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JET Manual 04

Basic Oilfield
Version 1.1
JET Manual 04 Basic Oilfield Equipment
InTouch content ID# 4127828
Version: 1.1
Release Date: January 31, 2007
Owner: Well Services Training & Development, IPC

Schlumberger private

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Revision History
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Copyright © 2007 Schlumberger, Unpublished Work. All rights reserved.

This work contains the confidential and proprietary trade secrets of Schlumberger and may not
be copied or stored in an information retrieval system, transferred, used, distributed, translated, or
retransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, in whole or in part, without
the express written permission of the copyright owner.

Trademarks & service marks

“Schlumberger,” the Schlumberger logotype, and other words or symbols used to identify the
products and services described herein are either trademarks, trade names, or service marks of
Schlumberger and its licensors, or are the property of their respective owners. These marks may
not be copied, imitated or used, in whole or in part, without the express prior written permission
of Schlumberger. In addition, covers, page headers, custom graphics, icons, and other design
elements may be service marks, trademarks, and/or trade dress of Schlumberger, and may not
be copied, imitated, or used, in whole or in part, without the express prior written permission of
Schlumberger. A complete list of Schlumberger marks may be viewed at the Schlumberger Oilfield
Services Marks page: http://www.hub.slb.com/index.cfm?id=id32083

An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to designate a mark of Schlumberger.

Other company, product, and service names are the properties of their respective owners.
Table of Contents

1.0  Introduction 7
1.1 Learning objectives 7
1.2 Safety warning 7
2.0  Basic Engines and Transmissions 9
2.1 Types of engines 9
2.1.1 Electric motors 9
2.1.2 Gasoline engines 9
2.1.3 Diesel engines 10
2.2 Engine comparisons 11
2.2.1 Internal combustion engines 11
2.2.2 Intake and combustion 11
2.2.3 Compression 11
2.2.4 Horsepower and torque versus rpm 11
2.3 Diesel engines—Schlumberger’s main prime movers 12
2.3.1 Stroke cycles 12
2.3.2 Diesel engine components 13
2.4 Transmissions 19
2.4.1 Clutches 20
2.4.2 Manual gearbox 21
2.4.3 Power shift transmission 22
2.4.4 Torque converter 22
2.4.6 Drivelines 24
2.4.7 Routine maintenance of transmissions 24
3.0  Basic Pneumatic Systems 25
3.1 Types of pneumatic systems 25
3.2 Parts of pneumatic systems 26
3.3 Pneumatic systems components 26
3.3.1 Compressor 26
3.3.2 Blowers 28
3.3.3 Air reservoirs (tanks) 29
3.3.4 Governors (pressure regulator) 29
3.3.5 Pressure-relief valves 30
3.3.6 Check valves 31

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  iii

3.3.7 Drain cocks 31
3.3.8 Dryers (water separators) 31
3.3.9 Lubricators 32
3.4 Applications 32
3.5 Safety 33
4.0  Basic Electrical Systems 33
4.1 Basic circuit 33
4.2 Electric current 34
4.3 Voltage 35
4.4 Resistance 35
4.6 Ohm’s law and power formula 36
4.7 Conductors and insulators 37
4.8 Batteries 38
4.9 Generators and alternators 41
4.10 Regulators, breakers, and fuses 43
4.11 Applications 44
4.12 Safety 45
5.0  Basic Hydraulic Systems 47
5.1 Why use hydraulic power? 47
5.2 Maintenance of hydraulic components 48
5.3 Stem I auxiliary posttrip inspection 48
5.3.1 All fluid levels 49
5.3.2 All belts 49
5.3.4 Engine and transmission power take-offs 50
5.3.6 Exhaust system 51
5.3.7 Instrumentation 51
5.3.8 Clutch operation 51
5.3.9 Hydraulic system 51
5.3.10 Air tanks 52
5.3.12 Chemical additive systems 52
5.3.13 Suction/discharge piping 52
5.3.14 Centrifugal pumps 52
5.3.15 High-pressure triplex pumps 53
5.3.16 Bulk cement transport 53
5.3.17 Displacement tanks 53
5.3.18 Safety systems 54
5.3.19 Dome lids 54
5.3.20 Tank test date 54

iv  |  Table of Contents

5.3.21 Placarding 54
5.3.22 Blinds/caps 54
5.3.23 Radiation papers and decals 54
5.3.24 Densitometer lock 55
5.3.25 Auxiliary posttrip inspector signature 55
5.4 Stem I repair process 55
6.0  Stem I Diesel Engine 57
7.0  Stem I Compressor 63
8.0  STEM I Acid Transport 67
9.0  Stem I Cement Bulk Equipment 71
10.0  Stem I Batch Mixers 75
11.0  Equipment Modifications 77
12.0  References 79
13.0  Check Your Understanding 81

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  

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vi  |  Table of Contents

1.0  Introduction

The objective of JET manual 04, Basic Oilfield • explain the principles of operation and
Equipment, is to familiarize personnel with components of different types of pneumatic
the equipment used in pumping services. The systems and compressors
training will provide a better understanding
• explain the principles of operation of
of Schlumberger equipment design and
electricity, electrical circuits, batteries, and
performance and reduce service incidents and
circuit components
operating failures.
• explain the principles of operation and
Schlumberger has in place the Standard maintenance for various types of hydraulic
Equipment Maintenance (STEM) program to system components
help outline the procedures needed for the • describe the process for each of the
preventive maintenance of all Schlumberger following:
units. The program consists of the STEM I,
STEM II, and STEM III inspection procedures; ○ STEM I Auxiliary Posttrip
each is done at various intervals. ○ STEM I Diesel Engines

Guidelines are in place regarding the STEM I ○ STEM I Compressors

for the primary pieces of equipment used in ○ STEM I Sand Chief
pumping jobs.
○ STEM I Acid Transport
One section in this manual outlines the ○ STEM I Cement Bulk Equipment
procedures that are necessary for the STEM I
○ STEM I Batch Mixers.
inspection on many of the common pieces of
basic equipment.
1.2 Safety warning
Use of the STEM procedures for all pumping Proper supervision is required during
equipment will minimize job failures, decrease hands-on training. Request assistance
excessive, premature, expensive repairs, from your supervisor if you are unfamiliar or
help ensure that equipment lasts longer, and uncomfortable with an operation.
increase customer satisfaction.
Ensure that all safety devices are in place and
operational before you perform any activities
1.1 Learning objectives associated with this training.
After completion of this training, you should be
able to do the following: Always allow enough time to ensure that the
prejob and postjob checks can be performed
• identify advantages and disadvantages, correctly.
principles of operation, and maintenance
requirements for various types of drivers Remember that any safety check item omitted
and transmissions is an opportunity for equipment failure.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  

Before you perform the STEM I on the unit, the • Use LOTO (lock-out/tag-out) whenever
correct protective clothing is required: performing maintenance on equipment.

• Nomex coveralls
• hard-toed boots
• hard hat
• safety glasses

and, if needed:
• gloves
• goggles
• dust mask
• ear protection.

Be aware of all other unsafe situations when

performing routine maintenance. Safety is
basically common sense and training, but each
situation has its own peculiarities, which are not
always addressed by rules. Your training and
experience will be helpful guides for safe work
habits. Watch out for hazards, and correct them

General guidelines for safe operation:

• Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that

can catch on controls.
• Use steps and rails or handlebars when
mounting and dismounting from the truck.
• Know hand signals and who gives them.
• Clear personnel from the machine area
before starting equipment.
• Be sure all tools and electrical cords have
been removed from the unit before starting.
• Start the engine only in well-ventilated
• Check the functioning of safety devices:
lights, horn, brakes, etc.
• Observe engine gauges frequently. Be alert
to unusual noises.

  |  Introduction
2.0  Basic Engines and Transmissions

In this chapter, you will learn about the basic Advantages of electric motors
types of engines used at Schlumberger,
The advantages of using electric motors include
including electric motors, gasoline engines,
the following:
and diesel engines. The chapter compares
the three types and provides details about
• no exhaust emissions: Electric motors
diesel engines, the principal engine used
are noted for their environmentally clean
at Schlumberger. Detail is also given about
operation because they produce no
exhaust emissions.
• size: Electric motors are very compact
2.1 Types of engines relative to their power output and, therefore,
Schlumberger equipment uses electric motors, can easily be adapted to areas where a
gasoline engines, and diesel engines. These normal engine will not fit. Electric motors
are sometimes called prime movers, which are also very quiet and operate with little
are power plants or sources of energy that vibration.
transform a natural energy source into motive Disadvantages of electric motors
Electric motors are the best option for most
Schlumberger applications, but they have some
2.1.1 Electric motors serious disadvantages:
Schlumberger uses electric motors on offshore
• initial high cost: They are more expensive
skids (Fig. 2-1).
than most other power sources, costing
three times more than comparable
horsepower diesel engines.
• power requirements: Electric motors require
a power plant or electrical power supply,
which is often not available.
• packaging requirements: Electric motors
are limited by their packaging. They are
highly inflexible and must be precisely
mounted or installed.

2.1.2 Gasoline engines

Although diesel engines provide the greatest
number of advantages for Schlumberger
applications, gasoline engines are useful in
Figure 2-1. Electric Motor Used in Cement Pump Skid many situations (Fig. 2-2).

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  

than diesel engines do, their power range is
less versatile.
• fuel requirements: Octane ratings and
lead content vary from country to country,
making it almost impossible to maintain
consistent, dependable fuel quality.

2.1.3 Diesel engines

Diesel engines are designed to fit a wide variety
of applications and requirements (Fig. 2-3).

Figure 2-2. Gasoline Engine

Advantages of gasoline engines

Their advantages include the following:

• initial low cost: Typically, the initial cost of

gasoline engines is considerably lower than
that for other forms of power.
• power versus weight: Gasoline
engines are recognized for their good
power‑versus‑weight ratio.
• portability: Because of their light weight, Figure 2-3. Diesel Engine
gasoline engines are also one of the most
portable forms of power and can be used Some diesel engines are built to operate at
in a large variety of situations. many revolutions per minute (rpm), with little
concern for long-term operation. Others,
Disadvantages of gasoline engines such as the engine on a coiled tubing unit,
produce less horsepower but also require less
The disadvantages of gasoline engines include
maintenance and can last longer.
the following:
Advantages of diesel engines
• limited durability: Because gasoline
engines reach their peak horsepower at a The highly reliable diesel engine provides the
higher speed than diesel engines do, they following advantages over other prime movers:
are less durable. Their light weight also
tends to limit engine life. • durability: A diesel engine is built on a
heavier scale than a gasoline engine
• power range versatility: Because they
because of the high internal pressures
reach peak horsepower at a higher speed
that it produces. It also operates at a lower
speed with higher torque.

10  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

• no ignition components: There are no 2.2.1 Internal combustion engines
ignition components, and the diesel fuel
lubricates and cools the injectors, providing Both gasoline and diesel engines are classified
durability and long life. as internal combustion engines because
they burn fuel inside the engine. To operate
• low maintenance: When supplied with efficiently and meet specifications, all internal
clean fuel, a diesel engine can operate combustion engines require these things:
continuously for long periods with minimum
danger of breakdown. • clean air
• global fuel compatibility: Diesel fuel can • clean fuel
be found around the world and, unlike
• clean lubricant
gasoline, is universally consistent.
• clean coolant.
• low exhaust emissions: Because diesel fuel
burns more air than spark-ignition engines Internal combustion engines must use the
do, the fuel is very free from hydrocarbon recommended fluids and filters. Also, the
and carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. coolant requires corrosion-fighting additives to
• portability: Despite their weight, diesel eliminate rust and other damage.
engines are portable and can be positioned
almost anywhere.
2.2.2 Intake and combustion
Disadvantages of diesel engines The gasoline engine’s intake is a mixture of fuel
The disadvantages of using diesel engines and air that is ignited by a spark plug after the
include the following: air mixture is compressed. A diesel engine’s
air intake is compressed until it becomes
• weight: The heavier weight of a diesel hot enough (about 538 degC [1,000 degF])
engine can affect the ability to mount the that when liquid diesel fuel is forced into the
appropriate horsepower engine. cylinder, it ignites instantly.
• difficulty starting: Diesel fuel is more
difficult to ignite than gasoline, and this can 2.2.3 Compression
make a diesel engine harder to start. Ether
Gasoline engines compress the fuel/air mixture
is sometimes used to start older units. In
at a ratio of 8.0–10.5 to 1. Diesel engines
colder climates, heating and circulating the
compress at a higher ratio of 18–26 to 1. This
engine coolant during transit can keep the
ratio is the relationship of the maximum volume
engine warm.
of an engine cylinder with the piston at the
bottom of its stroke to the minimum volume
2.2 Engine comparisons of the cylinder with the piston at the top of its
Gasoline and diesel engines are similar in some stroke.
respects, different in others. For example, both
are classified as internal combustion engines,
but they differ in design and operation. 2.2.4 Horsepower and torque versus rpm
Gasoline and diesel engines differ in the
horsepower and torque they are capable of
delivering in relation to the rpm generated.
Gasoline engines achieve maximum

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  11

horsepower at high rpm and deliver maximum stroke. Once again, both valves are
torque at mid to high rpm. In contrast, diesel closed.
engines can achieve maximum horsepower at
mid to high rpm’s and maximum torque at mid 4. exhaust stroke: When the piston
rpm’s. This characteristic enables the diesel reaches the bottom of its stroke, the
engine to perform at maximum output with less cylinder is filled with burned gases, and
wear and tear than the gasoline engine. the piston moves upward to push them
out. During this stroke, the exhaust
valve opens while the intake valve
2.3 Diesel engines—Schlumberger’s remains closed.
main prime movers
Diesel engines offer many advantages for
Schlumberger applications and are the prime
movers used to power equipment. One
example is the cement pump truck (CPT)-
372 powered by Caterpillar engines, which
produces high‑pressure pumping services of up
to 570 hhp.
Figure 2-4. Four-Stroke Diesel Engine Cycle

2.3.1 Stroke cycles

Diesel engines are built with four-stroke cycles Two-stroke diesel engine cycle
and with two-stroke cycles. As the name indicates, the two-stroke cycle
has two strokes (Fig. 2-5). One stroke is up;
the other is down. Each down stroke is a power Four-stroke diesel engine cycle stroke. In the two-cycle diesel, all four valves
In a four-stroke diesel engine, four strokes of are exhaust valves.
the piston are required to complete one cycle
(Fig. 2-4): Ports in the cylinder wall are opened and
closed by the movement of the piston. These
1. intake stroke: The piston moves ports permit air to be blown into the cylinder.
downward, and air, without fuel, is When the piston is at the bottom of the stroke,
drawn into the cylinder. The intake valve the ports are open and a blower forces air into
is open and the exhaust valve is closed. the cylinder under high pressure. At the same
time, exhaust gases are blown out through the
2. compression stroke: Both valves are open valves at the top of the cylinder.
closed, and the piston moves upward
into the closed part of the cylinder to As the piston rises, the intake ports are
squeeze the air into a tiny space until covered, the exhaust valves close, and air in
it becomes hot enough for liquid diesel the cylinder is compressed. When the piston
fuel forced into the cylinder to burn is near the top of the stroke, fuel is injected.
instantly. The fuel is ignited by heat developed from
compression, and expanding gases force the
3. power stroke: The rapid buildup of piston down to develop power.
burning gases in the cylinder forces
the piston down, making this the power

12  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

5-engine oil filter
Fuel injected 6-power steering oil reservoir
7-truck engine start relay. Air systems

Components of a diesel engine air system can

Fuel injected Power stroke • an air filter

Figure 2-5 . Two-Stroke Diesel Engine Cycle • a blower/supercharger

• a turbocharger
2.3.2 Diesel engine components • an air filter restriction indicator
This section describes the following • a plumbing
components of diesel engines: • an emergency air shutoff valve.
• air systems Air filters
• fuel systems Many air filters reverse the direction of airflow
• fuel management systems one or more times as air enters the unit. During
the first cleaning stage, centrifugal action is
• lubrication systems used to remove 90% or more of the foreign
• cooling systems. matter contained in air. This centrifugal action is
used in two types of air filters typically found in
Figure 2‑6 shows the components of a diesel
diesel engines:
• wet or oil bath filters
• dry or cartridge filters.
Wet or oil bath filters
In this type of filter, the direction of the incoming
air is reversed and directed over the surface
of the oil bath (Fig. 2‑7). As a result, a large
portion of the foreign matter is retained in the
oil bath. In some filter designs, the air is then
passed through an oil-wetted copper mesh

Figure 2-6. Diesel Engine Components

1-primary fuel filter

2-secondary fuel filter
3-air compressor
4-air intake filter

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  13

Replacing dry filter elements at scheduled
maintenance intervals or whenever they are
seen to be plugged is recommended.

Today, most filter housings are equipped with

an indicator (vacuum restriction gauge), which
indicates when the filter should be cleaned or

If a replacement filter is not readily available,

you may either

• remove the old one and tap it to knock off

Figure 2-7. Wet or Oil Bath Filters the accumulated dirt
• wash it in water with a nonsudsing
Wet filters are used less frequently because of detergent.
the following:
Blower or supercharger
• Environmental problems are posed by
disposal of the filtering fluids. A blower, or supercharger, is a device that
forces additional air into the engine to increase
• More maintenance effort is required for wet its efficiency and horsepower (Fig. 2‑9).
filters than for dry filters.
• They are less efficient than paper element

Dry or cartridge filters

The dry-type filter is a highly efficient paper
element filter. It is typically an accordion‑pleated
ring of specially treated paper, sealed top and
bottom with a plastic ring. This is the type of
filter most commonly used today (Fig. 2‑8).

Figure 2-9. Blower or Supercharger

A turbocharger is a blower, powered by engine
exhaust gases, that forces air into the intake
manifold at higher than atmospheric pressure
to increase engine power and performance
(Fig. 2‑10).

Figure 2-8. Dry or Cartridge Filters

14  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

has been shut off. This occurs when airborne
natural gas is drawn into the engine, providing
the air/gas mixture that enables the engine to
operate without diesel fuel being injected.


Figure 2-10. Turbocharger

A turbocharger rotates at very high speeds

and is very hot. Therefore, it requires both
lubrication and cooling. Typically, oil from the
engine is used for this purpose. The oil is
routed through the turbocharger and returned
to the engine where it is cooled and filtered on
an ongoing basis as the engine is running. (For Figure 2-11. Air Shutoff Valve (Emergency Kill)
this reason, you should let the engine idle for
several minutes before killing the engine.) In Fuel systems
some applications, additional water cooling is
used. The principal job of the fuel system is to
start, deliver, regulate, and inject fuel into the
Air filter restriction indicator combustion chamber.
The air filter restriction indicator measures Components of diesel engine fuel systems
the degree of vacuum existing in an engine include
chamber. A complete vacuum is undesirable
and can be created by clogged or dirty filters. • fuel pump
The indicator indicates when air filters should
be cleaned or changed. This device can be • filters
mounted either on the filter or on the dashboard • reservoir
• plumbing
Plumbing (pipes and fittings) • shutoff valve
Various pipes and fittings are required to • check valve
connect components of the air system, such as
• injectors.
intake and exhaust pipes.
Fuel pump
Emergency air shutoff valve (emergency
kill) The fuel pump transfers fuel from the fuel
tank or reservoir to the engine or engines.
Air shutoff valves cut off all air to a diesel
Diesel engine fuel pumps may require priming,
engine (Fig. 2‑11). They are required when
especially if the fuel tank has been run until
operating near gas wells because a diesel
empty. To avoid engine damage, the operator
engine may continue to run even after fuel

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  15

should prime both the pressure side and the Check valve
suction side of the pumping unit.
The check valve is mounted on the fuel tank to
prevent fuel from returning to the reservoir and
from losing prime when the engine is shut off.
A diesel engine fuel system typically has two
filters. Once fuel is drawn from the tank or Injectors
reservoir, it flows to the inlet on the first, or
Fuel injection is a method to control the amount
primary, fuel filter. The fuel continues from the
of fuel delivered to an internal combustion
primary filter to the fuel pump. Fuel is then sent
engine. In the engine, the fuel is burned in air to
through the second filter and on to the injectors.
produce heat.
Fuel injectors are the most important parts of
The reservoir, or fuel tank, holds and supplies a fuel system. These high-precision devices
diesel fuel for use by the engine. calculate the right amount of fuel, inject it into
the cylinder under high pressure, and atomize
Plumbing (hoses, pipes, and fittings) the fuel for combustion. Fuel not injected into
the combustion chamber cools the injector
Fuel, exhaust, and other materials are carried
and returns to the fuel tank through a bypass
to various components of the engine through
a network of hoses, pipes, and fittings called
plumbing. Fuel management systems
Shutoff valve (normal kill)
Fuel management refers to the amount of
The shutoff valve terminates the flow of fuel fuel fed to the injector heads for combustion.
from the reservoir to the engine (Fig. 2‑12). The equipment used to force fuel into the
This mechanism applies to two-stroke Detroit combustion chamber not only meters the
engines. It does not apply to current CAT quantity of fuel required for each cycle of the
engines. engine in accordance with the load and speed
of the engine, but also develops the high
pressure required to inject fuel into the cylinder
at the correct instant of the operating cycle.
Fuel injection must start and end abruptly.
Shut-off valve
The two types of fuel management systems
used by diesel engines are mechanical fuel
injection and electronic fuel injection.

Mechanical fuel injection

A mechanical fuel injection system forces fuel
through spray nozzles with fuel pressures of up
to 2,000 psi (Fig. 2‑13). Typically, the metering
Figure 2-12. Shutoff Valve
rack to the injector controls the amount of fuel
that is injected.

16  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

Mechanical fuel injection systems require
frequent maintenance by a mechanic because
of the number of moving parts.

This diesel fuel injection system is an example

of a mechanical-type system. As the piston
passes the intake ports during the compression
stroke, the fuel injector is opened by the
eccentric cam. The injector orifice is adjusted
by movement of the pivot point in the pivot
linkage to control the amount of fuel injected.


Fine mist
Figure 2-13 Mechanical Fuel Injection

Electronic fuel injection

The most efficient method of fuel injection is the To engine
electronically controlled system. This method
uses a computer to control the timing of fuel
Figure 2-14. Electronic Fuel Injection
delivery and the precise amount of fuel flowing
to the injector. Electronic fuel injectors require
less maintenance, but they need a qualified Lubrication systems
mechanic for regular maintenance (Fig. 2‑14).
The primary purpose of the lubrication system
is to reduce friction in the engine (Fig. 2‑15). Its
secondary purpose is to assist in cooling the

Components include the following:

• reservoirs/sumps: Reservoirs are the

source of oil for the engine and are
sometimes referred to as oil pans.
Oil is automatically transferred to the

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  17

crankcase from the reservoir, which holds Various factors affect engine lubrication,
approximately 7 galUS of oil. including engine speed, engine condition, and
power demand:
• strainers/filters: After oil is pumped from
the reservoir, it passes through a filter that
• engine speed: High-rpm engine operation
removes suspended debris from the oil.
creates the need for more lubrication
• coolers: Heat must be removed from because of increased friction. Low rpm,
the lubricating oil so that it will retain or low speeds, can also create problems.
viscosity and other lubricating qualities. At idle speeds, the compression ratio
The lubrication cooling system works like a is not dependent on rpm’s. Idle speeds
heat exchanger. Oil heated by the engine can cause incomplete combustion due to
circulates through tubing in the cooler body lower combustion chamber temperatures.
or shell and is carried back to the engine. Unburned fuel can wash down the
• filter bypass valve: This pressure-regulated cylinders, leading to increased friction.
valve allows a percentage of the oil The least amount of friction is created at
pumped from the reservoir to bypass the mid‑range rpm or speeds.
filter and flow directly to the engine. This • engine condition: Excessive bearing
is done because filters often become clearance and cylinder wear affects engine
clogged, restricting the oil flow. lubrication. Oil can collect, leaving residues
• oils: Two types of oil are used to lubricate or preventing other parts of the engine from
diesel engines. Petroleum-based oils receiving lubrication.
are the most common because of their • power demand (engine load): The more
relatively low cost and availability. Synthetic load, or power, required from an engine,
oils are more effective, but they are more the more lubrication it needs.
Oil filter Cooling systems
Camcase dead space
The intense heat of the diesel engine can
physically melt engine components. The cooling
system dissipates heat fast enough so that it
does not damage the engine.
Rear bearing seal

There are two types of cooling systems: air and

liquid cooled systems.

There are diesel engines that use air to cool the

engine rather than a water/antifreeze mixture.
“MAX” level Sump This method is used primarily in small engines
on dipstick
and uses fans and cooling fins to dissipate
Figure 2-15. Basic Lubrication System engine heat.

The engine is cooled by circulating the coolant

(a water/antifreeze mixture) through passages
around the cylinder heads and walls in the
block. A pump creates a flow within the system
to ensure positive circulation. The water/

18  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

antifreeze mixture collects the heat and flows • oil system: Check the oil level and oil
into the radiator to be cooled. Simultaneously, condition by looking at the dipstick. The
cooler water replaces the hot water, and oil on the dipstick should have the same
another cycle begins. overall appearance and be somewhat
Cooling system components include the
• coolant system: Check for adequate fluid
levels. Check both the fan and the fan belts
for damage, and ensure that the fan can
• liquid-to-air exchange (radiator): The water/
turn unrestricted. Also check the radiator
antifreeze mixture passes through and
for any leaks or damage.
is cooled in the radiator before passing
through the engine block.
2.4 Transmissions
• liquid-to-liquid exchange (tube and shell):
In many offshore applications, cooling coils The transmission’s basic function is to allow
are used in the vessel. These dissipate the engine to operate in its limited range of
heat from the engine by circulating engine speeds but to output a broader range of speeds
coolant through tubes that are cooled by (Fig. 2‑16).
• plumbing: Pipes and hoses are used to
circulate coolant from the radiator to the
• thermostat: This device controls the flow of
coolant in relation to temperature.
• pressurization: Pressure on the system
is required to move the coolant from the
radiator to the engine and back. Pressure
also raises the boiling point of the water
and antifreeze mixture.

Routine maintenance
Figure 2-16. Transmission
The routine STEM (standard equipment
maintenance) procedure for diesel engines The transmission, in most cases, is connected
should include checks of the following: to the back of the engine and sends power from
the engine to other mechanisms. The engine
• fuel system: First check the fuel level. Then runs best at certain rpm ranges. The function
look for leaks in the lines and connections. of the transmission is to ensure that the power
Drain a small amount of fuel from the is delivered to the wheels or pumps while the
reservoir (making sure not to spill any) engine is kept within the optimal range.
to remove any water that may be in the
system due to condensation or impure fuel. Transmissions are divided into manual and
• air system: Ensure that air can flow automatic. Manual transmissions are equipped
unrestricted to the engine by checking the with a clutch and a gearshift. The automatic
vacuum restrictor gauge. transmission does not have this component,
and when it has been put into drive, it

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  19

changes gears automatically. The automatic • Driven members include sandwiched
transmission does have a torque converter. friction or clutch disks and the input shaft of
the transmission.
In this training manual, automatic transmission
To disengage the clutch and interrupt the flow
refers to the transfer of engine torque to other
of power, a release bearing is pushed forward
mechanisms. A number of methods are used
by the clutch fork. When the release bearing
to transmit the torque, or rotating force, that is
contacts the release levers, it causes them
generated by electric motors, diesel engines,
to pivot and pull the clutch plate away from
and gas engines to external devices.
the clutch disk. The driving parts now rotate
without moving the clutch disk, and power is
2.4.1 Clutches interrupted.

An engine is connected to the transmission Spring pressure holds the clutch engaged.
via the clutch (Fig. 2‑17). The clutch provides When engaged, the clutch springs exert full
a smooth connection and disconnection of pressure on the clutch plate, holding the clutch
engine power flow to the transmission. It is disk against the flywheel.
located between the engine and transmission
assemblies. The force required to activate or control
clutches may be supplied by actuators that are

• electrical
• mechanical
• pneumatic.
Electric clutches
Electric current flowing through a field coil
activates electric clutches. The current engages
and disengages the clutch.

Figure 2-17. Clutches

Many clutches incorporate disks that are

brought together to transmit torque.

In a heavy-duty disk clutch, both driving and

driven members are used.

• Driving members use opposed metal disks

and flywheel.

20  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

Over-cent clutch
Mechanical clutches use linkages and springs
to manually engage and disengage. The two
basic types of mechanically operated clutches

• standard
• over-center.

Standard clutches
With standard clutches, foot motion on the
clutch pedal moves through the linkage to the
clutch-release-bearing fork (Fig. 2‑18). This Figure 2-19. Over-Center Clutch
pushes the release bearing against the clutch
release levers, disengaging the clutch. Some Pneumatic
clutches use springs, which serve as aids in
The pneumatic, or air-actuated, clutch is a
disengaging, and as return springs when the
double-positioned air cylinder hooked to the
clutch is engaged.
shaft that engages and disengages the clutch.

Driving surface assembly
Pressure plate
2.4.2 Manual gearbox
Clutch cover
Ring gear
Clutch spring
A manual gearbox is a train of gears that
Flywheel Throwout transfers and adapts engine power to the drive
wheels or pump of the machine. An operator
Pedal must engage the clutch and position the gear
collar lever to select speed ratios for various travel
Crank shaft speeds or to reverse the direction of travel.
main gear
The gears have two or more parallel shafts
Clutch shaft arranged to
Release lever Lever pivot point Throwout lever

• mesh together to provide a change in

Figure 2-18. Standard Clutch
speed or direction (sliding gear)
Over-center clutch • remain in constant mesh (collar or
The over-center clutch can lock in the
engaged or disengaged position without In neutral, the gears are free running. When
the lever or pedal being continually held shifted, they are locked to their shafts.
(Fig. 2-19). An over‑center clutch is used for
many power‑take‑off applications, such as A special friction clutch called a synchronizer
compressors. is used to equalize the speed of mating parts
before they engage.

In most transmissions, a countershaft allows

one set of gears to be shifted without disturbing

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  21

the other gear ratios in the transmission. This
method is commonly used when reversing
direction (Fig. 2‑20).

To differential
From engine Idle gear
Main shaft

Countershaft Figure 2-21. Transmission

2.4.4 Torque converter

A torque converter is a large donut-shaped
device that is mounted between the engine and
the transmission (Fig. 2‑22). It transmits power
to the transmission. It allows the engine to spin
somewhat independently of the transmission.
By inputting rpm, the engine speeds up and
Figure 2-20. Single Countershaft (upper) and Twin pumps more fluid into the torque converter,
Countershaft Transmission (lower) causing more torque to be transmitted to the
wheels or triplex pump.
To lubricate the gearbox, an 80/90W oil is
typically used. The oil is circulated or applied Forward
clutch Fourth
to the gears by a method referred to as splash Torque
clutch Third clutch
First clutch

clutch Low clutch

sump oiling, which slings oil around the gearbox converter
as some or all of the gears rotate within the drive gear

sump area.

2.4.3 Power shift transmission Lockup
clutch Control valve body
Modulated lockup valve Oil filter
A power shift transmission has positive control Converter-driven power
takeoff drive gear
on the gears and stays in one gear. This type MT 653DR
of automatic transmission is typically used for
pumping (Fig. 2‑21). Figure 2-22. Torque Converter in Relation to the Whole
Power shift transmissions are typically used in
fracture pumps, among others, when pumping. The automatic transmission of an automobile
These controls are such that the transmission uses a torque converter to shift gears in
will not down-shift once set, allowing the response to torque requirements. A gear train is
operator control of the pump speed. used with the torque converter to provide extra
speed ranges. Acting as a clutch, the torque
Automatic transmissions have no clutch that converter connects and disconnects power
disconnects the transmission from the engine; between the engine and the gear train. As a
they use a torque converter. transmission, the converter gives many more

22  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

speed ratios than are practical with a strictly • to allow for axial motion of the connected
mechanical gearbox. shafts caused by thermal expansion.
To meet these different requirements, various
Torque converters allow the following modes:
types of couplings are used, for example:
• lock-up mode: The torque converter acts as
• U-joint
a simple fluid coupling, sending the same
torque it receives to the drive wheels. Input • metallic grid-type coupling
rpm cannot be exceeded. • jaw-type electrometric coupling with spider
• free-wheeling mode: Input rpm can easily • electrometric donut-type coupling, clamped
be exceeded by means of a device called or restrained.
a stator. A stator acts as a fluid lever or
fulcrum to multiply torque for output. Direct couplings
The lock-up type converter includes an A direct coupling is a direct or uninterrupted
additional mechanical clutch and must achieve connection between an engine and the device
1,400 to 1,600 rpm for lockup. This type of it powers (Fig. 2‑23). An example of direct
converter is best for prolonged and pump coupling is the power-take-off device used to
operations but is undesirable for testing drive centrifugal pumps on many Schlumberger
procedures. skid units.

The figure below shows the torque converter in Journal and bearing
Stub yoke
relation to the whole transmission. Flange yoke
Sleeve yoke
End yoke

2.4.5 Couplings
A coupling connects two ends of shafts in the Slip u-joint
Slip tub shaft
Permanent u-joint
same line, transmitting power (or torque) from
one shaft to the other. This connection results Figure 2-23. Direct Couplings
in synchronized rotation for the shafts at the
same rpm. Flexible couplings
If two shafts joined by a coupling are not in
Shafts are joined with a coupling for the perfect alignment, stresses are induced due to
following reasons: bending. These stress greatly reduce the life
of shafts and cause an additional load on the
• to join units that are in different locations bearings that support the shafts. Consequently,
or that are more convenient to handle as a flexible coupling (Fig. 2‑24) is typically used
smaller units to join shafts of two units, such as a motor and
• to join standard units to accomplish a a pump. Flexible couplings not only permit axial
special purpose and radial misalignment, but they also provide
vibrational dampening and overload protection.
• to allow for misalignment of the shafts One drawback of flexible couplings is the
• to reduce the transmission of shock or requirement for close-proximity mounting.
The vee of a flexible joint is a universal joint,
• to rapidly connect or disconnect the shafts
like the drive shaft in a car. The joint ends of the
as required by the operation of the machine

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  23

shaft are U-joint yokes. They join together and 2.4.7 Routine maintenance of
are flexible. This flexibility allows side-to-side transmissions
and up‑down movement while still transmitting
torque. When checking the automatic transmission fluid
level, do the following:

• Check for leaks or stains under the unit

or vehicle. If there is a persistent red oil
leak below the unit or vehicle, check the
transmission fluid and monitor often. If
the fluid levels are below minimum levels,
serious damage can occur.
• Perform the check at a normal operating
• Check oil levels by removing the level
indicator plug on the side of the gearbox.
Some manual gearboxes are equipped with
Figure 2-24. Flexible Coupling
a dipstick.
• Check the color and odor of the fluid. It
should look transparent and red.
2.4.6 Drivelines
• Make sure the unit is level.
The driveline transmits torque smoothly to
the vehicle’s driving wheels. In front-wheel- • Shift through all the gears, put the unit into
drive vehicles, the driveline connects the neutral, and drop it down to idle.
transaxle assembly to the front driving wheels. • Monitor new noises, vibrations, and shift
In rear-wheel-drive, the driveline connects the behavior. If shifts are erratic or noises are
transmission to the rear-driving axle. heard while shifting, have the unit checked
by a mechanic. Problems can be solved
Driveline variations include the following: with no costly repairs if they are detected
• standard universal joint: This joint transmits
rotary motion from one shaft to another
shaft at varying angles. This type of joint
allows a vehicle wheel to move up and
down, as well as to turn corners.
• constant velocity joint: This joint also
permits each shaft to maintain the same
driving or driven speed, regardless of
operating angle.

24  |  Basic Engines and Transmissions

3.0  Basic Pneumatic Systems

Pneumatics deals with the use of compressed systems are found on many Schlumberger
or pressurized gas or air as a source of power. trucks and are used to power brakes (Fig. 3‑2),
Air is extremely compressible, elastic, and horns, and cab tilt controls, and to start deck
capable of absorbing large amounts of potential engines.
energy. Once compressed, it exerts an outward
force, much like a coiled spring.

At Schlumberger, compressed air is used to

move diaphragms and pistons and to fluidize
and carry bulk solids such as cement and sand.
For example, in air silos (Fig. 3‑1), compressed
air is used to pressurize the vessel and push
the cement through the lines.

Figure 3-2. Power Brakes

High-pressure/high-volume systems operate

at pressure ranges between 100 and 110 psi
at system charge rates of 250 ft3/min.
Schlumberger uses this type of system only in
liquid additive system (Fig. 3‑3) applications
such as fracturing or cementing.

Figure 3-1. Silos

3.1 Types of pneumatic systems

There are three categories of pneumatic, or air
• high-pressure/low-volume systems
• high-pressure/high-volume systems
• low-pressure/high-volume systems.
High-pressure/low-volume systems operate
at a pressure range of 90 to 120 psi and have
system charge rates of 10 to 15 ft3/min. These Figure 3-3. Liquid Additive Systems

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  25

Low-pressure/high-volume systems operate permits flow in only one direction: from the
at pressure ranges of 7 to 30 psi and system compressor to the tank. If pressure is lost on
charge rates of 65 to 600 ft3/min. These the compressor side, the check valve will shut
systems are typically used to convey and off flow, maintaining pressurized air in the tank.
fluff bulk materials such as sand and cement.
Because of their dangerous potential, Downstream from the compressor’s discharge
low‑pressure/high-volume systems typically valve, a governor is fed system pressure. The
include relief valves, overpressure shutdown governor is set to respond to excess system
valves, and rupture discs. pressure and will trigger the unloader to release
compressor pressure when the preset level is
3.2 Parts of pneumatic systems
Most pneumatic systems, regardless of their The air tank, or reservoir, is outfitted with a
volume capacities and pressure ranges, contain popoff valve and drain cock. The popoff valve
very similar basic components. Figure 3-4 remains closed unless the tank pressure
shows the basic components of the pneumatic reaches a predetermined level, at which point it
system. will open to release the excess. The drain cock
is used to remove condensation and air from
the air storage tank, but only when the unit is
release valve not operating.
Unloader From the tank, air flows through a dryer, which
removes moisture from the system while it
is in operation. When the governor signals
the unloader to release pressure from the
compressor, it also signals the dryer to release
accumulated moisture.

3.3 Pneumatic systems components

Governor Air tank
The pneumatic system is composed of a
Check valve Drain cock compressor, blowers, air reservoirs, governors,
pressure-relief valves, check valves, drain
Figure 3-4. Pneumatic System Components
cocks, dryers, and lubricators.
The compressor is a motor that compresses air
from the atmosphere and discharges it through 3.3.1 Compressor
a heat-resistant line to a check valve and into
the tank. The line must be able to withstand Compressors can be found in either
high temperatures because engine and high‑pressure or low-pressure systems
compressor heat is transferred to discharge air (Fig. 3‑5). Compressors installed on
during compression. Schlumberger trucks are driven by

Even though the lines are heat resistant, • belts

they may crack or leak, causing a loss of • gears
line pressure. If a crack or leak does occur,
the check valve acts as a shut-off device. It • power take-offs.

26  |  Basic Pneumatic Systems

gear compressor, oil flows through the direct
gear connection into the compressor, internally
lubricating the system. Other compressors have
their own dedicated oil lubrication system, very
similar to that of an engine.

Parts of a compressor
A compressor includes these basic

• intake valve
• discharge valve
• piston
• rod
Figure 3-5. Compressor Unit
• flow line to and from the governor
Belt-driven compressors are powered by a • unloader poppet
dedicated diesel engine or may be connected
to a hydraulic motor mounting on the engine of • plunger
a truck. • air filter

Meshed gear assemblies are driven by a • line to the reservoir or tank for holding
directly geared mounting to the truck engine. the compressed air.
The compressor components for a
Power take-offs, also called PTOs, also are high‑pressure/low-volume system are nearly
powered by the truck’s engine, but not by identical to those of a low-pressure/high-volume
a direct connection. Found on most bulk system. The only difference is the position of
equipment, this type of compressor requires a the intake or suction valve. On a high-pressure
method of engaging or disengaging the power system, this valve is typically mounted on the
source. This is typically accomplished manually side of the compression chamber, whereas on
or through the use of a clutch. a low-pressure system it is mounted on top of
the chamber next to the discharge valve.
Compressors are sometimes cooled by
the engine’s cooling system. Either air or Compressor cycle
a combination of water and antifreeze can
serve as the coolant, according to the type A compressor goes through stages, during a
of compressor and engine used. Other air complete cycle:
compressors are cooled only by air, and these
have a fan connected to them to circulate air • intake stage, when air is drawn into the
across the outside of the cylinders. cylinder or chamber
• compression stage, when air is
The engine may also lubricate the compressor. compressed in the chamber and
The compressor is connected by a hose to the discharged to the reservoir
engine’s lubrication system, allowing the oil to
• unloading stage, when any unnecessary
flow into the top of the compressor and down
pressurized air is unloaded.
through system components. In a meshed

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  27

Intake (suction) stage
During the intake stage, the piston travels Air is drawn into
the cylinder or chamber.
downward, opening the intake valve (Fig. 3‑6).

Air is compressed in
the chamber and discharged
,OWPRESSURE to the reservoir.

Any unecessary pressurized
air is unlocked.

Figure 3-7. Compressor Cycle

Figure 3-6. Compressor Unloading stage

The unloading stage occurs when the system
As air is drawn into the chamber, the exhaust
has finally reached maximum operating
valve is closed so that air does not escape.
pressure. The governor (pressure regulator)
At this point, the air pressure has not reached
sends system pressure to the unloader, forcing
the upper limit, and therefore the compressor
the system to unload to the atmosphere or to
continues to run.
shut down the compressor.
Exhaust (compression) stage
During this stage, the exhaust valve is closed.
During the compression stage, the intake valve Air is expelled (and drawn in) with each cycle
closes and the piston starts moving upward, of the piston through the intake manifold.
building air pressure in the chamber (Fig.  3 ‑7). Because the piston is not compressing during
The pressure causes the exhaust valve to the unloading stage, the cylinder temperature
open, forcing air into the system and into the drops, which allows the compressor to cool.

At this point, the governor (pressure regulator) 3.3.2 Blowers

senses an increase in pressure but does Although compressors are an integral part of
not force the system to unload or shut down most pneumatic systems, blowers are often
because the system has not reached maximum used in applications requiring low pressure.
operating pressure. Blowers are sized for the application and
typically range in delivery from 250 to 400 ft3/
min. Blowers typically deliver about 400 ft3/min
of air at a maximum pressure of 7 to 10 psi.
They are most often powered by hydraulic
deck motors and include brands such as Roots

28  |  Basic Pneumatic Systems

or Hibon. A typical blower application is silo valve, which opens and releases pressure once
aeration (Fig. 3‑8). a preset level is achieved.

There is also a drain valve, mounted on the

bottom of the tank, which is used to drain
accumulated condensation from the tank.

3.3.4 Governors (pressure regulator)

The governor plays an essential role in
maintaining maximum and minimum system
pressure (Fig. 3‑10). It is an adjustable device
that can be set to trigger the unloader when
system pressure falls outside a preset range.
The reservoir or system line downstream of the
compressor’s discharge valve is connected to
Figure 3-8. Silo Aeration the input of the governor, whereas the output
of the governor flows (when triggered) to the
3.3.3 Air reservoirs (tanks)
Air reservoirs, or tanks, are used to store If, for example, the governor is set to a
various volumes of pressurized air (Fig. 3‑9). maximum of 120 psi and system pressure
One compressor may feed into a single climbs to that preset level, the governor will
reservoir or multiple reservoirs. This allows allow system pressure to flow to the unloader,
multiple functions to be performed by a single which in turn releases pressure, thereby
compressor. For example, many trucks use only returning the system to its normal operating
one compressor to feed separate tanks for the range.
brake and auxiliary air systems.
The governor also helps control the function of
the intake valve, thus allowing the compressor
chamber to operate in a zero-pressure state.
This reduces heat when a charge is not

Figure 3-9. Air Reservoirs

For safety reasons, reservoirs must be rated to

handle higher pressures than those normally
associated with the system. They must also be
equipped with safety devices, such as a popoff

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  29


Reservoir Figure 3-11. Pop-Off Valve

Figure 3-10. Governor

3.3.5 Pressure-relief valves

Most reservoirs are equipped with
pressure‑release or popoff valves that relieve
excess pressure from the air-storage container
(Figs. 3‑11 and 3‑12). They protect the system
in the event of a governor failure and, like a
governor, can be adjusted to respond to a
range of pressures. The operation of a popoff
valve is fairly simple. A needle is held in place
by an adjustable spring over a small port. If
the spring is set to 120 psi and the tank air
pressure rises to that level, the spring will allow
the needle to be pushed back, opening the port
and releasing pressure. Figure 3-12. Pressure-Relief Valve

Popoff valves are frequently a source of

leakage in the air system. They can collect
debris around the needle and port, especially
if located in a position other than on top of the

30  |  Basic Pneumatic Systems

3.3.6 Check valves
Check valves, which are located between the
compressor and reservoir inlet, seal the tank
or reservoir in the event of an upstream failure
(Fig. 3‑13). If the compressor fails, system
pressure will be maintained in the tank because
the check valve seals the tank and prevents
pressurized air from backing up. This safety
feature is especially important in systems such
as truck brakes, where a total system failure
could be catastrophic.
Figure 3-14. Drain Cock

3.3.8 Dryers (water separators)

Dryer, or water separators, remove water
vapor and contaminants from the air system
downstream from the reservoir (Fig. 3‑15). On
cementing trucks, the dryer is located behind
the operator’s console.

Unlike the drain cock, the dryer functions

continuously. The dryer also offers finer filtering
than the drain cock because it uses micro‑fine
Figure 3-13. Check Valve
media to remove moisture from micronic
particles, fumes, and compressor oil.
3.3.7 Drain cocks
A regulator is attached to the dryer to control
Drain cocks are valves that allow condensation filtering levels, and a drain is on the bottom
and air to be drained from the reservoir of the dryer. The drain is either a rubber,
(Fig. 3‑14). They are typically located at the needle‑type valve or a screw-type valve that
lowest point on the reservoir and should be must be removed for drainage.
opened for drainage before and after each
operation. It is essential that the dryer be serviced
frequently to remove moisture and clean the
filter media.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  31




Figure 3-15. Dryer

3.3.9 Lubricators
Figure 3-16. Lubricator
After the compressed air leaves the dryer, it
passes through the air lubricator (Fig. 3‑16).
The air lubricator injects a fine mist of oil 3.4 Applications
into the air, which lubricates downstream
components. High-pressure/low-volume pneumatic systems
are used in many ways. Here are the most
On air systems used for fluidizing bulk materials common applications:
such as cement, this lubrication method is not
used because the downstream components • brakes
do not require lubrication and because the oil • tractor protection valves
would contaminate (clog) the fluidizing systems
used on most bulk handling equipment. • front brake limiting valves
• clutches
The lubricator has an adjustable regulator that
• gear shifts
should be checked regularly to ensure that the
unit is providing adequate oil or lubrication per • power divider lock control
volume of air. There is also a sight glass that
• parking brakes
provides a quick visual check of oil level. It is
the operator’s responsibility to add oil when • dash gauge warning buzzer
needed. • air cylinders
It is important to service the lubricator regularly • pumping equipment.
to ensure equipment longevity.

32  |  Basic Pneumatic Systems

3.5 Safety
When working with pressurized air, make sure
that you follow basic safety policies:

• Never work on vessels that are

pressurized. Also, make sure you never
hammer on tanks or reservoirs. If you need
to check the product level of a vessel, use
your hand to tap on the side of the tank to
determine its product level.
• A pressure of 30 psi found in low-pressure
systems can be very dangerous since
these systems develop tremendous forces
because of their large tank areas. These
tanks can explode if pressures become
even slightly excessive.
• Never remove air components or plugs until
you are sure all air pressure has been bled
from the system. Do not rely on gauges
only. They can become stuck, or you
could be monitoring pressure from a point
upstream of components under pressure.
Open the popoff or other valves to make
sure there is no pressure in the system.
• Never look into jets or aim air at someone.
Debris or just pressurized air by itself can
cause serious injury.
• Some components contain powerful
springs. Be sure to disassemble them
properly to avoid injury. Vehicle brakes
contain spring elements that could injure
someone if not properly removed.
• Service pressure-release valves (popoffs)
regularly. These valves release excess
pressure in the system. If they become
stuck or nonfunctional, the system can
cause serious damage and injury.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  33

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34  |  Basic Pneumatic Systems

4.0  Basic Electrical Systems

Schlumberger uses electricity to power starter The water is equivalent to the current (the
motors, lighting systems, instruments, data electrons). The knob is the switch. The water
acquisition systems, ignition systems and pipe is the circuit (Fig. 4‑2).
even to control valves in hydraulic systems.
This section covers some of the basic terms
and components used in electrical systems.
Most of these electricity basics deal with direct
current (DC). DC circuits are the foundation
of Schlumberger mobile and skid-mounted

4.1 Basic circuit

An electrical circuit can be compared to a water
circuit (Fig. 4‑1). Imagine that you want a cup of
water and have gone to a nearby faucet.

• If you turn the knob to the open position,

water begins to pour out.
• This simulates an electrical circuit and
current flow. How?

Negative Positive
terminal terminal

Wire Insulation
conductor Figure 4-2. Water Pipe Circuit
When you turn on the water, you switch the
current on to allow the current to flow. The
Conductor current flows because of the potential pressure
difference: on one side of the valve of the
faucet there is no pressure, and on the other
side there is water pressure. This difference
Switch makes up the voltage, or electromotive force,
sometimes referred to as EMF.

To continue the comparison, the resistance is

the size of water lines and the openings on the
Figure 4-1. Basic Electrical Circuit

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  33

valve and the end of the faucet. This resistance
determines how much water will flow in a given
time. The smaller the pipe opening is, the more
resistance there will be to the water flow.

In an electrical circuit, the smaller the wire is,

the more resistance there will be to the current
flow; the wire and components determine how
much current will flow in a given time; this  AMPS AMP
current is known as amperage.

Electricity is not just something
supplied by batteries and used up  AMPS
in a light bulb. It is a form of energy
that circulates and requires a Figure 4-3. Examples of Amperage
complete circuit to flow.
Conventional current
When Ben Franklin discovered electric current,
he had no idea that electrons existed. Having a
Refer to the Figures 4-1 and 4-2 for a
positive attitude, he arbitrarily said that current
comparison of a basic electrical circuit and a
flowed from positive to negative. Much later,
water pipe circuit.
scientists discovered that current was a flow
of electrons and that the electrons traveled in
4.2 Electric current the opposite direction, that is, from negative to
positive. In the late 1960s, only a few textbooks
Current is the flow of electrons in an electric and school curricula taught negative-to-positive
circuit. Flowing water is a good analogy current flow. In fact, today most of the world is
of electricity. When water flows through a still using Franklin’s conventional current flow
pipe or down a stream, there is a current. theory, that is, positive to negative, to explain
Sometimes the current flows faster than and dissect electrical circuits. No matter which
normal, and sometimes it flows more slowly. If way the current flows, it still produces the same
you measured how fast the water current was amount of work (Fig. 4‑4).
flowing through a pipe with a flowmeter, you
would measure the flow by so many gallons per

When a coulomb (C) of electrons (1 C=6.24

billion-billion electrons) passes through a wire
in 1 second, that is 1 ampere of current. An
ampere is the basic unit of electric current. It
is sometimes referred to as an amp. Amps are
abbreviated with an “A” (e.g., 1 ampere = 1 A).
Since electrons or coulombs of electrons are
not visible, an ammeter is used to measure
electric current (Fig. 4‑3).

34  |  Basic Electrical Systems

Figure 4-5. Voltmeter

Figure 4-4. Current Flow

When connecting electrical devices, be very (in volts)

careful. Connect positive to positive and The increase in force

(pressure) caused by
negative to negative. Otherwise, the device will Negative
the voltage is called
the electromotive Positive
smoke and then stop working. terminal force (EMF) provided terminal
by the battery

Electrons Return of
4.3 Voltage flow
through Electrons

the circuit
Water flows through a pipe because of water due to
pressure. Water pressure forces the water voltage
to flow. Likewise, electromotive force is the
pressure that forces electrons to flow through ions
a circuit. Electromotive force is also known as
voltage. The basic unit of electromotive force
is the volt (V). In formulas, volt is sometimes
abbreviated E (for energy). Figure 4-6. Battery Components

If you wanted to measure how much voltage a

circuit or battery has, you would use a voltmeter 4.4 Resistance
(Fig. 4‑5). In the same way that only a certain amount of
water can flow through a pipe, only a certain
In a house, wires in the walls carry electricity amount of electric current can flow in a circuit.
to lights, plugs, and appliances. The voltage
in those circuits (if you live in the U.S.) is Water is limited by the amount of friction it
about 120 V. Likewise, in a typical American encounters as it flows. Electricity is limited by
automobile or Schlumberger unit, a battery the amount of resistance it meets as it passes
runs the electrical systems. The voltage of that through a circuit.
battery is about 12 V (Fig. 4‑6).
However, if you increased the water pressure
Voltage can be considered the pressure in the in a pipe, more water would flow. Likewise,
system. The more pressure there is, the more if you turned up the voltage, more current
current is forced through a system. would flow. Resistance limits the current that

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  35

flows through a circuit for a particular applied companies sell electricity by the kilowatt-hour
voltage (Fig. 4‑7). The resistance of a material (kW.h). Electrical appliances and components
is directly proportional to its length. Therefore, are rated in watts or kilowatts. Light bulbs are
reducing the length reduces the resistance. A rated at 60 W and 100 W, and hair dryers are
long wire will have a higher voltage drop across rated at 1,600 W.
it (due to the larger resistance) than a short
wire. So, a long extension cord that is used
for an electrical appliance that draws a large 4.6 Ohm’s law and power formula
current will need to be made of heavier (larger Although there are literally thousands of
cross-sectional area) gauge wire than a shorter formulas, for a simple circuit you need to
extension cord. remember two only: Ohm’s law and the power

Ohm’s Law: E = I x R

Ohm’s law, states that E = I x R (or

electromotive force in volts = intensity in amps
times resistance).

Those who are good at math games already

know that you can change the formula to read
R = E/I or I = E/R.

The formula is sometimes taught as a magic

Figure 4-7. Resistors

The basic unit of resistance is the ohm.

One ohm can be written as the Greek letter
“omega.” An ohmmeter is used to measure the
amount of resistance in a circuit. Resistance,
or impedance, is the opposition to the pressure
applied and is measured in ohms.

4.5 Power (wattage)

When discussing electricity, you often hear
the term wattage or watts. Wattage is the I – Amperage (CURRENT FLOW)
amount of power that a device uses. This is an
instantaneous value and does not have time R – Resistance (OPPOSITION TO CURRENT
attached to it. Watt-hours or kilowatt‑hours is FLOW)
the amount of energy consumed over time;
1,000 watthours (W-hr) = 1 kilowatthour If you change one of the three components
(kW‑hr). A watt is a unit of electrical power (P). of the equation, you will affect only one other
component. For example, increase the voltage
A 1-volt circuit with a 1-amp current flow without changing the resistance, and the
has 1 watt of electrical power. The power amperage will increase. Lower the resistance

36  |  Basic Electrical Systems

without changing the voltage, and the addition, it will also help you determine what
amperage will increase. fuse size is required.

Note: 4.7 Conductors and insulators

You cannot change the amperage Electricity flows through some materials
by itself because amperage is a easily. These materials are called conductors.
function of voltage over resistance: All conductors have some resistance. Most
E / R = I. conductors are metals. Any metal will conduct

Power formula: P = E x I Gold, aluminum, mercury, and copper are the

most efficient conductors of electricity. Gold is
The power formula states that P = E x I (or very expensive. Aluminum is inexpensive but
power in watts = volts times amps). has a corrosive nature. Mercury is difficult to
contain. Copper is relatively inexpensive and
The formula can also be changed to either only mildly corrosive (Fig. 4‑9).
E = P/I or I = P/E.
Highly conductive material Poorly conductive material
Light bulbs are rated in watts; the higher the
wattage, the brighter they are. To shine brighter,
a bulb has to draw more current (amps); the
same is true in your house. A 60-W bulb draws
½ A in a 120-V system.

To find the current draw, using the power

formula and you have I = P/E or 60/120 =
.5 AMP.

A 100-W bulb draws almost 1 A (100/120 =

.83 A).
Figure 4-9. Conductivity in Different Materials
A baseboard heater of 1,500 W draws 12.5 A
(1,500/120 A =12.5 A).
Conductors are used in electrical applications
to support current flow, just as pipes are used
A toaster rated at 600 W draws about 5 A.
to conduct fluid or gases. The flow in a wire is
A kettle rated at 1,500 W draws 12.5 A. The
supported by a solid conductor such as copper.
two together draw 17.5 A. Circuit breakers are
Copper is the most commonly used material to
usually rated at 15 A, so these two appliances
carry electricity. Copper is also flexible, which
used together would trip a breaker.
adds to its usefulness.
Why do you need to remember these formulas?
Insulators are materials that do not let electricity
Suppose you are required to add two additional
flow easily through them. Four good insulators
work lights to a truck or skid-mounted unit. The
are glass, air, plastic, and porcelain (Fig. 4‑10).
formulas will help you determine the electric
current and thus the wire size you will need. In

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  37

A lead acid battery (the same as in a car)
contains a mixture of water and sulfuric acid
in very specific proportions. The sulfuric acid
reacts with the lead plates in the battery to
produce electricity. As the chemical reaction
)NSULATOR continues, lead sulfate forms on the lead
plates, and the amount of sulfuric acid gradually
Figure 4-10. Conductor and Insulator decreases as the battery discharges.

Charging the batteries transforms the lead

4.8 Batteries sulfate back into sulfuric acid, and the mixture
A battery is an electrical reservoir from which a (electrolyte) is restored almost to its original
system such as a pumping unit draws electrical level. All batteries and cells require an
power. It is charged or refilled with a charging electrolyte.
An electrolyte is a chemical that acts on
The heart of the Schlumberger mobile and one or both of the electrodes to provide the
skid‑mounted electrical system is the battery. chemical action necessary for current flow. The
There are different types of batteries: lead acid, electrolyte can be in liquid (wet), paste (dry), or
gel cell, and other newer batteries (Fig. 4‑11). gel form.

When this process is repeated many times,

lead sulfate gradually builds up on the plates,
and the amount of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte
decreases. This decrease lessens the ability of
the battery to take a full charge and therefore to
produce electricity.

When a battery is recharged, some of the water

(H2O) in the electrolyte is transformed into
hydrogen (H2). and oxygen (O). These gases,
which can become explosive, escape through
the breather holes of the battery. This is why
you must add water. (There is no such thing
as a maintenance-free battery.) It must also
breathe to prevent a pressure buildup.

Ideally, a battery should be recharged at

13.75 V to 14.25 V to achieve its fully charged
voltage of 12.5 V to 12.6 V. If the charging
voltage is higher than 14.25 V, more water will
be transformed into hydrogen and oxygen,
and more frequent topping up with water will
be required. In this case, check the output
Figure 4-11. Truck Battery
voltage of the alternator while it is charging the
battery. When topping up, add distilled water
until the plates are covered, plus about ¼ in.

38  |  Basic Electrical Systems

If the charging voltage is much lower than Batteries are rated in amp-hours, cold cranking
13.75 V, the battery will not reach its full charge amps (CCA), marine cranking amps (MCA), and
capacity. Follow all safety precautions when reserve-minute (res/min) amp-hours.
performing this activity, and refer to the battery
maintenance section. • A rating of 100 A.h means that a battery
can deliver a steady 5 A for a period of
If the alternator output is normal but you find 20 hours (5 X 20 = 100 A.h) or 10 A for
that the battery is always weak, check each 10 hours before the battery voltage drops
cell with a hydrometer (cost, about USD 5). to 10.5 V. This testing method is used to
The hydrometer measures the specific gravity compare batteries:
of the electrolyte in each of the six cells. A low
• CCA: The number of amps a battery can
specific gravity indicates that the proportion
deliver for 30 seconds at 0 degF before the
of water to acid is too high. This means that
battery voltage drops to 7.2 V. This is an
the battery needs to be charged more to turn
automotive rating.
the lead sulfate into sulfuric acid and thereby
restore the proper water-to-acid ratio in the • MCA: The same as CCA but measured
electrolyte. If the specific gravity is still low after at 32 degF. It is always higher because a
a 24-hour charge from a battery charger, the warm battery always delivers more power
battery is probably worn out (the plates are than a cold one.
sulfated). Take the battery to a qualified battery • Res/min: A rating of 180 means that the
shop to have the battery tested. battery can supply a steady 25 A for 180
minutes (3 hours), before the battery
A worn-out battery can still indicate 12.5 V voltage drops to 10.5 V. This also means
with no electrical load on it. Turn on three or that it can supply a load (i.e., two cabin
four cabin lights for about 15 minutes, and then lights and a stereo) of 5 A (1/5 of 25 A)
turn them off and recheck the battery voltage. five times longer, or 15 hours. The voltage
If the battery voltage has decreased to below rating is the same for all batteries, whether
12 V, the battery is probably worn out. If the the battery is a deep cycle, a starting, or a
specific gravity in one cell is low but normal car battery. The only thing that varies is the
in the others, it indicates a problem with that amperage ratings.
cell (sulfated or damaged plates), and you
probably need to replace the battery. Take it to Schlumberger units may have more than one
a qualified battery shop and have the battery battery system to supply power to different
tested (Fig. 4‑12). portions of the unit and to keep one system
from affecting the other. For example, one batch
of batteries would supply the data‑acquisition
portion of a unit, and a second batch of
batteries would supply the basic starting and
work lights system.

In many cases, a system may be required to

deliver more electrical energy than one battery
can provide. At Schlumberger, unit batteries are
usually connected in parallel to provide 12 V
and a higher current capacity. These batteries
have all positive terminals connected and all
Figure 4-12. Battery Hydrometer negative terminals connected.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  39

In contrast, batteries connected in series
(connected end to end or positive to negative) Warning:
are additive, providing a higher voltage than the Wear safety glasses when working
current capacity of a single battery (Fig. 4‑13). with a battery. The electrolyte in
a battery is a mixture of sulfuric
acid and water that can damage
vehicle paint and burn your skin or
eyes if spilled. A battery also vents
explosive hydrogen gas, especially
when charging. Keep all sparks
and flames away from a battery.
Remove metallic watches, rings,
and necklaces or chains to avoid
contact with battery terminals and
possible electrical arcing. Use
tools with insulated handles when
servicing a battery.

Figure 4-13. Voltmeter

Battery maintenance
• Keep the battery terminals clean and clear
To ensure that plenty of power is available of buildup that can corrode the cables.
when needed, proper battery maintenance is • Check to ensure that terminal connections
essential. Keep batteries fully charged at all are tight.
times. If there is a drop or lack of power when
starting, charge a battery to its full capacity • Check the condition of the entire cable, not
when possible. just the area near the battery, to verify that
there are no exposed wires or cracks in the
Use this checklist for routine secondary insulation.
(rechargeable lead/acid) battery maintenance: • Protect the battery from extreme
• Check the fluid levels in the battery
periodically, and use distilled water to • Do not overcharge a battery.
replenish the fluid. • Do not let two-way radio and computer
batteries run down completely.
• Frequently charge and discharge nickel
cadmium (NiCd) batteries to prevent
memory effect. This effect is a condition in
which the batteries do not recharge above
the level of their first recharge, which could
be below their full capacity.
To check an automobile battery, turn on the
lights and start the engine. If the lights go out or
dim excessively, the battery may be weak and

40  |  Basic Electrical Systems

in need of a charge. There also could be loose

Jumping a dead battery

If an automotive battery fails to provide
adequate power and requires jumping
(Fig. 4‑14), follow this procedure:

STEP 01 Put on rubber gloves and goggles.

STEP 02 Connect the positive terminal of

the charged battery to the positive terminal of
the dead battery. The positive terminal usually
has a red wire on it. Check the color code or
embossed plus (+) and minus (-) signs. Figure 4-14. Jumping

STEP 03 Connect the negative terminal

of the charged battery to a grounding point
on the vehicle with the dead battery. The 4.9 Generators and alternators
negative terminal has a black wire on it. Make Automobiles have an electrical system that
this connection far enough from the battery so powers the headlights, cooling fans, radio,
that a spark will not ignite the hydrogen gas etc. The source of the power is the fuel. The
generated by the lead/acid battery. link from the fuel tank to the battery is the
alternator. The alternator converts the power
STEP 04 Do not stand near the battery from the fuel to electrical energy.
when the engine is cranked.
STEP 05 After jumping the battery, Before about 1970, most cars and marine
disconnect the cables. First, remove the cable engines were equipped with a generator that
from the negative terminal, which is connected produced direct current (DC). A generator
far enough from the battery so that a spark uses magnetism to produce electricity. A
cannot ignite the hydrogen gas generated by generator or alternator consists of a loop of
the lead/acid battery. Never make a spark close wires placed so that the loop can be rotated in
to this type of battery because an explosion a stationary magnetic field (stator) to cause an
could occur. induced current in the loop. This loop contains
a multitude of wires (rotor). In a generator, a
commutator and brushes are used to connect
the loop of wires to an external circuit.

A generator can be compared to an electric

pump. The faster it turns, the greater is its
output in terms of voltage (electrical pressure)
and, thus, current. At idle speed, the earlier
generator produced barely enough voltage to

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  41

prevent the red generator warning light on the The center part of the alternator (the rotor)
vehicle’s dashboard from turning on. contains electromagnets with north and south
poles on each magnet (positive and negative).
If you connected a generator directly to a The stator surrounding the rotor contains coils
battery, it would become a motor, just like the of wire. As the rotor turns inside the stator, both
starter motor. Electric cars use that principle. the north and south poles of the electromagnets
When the accelerator pedal is depressed, the are induced alternately, first a positive and then
battery powers the DC motor; when the pedal is a negative voltage, thus the alternating current
released, the motor becomes a generator and in the stator coils.
recharges the batteries.
Because AC cannot be used by the electrical
In an alternator, slip rings and brushes are used system, it must go through a rectifier, where it
to connect the loop to an external circuit. In a is changed into DC (Fig. 4‑16). This DC is not
generator, a commutator and brushes are used pure like battery power; rather, it is a slightly
to connect the loop to an external circuit. rough DC form acceptable to the electrical
system. The rectifier contains diodes, which are
Alternators electrical one-way valves that allow current to
flow only if the current has the proper polarity.
In the 1970s, with the advent of the This converts the negative phase of the AC
semiconductor and solid state electronics, the into a positive phase. The result is a rapidly
alternator displaced the generator because it pulsating (rough) DC, rather than pure battery
could produce more power at low rotational DC power.
speeds. It was also smaller, lighter, and more
powerful than the generator. An alternator
initially produces alternating current (AC)
(Fig. 4‑15). Before this AC current can be used
by a marine or land-based electrical system,
it must go through a rectifier and a voltage
regulator. Unlike DC, which has a constant
polarity, AC has a polarity that continually
reverses itself (alternates).

Figure 4-16. DC and AC Current Flow

After the output has been rectified, it goes

through the solid state (no spring or contacts)
voltage regulator, which performs the same
functions as the generator voltage regulator.

The ends of the rotor are connected to the slip

rings, which rotate with the armature. Brushes
Figure 4-15. Alternator ride against the slip rings to pick up the

42  |  Basic Electrical Systems

electricity generated in the armature and carry rates, causing the strip to bend and allowing the
it to an external circuit. trip mechanism to operate.

Alternators like the ones used in most cars to

maintain battery charge are smaller units that
provide output at slower speeds.

The following is a checklist of the tasks required

to keep an automotive alternator performing
smoothly. These checks are generally
performed by maintenance personnel:

• Check for the proper drive belt condition

and tension.
• Keep connections clean, tight, and
protected from heat.
• Check the output voltage to make sure a
positive output is maintained. Figure 4-17. Circuit Breakers

Most circuit breakers require a manual reset.

4.10 Regulators, breakers, and fuses When tripped, they must be manually closed.
The voltage from an alternator can be varied For most applications, the magnetic circuit
by changing the speed of the prime mover. The breaker is superior because the trip point does
internal resistance of the generator windings not change after many cycles. The thermal
(the coils of wire) also causes the output circuit breaker’s trip point changes as a result of
voltage to vary with the load. Under many metal fatigue.
circumstances, these voltage changes are
undesirable; therefore, a voltage regulator is Fuses
used. The simplest protective device is a fuse.
All fuses are rated according to the amount
Circuit breaker
of current that is safely carried by the fuse
A circuit breaker is a circuit control device that element at a rated voltage (Fig. 4‑18).
is designed to open the circuit if the current
exceeds a predetermined value (Fig. 4‑17). The Fuses are components that use special metals
two types of circuit breakers are magnetic and with very low resistance values and low melting
thermal. points. They are designed to melt and thus
open the circuit when the current exceeds the
In magnetic circuit breakers, the current is fuse’s rated value. When the power consumed
sensed by a coil that forms an electromagnet. by a fuse raises the temperature of the metal
When the current is excessive, the too high, the metal melts and the fuse blows.
electromagnet actuates a small armature that
pulls the trip mechanism to open the circuit
breaker. In thermal-type circuit breakers,
the current heats a bi-metallic strip. The two
different metals in the strip expand at different

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  43

Figure 4-18. Typical Household AC Fuses

Figure 4-19. Fuses of Varying Type

The two types of fuses in use today are
conventional fuses and slow-blowing fuses.
Conventional fuses blow immediately when the
circuit is overloaded. Slow-blowing fuses can 4.11 Applications
accept momentary overloads without blowing, At Schlumberger, electricity is used to power
but if the overload continues, the circuit will starter motors, lighting systems, instruments,
open. Slow-blowing fuses are used in circuits data acquisition systems, ignition systems,
that have a sudden rush of high current and even valves in hydraulic systems. An
when turned on, such as motors and some overpressure shutdown device is one example
appliances. of where Schlumberger uses electrical circuits.

An overpressure shutdown device is an

Warning: electrical circuit that responds to excessive
Always remember to disconnect a pressure in a hydraulic system, such as a triplex
power source before you change a pump. A Martin Decker gauge monitors system
fuse! pressure. It is preset to disengage the clutch
and bring the engine to idle speed.

Fuses must be replaced with the proper type, System pressure passes through the gauge
current, and voltage rating (Fig. 4‑19). saver to the Martin Decker gauge, which is set
to close the circuit when it reaches a certain
level. A needle on the gauge responds to
system pressure, and when the needle makes
contact with the preset contact, the circuit

When the circuit closes, the engine drops to

idle speed and the clutch is disengaged. The
reset junction box requires a manual reset of
the system after the pressure drops below the
set point (Fig. 4‑20).

44  |  Basic Electrical Systems



Truck over-pressure relay

Deck over-pressure relay

Figure 4-20. Overpressure Shutdown

4.12 Safety
Always follow these safety procedures when
you work with electrical systems:

• De-energize all circuits before servicing.

• Use LOTO (lockout/tag-out).
• Never wear rings or watches.
• Never short terminals or connections with
• Never allow flames or sparks around
• Always wear chemical goggles and rubber
gloves when handling batteries.
• Always maintain adequate ventilation
around batteries.
• When in doubt, consult your supervisor or
field service manager. Leave the repairs to
the experts.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  45

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46  |  Basic Electrical Systems

5.0  Basic Hydraulic Systems

Hydraulics, the study of the behavior of liquids, 5.1 Why use hydraulic power?
explains how forces are created and how the
tremendous potential of fluid power can be Schlumberger uses hydraulic power for tasks
effectively applied. such as mixing, proportioning, and agitating
in cement mixers and liquid- and dry-additive
Pascal’s law states, “Pressure applied on a systems. These are auxiliary circuits or systems
confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all that support downhole operations.
directions, and acts with equal force on equal
areas, and at right angles to them.” Keeping Hydraulic devices are used for these
Pascal’s law in mind, what would you expect applications because they offer a number of
to happen if a piston was forced into a bottle advantages:
that was completely filled to the rim with water?
The bottle would break because the liquid is • produce high power output but are light and
practically incompressible and transmits the small
force applied at the piston throughout the • require minimum day-to-day maintenance
container. This is a simple example of hydraulic because the same hydraulic fluid used to
force (Fig. 5‑1). drive the system is also used to lubricate
the parts inside the hydraulic system
• are simple to operate
• can be operated at varying speeds
• are reversible
• can be stalled without damage when
overloaded and will start up immediately
when the load is reduced
• can be hooked up in a variety of
configurations as needed for the most
efficient operating.
Hydraulic systems are significantly less efficient
than direct-drive systems because of internal
friction that produces heat. They also tend
to leak internally. However, they require less
day‑to-day maintenance than direct‑drive
systems, though they require a qualified
technician for major repairs. Nevertheless, for a
Figure 5-1. Hydraulic Force in a Bottle coiled tubing unit and its spatial restrictions and
power transfer requirements, hydraulic devices
provide the best load distribution and packaging
available (Fig. 5‑2).

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  47

Over the years, the performance,
sophistication, and operating pressures
of hydraulic equipment have increased
significantly. These changes are particularly
true in mobile hydraulic equipment. As a
result, not only is the more modern hydraulic
equipment more expensive to fix when it
breaks, but proactive maintenance is required
to maximize service life and minimize operating
costs. It is not realistic to expect (as many
equipment owners do) to run hydraulic devices
for many hours without checking anything more
than the fluid level and not have problems.
Figure 5-2. Hydraulic Hoses
At a minimum, follow these six guidelines
to minimize the chances that a hydraulic
5.2 Maintenance of hydraulic component will suffer expensive, premature
component failure and unscheduled downtime:
The maintenance of hydraulic equipment • Keep fluids clean.
(Fig. 5‑3) is important to eliminate or reduce
failures. • Keep the fluid temperature and viscosity
within optimum limits.
• Keep hydraulic system settings to the
manufacturer’s specifications.
• Schedule change-outs before components
• Follow correct commissioning procedures.
• Conduct failure analyses.
Implementing an effective, proactive
maintenance program requires time, effort,
and some expense. However, the investment is
quickly recovered through savings in costs as
a result of improved equipment performance,
Figure 5-3. Hydraulic System in a POD Blender Skid increased component life, increased fluid life,
reduced downtime, and fewer repairs.
Common causes of failure are

• high contamination levels 5.3 Stem I auxiliary posttrip inspection

The auxiliary posttrip inspection is a
• wrong oil viscosity
comprehensive inspection that identifies any
• high-temperature operation auxiliary defects. This inspection determines
• cavitation the repairs required to make a unit operationally
ready for the next service job.
• faulty circuit-protection devices.

48  |  Basic Hydraulic Systems

Highlighted items (in red on the 587-2H form) • radiation papers and decals
are to be reported to the maintenance staff by
• densitometer lock
the last person operating a unit.
• posttrip inspector signature.
The tools required are
5.3.1 All fluid levels
• a flashlight
Check all fluid levels and bring them to the full
• a shop towel level. Also, confirm that all filter caps are in
• pliers place (Fig. 5‑4).

• a screwdriver.
The auxiliary posttrip inspection involves these
25 areas:

• all fluid levels

• all belts
• air filter indicator
• engine and transmission power take-offs
• batteries and cables
• exhaust system
Figure 5-4. Checking Fluid Level
• instrumentation
• clutch operation
5.3.2 All belts
• hydraulic system
Check all belts for proper tension and condition
• drain air tanks (Fig. 5‑5).
• mixing systems
• chemical additive systems
• suction/discharge piping
• centrifugal pumps
• high-pressure pumps
• bulk systems
• displacement tanks
• safety systems
• dome lids
• tank test date
Figure 5-5. Checking Belts
• placarding
• blinds/caps

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  49

5.3.3 Air filter indicator
Check to ensure that the air filter indicator is in
the normal operating range (Fig. 5‑6).

Figure 5-7. Power Take-Offs

5.3.5 Batteries and cables

Check batteries for terminal and cable
Figure 5-6. Air Filter Indicator condition. Ensure that the battery and cover are
properly secured (Fig. 5‑8).
5.3.4 Engine and transmission power
For the engine and transmission power
take‑offs, check the following (Fig. 5‑7):

• engine performance
• coolant and oil leaks
• mounting for loose bolts and cracks
• proper operation of the neutral safety

Figure 5-8. Batteries

50  |  Basic Hydraulic Systems

5.3.6 Exhaust system 5.3.8 Clutch operation
For the exhaust system, do the following Check the clutch for proper operation, and
(Fig. 5‑9): make sure there is clutch pedal clearance.

• Inspect for leaks, loose fittings, and

damaged pipe. 5.3.9 Hydraulic system
• Ensure that hoses and electrical wires do For the hydraulic system, check the following
not contact the exhaust system. (Fig. 5‑11):

• Check the condition of the muffler and its • system performance

• hydraulic components
• condition of hoses
• tank mounting for missing bolts, cracks, or
missing brackets
• filter indicator.

Figure 5-9. Exhaust System

5.3.7 Instrumentation
Verify that all gauges operate properly and can
be clearly read (Fig. 5‑10). Figure 5-11. Hydraulic System

Figure 5-10. Gauge Panel

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  51

5.3.10 Air tanks • all lines are clean and free of debris and
Drain moisture from the air tanks (Fig. 5‑12).
• all valves are operating properly.

5.3.13 Suction/discharge piping

Confirm that

• piping or valves are not leaking (Fig. 5‑14).

• all lines are clean and free of debris and
• all valves are operating properly.

Figure 5-12. Draining Moisture

5.3.11 Mixing systems

Verify that all mixing systems are functioning
properly (Fig. 5‑13). Ensure that there are no
leaks in piping or valves.

Figure 5-14. Piping in Truck

5.3.14 Centrifugal pumps

For the centrifugal pumps, sometimes called
C‑pumps, check to ensure that

• mounting brackets are secured and all bolts

are in place.
• no loss of suction or discharge pressure
has occurred.
Figure 5-13. Mixing System
• there is no unnecessary noise or vibration.
• nothing is leaking (Fig. 5‑15).
5.3.12 Chemical additive systems
Check to ensure that

• all chemical additive systems are

functioning properly.

52  |  Basic Hydraulic Systems

5.3.16 Bulk cement transport
Check that the bulk cement transport pressures
up with no leaks and that it unloads material
properly (Fig. 5‑17).

Figure 5-15. Centrifugal Pump

5.3.15 High-pressure triplex pumps

For the high-pressure triplex pumps, check that
Figure 5-17. Bulk Cement Transport
• the fluid-end is functioning properly with no
• the fluid-end is securely mounted with all
5.3.17 Displacement tanks
nuts and bolts in place. Check that displacement tanks are clean and
free of debris (Fig. 5‑18). Check for missing
• clamps are on plungers.
barrel indicators.
• the power-end is working properly, with
no unusual noises, vibrations, or oil leaks
(Fig. 5‑16).

Figure 5-18. Displacement Tanks

Figure 5-16. Triplex Pump

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  53

5.3.18 Safety systems 5.3.22 Blinds/caps
Check safety systems to ensure that Check to ensure that all required blinds and
caps are in place on tanks and piping.
• the emergency kills and over-pressure trips
are functioning properly.
• the relief and cycle valves are operating
• the burst disc is in place.

5.3.19 Dome lids

On the dome lids, check the condition of

• the gasket
• the latches
• the roll-over vent valve.
Figure 5-20. Caps

5.3.20 Tank test date

Check that there is a current, legible test date 5.3.23 Radiation papers and decals
on the tank. Check that all radiation papers and decals are
in place (Fig. 5‑21).
5.3.21 Placarding
Check that the placards are securely mounted
and in good condition (Fig. 5‑19). Check that
the correct placard is in place for the load
(Fig. 5‑20).

Figure 5-21. Radiation Decal

Figure 5-19. Placarding

54  |  Basic Hydraulic Systems

5.3.24 Densitometer lock
Check that the densitometer is in the OFF
position and is locked (Fig. 5‑22).

Figure 5-22. Densitometer Lock

5.3.25 Auxiliary posttrip inspector

The signature on the auxiliary posttrip portion
of the driver’s trip report (form found in Stem I
Inspection Guidelines For Well Services Land
Operations, InTouch Content ID# 2024129)
verifies that

• the safety inspection has been performed.

• any repairs necessary to make the unit
safe and operationally ready for the next
service job have been identified.

5.4 Stem I repair process

The STEM I repair process is identified by
each district. Therefore, each district should
develop a plan that identifies the specific
person who will be responsible for repairs to
unit components.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  55

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56  |  Basic Hydraulic Systems

6.0  Stem I Diesel Engine

There are many different sizes of diesel

engines found on Schlumberger equipment. All Note:
of them play a vital role in the completion of a For two-stroke Detroit diesel
failure-free job. engines, use SAE 30W or 40W
oil. For CAT and Detroit diesel
Completing the STEM I Report before and four‑stroke engines, use 15W to
after every job is a key factor in keeping these 40W oil.
engines in optimum working condition. Follow
the steps below to complete the STEM I
STEP 04 Inspect the coolant level. It should
Before a job and before starting the engine, do be 50 mm [2 in] below the radiator neck. Add
the following: as needed. Inspect the hoses for leaks, wear,
splits, and cracking. Inspect the clamps and
STEP 01 Make sure the power source is fittings for tightness and wear. If coolant is
in LOTO (lock-out/tag-out) before performing needed, alert the field service manager or a
these tasks. Refer to WS Safety Standard mechanic to the problem. Do not mix different
5: Pressure Pumping and Location Safety, coolants. Use the same type of coolant if at all
InTouch Content ID# 3313681, for details. possible.

STEP 02 Check the previous STEM I STEP 05 Inspect the fuel system. Inspect
inspection to make sure that earlier problems the filters, hoses, and lines for leaks, rubbing,
have been repaired. chafing, and loose connections. Fill the tank to
within 50 mm [2 in] of the top (90% capacity) to
STEP 03 Inspect the oil level. It should allow for fuel expansion. In cold environments,
be up to the full mark. Add as needed. If the use winter-grade diesel fuel. Ordinary fuel may
oil looks gritty, watery, diluted (diesel in oil) cloud and clog the fuel filters.
or milky, check with a mechanic; a STEM II
inspection may be required. When adding oil, STEP 06 Inspect the belts. Also inspect
make sure to use the correct type and viscosity. the shrouds and guards. Belts should yield
Do not mix these, if possible, and do not overfill 12 mm to 19 mm [1/2 in to 3/4 in] under thumb
the oil level. Ensure that the correct dipstick is pressure. Inspect the belts for cracking and
being used for a particular engine; the wrong fraying. Check the condition of the pulley
dipstick can make a big difference. for loose bearings. A belt that is too tight is
destructive to the bearings of the driven part. A
loose belt will slip.

STEP 07 Operate and reset the emergency

kill mechanism.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  57

Note: Caution:
The emergency kill latch must be Use care to avoid shorting with a
spring loaded to prevent it from wrench or screwdriver. The current
accidentally tripping during a job. If generated by these batteries is
it does not work, the flapper shaft enough to cause very serious
has probably seized. If the flapper burns.
has seized, make sure the engine
cannot be accidentally started,
and then spray a little penetrating Hydrogen gas is produced in the normal
oil around the pin and trip operation of a battery. To prevent a dangerous
mechanisms. Make sure the flapper explosion, keep all flames and sparks away
has a good reset handle or pin. Be from vent openings in a battery. Follow the
careful not to drop any items down guidelines in Safety Standard 4: Facilities and
the air intake. Workshops, InTouch Content ID# 3313678,
concerning safe procedures to follow when
charging, jumping, hooking up, or storing
STEP 08 Inspect the batteries. Inspect the
fluid level in each of the cells. The fluid should
be 10 mm [3/8 in] above the plates. If additional STEP 09 Inspect the air filter. Look for
fluid is required, add distilled water only. Battery obstructions and dirt buildup. Check the
fluid is a solution of sulfuric acid. The acid external filter restriction indicator, and ensure
strength can be measured by determining that it works. Make sure no dirt can enter the
its weight with a hydrometer. The fluid in a engine through the air intake. Filter elements
fully charged battery will weigh 1.260 SGU at should be removed from their housing only
26.6 degC [80 degF]. The weaker the battery, when they are being changed. More dirt is
the lower the fluid weight will be. Make sure induced into the engine when the filter is being
the battery terminals are tight, the cables are in changed or checked than would be allowed
good condition, and excessive corrosion is not by the dirty filter itself. Oil bath-type air filters
noticeable on the terminals. should not be used because they offer very low
engine protection during low engine rpm’s.
Use water and baking soda applied with a
wire brush to remove terminal corrosion. A A blower forces air into the cylinders to sweep
light coating of petroleum jelly can prevent the exhaust gases out through the exhaust
future terminal corrosion. Make sure the top of valves, leaving the cylinders filled with fresh
the battery is wiped clean and dry to prevent air. This air also helps cool internal engine
accidental discharge. Make sure the cover parts, particularly exhaust valves. Therefore,
fits tightly. Commonly used maintenance-free a restricted air flow can cause an engine to
batteries do not need to be checked for fluid starve for air. This lack of air will result in the
level. Simply look into the hydrometer eye and incomplete burning of the fuel and cause the
note the color. Green means the battery is engine to send black smoke out of the exhaust.
>65% charged; black or clear means that it is
<65% charged.
STEP 10 Inspect the hydraulics. If the unit
has a hydraulic system, check the hydraulic
fluid level. In warm climates, it should be 50 mm
[2 in] from the top of the reservoir. In warm

58  |  Stem I Diesel Engine

climates, 3 to 4 in from the top for expansion STEP 13 Inspect engine mountings. Make
may be needed. Inspect the hose condition for sure all components are securely fastened to
pinching, cracks, wearing, and cutting. the frame. Both the front and the rear engine
and transmission mounts must be inspected.
Inspect under and around the unit for oil and
Note: coolant leaks, drips, and puddles.
If hydraulic fluid must be added
regularly, check the seals on the After starting the engine with partial
motors and C-pumps, the hydraulic throttle, follow this procedure:
pumps and gear-boxes, and the
cylinder rams. A problem may exist
that needs immediate attention.
STEP 01 Look at all the gauges.
a. Check the oil pressure. Ensure that it is
within the operating range for the engine
STEP 11 Power take-off (PTO) operation, used: 20 psi to 55 psi for a Detroit diesel
grease bearings (if the unit drives a PTO). and 30 psi to 90 psi for a Caterpillar.
The PTO is a means of disconnect between
the engine and, in this case, the compressor. b. Make sure the tachometer is working by
Sometimes the PTO is directly mounted to a throttling the engine a couple of times.
gear reduction case. If so, always check the oil If an hour meter is incorporated into the
level in the gear case. Grease the throw-out tachometer, make sure it is working.
bearing and clevis lever shaft. Inspect clutch
operation; ensure that the clutch will click in and c. Check the engine temperature. Make
out when engaged. The force to engage the sure it is within the operating range for
clutch should be 50 lbf. Note any fluid additions the engine used: 160 degF to 190 degF
or abnormalities on the STEM I checklist. for a Detroit diesel and 160 degF to
210 degF. for a Caterpillar.

Note: d. Make sure the alternator is keeping the

Any fluid additions should be made battery charged. The battery voltage
with a clean container used for one range is from 12.5 V to 15.0 V DC. If the
type of fluid. Contamination and/or charging system is working correctly, the
buildup can occur if fluid mixing voltage will increase when the engine
takes place inside the engine or rpm’s are increased after starting.
cooling system!
STEP 02 If the unit is clutch driven, engage
the PTO and confirm that the connected unit
is operating. It should take about 50 ft/lbf to
STEP 12 Inspect the transmission fluid.
engage the handle. If the clutch is too loose,
If the unit drives a transmission, check the
damage can occur during job.
fluid level by using the dipstick. Check it twice
for consistency. If an automatic transmission
is used, the level will need to be rechecked STEP 03 Inspect the hydraulic system. If
when the engine is running. The correct level hydraulics are installed, check for leaks while
can be ensured only when the transmission they are in use. Bypass valves, relief valves,
temperature is at a normal operating pumps, and motors should be traced for leaks,
temperature, above 160 degF. vibrations, and loose components. Confirm that

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  59

the hydraulic pressure is within the operating During a job, do the following:
range of the system. All valves should be fully
open or fully closed during operation.
STEP 01 Check the gauges:

STEP 04 Inspect the exhaust system. Look a. Make sure the coolant temperature
for leaks and excessive noise. Look for leaks remains in the operating range for the
around the exhaust manifold gaskets, muffler, engine.
and muffler piping. If the engine has not been
used in a long time, drain any accumulation b. Check the oil pressure as often as
of fluid from the exhaust manifold. Avoid possible during the job. If the oil
excessive idling. Prolonged engine idling will pressure gauge shows a large drop in oil
result in the temperature of the engine coolant pressure, possible engine failure may be
falling below the specified operating range. imminent. Let the field supervisor or field
A low operating engine temperature causes engineer in charge know immediately,
incomplete combustion of fuel in the cylinders. and then switch to an alternate power
Incomplete combustion may cause lacquer or source if available.
gummy deposits to form on the valves, pistons,
and rings. It also causes rapid accumulation STEP 02 Check how the unit is operating.
of sludge within the engine. When prolonged Continuously check the unit for unusual
engine idling is necessary, keep the engine noises, vibrations, leaks, or smoke. Note any
running at a minimum of 900 rpm. operating problems on the STEM I inspection
form or Driver’s Trip Report. Remember to idle
STEP 05 Inspect the automatic the engine for 5 minutes before shutting the
transmission fluid level. If necessary, run engine down. Doing this allows the internal
through the gears with the unit on level ground, components to cool, which can prevent serious
and then read the fluid level on the dipstick. internal damage.
The unit should be at a normal operating
temperature. After the job, do the following:

STEP 01 Inspect the oil level. Wait until the
engine has cooled, and check the oil level and
Disengage the drive mechanism condition. Top off the oil if necessary. Use the
(transmission or PTO), and allow appropriate type of oil with the correct viscosity.
the engine to idle for 5 minutes Be sure the engine oil level has not risen during
before shutting down. the job. An increase in the level could indicate
contamination by fuel, water, or coolant.

STEP 02 Inspect the coolant level. When

the engine has cooled, check the coolant level
and refill it if necessary. Inspect the hoses,
cap, and fittings for looseness and wear. The
radiator operates under pressure at a normal
operating temperature. Wait until the engine
has cooled before removing the radiator filter
cap. Never use a flame (match, cigarette lighter)
when checking the coolant level.

60  |  Stem I Diesel Engine

STEP 03 Refuel the tank. Fill the fuel tank
with clean diesel. Leave a 50-mm [2-in] space
at the top of the tank for fuel expansion.

STEP 04 Inspect the belts. Also inspect

the shroud and guard. Vibrations from unit
operation can loosen the guard bolts and
shroud fasteners. Inspect the pulleys and check
for worn or loose bearings.

STEP 05 Check the hydraulic fluid level. If

necessary, fill as required. Inspect the hoses
and fittings for wear, cracks, pinches, and leaks.

STEP 06. Inspect the unit visually. Inspect

the engine and under the unit for unusual drips
or puddles. Record the engine hours and any
maintenance that needs to be performed on the
STEM I inspection form or Driver’s Trip Report.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  61

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62  |  Stem I Diesel Engine

7.0  Stem I Compressor

The compressors in use with Schlumberger recommend a 50/50 mix of diesel

auxiliary equipment vary in type, manufacturer, and motor oil.
and size. However, they all perform the same
basic function: they supply air to operate the c. After the system is charged, the
controls and transfer bulk material and/or acid. hydrostarter requires the following
pressures to start the engine: 1,500
The following steps outline the STEM I psi above 4 degC [40 degF] 2,500
inspection procedure for the compressors used psi at -17 to 4 degC [0 to 40 degF]
with Schlumberger auxiliary equipment. For a (use starting aid) 3,300 psi below
complete overview of pneumatic systems, refer -17 degC [0 degF] (use starting aid)
to JET 6, Bulk System.

Before a job and before starting the engine, do

STEP 04 If the system is water cooled,
complete the same inspections for the
the following:
compressor coolant system and level as for the
STEP 01 Check the previous STEM I
inspection report. STEP 05 Inspect the compressor belts
guard if the drive is not direct. The belts should
STEP 02 Do the STEM I diesel engine give about 13 to 19 mm [1/2 to 3/4 in]. If a belt
inspection. is frayed or damaged in any way, replace the
complete set of belts. Also inspect belt guards
STEP 03 Check the hydrostarter system. If for damage.
the engine uses a hydrostarter instead of an air-
or electric-powered starter, follow these steps: STEP 06 With air-cooled compressors,
inspect the cooling fins to make sure they are
a. Inspect the operation of the free of dirt and oil buildup. Also inspect the
hydrostarter pump and the condition cooling fan and belts if applicable.
of the pressure gauge. The pump
should have resistance in both
directions. Ensure that a rubber boot
STEP 07 Inspect the compressor oil level.
Some Gardner-Denver models have a dipstick
is in place.
located on the crankcase. The Leroy models
and some Gardner-Denver models can be
b. Check that the oil level in the
checked by sight glass. The proper level is in
hydrostarter reservoir is 3/4 full, with
the middle of the sight glass. In rotary-type
no pressure on the system. After
compressors such as the Ingersol-Rand, the
charging the system, the screen
reservoirs are in the air-oil separator. These
on the bottom of the tank should
usually require a special oil. Drum or Europer
be covered with fluid (C3 or SAE
10W oil). Some manufacturers

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  63

STEP 08 Inspect the pilot unloader control date displayed. Always check the specification
lines. These lines run from each compressor plate on the pressure vessel for pressure relief
piston. Check for cracks and leaks. valve settings. If a valve is not working properly,
it must be replaced. If it needs to be repaired,
the repair must be done by a qualified person.

Note: It must also be properly reset and bench-tested

These lines control the maximum before being reinstalled. Doing this requires the
and minimum pressures by opening aid of a qualified mechanic and is required by
the individual suction valves on WS Safety Standard 27.
each piston. If a valve fails, it can
affect the safe operating limits of
the system.
Cement surge cans have a lower
psi setting. For details, refer to WS
STEP 09 Drain moisture from the reservoir. Safety Standard 27, Maintenance
Bulletin 625E, and Technical Alert
STEP 10 Inspect the unloader and relief valves. 98-03.
The compressor should also have its own
pressure-regulating system (unloader).

This system may be a brass pilot control valve

on the compressor reservoir tank. This valve STEP 11 Inspect the discharge plumbing,
should be set to cut out at 32 psi and cut in at including the valves, check valves, and gauges.
27 psi. The differential should be approximately Check that they are properly installed and are
15% of pounds per square inch. Verify that the operating correctly.
lines and fittings are tight, with no apparent
wear or cracks. STEP 12 Inspect the air filters. Look for dirt,
dust, and oil accumulation. Repair or replace
Unloader and pressure relief valves must be them if necessary. Make sure the filter retaining
inspected periodically in accordance with WS studs in the centers of the filters are tight.
Safety Standard 27: Inspection and Testing of
Pressure Relief Valves and Gauges, InTouch
Content ID# 3313707. Pressure relief valves STEP 13 Check the STEM backup
must be inspected for proper operation for compressor. If a backup compressor is
every job, as well as every month and every available, connect it in line with the primary
year, as required by WS Safety Standard compressor so that it is ready, if necessary, for
27. The valves should be green-tagged with a quick changeover during the job.
the test date noted on the tag. A pressure
relief valve should also be in place on the
reservoir tank. It should be set at 35 psi, unless
otherwise noted on the pressure vessel plate.

Make sure the pressure relief valve is working

for every job. Lubricate the spring and plungers
of the relief valve with light oil. Verify that the
valve has been green-tagged, with the last test

64  |  Stem I Compressor

After starting the engine, do the following: problems or maintenance that needs to be done
on the STEM I inspection form or Driver’s Trip
STEP 01 Perform the STEM I inspection on
the diesel engine.

STEP 02 Check the compressor oil

pressure. The pressure should be about 5 to

10 psi.

STEP 03 Verify unloader operation. Shut in

the discharge of the compressor to ensure that
the unloader is operating correctly. It should
actuate at 30 to 32 psi, preventing further
pressure buildup. It should reload at 15%
under unload pressure.

During a job, do the following:

STEP 01 Check the gauges. Look at the

engine oil pressure, compressor oil pressure,
and temperature and ammeter or voltmeter

STEP 02 Check unit operation. Check air

pressure and safety devices continuously. If
problems occur, quickly change to the backup
compressor, if available.

STEP 03 Document all problems noticed

during the job.

After a job, do the following:

STEP 01 Do the postjob STEM I inspection

on the diesel engine as outlined in Section 8 of
this manual.

STEP 02 Inspect the compressor oil level.

Add SAE 30W oil if necessary.

STEP 03 Drain the reservoir tank. Leave

the valve open (either the drain cock or the
discharge valve of the system). Note any

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  65

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66  |  Stem I Compressor

8.0  STEM I Acid Transport

When transporting hazardous materials, such

as acid, the preventive maintenance must be Note:
done correctly to avoid regulatory (e.g., U.S. The indicator light on the PTO
Department of Transportation) violations and to switch in the cab should signify
eliminate any chance of injury to Well Services correct operation. Repair or replace
personnel and others due to the dangerous the fuse, if necessary.
nature of the hazardous materials.

Note: STEP 04 If the unit has centrifugal (C-)

When working around any unit pumps, check the following:
containing hazardous materials,
wear and use the proper safety a. Inspect the C-pump lube tank level.
equipment listed in the MSDS for Make sure the pump is properly
each chemical. Be careful! lubricated.

b. Operate the C-pump to check for

Before a job any unusual noises, vibrations, and
leaks. When pumping acids and
To do a STEM I inspection for acid transport, solvents, the seals cause most of
follow these steps: the C-pump failures. Inspect these
STEP 01 Review the previous STEM I
inspection report. STEP 05 Inspect the valves. Check that the
suction and discharge valves operate and are
STEP 02 Perform the STEM I chassis positioned correctly. The tank discharge valves
inspection as noted in Section 9 of this manual. must be closed during transport.

STEP 03 If the unit has a hydraulic system,

do the following inspections: Note:
Certain fluids (for example, certain
a. Inspect the hydraulic fluid level. The solvents) can soften and swell the
correct fluid level is 2 in below the seats in Weco butterfly valves. This
top of the tank. swelling can make opening and
closing the valves very difficult and
b. Inspect the hydraulic system. can contribute to leaks.
Inspect the pumps, hoses, and
gauges for leaks, cracks, pinching,
and excessive wear.

c. Verify PTO operation.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  67

STEP 06 Cover the ports with caps. Make If the product is both flammable and corrosive,
sure they are secured with safety chains. display “Flammable” on the ends. When
hazardous materials are not being transported,
display the original placards. When the empty
STEP 07 Inspect the dome lid arrangement. tank has been triple-rinsed with water, display
Verify valve condition, cam locks, and the “Drive safely” slogan.
adjustment. Inspect the lid gasket and the dome
guard drain hose. Always check for proper paper work and
placarding, and reference your Hazardous
Material Pocket Handbook. More information
Note: is available from Maintenance Bulletin 1109
Maintenance Bulletin VII-691-B MUST DO, InTouch Content ID# 3036784, on
outlines the safety requirements for the placarding of transports.
Well Services transport manhole
covers, tanks, and inspections.
STEP 10 If an air lance is installed, check
the condition of the system, including the

STEP 08 Inspect the tank gauges. They Note:

should be legible and mounted securely. Ensure that the lance can be
operated only with the parking
STEP 09 Check the placarding. Placards brake set.
must be clearly legible.

The correct hazard class and
STEP 11 Visually inspect the unit. Inspect
under and around the unit for leaks from the
ID number for placarding each
tanks, C-pumps, and hydraulic lines. Note any
of Schlumberger’s hazardous
discrepancies on the STEM I inspection form or
materials should be available in
Driver’s Trip Report.
each location. This information
should also be noted on the During a job, check the following:
Loading Sheet for each unit.

STEP 01 Check unit operation. Confirm

valve operation, hydraulic operation, and
To simplify and meet the U.S. Department
C‑pump operation (especially the seals).
of Transportation Acid Transport Placard
Requirements for North American operations,
do the following: STEP 02 Check the hydraulic gauges.

For a multicompartmented transport STEP 03 Check for leaks. Inspect the

(Schlumberger 5,000 galUS transport), the ID manifolds for leaks and corrosion.
number and class of each product must be
displayed on the sides of each compartment.

68  |  Stem I Acid Transport

If leaks occur under pressure,
take precautions to safely contain
any spills. Leaking corrosive
or flammable materials can be
extremely dangerous.

After a job, do the following:

STEP 01 Drain the tanks. Ensure that

the tanks are properly drained and flushed in
accordance with all state and federal/country
regulations and that the contents are disposed
of correctly. Review the MSDS manual for
disposal guidelines.

STEP 02 Inspect the hydraulic system. If

applicable, fill to 2 in below the cap in the
reservoir, if needed. Look for leaks or wet spots.

STEP 03 Inspect the C-pumps. If applicable,

look around the centrifugal system for drips
and/or wear.

STEP 04 Refill the centrifugal lube tank. If

required, fill it with clean 80W/90W oil.

STEP 05 Grease the centrifugal bearings if


STEP 06 Check that the dome lids and

blanking caps are in place and are securely

STEP 07 Check the placards and correct

them, as needed, for the trip back to the district.
Note any maintenance that is required on the
STEM I inspection form or Driver’s Trip Report.
Remember that chassis and brake posttrip
inspections are also required.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  69

70  |  Stem I Acid Transport
9.0  Stem I Cement Bulk Equipment

The quality of a cement job is only as good Before a job and before applying air to a
as the bulk cement delivery to the mixer. vessel, do the following:
Therefore, it is very important for the bulk
system operator to understand how his
equipment works and how to keep it maintained
STEP 01 Review the previous STEM I
inspection report.
so that it works well on every job.

Here are the general configurations of STEP 02 Perform the STEM I chassis
pressurized and gravity silos. The following inspection, if applicable.
steps will ensure that the bulk system being
used (gravity surge can, pressurized silo, STEP 03 Make sure the maximum working
pressurized bulk truck) are in good operating pressure is stenciled on the tank.
condition when a job begins.
STEP 04 Make sure the tanks are labeled
Make sure the equipment has
received the proper STEM I Note:
inspection, and confirm that the Improper labeling of bulk tanks
correct bulk equipment is being can cause an operating failure by
taken to location. Double-check mixing cement from the wrong tank
the loading tickets and/or service during a job.
order, the STEM I checklists, and
the unit’s number to ensure that the
correct piece of equipment is being
dispatched to the job. STEP 05 Inspect the check valves, relief
valves, and gauges. Ensure that the check
valve(s) and pressure-relief valve(s) are present
and free of corrosion or dirt. Verify the test
When working around cement pressure date on the pressure-relief valves. Inspect the
vessels, the operator must wear the following pressure gauges. The recommended pressures
PPE (and have the minimum safety equipment): are 0 to 60 psi, fluid filled, with a 6.5-cm [2.5-in]
• goggles
Pressure-relief valves must be inspected
• dust mask.
every month and every year for every job, as
Cement dust is very abrasive to the eyes, specified in WS Safety Standard 27: Inspection
nose, throat, and lungs. Because it is caustic, it and Testing of Pressure Relief Valves and
can burn the skin if handled improperly. Use it Gauges, InTouch Content ID# 3313707. The
carefully. valves should be green-tagged, with the test
date noted on the tag.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  71

STEP 06 Verify that the butterfly valves b. Test the tank to 15 psi. Record any drop
work. Make sure they are in the correct position in pressure. If there is a drop, repairs are
before air is introduced into the system. needed.

STEP 07 All open 4-in ports must be Note:

covered by a two-piece cap/union.
If it is necessary to enter the
tank for repairs or an inspection,
STEP 08 Inspect the ball valves, hoses, follow the guidelines in QHSE
and connections. Inspect the ball valves on Standard 12 (Permit to Work
the manifold for ease of use. Check the hoses System).
and fittings for wear, cracking, and looseness,
where applicable. Inspect the check valves for
correct operation.
To enter cement bulk equipment, do the
STEP 09 Inspect the frame and the skid for
cracks and structural damage.
Step 01 Obtain a safe work permit before
STEP 10 Perform a STEM I inspection on any vessel is entered.
the air supply system (compressor) as outlined
in Section 7 of this manual. Soft hoses are the step 02 Isolate the tanks by blinding or
only type of hose allowed on bulk fill, discharge, disconnecting and completely cleaning them
and vent lines. before entering.

While applying air to a vessel, do the step 03 Use a combustible gas detector.
following: Analyze the O2 in the air.

STEP 01 Inspect the compressor. step 04 Use PPE as necessary.

STEP 02 Inspect for leaks. Inspect hoses, step 05 Use an air mover to change air
caps, manifolds, and manhole covers. If leaks out frequently.
are found, bleed pressure completely from the
tanks and then repair the equipment.
step 06 Do not block the entry or exit
while a person is inside a tank.
STEP 03 Check the pressurized system
(bulk truck, pressurized silo, and pressurized
surge can):
step 07 Shut down and lock any
power‑driven equipment (compressors) before
a. Pressurize the empty tank to 5, 10, entry.
and 15 psi. Record how long it takes to
pressure up. If the compressor is cycling
in and out, the compressor is keeping up
with the delivery of the product. If the air
pressure is dropping on the product tank
and the compressor is cycling, there is a
restriction in the air lines or pads.

72  |  Stem I Cement Bulk Equipment

valve on the bottom of the tank. Repair it
Important: if necessary.
When someone is working inside
During a job, do the following:
a closed vessel, an attendant must
be stationed outside the entrance
(manhole) to warn of external STEP 01 Verify that the equipment
danger or to get help if necessary. operates. If the system is pressurized, watch for
A lifeline must be attached to the fluctuations in the air pressure of the tank.
wrists of the employee inside the
vessel. STEP 02 Inspect the compressor. Do a
STEM I inspection on the compressor and
engine while it is running.
c. Check the discharge pressure. Blow air
through the discharge line to the tank to After a job, do the following:
make sure the line is clear.
STEP 01 If the system is pressurized,
d. Fluff product through the pads, and note bleed air from the unit, leaving the vent valve
any pressure difference between that completely open. Use caution, and be aware of
on the manifold gauge and that inside dust hazards.
the tank. A pressure difference of 5 psi
or greater will indicate partially plugged STEP 02 Empty the vessel. Silos must be
pads or jets. If no pressure is noted, a completely empty before transporting them. If
pad could be ripped, or there might be a any maintenance is required on the unit, note it
large leak around the pads. on the STEM I inspection form or Driver’s Trip
STEP 04 For gravity-feed systems (gravity
silo, gravity surge can), do the following:

a. inspect for obstructions in the vent line.

There should be no kinks in the hose.

b. If the vent is attached to a dust collector,

make sure no more than 5 psi of back
pressure exists on the system.

c. Look inside the tank and check that no

excess cement is caked on the walls,
pads, sight glass, or discharge valve.

d. Percolate air through the pads and make

sure that air is exiting from the vent
line. Improper labeling of bulk tanks can
cause an operating failure.

e. Inspect the discharge valve. Check

operation of the large discharge butterfly

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  73

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74  |  Stem I Cement Bulk Equipment

10.0  Stem I Batch Mixers

The batch mixer requires regular and specific near the joint between the dished head and the
maintenance. This piece of equipment plays cylindrical section.
a very important role in the completion of a
cement job. It must be maintained properly to If it is necessary to enter the tank, make sure
avoid service incidents and operating failures. the unit cannot be turned on by someone else.
Many problems can be directly attributed to Review the lockout procedure for this.
improper cleanup of the unit after a job.
STEP 06 Inspect the paddles and paddle
Always take the time to properly clean up the shafts for looseness. Grease the bearings
batch mixer. It is much easier to wash up wet where required.
cement than to chip out set cement.
Some batch mixers may be chain driven
The following steps outline the basic STEM I through a gear drive. If so, make sure that the
inspection of the batch mixer. Though there are chain has a little slack in it and that the guards
many different types of batch mixers in use, covering the chain are in good condition. The
these steps are applicable to all of them. clutch operating the chain should be able to
be greased through a nipple on the end of
Before a job and before starting an engine, the shaft. If the shaft does not have a grease
do the following: nipple, manual greasing is required.

STEP 01 Review the previous STEM I There may also be a sight glass or dipstick
inspection report. to check the oil level in the paddle’s gearbox.
Some gearboxes have a simple plug in the
side to check the oil level. If in doubt, ask your
STEP 02 Do the STEM I diesel engine supervisor. Top off the oil if necessary.

STEP 03 Verify the C-pump lube tank level. Note:

Fill with clean 80W/90W oil if necessary. Some gearboxes use specific oils,
such as synthetics. Adding the
STEP 04 Inspect the C-pumps. Inspect the wrong oil can cause failure almost
housings and fittings of each C-pump. Ensure immediately.
that the seal lubrication line is secure.

STEP 05 Inspect the tanks. Look inside STEP 07 Inspect the piping. Look for
the tanks for cement buildup. If you see excess cement buildup. Verify butterfly valve action.
cement, clean it out. Ensure that all access If the action is stiff or if you can see damage,
hatches have gratings in place. If the mixer has repair the problem. Ensure that the blanking
a closed top, make absolutely sure that there caps are secure on all 4-in openings.
is no buildup of set cement in the upper corner

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  75

After starting the engine, do the following: b. Circulate clean water between the
tanks using the C-pumps and paddles.
Discharge the dirty water to the pit or
STEP 01 Do the STEM I inspection on
other approved disposal area.
the diesel engine, as noted on the STEM I
inspection form.
c. Flush more clean water through the
individual manifolds on the unit.
STEP 02 Verify system operation. Run
water through the system to check the
C‑pumps, paddles, and all circulating lines. If Note:
pressure gauges are not installed on the piping Make sure you know where the
system, observe the flow rate and force of the water is going as you flush the
returning water during testing. manifolds. This will ensure that
the unit ends up being thoroughly
If the flow is weak or if you see leaks around
the C-pumps, refer to JET 3, Centrifugal
Pumps , InTouch Content ID# 4127830, on
repair of these pumps. Make sure the C-pumps
are being lubricated and that the hydraulics d. Open the blanking caps and flush the
operating the paddles are in good working water from each opening on the unit.
e. Drain all the water from the unit,
STEP 03 Inspect the air-actuated valves for including the drains on the C-pumps and
proper operation. If a valve is inoperable, repair all low points in the plumbing.
it or exchange it for an operational one.

During a job, do the following:

STEP 02 Do the postjob STEM I inspection
on the diesel engine, as noted in Section 6 of
this manual.
STEP 01 Check the gauges, hydraulic
operation, engine temperature, oil pressure, STEP 03 Refill the C-pump lube tank. Use
and ammeter operation. clean 80W/90W oil.

STEP 02 Verify unit operation. Make sure STEP 04 Make sure the load is secure for
all functions of the batch mixer are working the trip back to the district. Note any problems
correctly. or maintenance requirements on the STEM I
inspection form or Driver’s Trip Report.
After a job, do the following:

STEP 01 Wash up any remaining cement.

Make sure a supply of water is available to
clean up the batch mixer immediately after
cementing is completed.

a. Clean out the dry cement piping with a


76  |  Stem I Batch Mixers

11.0  Equipment Modifications

In accordance with Schlumberger standards,

no modifications or equipment changes are
permitted without approval. You must submit an
equipment modification request (EMR) through
InTouch. EMRs must be approved and signed
off by the appropriate line manager and/or
department supervisor before any work is
carried out.

All such requests for equipment modification

should be made in strict compliance with
procedure 420 (Processing Request for
Change). Any modifications or changes will be
considered only when no practicable alternative
is available. If there is equipment that meets the
required specification, then this equipment must
be used.

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  77

Figure 11-1. Equipment Modification Request Form

78  |  Equipment Modifications

12.0  References
All Schlumberger employees must be familiar Safety Standard 27: Inspection and Testing of
with the relevant safety regulations and Pressure Relief Valves and Gauges, InTouch
precautions because of the many hazards Content ID# 3313707
involved in the oilfield industry. Be sure to know
the relevant contents of the material data safety Safety Standard 28: Pressure Management
sheets (MSDSs) regarding required personal Operations, November, 2003, InTouch Content
protective equipment (PPE) and handling ID# 3313708
procedures when handling chemicals.
Safety Standard 30: Pumping Combustible
JET manuals and Flammable Fluids, InTouch Content
ID# 3313709
JET Reference Page, InTouch Content
ID# 4178854
Schlumberger QHSE standards
Well Services safety standards
Standard S001: Journey Management and
Safety Standard 4: Facilities and Workshops, Driving, InTouch Content ID# 3051691
InTouch Content ID# 3313678
Standard S002: HSE Event Reporting and
Safety Standard 5: Pressure Pumping and Management, InTouch Content ID# 3260257
Location Safety, InTouch Content ID# 3313681
Standard S003: Personal Protective Equipment,
Safety Standard 11: Pumping Nitrogen, InTouch InTouch Content ID# 3260259
Content ID# 3313684
Standard S004: Business Continuity,
Safety Standard 15: Lockout/Tagout, InTouch Emergency, and Crisis Management InTouch
Content ID# 3313691 Content ID# 3253244

Safety Standard 17: Storage and Handling of Standard S013: Mechanical Lifting, InTouch
Oxidizers, InTouch Content ID# 3313693 Content ID# 3260276

Safety Standard 18: HAZCOM, InTouch Content

ID# 3313694

Safety Standard 22: Coiled Tubing Operations,

InTouch Content ID# 3313710

Standard 25: Confined Space Entry, InTouch

Content ID# 3313705

Safety Standard 26: Air Tanks and Receivers,

InTouch Content ID# 3313706

JET 04 - Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  79

Other regulations

Maintenance Bulletin 1170 MUST DO

- Important Update - Hydraulic Hose
Inspection and Replacement, InTouch Content
ID# 3880621

Maintenance Bulletin 1170 MUST DO, InTouch

Content ID# 3036784

U.S. DOT Out-of-Service (OOS) Criteria for

Drivers, Vehicles, and HAZMAT Cargo, InTouch
Content ID# 3381268

80  |  References
13.0  Check Your Understanding

1. The global consistency of fuel is one of 4. Which three of the following are functions
the advantages of using gasoline engines of a diesel fuel management system?
as a prime mover. A. holds a supply of diesel fuel
A. true B. uses high pressure to inject fuel into the
B. false cylinder
C. meters the quantity of fuel required for
2. Match each fuel system component with each cycle of the engine
its description. D. carries fuel to various components of
Components the engine through a network of hoses
and pipes
___ A. shut-off valve
E. controls the rate at which fuel is
___ B. reservoir
___ C. fuel pump
___ D. injectors 5. Match each routine maintenance
Description system with the corresponding routine
1. holds and supplies fuel for use by the maintenance.
engine system
2. transfers fuel from the tank to the ___ A. air system
engine ___ B. fuel system
3. terminates the flow of fuel from the tank ___ C. oil system
to the engine
___ D. coolant system
4. calculates the right amount of fuel and
directs it into the cylinder under high
pressure Routine maintenance
1. Check fluid level; check fan for damage;
3. In a two-stroke engine cycle, each down check radiator for leaks.
stroke is a power stroke. 2. Ensure that pressure is maintained;
A. true check for leaks in hoses and
B. false
3. Check oil level and condition by looking
at the dipstick.
4. Check coolant level; look for leaks in
lines and connections; check filters to
make sure they are not clogged.

JET 04- Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  81

6. Match each stroke with its description. 9. Match each type of pneumatic system with
Stroke its description.
___ A. power System
___ B. compression ___ A. High-pressure/low-volume
___ C. intake ___ B. Low-pressure/high-volume
___ D. exhaust ___ C. High-pressure/high-volume

Description Description
1. The piston moves downward and draws 1. Used only in liquid additives, or LAS,
air into the cylinder. applications, such as fracturing.
2. Both valves are closed and the piston 2. Used to power brakes, horns, cab tilt
moves upward, squeezing the air into a controls, and deck engines.
tiny space until it becomes hot. 3. Used to convey and fluff bulk material
3. The piston moves upward to push out such as sand and cement.
the burned gases.
4. The buildup of burning gases forces the 10. Match each part of a pneumatic system
piston down. with its position on the diagram below.

7. Which two of the following are true about 3

1 4
A. The clutch is a driveline component.
B. A clutch may be controlled by electrical,
mechanical, or pneumatic actuators.
C. The pneumatic actuator is standard for
most clutches.
D. The clutch connects and disconnects
engine power the transmission.
E. The clutch is a type of flexile coupling.
2 6
8. Which of the following three statements Figure 13-1. Parts of Pneumatic System
are true about flexible couplings?
A. They provide overload protection. 1. ___ A. pressure release
B. Schlumberger uses them on many skid valve
units to drive centrifugal pumps. 2. ___ B. air tank
C. They provide universal joint flexibility. 3. ___ C. dryer
D. They permit axial and radial 4. ___ D. drain cock
5. ___ E. check valve
E. They require close proximity mounting.
6. ___ F. compressor

82  |  Check Your Understanding

11. When should drain cocks on pneumatic air 15. Which of the following should be
tanks be opened for drainage? Select two performed when jumping a dead battery?
correct answers. Check three correct answers.
A. after each operation has started A. Wear rubber gloves and goggles.
B. before each operation B. Connect the positive terminal of the
C. never charged battery to the positive terminal
of the dead battery.
D. after each operation
C. Connect the negative terminal of the
charged battery to a grounding point on
12. If the compressor fails, which of the the vehicle with the dead battery. The
following will happen? connection should be made far enough
A. Nothing will happen. away from the battery so that a spark
could not ignite hydrogen gas from the
B. The check valve allows air to flow out
of the tank, which releases excess
pressure. D. Stand near the battery when the engine
is cranked, ready to remove cables.
C. The check valve seals the tank and
prevents pressurized air from backing E. After jumping the battery, remove the
up. cable from the positive terminal first.
D. The check valve releases accumulated
moisture from the system. 16. Which of the following should be
performed for routine lead/acid battery
maintenance? Check three correct
13. Which of the following lubricates a mesh
gear compressor?
A. Use tap water to replenish battery fluid
A. the engine
B. the check valve
B. Check the condition of the entire cable,
C. the governor not just the area near the battery, to
D. the dryer confirm that there are no exposed wires
or cracked insulation.
14. How does the operator know when it is C. Protect the battery from extreme
time to add oil to the lubricator? temperatures.
a. by following a schedule and always D. Slightly overcharge the battery for
adding oil at regular intervals extended use.
b. by looking at the level through a sight E. Check to ensure that terminal
glass connections are tight.
c. by estimating when oil should be added
d. by using a dipstick to determine the oil

JET 04- Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  83

17. Assuming a constant load, which of the 21. Which two of the following should be
following motor functions will be affected if performed before starting the engine
the flow rate is increased or decreased? when conducting a STEM I Sand Chief
a. speed inspection?
b. displacement A. Inspect the sand-conveying belt for
damage and tears.
c. available torque
B. Open and close the sand gates to
d. operating pressure ensure proper action.
C. Ensure that all leftover proppant is
18. Which of the following areas should be cleaned out of each compartment.
inspected during the auxiliary posttrip
D. Lower the pads to lift the Sand Chief to
inspections? Select three correct answers.
its proper height.
A. suspension
B. tank test date 22. When conducting a STEM I acid transport
C. bulk systems inspection, which three of the following
D. tires, lugs, and clamps should be performed after completing the
job? Select all the correct answers:
E. displacement tanks
A. Verify the placarding.
F. license plate
B. Verify the centrifugal pump operation.
C. Inspect the dome lids.
19. What should be done if hydraulic fluid
is added regularly during STEM I diesel D. Refill the centrifugal lube tank.
engine inspections?
a. Check seals on motors, C-pumps, 23. Which three of the following should be
hydraulic pumps and gearboxes, and performed during a STEM I cement bulk
cylinder rams. equipment inspection before starting a
b. Switch to a different type of hydraulic job?
fluid. A. Ensure that check valves and pressure
c. Add stabilizer to the hydraulic fluid. relief valves are present.
d. Replace the hydraulic fluid filter. B. Verify the test date on the
pressure‑relief valves.
C. Bench test the gauges for accuracy
20. During a STEM I compressor inspection,
before each job.
moisture should be drained from the
reservoir after the engine is started. D. Ensure that check valves and
pressure‑relief valves are free of
A. true
corrosion and dirt.
B. false

84  |  Check Your Understanding

24. As part of the STEM I inspection for batch
mixers, which three of the following should
be performed for paddles before a job?
A. Grease the bearings where required.
B. Grease the clutch on the chain drive.
C. Ensure that there is no slack on the
chain drives.
D. Check the oil level in the paddle

JET 04- Basic Oilfield Equipment  |  85

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86  |  Check Your Understanding