto da lugar al susto y llorando, y en los cambios extremos
de casos en la tez de los niños.
La flema de viento, generado por la sacudida, coalición y adicionalmente desestabiliza al Spleen y subida otorgante Stomach para
vomitar, diarrea y dolor abdominal y finalmente para el espasmo clónico. ‘El desorden repentino de susto en niños ’ es similar en tener la intención
de ' asustar epilepsia '.
5. Traducido por Giovanni Maciocia, El Practice del chino Medicine, Churchill Livingstone P. 198, donde el shen son traducidos como
Mind.
6. El significado exacto de este término es poco claro pero parece referirse al discurso delirante o absurdo, quizá debido a posesión.
Exponga al sol a Si Miao en sus 1000 Ducados se aplica a ‘ la conversación del fantasma de llanto de melancolía ’ en relación a este punto.
C Linda. Koo en Nourishment de la vida, Health en el chino Society (El Press Comercial, Hong Kong P. 123), un libro contemporáneo
en las creencias folklóricas chinas dice en el debate de posesión del fantasma “ En los casos donde los fantasma ’s (i.e.
Malos spirit’s) la influencia fue el resultado de un proceso gradual, la víctima inicialmente estaría triste, sensitiva, y retraído.
Como los poderes del fantasma sobre la mente de la víctima se fortalecieron, él comenzaría a comportarse como si él estuviera en un
sueño, hablara de materias fantasmales, o hiciera como que él era departir a fantasmas ”.
7. Interesa ese despecho sus nombres evocativos, el proposiciones Pohu BL-42, Shentang BL-44, Hunmen BL-47, Yishe BL-49 y
Zhishi BL-52 son notables para la ausencia de cualquier indicaciones emocionales en psicópata, con la excepción de ‘ tres desorden de la
posesión del cadáver ’ para Pohu BL-42.
8. La lengua es repetidamente empujada apagada de la boca, a lo largo y a lo ancho, queda y enmienda, guste la lengua de una
serpiente. Está diferenciado en el calor Spleen y Heart Shi de calor, Spleen y Kidney Xu, y se ve también en la epilepsia.
9. Capítulo 8.
10. Capítulo 54.
11. Capítulo 71.
12. Capítulo 62.
13. Capítulo 17.
14. Decena Works en Practice Hacia el Attainment de Truth, un compendio Qigong en 64 volúmenes de la dinastía Qing;
El editor y la incógnita exacta de fecha de publicación. Estas combinaciones del texto en quienes el importante Daoist trabaja qigong
practican del Sui, Tang y dinastías Song, adicionando al Huangting Neijing Jing (vea nota 27 debajo de).
15. Escrito por Liu Sijing alrededor de 1647, parta del trabajo Che Sheng Ba Bian explicando en detalle los funcionamientos del cuerpo
humano - las otras partes se tratan de las estrellas, el sol, la luna etcétera.)
16. Los Artículos De Primera Necesidad De Materia Medica Por Wang Ang (1694).
17. Para ejemplo Guanzi una de las lenguas clásicas Daoist que discute temas de filosofía, la medicina y otros reinos de ciencia.
Heiner Fruehauf hace comentarios: “Guanzi Daoism es típico del tipo Neijing de escritura científica donde los tan llamares pensadores Daojia
(desemejante del posterior Daojiao, un término que significa el religioso Daoism) tuvieron un discurso animado pero fragmentado en el
establecimiento de un código científico, muy similar para los filósofos presocráticos en Grecia. Así como Aristotle y Plato crearon la base de
novela del Oeste pensamiento científico fuera del laberinto de estos pensadores mucho menos conocidos, las lenguas clásicas estándar como las
Neijing ideas integradas y fragmentadas presentadas en el Guanzi y otra dinastía Han surte efecto. Los libros como el Guanzi por ejemplo, fueron
elementales en estandarizar al Neijing 5 acercamiento Phase. Antes de que Neijing cronometre allí estaba en menos 7 formas diferentes de
relacionar los elementos con cada quien) ".
18. Capítulo 11.
19. Algunos historiadores médicos, para B de ejemplo. J. Andrews (JCM No. 36) sostenga la opinión que el contacto tempranero con
misioneros jesuitas pudo haber tocado uno en parte en la reanimación de la teoría del cerebro como el centro de conciencia.
Wang Qingren en su trabajo ‘ En el Brain ’ habló de tres personas que previamente habían considerado la misma opinión como sí
mismo en el cerebro: Li Shizhen, Jin Sheng y Wang Ang. Jin Sheng tuvieron amistad con misioneros jesuitas en el tribunal Ming en el siglo
diciseis y un converso para catolicismo romano, mientras Wang Ang fue su colega cercano.
20. B.J.Andrews (JCM No. 36), sin embargo, cree que la influencia de medicina de la novela del Oeste en Wang Qingren está no
comprobada, y eso su refutación de teorías anatómicas chinas clásicas fue muy influenciado por el radical movimiento ‘ probatorio y de
investigación ’ luego prevaleciente en medio de estudiosos chinos.
21. Capítulo 8.
22. Zhang Jie Bin, Classic de Asamblea Legislativa Categories People’s Health Publishing (Lei Jing), Beijing, 1982, p. 49. La primera
parte publicada en 1624.
23. Capítulo 33.
24. Un Record de Nourishing Xing y Extending Ming escrito por Tao Hongjing 456-536. Ésta fue una recopilación de teorías diferentes
en la vida nutritiva a la moda a la sazón.
25. La diferenciación y Treatment de Disease escrito por Lin Peiqin en 1839 - una cartilla médica imitando el formato de Zhang Shi
Yitong (el Comprensivo Medicine Concediendo para Master Zhang 1695).
26. Por Xu Sun de la dinastía Jin. Este texto en su mayor parte discute la relación entre shen y xing (la forma material).
27. De Huangting Neijing Jing un trabajo a menudo esotérico Daoist del que se habló que no parece tener un soltero el autor.
Su origen es poco claro, pero fue anotado por Bai Fuzhong alrededor de 700. La monja Daoist Hu Yin publicó varias versiones
alrededor de 850.
28. Zheng Li Lun.

Tudo o Que Você Queria Saber sobre ACUPUNTURA


Gilberto Antônio Silva
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Animal Behaviour Science


journal homepage: www.els evier.com/locate/applanim

Ethology applied to animal ethics§


Hanno Wu¨ rbel *
Division of Animal Welfare and Ethology, Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Frankfurter Strasse 104, 35392 Giessen, Germany

ARTI CLE I NFO ABS T RA CT

Article history: According to modern animal welfare legislation, animals should be protected from suffering and lasting
Available online 17 March 2009 harm not for the benefit of us humans as in earlier anthropocentric conceptions, but in their own interest. The
driving force behind animal protection is our empathy with animals which triggers feelings of compassion.
Keywords: Applied Empathy with animals most likely is a psychological side-effect of adaptive empathy among
ethology Behaviour humans, and its expression is largely determined by the degree of similarity between animals and us in
Suffering
morphology and behaviour. As a result, compassion with animals is vulnerable to anthropocentric
Well-being
bias, prejudice, and deception, and animal protection based on compassion is likely to be
Integrity
Empathy unfair towards animals. Moreover, from an ethological perspective, protecting animals in their own
Compassion interest represents true altruism which places considerable ethical demand on us. However, there
Ethics may be hidden selfish intentions that question the altruistic nature of animal protection, while at the same
Animal welfare time facilitating its implementation. For example, animal protection could help to avoid unpleasant
Animal rights feelings induced by witnessing cruel actions towards animals. Alternatively, exhibiting a caring personality
Utilitarianism towards animals could represent human social behaviour that pays off indirectly through building up a caring
Sentience
reputation. It is, therefore, important to distinguish between our intention to protect animals (which may be
Legislation
partly selfish) and true animal protection that needs to be justified biologically by values that apply to the
animals. Based on the sentientist nature of animal welfare legislation, the greatest challenges to applied
ethologists, and important ones as testified by this special issue, are (i) to determine sentience in animals and
(ii) to establish valid and reliable measures of affective states such as suffering and well-being. However, there
are promising measures of animal welfare beyond measures of affective states. In particular,
biologically meaningful measures of ‘integrity of form and function’ may provide powerful indicators of animal
welfare. The integrity concept originates in biocentric ethics and goes beyond sentientism, as it can also be
applied to non-sentient animals and even plants. However, when applied to (potentially) sentient animals, it
appears to be consistent with our common sense notion of animal welfare which also respects the animals’
‘nature’ or ‘telos’. Moreover, the integrity concept would relieve scientists from solving the ‘hard problem’ of
animal consciousness first, or from establishing valid measures of demand or aversion that are notoriously
difficult to establish. In particular, measures of behavioural integrity could offer an opportunity for applied
ethology to strengthen its impact on ethical and legal decision-taking, thereby advancing animal
welfare without compromising scientific credibility.
© 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

§ 1. Introduction
This paper is part of a special issue entitled ‘‘Animal Suffering and
Welfare’’, Guest Edited by Hanno Wu¨ rbel
* Tel.: +49 641 99 38750; fax: +49 641 99 38759. Animal protection is protective behaviour of humans towards
E-mail address: hanno.wuerbel@vetmed.uni-giessen.de.
non-human animals (further referred to as
0168-15911$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.10161j.applanim.2009.02.019
H. Wu¨ rbel / Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

animals). Besides knowledge of the animals’ biology, values in relation to animal ethics. This is not meant to
animal protection is determined by our ethics. Despite the advocate ‘biologistic’ animal ethics, whereby decisions about
great variety of ethical views on human–animal interactions, what ought to be are derived from what is. Rather, I take an
current debate is dominated by two compet- ing approaches: animal ethological perspective on animal protection with a view to better
welfare and animal rights (Regan, understanding how our own behavioural biology shapes our
1998). Animal welfare refers to the humane use of animals with the attitudes towards animals. Such understanding seems crucial in
aim to minimize suffering and lasting harm. It is based on utilitarian view of avoiding unjusti- fied anthropocentrism and uncritical
thinking according to which a greater benefit of an action outweighs anthropomorphism. Moreover, there are ethical views beyond
a greater amount of animal suffering or harm (Singer, 1975). In sentientism such as zoocentrism or biocentrism (Rollin, 1992;
contrast, the animal rights view is based on deontological thinking. Verhoog,
It holds that using (some) animals is wrong by itself and that, like 2005), and modern animal welfare legislation to a large extent
us, (some) animals should be given absolute rights to protect them expresses a compromise between these different views. Based on
from being exploited for human purposes (Regan, the ethical principles underlying modern animal welfare legislation, I
1983, 1998) or – in milder forms – from particular human actions, will use the second part of the paper to discuss actual and potential
such as those that induce suffering or lasting harm (Broom, 2003). targets and methods of ethological animal welfare research in
Whether we should safeguard the animals’ welfare or give them terms of their significance for ethical and legal decision-taking.
rights is not a question that applied ethologists are usually Thus, the meaning of the title of this paper is twofold. In order
concerned with, because it is not a biological question. It is a to provide a framework for this special issue on animal
philosophical and eventually political question that suffering and welfare, it addresses both the human ethology
philosophers, cultural anthropologists, jurists and politicians are behind our attitudes towards animals and the ethological
concerned with. However, their conclusions may have profound approaches that may best contribute to animal protection.
implications for the research agenda of applied ethologists,
because the ethical framework determines the kind of ethological 2. The ethological basis of human attitudes towards animals
evidence that may inform ethical decision-taking.
Despite differing views on why and how animals should be Animal protection is human behaviour and as such an almost
protected, most welfarists and rightists share a sentientist universal phenomenon, albeit highly variable in its expression
view according to which sentient animals in particular should throughout human history and between ethnic groups and
be protected (Linzey, 1998), and that they should be protected in civilisations (Fraser, 2009). Such universality strongly suggests
their own interest. This view differs from earlier anthropocentric that our intention to protect animals is at least partly rooted in our
views according to which animals were protected for the benefit of own biology, yet little is known for sure about the exact nature of
humans, including the preservation of human morality (Rowan and these roots (Broom,
Rollin, 1983). Therefore, both welfarists and rightists 2003).
depend on biological knowledge about the nature of Most contemporary views on animal protection are
sentience and its distribution in the animal kingdom, about the sentientist in nature (Linzey, 1998; Badura, 2001). They are based
extent to which animals are capable of subjective experiences, on the assumption that some animals are capable of experiencing
and about the consequences for the animals’ well-being when their feelings of suffering and well-being. Even those scientists who
ecological and behavioural needs are not met. Note that I will use refer to the ‘functioning of the organism’ or the ‘naturalness
‘well-being’ complemen- tary to ‘suffering’ throughout this of the behavioural repertoire’ primarily do so for pragmatic reasons.
paper. Thus, while suffering refers to ‘negative affective Thus, normal bodily functions and a full expression of the
states’, well-being refers to ‘affective states that are not negative’ behavioural repertoire are used as proxies for well-being that
(i.e. neutral or positive). are, however, easier to assess objectively (Duncan and Fraser,
These are difficult and complex issues to study. Not 1997). The common view of animal welfare scientists is,
surprisingly, therefore, animal welfare science has become one of therefore, the very expression of sentientist animal ethics. The
the most comprehensive and complex disciplines in biology animal rights view is, however, no less sentientist, as its proponents
(Dawkins, 2006). It involves theories, concepts and methods from commonly use sentience as the relevant criterion for the
evolutionary biology, behavioural ecology, neurobiology, genetics, attribution of animal rights (Regan, 1983; Ryder, 1989).
physiology, clinical veterinary science and psychology, to We could use other criteria to define the target of our ethical
name but the most obvious ones. Such multidisciplinary science concerns. Indeed, it is increasingly common to refer to zoocentric
is highly demanding, yet crucial, if our ethical concerns over or even biocentric views and to employ ethical criteria that
animals are to be addressed in the animals’ own interests. were previously restricted to human ethics, such as ‘integrity of
However, not only how animals should be protected, but form and function’ (Rutgers and Heeger, 1999; Verhoog, 2005) or
also why we want to do this in the first place, is a biological ‘dignity of the creature’ (Teutsch, 1995). Integrity as an ethical
question. After all, animal protection is human behaviour. In the criterion applies to all living organisms, but may be restricted to
first part of this paper, I will therefore explore the ethological animals or extended to abstract categories (e.g. species) or even
basis of human preferences and non- living natural objects (e.g. mountains, forests, crystals;
H. Wu¨rbel / Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

Verhoog, 2005). Dignity is defined as ‘‘the state of being More empathic persons tend to show greater compassion.
worthy of honour or respect’’ (The Oxford Encyclopedic Moreover, empathy with people and empathy with animals
English Dictionary, 1991), whereby human dignity refers to the seem to covary (Paul, 1998). As a matter of fact, most people show
‘intrinsic worthiness’ of every human person, which is also the basis a stronger emotional response to the slaughtering of a pig than to
of all human rights. Until now, Switzerland is the only country to the harvesting of a lettuce.
protect the ‘dignity of the creature’ (Bundesverfassung, 1999). But where does this emotional response come from? One
When introduced to the Swiss constitution by public vote in possibility is that it is triggered by our ethical principles,
1992, however, ‘dignity of the creature’ essentially meant the however arbitrary these may be. Because we have learnt that
same as ‘integrity of form and function’ (as revealed by the slaughtering a pig is a greater moral offence than harvesting a
French version, where ‘Wu¨ rde der Kreatur’ is expressed as ‘l’inte´ lettuce (because the pig, but not the lettuce, is sentient), we show
grite´ des organismes vivants’). It was primarily aimed to protect a stronger emotional response to the slaughtering of the pig.
the species-specific characteristics of animals that were This could occur through the internalisation of a social norm
perceived to be threatened by the rapid advances in according to which killing sentient organisms is morally worse
genetic engineering. While the dignity concept appears than killing non-sentient organisms. There is indeed some
inadequate for application to animals, partly because evidence that the perception of violations of social norms can induce
‘being human’ is a defining property of ‘dignity’, the emotional responses known as moral emotions (Mercadillo et al.,
concept of animal integrity could represent a useful 2007). However, ethicists and biologists widely agree that the causal
addition to a sentientist conception of animal protection relationship is just the other way round. Thus, instead of ethics
(Schmidt, 2008). affecting our biology, it is our biology that has shaped our
From a biocentric perspective, harvesting a lettuce for a salad ethical views (Singer,
and (humanely) killing a pig for a stew represent similar 1981; Ridley, 1996). Indeed, there is strong evidence that social
degrees of ethical offence. Given both the pig and the lettuce are norms are enforced by moral emotions (Fessler,
survival machines employed by genes to compete in natural 2002).
selection (Dawkins, 1976), there is no a priori reason why we should Most likely, we feel sorry for the pig because we do indeed
deny the lettuce, but not the pig, our ethical concern. Yet this is empathise with the pig (but not with the lettuce). Pigs and many
exactly what we do by using sentience as the relevant criterion in other animals possess characteristics that are able to elicit our
animal ethics. Considering nature as a whole, this is of course an empathy. Supported by their look, we tend to interpret the pigs’
arbitrary decision. It means to discriminate entire taxonomic groups behavioural responses (postures, vocalisation, etc.) to specific
of organisms based on the presence or absence of a specific conditions as expressions of their emotional states, hence our
phenotypic trait (i.e. sentience) or expression of that trait (i.e. empathy. This could explain our tendency to attribute a higher
well-being). In this respect, ‘sentientism’ is analogous to moral status to pigs than to lettuces.
‘speciesism’, the discrimination of animals that do not belong to the
species Homo sapiens (Singer, 1975; Linzey, 2.2. Empathy with animals: adaptive or artefact?
1998). This analogy is relevant because the arbitrariness of the
speciesist nature of animal welfare legislation is a major target Although empathy with animals is the driving force behind
of criticism by both utilitarian animal welfarists and animal protection, its biological function has received little
deontological animal rightists (Singer, attention. In fact, it is not obvious at all why humans should
1975; Regan, 1983, 1998). However, a shift from a empathise with animals. However, the answer to this question may
sentientist position to a biocentric position could have far be key to our understanding of the biological basis of human values
reaching implications as discussed in a recent editorial in the journal that determine animal ethics. We may thus revert to asking what
Nature highlighting how the Swiss ‘dignity’ law threatens plant empathy in general might be useful for, and under what
biology (Abbott, 2008). circumstances it may have evolved.
The ‘empathy-altruism hypothesis’ (reviewed by Bat- son
2.1. Empathy and compassion and Shaw, 1991) suggests that empathy motivates altruistic
behaviour, and its proponents claim that it explains true
It is, of course, not entirely arbitrary why the altruism. This begs the question as to where empathy came from in
slaughtering of a pig, however humanely, matters more to us the first place. From an evolu- tionary perspective, the
than the harvesting of a lettuce, and why we have difficulties ‘empathy-altruism’ hypothesis has no explanatory value unless the
in appreciating the ‘dignity’ of a lettuce. It feels so. This is where evolution of empathy is seen in light of the evolution of
our own biology kicks in. We feel sorry for the pig because we altruism. Empathy most likely evolved as a mechanism that
map the pig’s experience of that situation on our own facilitates kin selection and reciprocal altruism (Broom, 2003).
(imagined) experience of a similar situation. ‘Feeling sorry For example, parents who empathise with their children will
for’ is everyday language for compassion, a profound provide better child care. They will prevent their children from
(human) emotion prompted by the suffering of others. dangers and will care for them when their welfare is at stake.
Compassion commonly leads to an active desire to alleviate Empathy is elicited by specific signals. For example,
another’s suffering. Compassion is thought to be facilitated by a face distorted in pain or a scream may trigger behaviour aimed at
empathy, ‘‘the tendency that most people have to be emotionally removing the cause of these signals. That
affected by witnessing the emotion (e.g. pain) of another
person’’ (Paul, 1998).
H. Wu¨ rbel / Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

‘altruistic’ behaviour towards close kin and close relations animal signals, subjective assessment methods of animal
may increase inclusive fitness is well established (Fehr and well-being (e.g. Wemelsfelder, 2007) will be highly vulnerable
Fischbacher, 2003). If empathy facilitates such behaviour, it can to anthropomorphism.
have adaptive value in this context. There is indeed strong evidence
that empathy is biased towards kin and close relations 2.3. Animal protection: altruistic or selfish?
(Kruger, 2001), and that kinship and reciprocal altruism are
the best predictors of our intention to help (Kruger, 2003). In contrast to earlier anthropocentric approaches, where
According to the ‘altruism theory’, however, empathy with animals were protected to preserve human morality,
animals must be an artefact resulting from our predispositions modern animal ethics implies that animals be protected in their
to show empathy with humans. own interest. This places considerable ethical demand on us.
The ‘simulation theory’ of empathy (Gallese and Gold- man, It means to dismiss potential benefits from certain kinds of
1998) is a viable alternative to the ‘altruism theory’. Based on the animal use for the sake of preserving the animals’ own interests.
discovery of ‘mirror neurons’ in macaques (di Pellegrino et al., From an ethological perspective, such behaviour would qualify
1992) and a similar neural system in humans (Iacoboni et al., as truly altruistic (Ridley, 1996). According to evolutionary
1999), the simulation theory views empathy as a form of ‘mind theory, however, true altruism (in terms of inclusive Darwinian
reading’, allowing us to assess the mental states of others to fitness) exists but as an artefact and is counteracted by natural
better predict their future actions (de Vignemont and Singer, selection.
2006). In theory, therefore, empathy with animals might be One could argue that altruistic animal protection is based on
adaptive by allowing us to better predict their intentions. This cultural rather than natural selection. Supported by our natural
raises the intriguing possibility that our feelings of empathy with tendency to empathise with (some) animals, compassion with
animals might indeed reflect their true emotional states. This animals could have become a particularly successful meme
would open up exciting new ways of assessing animal welfare, and (Dawkins, 1976) in the memepool of views on human–animal
provide a convincing biological rationale for the assessment of interactions. The costs of adher- ing to altruistic animal ethics may
emotional states in animals using the generally be too low for the average human being to have
‘Qualitative Behaviour Assessment’ methodology pro- posed significant fitness consequences. This is supported by the
by Wemelsfelder (2007). Thus, on-farm assessments of animal fact that the degree of concern over animal welfare tends
welfare could simply be carried out by careful introspection. to be positively correlated with human welfare. However, for an
However, our tendency to empathise with animals increases idea that is at odds with fundamental principles of natural
with increasing similarity in their look and behaviour. selection to be so successful, it is likely to have some hidden
Indeed, the recognition of ourselves in others (DU-Evidenz) is benefits. Thus, our intention to protect animals from
an important determinant of our compas- sion for animals (Ga¨ suffering may not necessarily reflect truly altruistic behaviour.
rtner, 1980). This explains why our compassion for primates There may indeed be selfish intentions behind animal protection,
is stronger than for other mammals (as currently evidenced one of which emerges from the biology of empathy as discussed
by several initiatives to ban research on non-human primates), and above. If animal signals are able to trigger feelings of empathy, then
still stronger than for birds, reptiles or fish. With respect witnessing suffering-like signals in animals can make us truly feel
to the simulation theory, this would mean that the significance of bad. Protecting animals from conditions that elicit such signals
knowing about an animal’s state of mind decreases with decreasing could represent a way to avoid such unpleasant feelings. Selfish
similarity with us. If empathy with animals had evolved in view of intentions become even more apparent when animal
true mind-reading, however, one would not necessarily predict protection is regarded as a form of human social behaviour. What at
such a similarity-based relation- ship. Not similarity in the first sight looks like altruistic behaviour (e.g. donating money,
looks and behaviour, but significance for our survival (e.g. as helping others) often turns out to be a form of indirect
a predator or prey) would be expected to correlate with the reciprocity – behaviour that benefits one’s reputation within one’s
expression of empathy. Although the simulation theory may social environment (Nowak, 2006). Perhaps we do indeed pay lip
explain empathy with humans, there is no evidence that empathy service when claiming to protect animals in their own interest,
with animals is based on adaptive mind-reading. while what we are actually doing (however unconsciously) may in
The altruism and simulation theories of empathy are not fact be rather selfish: do good and speak about it. This would also
necessarily mutually exclusive. Regardless of which hypothesis explain why the ‘ethics of care and compassion’ (Noddings,
applies to empathy with humans, however, there is no evidence 1984) is so appealing to many people. According to this
that empathy with animals has any adaptive significance. approach, the highest level of ethical conduct to achieve is
Empathy with animals most likely is ‘‘to develop and demonstrate compassion for others’’. Such ethics
a psychological side-effect of empathy with humans and thus a will also benefit animals, but only indirectly, as a side-effect of
biological artefact. Presumably, it is triggered by animal signals demonstrating (to other humans) compas- sion for animals e.g. by
that sufficiently closely resemble those human signals that good stockmanship. However, the ethics of care and compassion
trigger adaptive empathy among humans. However, if is plain anthropocentric animal ethics which is considered
empathy with animals is a side- effect of empathy with morally ‘inferior’ to modern animal ethics as specified above
humans based on human-like (Rowan and
H. Wu¨rbel / Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

Rollin, 1983). Moreover, because compassion is affected by and legal framework that satisfies our ethical claims as
empathy, an ethical framework based on compassion shows well as doing justice to the animals.
its limitations most clearly when our empathy becomes
excessive (e.g. in the face of zoo-cuties such as polar bear 3. Ethical principles in animal welfare legislation
cubs) or when it breaks down (e.g. in the case of
‘pest animals’). Indeed, there is a striking contrast between the Modern animal welfare legislation is based on hybrid animal
cruelty of ‘pest control’ (Littin and Mellor, 2005) and the almost ethics, a dualistic mixture of deontological and utilitarian ethics
human-like moral status attributed to animals that are close kin involving anthropocentric, sentientist and biocentric principles. By
(great apes), look similar or otherwise attractive to us (e.g. bears) default, all human beings have higher moral standing than all
or are our closest companions in life (e.g. dogs, cats, horses). other animals (anthropo- centrism). Furthermore, all sentient
Importantly, this clash of attitudes is largely independent of our animals have higher moral standing than all non-sentient animals,
‘official’ criterion for the protection of animals – the degree to and the extent of suffering imposed by an action determines its
which they may be capable of suffering. ethical severity (sentientism). In contrast to humans, however,
animals are not given absolute rights of freedom from suffering
2.4. Deception and prejudice since ‘higher’ ends may justify virtually any degree of suffering
(utilitarianism). Finally, no animal shall be harmed or killed
If you were ever moved to tears in a movie theatre, you have without justification, even if the harm or killing does not cause any
experienced how easily compassion can be deceived. Although the suffering (biocentrism).
signals that move us to tears in a movie theatre may have The fundamental ethical divide between humans and animals
exactly this function in real life, the same signals also function out cannot be justified biologically. It is entirely arbitrary and
of context (e.g. in a movie). Without implying that animals often referred to as speciesism (Ryder, 1989). That animal welfare
actively parasitise our psychological predispositions to empathise legislation is based on such arbitrary discrimination of other
with them, we cannot exclude the possibility that animals may beings is disturbing to purist ethicists. Attempts have thus
some- times unintentionally behave as if they were in pain or been made to replace speciesist ethics by more consistent
suffering without actually being in pain or suffering (and, of course, ethical principles. From the dualistic nature of animal welfare
vice versa). Moreover, unfair prejudice is not restricted to the legislation based on deontological and utilitarian views, two extreme
lay public in the face of ‘zoo-cuties’ and forms of pure ethics have been put forward: pure
‘pest animals’. Even experts may be taken in by prejudice. For deontological ethics in the form of animal rights (Regan,
example, in a recent survey among veterinary students, more than 1983) and pure utilitarianism (Singer, 1975). Animal
50% of the students considered castration with a rubber ring to be a rightists attempt to overcome speciesism by extending absolute
humane method of castration for cattle and sheep, while less rights to (some) animals, while utilitarians pursue the same goal by
than 10% considered the same method humane for dogs or cats extending utilitarianism to humans.
(Levine et al., 2005). There is no real evidence that this procedure Animal rights could have far reaching implications for society. In
is less painful for sheep than for dogs. The different ratings merely its most extreme form, this may go as far as a total ban of animal
reflect the students’ prejudice about the different animals’ abilities research (at least on vertebrates) and animal farming, and even
to experience pain and the animals’ relative moral status, questions the right to possess companion animals. This is
possibly due to different degrees of ‘Du-Evidenz’. considered a fundamentalist position that lacks public support
In conclusion, our compassion for animals and thus our (Browne, 2006), except in the case of higher mammals such as
tendency to protect them is likely to be affected by our the great apes (Scharmann, 2000) or when formulated in terms of
tendency to empathise with them. Empathy with animals most likely weaker rights (Warren, 2000). Regardless of its lack of majority
is a psychological side-effect that is based on the animals’ similarity appeal, however, animal rights fail to solve the ethical dilemma
with us humans (DU-Evidenz) and specific signals that they are intended to address. Extending moral rights e.g. to all
sufficiently closely resemble those human signals that trigger sentient animals as proposed by many animal rightists (Regan,
adaptive empathy among humans. As a result, compassion 1983) still involves the arbitrary discrimination of non-sentient
with animals is highly vulnerable to deception and prejudice. creatures, referred to above as sentientism. Even including all
Therefore, compas- sion with animals does not provide a animals would fail to overcome such arbitrary discrimination
reliable basis for animal protection, at least not against the ideal of (sometimes referred to as kingdomism). Such criticism may
modern animal ethics according to which animals should appear sophistical. From a biocentric perspective, however, the
be protected in their own interest. Animal protection based on situation looks different. As discussed above, the ‘dignity’ of plants
compassion with animals is likely to be unfair to (many) animals. It is already an issue, even if only in Switzerland (Abbott, 2008).
is, therefore, important to distinguish between our intention to Thus, attempts to overcome arbitrary discrimination in the
protect animals (which may be partly selfish) and true animal form of speciesism by extending human rights to (some) animals
protection. Animal protection is ethically justified by our own would only shift borders along which arbitrary discrimination occurs
human values. What animals need for their protection, however, (although this would undoubtedly benefit large numbers of animals).
needs to be justified biologically by values that apply to the In contrast, pure utilitarianism might overcome such arbitrary
animals. Only by acknowledging this distinction will we arrive at discrimination all together by applying a single
an ethical
H. Wu¨ rbel / Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

ethical principle to all human actions, regardless of attempt to draw that line. In order to distinguish between
whether those affected were humans or animals (or, in fact, sentient and non-sentient animals, we need to know exactly
any other living organism). Pure utilitarianism is considered what it needs (both in terms of ‘hardware’ and
equally extreme and fundamentalist by today’s standards, mostly ‘software’) for sentience to emerge in animals, and how it is
because of its challenge to human rights and the moral equality of expressed in physiology and behaviour. As long as we do not know
human beings. More impor- tantly, however, the ethical costs that, the scientific underpinnings of sentientist animal ethics remain
and benefits of human actions, which form the basis of shaky. All we can provide is the benefit of the doubt based
ethical decisions in utilitarianism, are impossible to quantify on an argument by analogy (Sambraus, 1995).
objectively. Without an objective yardstick, however, and Despite having access to verbal reports, even medical
because utilitarianism accepts an unjust distribution of benefits doctors diagnosing pain or anxiety in human patients may need an
and burdens among individuals (Rawls, 1957), utilitarian- ism is argument by analogy. Not all patients are capable of verbal
likely to induce unfairness of a different kind. reporting and verbal reports may include lies. This is nicely
Because any form of pure (animal) ethics fails to illustrated by the difficulties in diagnosing pain from whiplash
address the complexity of animal protection, less radical, hybrid and the ensuing fights over health insurance money (Ferrari,
views are likely to persist, even if these appear inconsistent to a 2005). Thus, the difficulties in diagnosing pain or anxiety in
purist ethicist. It has been argued that the utilitarian principle of animals vs. humans are not different in kind, but different in
‘minimizing animal suffering’ may be the least denominator to degree. How different they are depends on differences between the
which a large majority might agree (Mayr, 2007). It is centred on animals and us (i) in nervous system architecture and function, (ii) in
the main issue of our ethical concerns over animals (the the significance of external stimuli, and (iii) in the
possibility of their suffering) and is likely to matter to the animals responses to these stimuli, i.e. the three building blocks of the
themselves (as shown by their tendency to avoid conditions that are argument by analogy (Sambraus, 1995).
likely to induce suffering). At the same time, it allows for sufficient Recent studies in fish have shown how powerful a case can be
flexibility in the way we use and interact with animals. made for animal sentience on the basis of an argument by
However, as further discussed below, focusing on subjective analogy. Thus, Dawkins (2008) stated: ‘‘If you believed that it was
well-being (or absence of suffering) may be too narrow an approach wrong to inflict pain on an organism and also thought that fish did
both for ethical and scientific reasons. It has thus been argued not feel pain, you might feel it was morally acceptable to cut up
that the biocentric criterion of integrity of form and function living fish or fish with hooks. But if you then came across some
may provide a useful addition to sentientist animal welfarism of the newer evidence that suggested that fish feel pain (Chandroo
(Schmidt, 2008). et al.,
2004; Sneddon et al., 2003), you might begin to reconsider your
4. Ethological approaches to the assessment of animal behaviour’’. Recently, similar research in crustaceans has started
welfare to make a case for sentience in some invertebrates (Elwood
et al., 2009). The kind of evidence that is available for making a
Because of the sentientist conception of animal welfare case for sentience in animals may become increasingly refined
legislation and the utilitarian approach to ethical decision- taking, with scientific and technological advances. However, some form
ethology applied to animal ethics has two main targets, namely of argument by analogy will remain the conceptual tool that is
(i) to determine sentience in animals and (ii) to assess the degree needed to integrate such evidence to make a plausible case for
of animal suffering imposed by human actions. Only sentient sentience – or to put it in Galileo Galilei’s words, to ‘‘make
animals can be targets of sentientist animal ethics, and the measurable what is not so’’.
extent of suffering (or well-being) is the animals’ currency in the
utilitarian cost- benefit analysis. 4.2. Suffering and well-being

4.1. Animal sentience Although the term suffering covers a wide range of different
emotional states such as pain, fear, thirst, hunger, boredom etc., we
Sentience refers to the ability of animals for affective use a single term, because what seems important is that they are
states, including feelings of suffering and well-being. all unpleasant enough for an animal to want to get out of
However, affective states are subjective and cannot be assessed them (Dawkins, 2008). Dawkins concludes that this
objectively (i.e. from a third person perspective) by scientific ‘‘behavioural way of recog- nizing suffering.. .provides us with
methods (Nagel, 1974). As a result, the line between sentient a way of recognizing animal suffering in an objective way’’. In
and non-sentient animals is drawn at different taxonomic levels line with Rolls (2005) she defines emotions as instrumental
by different scientists using different criteria. Given that reinforcers, as states elicited by rewards and punishers. Thus,
subjective experiences are scientifically inaccessible, however, suffering can be caused either by the presence of punishers
any biological criter- ion of animal sentience remains somewhat (e.g. predators) or by the absence of reinforcers (i.e. depriva-
dubious. This may explain why animal welfare scientists generally tion; Dawkins, 2008).
avoid drawing that line. For example, in a recent special issue of The problem with instrumental reinforcers as indica- tors of
Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2006, vol. 100, issues 1– animal emotions is that operant conditioning also works in
2) on ‘Sentience in Animals’, not a single author made an invertebrates such as Drosophila (e.g. Brembs and
H. Wu¨rbel / Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

Heisenberg, 2000) and Aplysia (e.g. Cook and Carew, 1986), 4.3. Integrity of form and function
animals that most scientists would deny the capacity to feel
pain. Anticipating such criticism, Dawkins (2008) further According to Dawkins (2006), animal welfare depends on two
stated that ‘‘emotional states, as defined by what animals find aspects, namely (i) whether the animals are healthy and (ii) whether
positively or negatively reinforcing may be accompanied by they have what they want. The second aspect refers to measures
subjective feelings of pleasure or suffering but not necessarily’’ of demand and other measures of affective state as discussed
(note that Dawkins here confused above, while the first aspect refers to physical and mental health.
‘negative reinforcement’ with ‘punishment’). Once again, we In principle, impaired physical or mental health might thus be
find ourselves trapped in the third person perspective. Thus, considered as a welfare problem regardless of whether it is
instrumental reinforcers may be useful tools for assessing associated with impaired well-being. However, the underlying
suffering and well-being, but only in those animals for assumption has always been that well-being is a function of
which we have made a convincing case that they are sentient. both aspects, and at least some authors explicitly stated that all that
Another problem with instrumental reinforcers is that they are really matters is the animals’ subjective experience (Duncan,
rather indirect measures of suffering and well- being. Thus, we 1993). According to them, health primarily addresses
need to assess how much animals will work to gain access to or long-term consequences for well-being which may conflict with
avoid particular conditions, which we then interpret in terms of short-term choices in animals (e.g. in the case of obesity in dogs fed
how well animals will be feeling when deprived of or exposed to ad libitum).
these conditions. Studies in mink indicate that measures of demand The problem with such a narrow conception of animal welfare in
can be good indicators of acute stress when a previously available terms of subjective experience is that it is difficult to say
resource suddenly becomes unavailable (Mason et al., exactly what we mean by well-being. Is it the absence of suffering, a
2001). However, they may be unreliable indicators of suffering fair balance between states of suffering and pleasure, or constant
from deprivation, i.e. suffering from the absence of a resource that pleasure? Most people would probably agree that there is nothing
has never been experienced before, which is what we are really wrong with the ethical principle of minimizing animal suffering, but
interested in. what about maximizing animal pleasure (see also Balcombe,
Finally, there are serious conceptual and technical 2009)? In fact, we would have the means to induce feelings of
difficulties in obtaining valid measures of demand or pleasure by administering psychoactive drugs or by electrical
aversion (Houston, 1997; Kirkden et al., 2003; Kirkden and Pajor, stimulation of specific brain areas. While this might well result
2006; see also Asher et al., 2009). These difficulties may explain in happier animals, it is not what our common sense notion
why so far this approach has had rather little impact on the of animal welfare is about. Implicitly, our notion of animal
development of animal housing systems (but see Manteuffel et welfare has to do with the integrity of the animals’ ‘nature’ or
al., 2009 for promising ways to implement cognitive ‘telos’ (Rollin,
enrichment by use of instrumental reinforcers). 1992). In ethical terms, such a notion goes beyond
Recently, a somewhat more direct way of assessing animal sentientism and relates to biocentric views. Some ethicists translate
emotions has been pioneered by Mendl and colleagues ‘telos’ into ‘dignity of the creature’; from a biological
(Harding et al., 2004; Mendl and Paul, 2004; Paul et al., 2005; perspective, however, and because of the difficulties with the
see also Mendl et al., 2009; Brilot et al., term dignity (as discussed above), I prefer to translate it into
2009). This approach accepts that feelings cannot be ‘integrity of form and function’ (further referred to as ‘integrity’).
measured directly, but uses cognitive measures (e.g. With the advent of genetic engineering, physical and mental
cognitive bias) that are known from human cognitive science integrity have become highly relevant ethical issues
to correlate with emotional valence (Paul et al., (Schmidt, 2008). The assessment of the animals’ integrity goes
2005). Measures of cognitive bias are particularly promis- ing for beyond applied ethology. However, applied ethology has the means
two reasons. First, they promise to measure what we aim to to investigate how integrity can be addressed in ways that are
measure, namely the animals’ state of mood under the consistent with both the animals’ behavioural biology and
conditions under which they live. Second, such measures of mood with their well-being. Moreover, integrity may to some extent
state might be particularly suitable for in-situ application on relieve animal welfare scientists from the burden ‘to make
farms, in laboratories, or in zoos. Thus, cognitive measures of measureable what is not so’ (i.e. subjective experiences).
emotional state are an exciting addition to the tools of applied This is illustrated by the controversy surrounding the question
ethology for determining animal sentience and assessing animal as to whether stereotypies are a good or bad indicator of poor
well-being and suffering. Unfortunately, however, these welfare. Thus, decades of research failed to make a convincing
measures cur- rently depend on complex learning protocols and case for suffering being associated with their performance
exten- sive training sessions. Besides being very time consuming, (Mason and Latham, 2004), while it appears relatively simple to
the training might also affect the animals in ways that interfere study whether stereotypies reflect neurological dysfunction
with the measurement of their emotional states. Researchers have (Garner, 2006). From a biocentric perspective, neurological
thus started the search for cognitive measures of emotional state dysfunction is readily accepted as a measure of poor welfare,
that are based on spontaneous behavioural responses, albeit as yet regardless of whether or not it is associated with suffering.
with limited success (see Brilot et al., 2009). Neurological dysfunction also violates Dawkins’ first criterion of
animal welfare (‘are
H. Wu¨ rbel / Applied Animal Behaviour Science 118 (2009) 118–127

the animals healthy?’), but only if we are ready to go behaviours, while running away in the face of a predator is
beyond a sentientist conception of animal welfare. entirely externally motivated. However, even if predators are kept
Like suffering, integrity is a normative rather than a away from captive animals, the ability to perform normal
biological term, and its precise biological meaning may be elusive. anti-predator behaviour may still be crucial for their welfare. For
The same is true for health, and in many ways, health and integrity example, although laboratory mice never face real predators in
may be considered as the same thing. However, instead of using the laboratory, the laboratory environment is full of stimuli (e.g.
impaired integrity simply as a proxy of impaired well-being manipulations of care takers, noise, light etc. as well as odour cues
(i.e. suffering), it may be used as an indicator of poor welfare of e.g. rats or cats) that can elicit anti-predator responses.
in its own right. For example, if defined by its cause rather Sheltered areas in the cage will provide for the performance of
than its consequences as ‘‘a maladaptive phenotypic expression normal anti-predator behaviour and thereby contribute to both the
caused by dysfunction of one or several parts of the body’’ as animals’ behavioural integrity and their sub- jective well-being.
proposed for pathology (Wu¨ rbel, 2006), impaired integrity may Thus, if restricted to (i) behaviours that are strongly internally
become a useful concept in the assessment of animal welfare, motivated and (ii) behavioural responses for which eliciting
regardless of its implications for subjective well-being. stimuli are likely to be present in the environment in which the
Moreover, the integrity concept provides measures of animal animals are being kept, behavioural integrity will be fully
welfare that are consistent with our common sense notion of consistent with Dawkins’ second criterion of animal welfare (i.e.
‘animal welfare’, without the need to solve the ‘hard problem’ ‘‘do the animals have what they want’’). However, because it may
of animal consciousness. This is further illustrated by the use of be impossible to determine the proximate factors for all
behavioural integrity in the development and welfare behaviours of the animals’ behavioural repertoire, and because of
assessment of animal housing systems. the difficulties of establishing valid measures of demand and
aversion, behavioural integrity may be a useful measure of
4.4. Behavioural integrity animal welfare to give the animals an ethologically informed
benefit of the doubt. Applied ethologists are equipped to
Integrity of behaviour refers to both the naturalness of the work out ways of using measures of behavioural integrity
animals’ behavioural repertoire and the normality of its expression. that are ethologically justified and valuable for ethical
Much of applied ethology in the 1970s and early 1980s was decision-taking.
implicitly based on such a conception of behavioural integrity,
especially research aimed at devel- oping welfare-friendly housing 5. Conclusions
systems for farm animals. Thus, several groups conducted
detailed ethological studies on farm animals living under Animal protection is based on human values that may be affected
natural or near-to- natural conditions. Their aim was to identify by bias, prejudice and deception due to our own human biology.
key stimuli that facilitate the expression of the animals’ What animals need for their protection, therefore, needs to be
natural behavioural repertoire and the performance of normal justified biologically by values that apply to the animals. Because
behaviour (e.g. pigs: Stolba and Wood-Gush, 1984; laying hens: Fo¨ we are part of the animal kingdom ourselves, and because no
lsch et al., 1983; rabbits: Stauffacher, 1992). The assumption sharp boundaries exist between us and them, there may be no
underlying these studies was that allowing animals to perform simple ethical principle that satisfies both our ethical concerns
their natural behaviour by incorporat- ing these key stimuli (or and the interests of the animals. As a result, any purist ethical
adequate substitutes thereof, Stauffacher, 1994) would guarantee framework (such as pure deontological or utilitarian ethics)
their welfare. Impli- citly, therefore, ‘behavioural integrity’ as may be doomed to fail in the face of the complex- ities of animal
defined above was used as a measure of animal welfare. Moreover, protection. Similarly, any narrowly defined scientific notion of
most guidelines for animal housing (e.g. the revised Appendix A of animal welfare (e.g. by restricting welfare to subjective
ETS No. 123) are implicitly based on behavioural integrity experience) will fail to do justice to these complexities.
when advocating environmental enrichment ‘‘to allow expression of Importantly, the targets of animal protection have to be agreed
a wide range of normal behaviour’’. upon by society as a whole. This includes two questions,
More recently, however, ‘the naturalness of the namely (i) who is to be protected (i.e. which animals?) and (ii)
behavioural repertoire’ has been heavily criticised as a poor from what (death? dysfunction? suffer- ing?), both of which need
measure of animal welfare by several applied ethologists to be answered separately. For example, if subjective experience
(Duncan and Fraser, 1997; Dawkins, 2008). Dawkins (2008) for were all that mattered, it would seem logical to protect all sentient
instance argued that some behaviours such as being chased by a animals. However, we might still agree on a smaller subset (e.g. all
predator may well be natural but unlikely to promote good welfare. vertebrates), even if this involves arbitrary discrimination of some
Indeed, being chased by other subset. As discussed above, there may be no way around
a predator is unlikely to be positively reinforcing, in some form of arbitrary discrimination. This becomes even more
contrast e.g. to the opportunity to scratch and dust bathe in hens. apparent when we extend our notion of welfare from mere well-being
However, not ‘being chased by the predator’ is the natural to integrity of form and function. Integrity potentially relates to all
behaviour in question, but ‘running away in the face of a living organisms (including plants and protozoans). It is therefore
predator’, in which case Dawkins’ criticism evaporates. The factually impossible to
difference to scratching and dust bathing in hens is that these
are largely internally motivated
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