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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 The review of related literature also called literature review is a crucial part of a research Endeavour
as this presents critical insights as well as affords various perspectives prevalent in the field of
research or on the topic of research thereby enriching the research process in totality.
 Furthermore, it serves as a beacon light for future research work by illuminating areas which have
been touched upon or covered so far and areas which remain unexplored in the extant literature
 Related Literature was collected from diverse sources viz. research journals, books, newspaper
articles and electronic sources such as online books, online journals and 70 newspaper articles.
 Secondary data Sources of Competency Mapping which were tapped include

 Books written in the area


 Online Research databases viz. Emerald, J.W.Gate, Ebscohost etc.
 Research Journals in the area of HRM, Business Strategy
 Articles / write-ups published in various periodicals
 Conference proceedings
 Reference material available on websites of Consultancies working in the area of
Competency Mapping
 A large number of research papers focus on development of competencies for various job positions
or roles. Further, there is literature pertaining to hundreds of psychometric tools
 Owing to a large body of literature available in the area in terms of books, journal articles, articles
made available in public domain by consultancies operating in the area, it became necessary to
categories and classifies it under various heads.

The details of the research papers that I have gone through are
S.No Title Author Details Year of work
1 Competency Mapping–A Drive for Indian R.Yuvaraj August 2011
Industries
2 Understanding Competencies and Competency Vikram Singh Chouhan & January 2014
Modeling ― A Literature Survey Sandeep Srivastava
3 Organizational information competencies for Joe Peppard Rob Lambert march 2003
value creation
4 Competency mapping in quality management of Jennifer Ruddlesdin, Lauren December 2010
foundation training Wentworth, Sarita Bhat
and Paul Baker
5 Competency requirements for strategic and Karen Lo,Keith march 2015
functional HR practitioners Macky &Edwina Pio
6 The Design of a Sustainable Competency-Based by Fanny Klett December 2010
Human Resources Management
7 Competency-based selection and assignment of V.Shahhosseini M.H.Sebt April 2011
human resources to construction projects
8 The Competence Movement: Issues, John G. Burgoyne 2013
Stakeholders and Prospects
9 Competency Mapping of the Employees N. Anisha October 2012
10 Competency based Training Need Assessment – Shulagna Sarkar 2013
Approach in Indian companies
11 Impact of nursing learning environments on Heather K.Spence April 1992
adaptive competency development in Laschinger RN
baccalaureate nursing students
12 Bringing competency analysis into the 21st Diane M. Gayeski August 2007
century
13 Competency, not Intelligence that Matters Noronha, Rajiv 2000
14 Competency Models and its Applications in various Ms. Garima Sharma July 2013
Sub-segments of HR
15 Employee Competency and Trust Management Das, Smitha 2007

Review of literature related to topic

Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals have generated a lot
of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and measure of human performance.
Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and written-about vehicle for organizational applications
such as:

* Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization
* Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles
* Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization
* Assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles
* Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques

Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a
specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills,
and attributes (more historically called "KSA's") that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are
demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics,
traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual's behavior.

Origin of Management including Competency Mapping:

Chanakya's Arthshastra, an ancient Indian script/ book on Political Science and Administration, written
some 3000 years ago. Other names of Chanakya were Mr. Kautilya, and Mr. Vishnu Gupt. Constitutions of
all the major countries have origin in this book. It could be Indian Constitution, Irish, Canadian, USA,
Australian, etc. and even British unwritten constitutions have roots imbibed in this book. It is the towering
book in which you find the basics and applications of Management Sciences, Chemistry, Physics, Military
and War techniques, Basic Engineering and Technologies, Ethics, Legal and Judiciary and Fiduciary system,
Values, Psychology, and Anthropology, Organization Behavior, Human Resource Management. In fact
major basics of all Marketing Management, Human Resource Management, basics of Management Models,
are been directly lifted with some modification from this book. Great efforts of Chanakya by all means; and
one of the greatest contributions to the world. You may call Arthshastra as a Classical book once if you read,
you will find other subjects easy any time in your life.

If Geeta, Bible, Kuran, Gurugranthsahib, Adi Granth, Vedas, Vedanta are classical scripts in spirituality then
Arthshastra is one of the classical book for above mentioned subjects. In fact all the classical scripts have
everything put in gist to live normal life happily. It is said that once you master classical books everything
becomes easier in later part of life and work.

Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a specific job. It


encompasses a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior utilized to improve performance. More
generally, competence is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to
perform a specific role. For instance, management competency includes the traits of systems thinking and
emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. A person possesses a competence as long as
the skills, abilities, and knowledge that constitute that competence are a part of them, enabling the person to
perform effective action within a certain workplace environment. Therefore, one might not lose knowledge,
a skill, or an ability, but still lose a competence if what is needed to do a job well changes.

The competencies have five characteristics, namely:


* Motives: Things a person consistently thinks about or wants that cause action, motives drive,
direct and select behavior towards certain actions. Example achievement motivation people
consistently set challenging goals for themselves, take responsibility for accomplishing them and use
the feedback to do better

* Traits: Physical characteristics and consistent responses to situations. Good eyesight is physical
traits of a pilot. Emotional Self Control and initiative are more complex consistent responses to
situations.

* Self Concept: A person's attitude value or self image. A person's values are reactive or respondent
motives that predict what a person would do in the short run. Example: A person who values being a
leader would be more likely to exhibit leadership behavior.

* Knowledge (Information a person has in a specific work area) Example: An accountant's


knowledge of various accounting procedures.

* Skill (is the ability to perform certain mental or physical tasks) Example: Mental competency
includes analytical thinking. The ability to establish cause and affect relationship.

The four general competences are:

 Meaning Competence: Identifying with the purpose of the organization or community and acting
from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community.

 Relation Competence: Creating and nurturing connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks.

 Learning Competence: Creating and looking for situations that make it possible to experiment with
the set of solutions that make it possible to solve the primary tasks and reflect on the experience.

 Change Competence: Acting in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or
community and make the preferred future come to life.

Types of competencies
1. Organizational competencies — unique factors that make an organization competitive

2. Job/Role competencies—things an individual must demonstrate to be effective in a job, role,


function, task, or duty, an organizational level, or in the entire organization.

3. Personal competencies—aspects of an individual that imply a level of skill, achievement, or output

4. Managerial: Competencies which are considered essential for staff with managerial or supervisory
responsibility in any service or program area, including directors and senior posts. Some managerial
competencies could be more relevant for specific occupations, however they are applied horizontally
across the Organization, i.e. analysis and decision-making, team leadership, change management,
etc.

5. Generic: Competencies which are considered essential for all staff, regardless of their function or
level, i.e. communication, program execution, processing tools, linguistic, etc.

6. Technical/Functional: Specific competencies which are considered essential to perform any job in
the Organization within a defined technical or functional area of work, i.e.
environmental management, industrial process sectors, investment management, finance and
administration, human resource management, etc.

Levels of Competency
1. Practical competency - An employee's demonstrated ability to perform a set of tasks.

2. Foundational competence - An employee's demonstrated understanding of what and why he / she


is doing.

3. Reflexive competence (An employee's ability to integrate actions with the understanding of the
action so that he / she learn from those actions and adapts to the changes as and when they are
required.

4. Applied competence - An employee's demonstrated ability to perform a set of tasks with


understanding and reflexivity.

Application levels of a competency


1. ADVANCED: Demonstrates high level of understanding of the particular competency to perform
fully and independently related tasks. Frequently demonstrates application that indicates profound
level of expertise. Can perform adviser or trainer roles. Work activities are carried out consistently
with high quality standards.

2. PROFICIENT: Demonstrates a sound level of understanding of the particular competency to


adequately perform related tasks, practically without guidance. Work activities are performed
effectively within quality standards.

3. KNOWLEDGEABLE: Demonstrates a sufficient understanding of the particular competency to be


used in the work place, but requires guidance Tasks or work activities are generally carried out under
direction.

COMPETENCY MAPPING

 Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines one's strengths as an
individual worker and in some cases, as part of an organization.
 It generally examines two areas: emotional intelligence or emotional quotient (EQ), and strengths of
the individual in areas like team structure, leadership, and decision-making.
 Large organizations frequently employ some form of competency mapping to understand how to
most effectively employ the competencies of strengths of workers.
 They may also use competency mapping to analyze the combination of strengths in different workers
to produce the most effective teams and the highest quality work.
1. Competency Mapping–A Drive for Indian Industries by : R.Yuvaraj

( https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ce45/9c6403f7ebda153051b2b4e803b94d141dd3.pdf )

Abstract— Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that
the goals of each other are met. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report
unless your personnel relations are in order. Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are
increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. This calls for future skill mapping through proper HRM
initiatives. Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems, management cultures and
philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. There is a need for multi skill development.
Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for an organization, the jobs and
functions within it. Competency mapping is important and is an essential activity. Every well-managed firm
should have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively.
Competency mapping identifies an individual’s strengths and weaknesses in order to help them better
understand themselves and to show them where career development efforts need to be directed. Competency
mapping is not only done for Confirmed employees of an organization and it can also be done for contract
workers or for those seeking employment to emphasize the specific skills which would make them valuable
to a potential employer. These kinds of skills can be determined, when one is ready to do the work.
Competency mapping is one of the most accurate means in identifying the job and behavioral competencies
of an individual in an organization. Competency is a set of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to
perform a job effectively and efficiently. A Competency is something that describes how a job might be
done excellently; a Competence only describes what has to be done, not how. Core competency is
something which cannot be copied and it is the pillar upon which individual rest.

2. Understanding_Competencies_and_Competency_Modeling by Vikram Singh Chouhan &


Sandeep Srivastava

(file:///C:/Users/acer%20pc/Downloads/Understanding_Competencies_and_Competency_Modeling.pdf)

Abstract: In a knowledge-based economy, the success of organizations depends mostly on the quality of
their human resource. Organizations rely on their competent employees as a main resource. The
performance of organizations depends not only on the workforce competency, but also on their evaluation
and development on an ongoing basis to meet the global competition. For obvious economic and business
reasons, organizations have always been concerned about the competence of its people. In the modern
world, characterized by rapid and dramatic change, the attainment of competence has become an integral
component of individual and organizational strategies. The competency mapping process helps the
organization in developing a clear strategy for developing competencies of their workforce. It supports
successful performance of the employees within the organization. Gone are the days where gigantic plant,
superior technology and marketing strategy played central role in organizational success. The organizational
strategy must be designed to identify, nourish and utilize the competencies. This paper seeks to delve deeper
into the concept of competency, tracing its history and its role in the current scenario

3. Organizational information competencies for value creation by Joe Peppard Rob Lambert

(https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1365-2575.2000.00089.x)

Abstract. Research highlights that most business managers continue to be dissatisfied with the value they
perceive they are deriving from their organization's information systems investments. On examining the
literature, the dominant perspective is that creating value through information systems is primarily the
responsibility of the IS function. Accordingly, to address this chronic malaise, attention generally focuses on
the IS function with proposed prescriptions ranging from re‐skilling the IS professional through re‐
engineering the IS function to the ultimate sanction of outsourcing. This paper examines the problem of
value creation from IS investments from an organizational as opposed to an IS functional perspective.
Drawing on resource‐based theory, the paper argues that the effective deployment and exploitation of
information should be viewed as a ‘strategic asset’. To leverage value from IS, the paper proposes that
organizations must recognize and develop information competencies and that the elements of these
competencies are distributed throughout the organization and not solely resident in the IS function. Through
a multimethodological approach these information competencies are identified and described. The resultant
competencies are then studied in an organizational context. The paper ends by drawing conclusions and
articulating further research directions and opportunities

4. Competency mapping in quality management of foundation training by Jennifer Ruddlesdin


( http://www.clinmed.rcpjournal.org/content/10/6/568.short)

Abstract: Competency-based curricula focus on outcomes in terms of application of knowledge and


acquisition of competencies. The aim of this exercise was to analyse posts and programmes for potential
training outcomes. A mapping process against the UK foundation curriculum was designed.1 Data were
gathered from foundation directors using red/amber/green judgements for each post. After submission no
correspondence was needed on any programme about educational arrangements, suggesting the process had
a significant formative effect as well as assessing outcomes. Certain competencies were problematic across
the majority of host providers, allowing programme directors to ensure deficiencies are compensated by
planned teaching or simulation training. Widespread difficulty in achieving these competencies raises the
question of whether they should be included within the national curricula. Development of competency-
based training is a complex, multistep process. However, it is possible to analyse it in a large programme of
trainees in the setting of the modern, busy NHS.

5. competency requirements for strategic and functional HR practitioners by Edwina Pio

(https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09585192.2015.1021827)

HR competency research has predominantly focused on identifying generic HR competencies for HR


practitioners using a universalist approach. This approach has led to the distinction between strategic and
functional HR competencies, and a belief that the former is superior to the latter for successful performance
in the HR domain. However, little attention has been paid to the interrelationships between strategic and
functional HR competency dimensions, and their perceived relevance to strategic and functional HR roles.
Drawing on a situationalist perspective and using a mixed-method approach, seven HR competency
concepts are identified and examined for their perceived relative importance to strategic and functional HR
roles. The findings indicate that Business Awareness competencies are important differentiators between
strategic and functional HR roles, whereas Leadership and Relationship Building and Self-Belief and Social
Factors are generic to all HR practitioners. The findings also indicate that there is a wider range of HR
attributes required for HR job success than those espoused in the HR literature. Theoretical implications and
recommendations on selection and development programmes for HR practitioners are also discussed

6. The Design of a Sustainable Competency-Based Human Resources Management by Fanny Klett

(http://kmel-journal.org/ojs/index.php/online-publication/article/view/82)
Abstract: Human capital is a key source of innovation and competitive improvement. Exploiting its
potential and boosting its value to the organization involves a systematic process to determine the
competencies that are fundamental to achieve enhanced job performance. However, why do organizations
often fail to successfully cope with the main challenges of the knowledge and learning society, and to
identify the consequences for learning technologies? This paper discusses a holistic model for human
resources management strategy required to technologically support the organization toward a forceful and
comprehensive solution. By applying a step-wise approach, the components that organizations should
consider are identified, along with their interrelationships, and the increased need for a harmonizing
world-wide standardization in this application field.

7. Competency-based selection and assignment of human resources to construction projects by


V.Shahhosseini M.H.Sebt

(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1026309811000319)

Abstract: As part of human resource management policies and practices, constructionfirms need to define
competency requirements for project staff, and recruit the necessary team for completion of project
assignments. Traditionally, potential candidates are interviewed and the most qualified are selected.
Precise computing models, which could take various candidate competencies into consideration and
then pinpoint the most qualified person with a high degree of accuracy, would be beneficial. This
paper presents a fuzzy adaptive decision making model for selection of different types of competent
personnel. For this purpose, human resources are classified into four types of main personnel: Project
Manager, Engineer, Technician, and Laborer. Then the competency criteria model of each main
personnel is developed. Decision making is performed in two stages: a fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy
Process (AHP) for evaluating the competency criteria, and an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference
System (ANFIS) for establishing competency IF-THEN rules of the fuzzy inference system. Finally,
a hybrid learning algorithm is used to train the system. The proposed model integrates a fuzzy
logic qualitative approachand neural network adaptive capabilities to evaluate and rank
construction personnel based on their competency. Results from this system in personnel staffing
show the high capability of the model in making a high quality personnel selection.

8. The Competence Movement: Issues, Stakeholders and Prospects by John G. Burgoyne

https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/EUM0000000000812

Abstract: The “competence” movement as an approach to education, training and development is


based on a belief in defining purpose and outcome in standardized, measurable terms. It parallels other
concerns for control, such as performance indicators and standards, and returns to many of the features
of the behavioural objectives movement in the 1960s which similarly paralleled management by
objectives and various forms of scientific management. The competence movement is contentious but
the nature of the debate is not clear. Suggests that the debate can be mapped in three dimensions: micro
to macro issues, theoretical to practical issues, and technical to political issues. Explores this by
examining the position of the main stakeholders who have an interest in the competence movement.
The competence movement tends to attempt to impose a simplifying model of education, training,
learning development and work and organizational process, and many of its problems can be seen to
result from this simplification such as the reduction of all learning to a single stairway of levels.
9. Competency Mapping of the Employees by N. ANISHA

http://www.ijoart.org/docs/Competency-Mapping-of-the-Employees

Abstract : Human resource management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that
the goals of each other are met. Nowadays it is not possible to show a good financial or operating report
unless your personnel relations are in order. Over the years, highly skilled and knowledge based jobs are
increasing while low skilled jobs are decreasing. Competency Mapping is a process of identifying key
competencies for an organization, the jobs and functions within it. Competency mapping, the buzz word in
any industry is not complicated as it may appear. At the heart of any successful activity lies a competence or
skill. In the recent years, various thought leaders in business strategy have emphasized the need to identify
what competencies a business needs, in order to compete in a specific environment. In this article explains
the why competencies needed and how is measured competency of employees in the organization.

10. Competency based Training Need Assessment – Approach in Indian companies by Shulagna
Sarkar
(https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/orga.2013.46.issue-6/orga-2013-0025/orga-2013-0025.pdf)

Training is a usual formula for organisations through which employees are introduced to learning, but the
challenge lies in identifying the appropriate training needs of employees. The success of a training program
depends primarily on the need assessment. The paper discusses the process of competency mapping and
focuses on how competency mapping can be used for conducting training need assessment. The paper is an
empirical research based on both public and private manufacturing units in india. primary and secondary
data was collected using number of techniques. gap analysis has been performed for employees and it has
also been aimed to verify the changes in competency gaps on applying need based training. On providing
need based training, significant difference was measured in the level of competencies of employees. The
paper shares a practical insight on the implementation of competency mapping for training need analysis.
The research is focused on manufacturing units only, whereas there is a huge scope for it to be implemented
in service industries also. The paper is an original piece of research where a model has been designed to
resolve training issues of manufacturing industries

11. Impact of nursing learning environments on adaptive competency development in baccalaureate


nursing students by Heather K.Spence LaschingerRN, PhD

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/875572239290070F

Abstract: Kolb's experiential learning theory (ELT) was used as a framework to study 179 generic

baccalaureate students' perceptions of the contributions of different types of nursing learning environments

to development of adaptive competencies described in the theory. In addition, students in each of the 4 years

of the program were asked to describe their perceptions of the importance of Kolb's adaptive competencies

for successful functioning in nursing settings as well as to rate their personal levels of skill on each

competency. Nursing learning environments were thought to contribute most to divergent and convergent

competencies, reflecting the importance of both people-oriented and scientific skills in nursing. Clinical

experiences and the senior preceptorship experience contributed significantly more to the development of
these competencies than typical nursing classes and nonnursing classes. Students considered assimilative

competencies—such as testing theories—and ideas and accommodative competencies—such as leading and

influencing others—relatively unimportant to successful functioning in nursing learning environments.

Implications for nursing education are discussed.

Impact of nursing learning environments on adaptive competency development in baccalaureate


nursing students by Heather K.Spence LaschingerRN, PhD

12. Bringing competency analysis into the 21st century by Diane M. Gayeski

(https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pfi.144)

Abstract : Current business and educational environments are mandating the identification, building, and
assessment of specific critical competencies for the workforce. However, traditional approaches to
competency analysis are often slow, expensive, and backward looking. This article presents several new
computer-aided approaches to competency analysis and provides examples of their use, including a detailed
case study analyzing curricula and skills for professionals who provide benefits and work incentives
planning and assistance to persons with disabilities.

13. Competency, not Intelligence that Matters BY Noronha, Rajiv IN (2000)

Abstract: The Researcher Tries To Describe “What Is The Competency Model, Steps Used In Developing A
Competency Model & Described In Detail.

14. Competency Models and its Applications in various Sub-segments of HR BY Ms. Garima Sharma in
July 2013

(http://rmi.rizvi.edu.in/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Vol-4-Issue-2-July-2013-1.pdf)

The paper begins with delineating the theoretical framework for Competency Mapping followed by
enumerating the benefits of Competency mapping usage to Organizations. The study seeks to find answer to
a Research question regarding the application/ usage or otherwise of Competency Mapping in various sub-
segments of HR namely, Recruitment & Selection, Training & Development, Performance Management,
Compensation& Rewards, Career Planning, Building Appropriate Culture, Succession Planning and Change
Enablement. The Research Design used is a Survey and the tool used for data collection is a questionnaire.
The study aims at finding the extent of application /usage of Competency Mapping by the most critical
stakeholder in the Competency Mapping process namely the HR Managers. A sample of 30 HR Managers
from 30 different organizations was selected using convenience sampling technique. The findings show that
the application of Competency Mapping in selected sub-segments of HR is rather low.

15. Employee Competency and Trust Management by Das, Smitha (2007)

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/45129/9/09_chapter%202.pdf

Abstract : the article throws light on the importance of employee competency development in building trust
among the staff. It explains the process of competency mapping and creates awareness about the
competency gap analysis that helps the workforce to identify its strengths and skills, perform as per the
needs and wants of the employer. It helps in making the employees loyal and trustworthy. It also some
training and development practices imparted by the organizations to make the employees knowledgeable,
skilled and competent. It points out how a firm can build employee trust by showing keen interest in his
professional development. Through Corporate examples of Infosys, The Tata Group and Bharat Heavy
Electricals Limited, the author drives home the point that the more initiative an organization takes to make
the employees skilled, capable, knowledgeable and competent, the more will be the level of trust and loyalty
of employees towards the firm.