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CHAPTER ONE: PROBLEM ARTICULATION

1.0 Introduction

This chapter highlighted the problem under study. The indicators of the

problem, reflection on how the problem was identified as well as the

research questions raised. Moreso, were highlighted the qualitative methods

of data collection and analysis adopted are also going to be looked at. Lastly

the research procedures, merits and demerits of each method of data

collection listed shall be looked at.

1.1 Action Research Problem

The poor use of punctuation marks at Grade 4 level at Budirirai Primary

School.

1.2 Indicators to the problem

1.2.1 Pupils failed to write full stops at the end of each sentence for example. we

don’t come to school on weekend.

1.2.2 Pupils began new sentences with a small letter for instance: she catches the

bus everyday.

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1.2.3 Pupils wrote names of people starting with small letters for instance: in

grade 4 only terrence and ivy passed the test.

1.2.4 Pupils wrote capital letters in the middle of a sentence for example: she is

vEry clever.

1.2.5 Pupils were not able to recognize full stops when reading.

1.2.6 Pupils wrote names of cities, rivers with small letter for example mutare,

save, chitungwiza.

1.3 Statement of the problem

Why are pupils at Grade 4 level at Budirirai Primary School facing

challenges in punctuation?

1.4 Reflection on how the problem was identified

The researcher discovered that most of the sentences written by pupils were

poorly punctuated in terms of capital letters. Pupils would write for example

names of places or people starting with the small letters. The researcher went

on to assess previous schemes of lower grades and identified that the content

of punctuation marks was not oftenly taught. It showed that it was being

taught once in the lower grades. Therefore there was little mastery of the

content. Also the researcher went on to assess her work and identified that

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she only taught the content on punctuation marks only once hence pupils

lacked adequate practice in the use of punctuation marks. The books of the

lower grades and the teachers were mainly concerned with answers not the

use of punctuation marks.

1.5 Research questions raised

1.5.1 How often do teachers teach the concept of punctuation marks?

1.5.2 Do pupils perform exceptionally well if they work in groups?

1.5.3 Do pupils perform well if they are taught and work individually?

1.5.4 Can pupils master the concept of punctuation if taught more than once?

1.5.5 Do teachers use the correct methods of teaching when delivering the

punctuation marks concept?

1.6 Qualitative methods of data collection and analysis adopted and

research procedures.

In a bid to try to solve problems that the Grade 4 pupils at Budirirai School

were facing when using punctuation marks, the researcher employed

qualitative methods of data collection.

1.6.1 Qualitative methods of data collection

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This research employed a number of tools. The researcher tried to justify the

employment of these methods. The researcher used document analysis,

observation, written exercises as well as sampling. Child (1976) defines

qualitative research methods as an inquiry designed to make findings of

different academic disciplines. The main aim of this study was to gather as

much information and find out solutions to the problems identified. In this

research the researcher had to bring these methods in trying to bring out

solutions to problems.

1.6.2 Document analysis

Haggadon (1993) defines document analysis as a systematic procedure of

examining the content of recorded information Giddents (2001) defines

document analysis as printed materials from achieves of elsewhere as a

source of information. Therefore document analysis is a way of verifying

content and information by means of deeply studying relevant documents. In

this case the researcher had to go through the learners’ books with written

work, schemes and lesson plans. By doing this the researcher wanted

learners to express their ideas freely. The learners were given several

exercises on punctuation marks and it was marked and recorded. This helped

the researcher to find out whether the pupils had understood the concept or

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not. Record books also provided information on whether the pupils recorded

were above average or not, thus by so doing this the class performance was

assessed. Gwarinda (1995) supported that by saying, the best way of finding

out how much learners have understood is by assigning written work.

1.6.2.1 Advantages of document analysis

By using the method the researcher was assured of tangible evidence on

whether the learners had understood the concept well. This method helped

the researcher to measure the performance and understanding of pupils in

previous results with current, but on the same concept (Chikuni 2003). It

was so much useful for the researcher to use document analysis as it helped

the researcher to evaluate herself by analysing the obtained and the

questions which most pupils failed to get correct.

The tools such as written exercises allowed the researcher to identify some

mistakes that learners might have made and tried to correct them.

1.6.2.2 Disadvantages of document analysis

The document analysis did not give clear explanation why some pupils

failed to score above average and when it did. It did not address the problem

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but only pin point it. The researcher noticed that some of the learners were

not properly seated and as a result they ended up copying each other and

false results were obtained. In support Gay (1987) said, ‘it is not suitable to

evaluate user opinions, needs or satisfaction with services. The researcher

noticed that by document analysis, it is impossible to clearly say out

everything that is affecting them. In a way to overcome the problem of the

learners from copying each other, the researcher had to create gaps between

the learners whenever they were to write an exercise so that they may not

copy each other.

1.6.3 Observation method

Observation is a statement about something you have noticed. This is

supported by Dubey, Dubey and Ndagi (1995) when he views observation as

one through which the teacher can know his or her pupils better. Observation

is a method of gathering data without direct questioning the observant

(Hagedrn 1993). In lesson observation the researcher observed the pupils

whilst teaching them the punctuations. The researcher first demonstrated on

how to punctuate some sentences whilst the pupils observed. The researcher

then let the pupils to demonstrate on the chalkboard and recorded what she

observed. The demonstrations were then supplemented by written exercises

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which the pupils were given to do individually so that their performance was

to be individually assessed. The researcher moved around observing the

pupils doing their work without helping them whilst recording their

problems in order to help their problems later. The researcher noticed that

some pupils were putting fullstops at the end of a question instead of

question mark. At first the pupils found more hardships in punctuating but it

was getting better with more practice. Thus pupils gradually grasped the

concepts.

1.6.3.1 Advantages of observation method

This method of observation helped the researcher a lot to know her pupils

better and recognised their strengths and weaknesses. The researcher may

gather valid and reliable data by observing over a long period of time

(MacMillan 1993). The mistakes made by each and every individual were

able to be assessed and corrected effectively. Furthermore pupils gained

confidence by being able to demonstrate what they thought on the

chalkboard and hence this boosted their moral. The researcher noticed that a

highly motivated pupil was easy to correct since he or she was already eager

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to learn. Teacher to pupil participation become vital in the learning process

as this helped the researcher to know her pupils more. Therefore found less

difficulties in teaching them. On realizing that observation yielded a better

understanding of why those involved act as they do, the researcher decided

to use the observation method to collect data on the problem of using

punctuation marks at Grade 4 level.

1.6.3.2 Disadvantages of observation method

The lesson observation method had the disadvantages of not showing the

performance of all pupils as others were not adhering to attempt punctuation

problems on the board and this made pupils who participated to have a lot of

work. It was difficult for the observer to be fully objective since she could

not realize her faults during the process. The method was not easy for the

researcher with large number of pupils to observe and many records to look

into. The observer would easily forget what she wuld easily forget what she

would have observed if the records are not kept. The researcher noticed that

it needs a lot of time.

1.7 Definition of key terms

1.7.1 Action Research

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Action research is a practical approach to professional inquiry in any social

situation. In support, Madsaacs (1995) purports that an action research is a

reflective process of progressive problem solving by individuals working

with others in teams to improve the way they address issues and solve

problems.

1.7.2 Problem

A problem is a kind of difficult that people face and needs ways of solving

it. Oxford dictionary (2014) defines a problem as something difficult that

needs attention and thought. It is also seen as an obstacle.

1.7.3 Punctuation marks

Hornby (1995) defines punctuation marks as marks used in writing or

printing to make meaning clear. In other words punctuation marks are signs

used to divide written matter into sentences phrases for example, full stop or

a question mark.

1.7.4 Method

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A method is a procedure, technique or way of doing something. Gwarinda

(1995) defines a method as a way of doing something that is the way of

making pupils learn.

1.7.5 Groupwork

A collection of individuals that come together to achieve a stated objective is

called a groupwork. Siyakwazi (1999) views groupwork as an organisation

of pupils into small groups to work on a class assignment or project.

1.8 Summary

In this chapter, the researcher had outlined the background of the problem of

poor use of the punctuation marks, which are capital letters and fullstops.

The methods to be used in the study have been revealed stating their merits

and demerits. The researcher also highlighted the research questions raised.

The indicators of the problem were outlined with given clear examples. The

researcher also reflected on how she identified the problem of poor use of

punctuation marks in her class. In the next chapter the investigation process

is going to be outlined.

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CHAPTER TWO: THE INVESTIGATION PROCESS

2.0 Introduction

This chapter reveals research design adopted during the process. The

methods of data collection which were used to gather information on the use

of punctuation marks are going to be outlined. It also focused on the

sampling procedure adopted and the lessons taught.

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2.1 Research design

The term research design refers to the plan which the researcher sets in order

t solve his or her problems. In support, Schulte (2004) contents that the

purpose for this design is for practitioners to investigate and improve the

quality and effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. In this study

the researcher used the action research design to collect data on how Grade 4

pupils have problems in using punctuation marks.

2.2 Action research design

Action research is done by teachers to understand their own teaching and

students. Borg, Gall and Gall (2007:500) define action research as a type of

self-reflective investigation that professional practitioners undertake for the

purpose of improving the rationality and justice of work.” Schutt (2004)

agrees that the purpose of the design is for practitioners to research and

improve a situation. Therefore, action research is a form of self-reflective

enquiry undertaken by participants in social situation in order to improve

rationality and justice of their own understanding of these practices are

carried out. Action research an lead to positive change in your classroom and

school (Mill 2011). Applied t education, the action research design seeks to

improve the quality and effectiveness of the teaching and learning process.

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Thus, this study focuses on how to improve the teaching of punctuation

marks at Grade 4 level.

2.3 Population study

According to Best and Khan (2006) population is a group of individuals that

one or more characteristics in common that are of interest to the researcher

Grow (1996) defines population as groups that consists of all people to

whom researchers wish to apply their findings. Therefore, population is all

the individuals who have in common a particular problem. The researcher

had a population of fourty-two (42) pupils in Grade 4 which the teacher

randomly selected ten (10) pupils to work with as sample.

2.4 Sampling procedure

2.4.1 A sample

A sample is a population group of things or people having one or more

common characteristics. In support Leedy (1997) define a sample as a

subject of a population. Schutt (2009) views a sampling procedure as a

method in which research elements are selected. This means that a sample is

a group of things in which have one or more common characteristics. There

are two types of sampling namely the probability sampling and non

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probability sampling. This implies that purposive sampling target a

particular group of subject. For this study, the researcher opted for purposive

sampling. This sampling does not deal with the random sampling. The

researcher selected ten pupils with serious problems in using punctuation

marks.

2.5 Ethical considerations

Ethical considerations are there to guide and protect the rights of the

research participants. In support, Schutt (2009) views ethical considerations

as a moral code of conduct to be followed by the researcher. According to

Driscoll (2012) there are three considerations which are avoiding harming

research participants obtaining information and maintain in privacy and

confidentiality. The researcher had to seek permission from the school

authority to carry out the research with pupils. The researcher considered

forms of learning starting from simple to complex so that pupils grasp the

concepts gradually. Other factors which enhance the pupils performance are

clear explanations and demonstrations of the concept by the teacher, with the

aid of concrete media and use of group-work. This is done to ensure pupil to

pupil interaction as well as xhat she gave both sides a fair consideration.

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2.6 The research cycles

The research was conducted during the researcher’s teaching practice period.

The research took a period of about five months and five lesson plans were

planned.

2.6.1 Action Research Cycle 1

The researcher identified that there were problems on the use of punctuation

marks. So she had to plan a lesson mainly focused on the use of capita letters

and full stops. The objectives of research Cycle 1 were as follows:

During the lesson pupils were supposed to:

1. identify and use at least three punctuation marks written in sentences.

2. observe how punctuation marks are used in sentences.

3. complete at least ten sentences using the correct punctuation marks.

The researcher discovered that pupils were writing names of people and

places using the small letters. For example Bulawayo, Nyadzai and Harare.

They also wrote sentences with no fullstops at the end. After the

observation, the researcher planned a lesson on how punctuation marks are

used. During the lesson the researcher presented a chart showing different

punctuation marks relevant for the grade level. The teacher explained to

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pupils on how capital letters and fullstops are used in the sentences. A

discussion was conducted where pupils wrote some sentences on the

chalkboard showing how to punctuate a sentence with capital letters and

fullstops. After this they were assigned individual work on which they were

suppose to punctuate given sentences which were incorrectly punctuated.

However an analysis made after marking the pupils did not master the

concept at all. This was because the teacher’s assumed knwoeldge was

incorrect and the pupils were not encouraged to work together in their

groups as well as the media was inadequate. Therefore the researcher

decided to carry out the research cycle 2 because none of the learners got

marks above average.

2.6.2 Action Research Cycle 2

In cycle 1, the researcher noted that pupils did not master, the idea of using

especially the capital letters. Therefore another lesson was planned where

the researcher taught about the use of capital letters and question marks.

The objectives of the lesson were as follows:

During the lesson pupils were supposed to:

1. identify different punctuation marks

2. tell when and where to use the punctuation marks shown.

3. punctuate at least ten sentences correctly.

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In this cycle the researcher gave learners examples of proper nouns for

instance Save River, peter and many others were given. The researcher also

discussed with the learners on the use of question marks before assigning

group activities. Pupils were assigned to identify many proper nouns and

different types of question marks. Pupils were participating so well in the

group work assigned. Media of work cards and a chart with punctuation

marks were used. After the group activities pupils were assigned to do

individual work to punctuate sentences using the question mark and capital

letters correctly. The researcher after marking the pupil’s books concluded

that pupil’s did not perform well in given sentences. The researcher realized

that the method used in imparting the content was somehow confusing and

also the content of the lesson was overloaded. The researcher then decided to

carry out another research cycle to help pupils understand the use of some

punctuation marks.

2.6.3 Action Research Cycle 3

In this lesson the researcher concentrated much on the use of exclamation

marks, apostrophe and full stops.

The objectives of the lesson were as follows:-

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During the lesson pupils were to:

1. List at least there punctuation marks they know.

2. Identify where and when to use exclamation marks and apostrophe.

3. Complete at least ten sentences using given punctuation marks.

The researcher made use of the chart with the use of the exclamation mark

and apostrophe. Pupils could identify punctuation errors on given sentences

in their groups. However pupils could not perform so well on the individual

written work as expected by the teacher. The researcher found out that most

of the learners were making silly mistakes on punctuating sentences. Then

the researcher decided to carry out another research cycle in using the

punctuation marks.

2.6.4 Action Research Cycle 4

After research cycle 3, the researcher identified that pupils still had some

problems in the use of punctuation marks like exclamation marks although a

better number can now use full stops and capital letters better. The results

reflected that pupils may grasp a concept after a long time and that a concept

must be dealt with on its own. The researcher planned another lesson on

punctuation mainly focusing on the use of apostrophe and capital letters. The

lesson objectives were as follows:-

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During the lesson pupils were supposed to:-

1. Identify and draw the comma and the question mark signs.

2. Observe how these signs are used in sentences.

3. Complete at least ten sentences with correct punctuation mark. The

researcher planned another lesson and a media of a chart with different

punctuation marks was presented. The researcher discussed with pupils

on the use of apostrophe with relevant examples given. Pupils were

assigned group activities before the individual exercise. The researcher

observed that pupils were participating well in their groups. Individual

work was then given to the learners on punctuating sentences using an

apostrophe mainly. The work was marked out of ten and nine got marks

above average. This showed that pupils had managed to grasp the

concept on apostrophe, full stops and capital letters fairly well.

2.6.5 Action Research Cycle 5

In this cycle the researcher concentrated much on the use of all punctuation

marks dealt with in the previous cycles that are commas, full stops, capital

letters, apostrophe and more.

The objectives of the lesson were as follows:-

During the lesson pupils were supposed to;-

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1. Name and identify different punctuation marks on the chart.

2. Identify punctuation errors on given sentences.

3. Punctuate at least ten sentences using the appropriate punctuation marks.

The researcher made use of a chart with different punctuation marks and

work cards with examples.

Pupils could work together in their groups which enhanced learning a lot.

During group work the researcher noticed that the pupils easily identified the

questions well. After group activity the pupils were given an exercise which

was quickly finished and it was done so well. After observing the results of

the cycle five, the researcher noticed that pupils did very well in the use of

different punctuation marks. They mastered the concept so well. For the

exercise marked out of ten individually, the learners managed to score marks

above average.

2.6.6 Summary

In this chapter the researcher focused mainly on the research methodology.

It also looked on the research design, the population, sampling procedures

and instrument used in the research. The researcher also revealed the number

of lessons conducted and the reflections of the pupil’s performances in each

cycle. The next chapter shall focus on the research findings.

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CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH FINDINGS

3.0 Introduction

This chapter focused mainly on data presentation analysis and interpretation.

The results obtained on punctuation marks were presented on tables, pie

charts, line graphs and bar graphs. The data presented is on five different

exercises written by pupils. The data on the tables and graphs was clarified

the form of a narrative description.

3.1 Cycle 1 Findings

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The first cycle was an exercise on punctuation marks namely the capital

letter and full stops. The researcher observed that pupils did not manage to

punctuate sentences correctly putting capital letters and full stops where

possible. The results are on the table below:

Table 1: Results from Cycle 1

Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
pupils
Marks 1 2 4 1 2 1 4 2 4 3
obtained

The graph below shows the marks obtained and number of pupils.

Figure 1: Results from Cycle 1

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10

6
Marks
5
obtained
4

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of pupils

lThe study consisted of ten pupils drawn Grade 4 class. From the work that was
given, the researcher observed that pupils faced problems on the use of capital letters
and full stops. The pupils got marks that were below average. The pupils got 2 out of
10 (30%), one pupil got 3 out of 10 and three other pupils got 4 out of 10 (30%). This
reflected that pupils had serious problems concerning the use of punctuation marks.
Maybe the strategies and teaching methods used by the teacher were not effective.
The teacher used explanation as a teaching method and the researcher thought this
was the other major cause of the problem. The media which was prepared and used
during the lesson was not adequate for the class. The lesson for 30 minutes was not
adequate to cover all the concepts. Most of the pupils showed that need more
practice. Having realized that the content was too much for pupils, the researcher
decided to teach only two punctuation marks that are question mark and capital
letters in the next lesson.
3.2 Cycle 2 Findings

The graph and table below shows the results of the lesson on punctuation

marks namely capital letters and question marks.

Table 2: Results from Cycle 2

Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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pupils
Marks 3 0 3 2 2 2 3 3 4 3
obtained

Figure 2: Results from Cycle 2

10
9
8
7
6
Marks
5
obtained
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of pupils

The identical sample of the ten pupils was involved. There was still no

improvement on the use of punctuation marks since none of the learners

scored marks above the average. The percentage in general stood as (10%)

to those who got zero 30% to those who got 2 marks, 50% to those who got

3 marks and 10% to the one who got 1 out of ten. This reflects that the

pupils were still facing challenges on the use of punctuation marks. Even

though the teacher had tried to explain in detail, pupils still had some

problems. The researcher realized that the method used was still not

effective as it was confusing to the learners and also the content was
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overloaded. So the researcher decided to teach two concepts in one lesson

and also try to change the method of teaching. The concepts taught in the

next lesson were the use of exclamation marks and apostrophe.

3.3 Cycle 3 Findings

The graph and table below shows the number of pupils and marks obtained

by the pupils after writing an exercise on punctuation marks mainly using

the exclamation mark and apostrophe.

Table 3: Results from Cycle 3

Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
pupils
Marks 5 5 4 2 4 3 6 6 5 4
obtained

Figure 3: Results from Cycle 3

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10
9
8
7
6
Marks
5
obtained
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of pupils

The results showed that learners are still facing challenges on the use of

punctuation marks. This was because of not adequate media due to lack of

planning. Pupils were also making silly mistakes.

The results were as follows 10% of the pupils got 2 marks, 10% got 3 marks,

30% got 4 marks out of 10, 30% got 5 marks and finally 20% got 5 out of

10.

Cycle 4 Findings

Table and pie chart below shows the results of the findings when pupils were

using punctuation marks like full stops and apostrophe.

Table 4: Results from Cycle 4

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Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
pupils
Marks 5 4 5 6 6 5 5 7 6 6
obtained

Figure 4: Results from Cycle 4

Key
1 2
39.3 32.7

26.2
39.3 3 4

32.7
5 6
45.8
39.3
7 8
32.7
39.3
32.7 9 10

After writing an exercise on the use of punctuation marks in sentence, the

following results were obtained. One pupil got 4 marks out of ten (144 o),

four pupils got six marks (216o), and only one pupil got 7 marks (252o) and

four pupils got 5 marks (180o). The results showed that (324o) of the learners

scored marks above average and only (36o) scored marks below average.

These results showed that pupils understood much well than what they did in

the previous cycles. In this cycle the teacher used both the discussion and

explanation method to teach the concepts. The pupils’ participation was very

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high as they were involved in group discussions. The method used were

effective. The media of a chart and work cards were used. The teacher tried

by all means to assist, monitor and correct the pupil’s mistakes during the

lesson. The next cycle was prepared for so as to polish up all the mistakes

being made by some learners.

3.4 Cycle 5 Findings

The table below shows number of pupils and marks obtained by the pupils

after writing an exercise on punctuation marks.

Table 5: Results from Cycle 5

Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
pupils
Marks 7 7 8 9 9 7 8 7 9 10
obtained

Figure 5: Results from Cycle 5

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10
9
8
7
6
Marks
5
obtained
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Number of pupils

Out of ten pupils who went through the lesson, the percentage was 100%

and 40% got 7 marks, 30% got 8 marks, 20% got 9 marks and one pupil got

10 marks (100%). The results after chapter five revealed that pupils

constantly needed help and close monitoring for teachers to achieve set

objectives. The pupils were directly involved during the lesson. The methods

of teaching used motivated the pupils. The media used was effective in

illustrating the difference between a statement and a question. The lesson

was completed in time. Therefore the researcher concluded that it was

effective to teach one concept in a lesson.

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3.5 Summary

This chapter focused on the presentation, interpretation and analysis of data

by the researcher. From the findings shown the researcher observed that

when teaching punctuation marks you should know the previous knowledge

of the pupils on the concept rather than assuming that pupils are aware of the

concept. Pupils should also be allowed to discuss the problems they might be

facing with the teacher. In addition, the researcher is advising practitioners

to use active methods where pupils will fully participate such as group work.

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CHAPTER FOUR: OVERALL REFLECTIONS AND FINDINGS

4.0 Introduction

This chapter focused on the reflection of findings in the previous chapters.

The proposal on the way forward was made as well as the learning points

and recommendations were highlighted. The chapter also focused on the

summary of the main points that have been encountered in the research of

the problem of poor use of punctuation marks.

4.1 Reflection on findings

The researcher’s topic on pupils’ inability to use punctuation marks when

writing English language and composition at Grade 4 level. The researcher’s

objectives were to encourage teachers to have and insight into the challenges

faced by pupils in failing to use punctuation marks. The researcher used a

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variety of instruments so as to find out challenges faced by learners. The

main research instruments were observation and document analysis. The

observation entailed self-observation while teaching all the five lessons.

Document analysis focused on pupil’s work and the progress record as well

as the scheme of work used in the previous grade.

4.2 Proposal on the way forward

Research findings showed that when teaching punctuation marks at Grade 4

level, there is need to focus on one type of punctuation mark at a time. The

researcher observed that the problem of using punctuation marks was caused

by poor methods and strategies used by the teacher when conducting the

lessons. Bunching concepts tend to confuse pupils. Pupils found difficult to

master concepts through explanations only. Teachers should also illustrate

clearly the use of punctuation marks when reading. Pupils learn effectively if

they are also involved in the lesson. Practice is also a crucial aspect when

teaching the use of punctuation marks. The teacher made use of group work

to maximize pupil’s participation.

4.3 Discussion on learning points

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The researcher concluded that several strategies should be used when

teaching punctuation effectively. The study showed that the classroom

practitioners should be resourceful. They have to be well prepared for the

lesson. They should make sure that accurate and adequate media is in place

before teaching. The researcher also would like to encourage classroom

practitioners to make proper sitting arrangements. This is very vital because

the teacher must see each and every pupil when teaching. It is also important

for the teacher to use language that is suitable for the grade level of the

learners. Teachers also need to encourage pupils to work together in group

activities as this helps the shy pupils to pupil interactions. The teacher’s

voice should be well projected so that all learners will be able to understand

better.

4.4 Recommendations

In order to produce resounding results when teaching punctuation at Grade 4

level, the following suggestions can be made.

1. Whenever teaching punctuation marks teachers need to start from simple

to complex.

2. The teachers should regularly give pupils written work to assess pupil’s

performance on punctuation marks.

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3. The use of group work is also essential as it promotes pupils participation

during lessons.

4. Teachers should make use of the syllabus when attacking topics so as not

to leave other concepts as they approach other grades.

5. Teacher should be aware of their pupil’s knowledge before introducing

them to new concepts.

6. All lessons on punctuation need to be taught with adequate and varied

media.

7. Teachers should employ different teaching methods which are pupils

centered.

8. Teachers should also be fully equipped with sound knowledge of child’s

intellectual ability so as to improve the teaching and learning of

punctuation marks.

9. Teachers should also not over assume the knowledge of pupils on

punctuation marks.

4.5 Conclusion

From the researcher’s observation teachers should employ effective child

centered methods which are varied. Permanent grasping of concepts can be

achieved through giving more work for practice. Teachers should also make

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sure that adequate examples are given especially when teaching marks like

the apostrophe. From the general gathered information the researcher

observed that pupils learn more effectively when fully involved in the

teaching and learning process.

References

Best, J.W. and Khan, J.V. (2009) Research in Education, 10th Edition: U.S.A,

Pearson

Education.

Borg, W.R, Gall, M.D. and Educational Research – An Introduction.

Pearson, Gall, J.P. (2007) Education, Inc Boston.

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