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# Excavator Fundamentals

## SUMITOMO (S.H.I.) CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY CO.,LTD.

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Chapter 6. Structural Components
1. Bolting
1) Connecting with bolts
Bolting is one method used to join two solid objects together. A spiral groove is cut
into the stem of each bolt, and the degree to which they move forward for each
rotation is referred to as the screw pitch. If a bolt and nut are both fully in contact
with the objects to be bolted together and the bolt is further tightened while the nut
is held, the bolt will be pulled in the direction of the stem, and the bolt stem will
extend. Within a stem extended in this way, a force trying to restore the original
dimension will be generated, and this force is referred to as axial tension.

When a bolt is used to join two solid objects, therefore, these objects are pressed
together by the bolt’s axial tension, and as a result of this, the frictional force
between the objects also increases.

Whenever metals are extended with a force up to a certain level, the original
dimension will be restored when the force is released; however, if a force above this
level is used to extend the metal, it will not naturally return to its original size when
the force is released. Extension from which a metal can recover is referred to as
elastic deformation, and the term plastic deformation is used to refer to permanent
extension as a result of application of a relatively large force. Normally, axial tension
within a range that would not produce plastic deformation is generated in bolts.
The larger the axial tension (or stretching force) applied to a bolt, the greater the
degree to which it will be extended. For a specific axial tension, furthermore, the
degree of extension increases in proportion to bolt length.

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As shown in the diagram, bolt extension as a result of application of axial tension T
is relatively small (L2) in the case of the shorter bolt A and relatively long (L1) in the
case of the longer bolt B.

If in the case of both A and B, for example, the bolt seating surfaces are compressed
by ΔL, then the degree of bolt extension for each would also be reduced by ΔL. As a
result, the axial tension reduces to T2 for bolt A and to T1 for bolt B. In other words,
the relative drop in axial tension is greater for shorter bolts, making it easier for
those bolts to loosen. Accordingly, whenever thin plates are being bolted together,
reduction of axial tension and loosening can be prevented by adding a spacer and
using a longer bolt as shown in the bolt-B example.

2) Torque
Force applied to items such as bolts in order to turn them is referred to as torque,
and it can be determined as follows.
Torque (kgf▪cm) = Applied force (kgf) x Distance from center of rotation (cm)

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In other words, torque is calculated by multiplying the force applied by the distance
from the center at which it is applied. The SI unit for torque is the Newton meter
(Nm). Alternative units of torque are kgf·cm and kgf·m.
1kgf·m = 9.8 N·m
For example, a torque of 100 kgf·cm is produced when a force of 10 kgf is applied at a
distance of 10 cm from the center of rotation. The same torque could also be
produced by applying a force of 5 kgf at 20 cm from the center.

## Torque = 10 (kgf) x10 (cm) = 5 (kgf) x 20 (cm) = 100 kgf▪cm

3) Torque method
In the above-described situation where objects are joined using bolts, axial tension is
produced in the bolts. In cases where bolt-tightening forces or axial tension must be
managed, it is generally not possible to measure axial tension in practice. For this
reason, an alternative management method using tightening torque as a substitute
characteristic can also be used. The relationship between torque and axial tension
can be determined using the following formula.
T = F (d2 / 2 (μ / cosα + tanβ) + μn (dn / 2))
T: Torque F: Axial tension
d2: Effective diameter of threaded section
μ: Coefficient of friction of threaded section
μn: Coefficient of friction of bolt seat
dn: Effective diameter of bolt seat
In other words, the relationship between torque and axial tension is affected by
coefficients of friction. As lubricant can be applied to metal contact surfaces in order
to lower the corresponding coefficient of friction, the torque required to obtain the
same axial tension can be reduced. Reversing this, if the same torque were to be
applied, the axial tension could increase by an excessive amount, potentially leading
to plastic deformation and breakage. Before tightening to any rated torque,
therefore, it will be necessary to confirm whether or not the rating in question
applies to a situation where lubricant is present.

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4) Angle method
The angle method is employed as a means of applying axial tension to the plastic
deformation range and with a low level of disparity. Specifically, this approach
involves tightening the bolt through a specific angle regardless of torque from the
point at which seat contact is made. As the amount by which a bolt is extended can
be determined based on the screw pitch and angle of turning, axial torques can be
easily managed. However, bolts tightened in this way cannot be reused as they will
have been plastically deformed. With no need to manage tightening torques in
situations where the angle method is applied, a friction reducer such as
molybdenum can be applied during tightening in order to lower the level of
resistance due to friction.

2. Welding
1) Stress concentration
Stress is the amount of force per unit area of cross section in the direction of action of
an external force. If, for example, a downward force is applied to the tip of a rod as
shown in the diagram, stress in the direction of tension would occur at the upper
side of the rod; stress in the direction of compression, at the lower side.

## Stress concentration is a phenomenon where stress builds up in specific locations,

such as notches caused by welding and the like or points at which an object’s
material composition is not consistent. When opening packaging or tearing paper,
for example, a notch or cut-out section makes it easier to do so. This too is a result of
stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch.
As stress concentrates in this way when an inconsistency exists in the shape of an
object or after the addition of a reinforcing plate or the like, cracking can occur much
more easily at the point of concentration.

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2) Welding types
The joining together of two metal items can be achieved by welding, pressure
bonding, and brazing. Welding is performed by melting together a base metal and
bond metal using an electric arc, burning gas, or the like. Pressure bonding involves
melting of the base metal using heat of friction, and brazing requires the application
of a filler metal to the base metal. Welding is the most commonly applied method
when building construction machine.

3) Arc welding
When a high voltage is applied between base metals and an electrode at a suitable
distance from each other, an arc producing a large amount of heat will be formed
between them. This heat melts both the base metals and the electrode, and the base
metals can then be joined with extra bonding material being provided by melting of
the electrode.

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A bead is formed when the heat of the electric arc melts the core of the electrode and
the base metals. Metal heated to this degree can easily oxidize; however, this is
prevented by applying flux to the outside of the electrode’s core. Specifically, the flux
burns during the welding process, forming shield gas around the joint and
preventing exposure to oxygen in the air.

4) Welding symbols
Welding symbols are used to illustrate welding methods in a graphical manner. The
tip of the arrow shows the section to be welded, and the welding type is indicated on
the base line. If any special instructions are needed, they are added at the tail of the
arrow. As shown in the following diagram, the welding symbol below the base line
indicates the weld type at the position identified by the arrow, and the welding
symbol above the base line indicates the weld type on the rear side or the side
opposite to that identified by the arrow.

Furthermore, the positions indicated by the welding symbols on the base line vary
depending on the relationship between the base metal and the item to be welded as
shown below, and care must be taken with regard to this.

The following table shows how welding symbols relate to actual welding situations.

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5) Causes of weld defects
Inadequate welding voltage, incorrect electrode feed rate, poor preparation, and
other similar factors can all lead to weld defects. As stress concentration readily
occurs at such defects, and this in turn can lead to cracking.

A. Undercut
Undercut defects occur when material is removed from the base metal along
the weld toe, resulting in the formation of a groove. Excessive current,
excessive electrode feed rates, and poor positioning of the electrode are typical
causes of this type of problem.

B. Overlap
Overlap defects occur when melted material does not bond with the base
metal along the weld toe, resulting in the formation of a layered structure.

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Insufficient electrode feed rates and low current are typical causes of this type
of problem.

C. Blow holes
Blow hole defects take the form of spherical cavities inside the welded metal.
These holes are caused by gas from around the arc being absorbed by the
molten metal but being unable to escape before the metal solidifies. The
presence of water, organic coatings, and the like on the base metal or
electrode can cause this type of problem.

D. Slug inclusion
Slag inclusion defects occur when slag produced as a by-product of welding
becomes trapped within the weld itself. Insufficient removal of slag from
previous welds is a typical cause of this type of problem.

E. Poor penetration
Poor penetration describes a condition where unwelded points are left
between the welded materials. This type of defect takes place when the
molten metal cannot penetrate into all sections of the joint as a result of
insufficient current, poor orientation of the electrode, or the use of an
excessively large electrode.

6) Low-temperature cracking
When sheet metal produced from a hard material such as high tensile strength steel
has been welded, cracks can form in the welded section when the metal is cooled,
and these in turn can result in large-scale breakage due to the action of stress
concentration. Known as low-temperature cracking, this phenomenon is caused by

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excessively hard welded sections or high levels of hydrogen dispersed in the welded
material.
In order to prevent low-temperature cracking from occurring, all of the associated
items must be heated up before welding. As a result of this preheating, cooling after
welding can be made to take place over a longer time and the degree to which welded
sections harden can be reduced. Furthermore, this process also allows more
diffusible hydrogen to escape from the welded material. Generally speaking,
preheating takes place at between 100°C and 150°C, although the actual
temperature depends on the workpiece materials. It should also be noted that
excessive preheating temperatures can cause a breakdown in the composition of the
materials to be welded. It is also important that low-hydrogen electrodes be used.

7) Reinforcement
When reinforcing plates are being added to attachments and the like, these must be
shaped so as to prevent any sudden change in the longitudinal cross-section, and a
suitable welding method must be applied.
If reinforcing plates are to be added to the upper and lower surfaces of an
attachment having a shape as shown in the diagram, they should extend between
the side plates in the transverse direction, and they should be shaped so as to
prevent sudden changes in cross-section shape in the longitudinal direction.

If reinforcing plates are to be added to the side plates, any gaps between their upper
and lower ends and the attachment's upper and lower plates must be filled through
welding, thus allowing force to be evenly distributed. Sudden changes in
longitudinal cross-section must be avoided on both the top and bottom surfaces.
Furthermore, reinforcement must not be limited to one side panel; instead,
identically-shaped reinforcing plates must be added on both the left and the right.

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Welding of the edges of the base metal results in the formation of a notch. This can
readily lead to breakage as a result of stress concentration, and therefore, welding
must not be carried out at these locations.

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Chapter 7. Oils, Greases & Filters
1. Oils & greases
1) Fundamental application
The oil and grease used in construction machinery is required to reduce friction, to
prevent wear, to provide cooling, to clean, to prevent rusting, and to enhance sealing
performance. These functions can be realized by mixing the appropriate additives
into a base oil, and this has the added benefit of also improving oxidization
resistance and extreme pressure properties.
2) Hydraulic oil
Pressurized by hydraulic pumps, hydraulic oil both delivers this pressure to
actuators and lubricates sliding parts. Mineral oil, which is produced from crude oil,
is generally used as the base oil for this fluid. Additives are then mixed into this base
oil in order to improve foamability, lubrication, and other similar properties.
The viscosity of these oils is indicated using a number. Normally, hydraulic oil of
grade #46 is used (smaller numbers indicate lower levels of viscosity).
Continued use over extended periods of time leads to a deterioration in performance
due to heat, oxidation, and consumption of additives, and as this can result in
equipment damage, replacement must be carried out in line with the standards set
forth in operation manuals and the like.
3) Engine oil
Engine oil is used to lubricate, cool, and clean sliding components, and different
types are defined in terms of grade and viscosity. In the case of engine oil for diesel
engines, the type designation will start with the letter "C"; meanwhile, the letter "F"
starts the type designation of engine oil for gasoline engines.

API standards define grades in the form of codes such as CD, CF, and CF-4. The
closer to "Z", the higher the quality level of the oil in question.
Viscosity is indicated in line with SAE standards, and both single and multi grades
exist. Single grades are defined using codes such as CD-30 and CD-40, with higher
numbers representing higher levels of viscosity. In the case of equipment being

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operated in hot regions, a more-viscous engine oil must be used. A special set of SAE
single-grade standards apply only to high-temperature oils.

Multi-grade oils are defined using codes such as CF 10W-30. Here, 10W represents
the viscosity in low-temperature conditions, while CF-30 is the standard satisfied
when the temperature is high. These oils have a wider range of use than
Although the JASO standards (from the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan)
define a DH-1 grade suitable for use in Japanese-produced diesel engines, the
corresponding testing methods and properties do not match those of the API and
SAE standards, and therefore, a simple comparison of properties is not possible.
4) Gear oil
Gear oil is used to lubricate and clean sliding parts, and different types are defined
in terms of grade and viscosity. Typical grades are GL-4 and GL-5, with higher
numbers indicating that the oil in question is suitable for use at higher loads and
gear rotation speeds. As with engine oils, viscosity is defined in the form of codes
such as #80W-90 and #90. Both single and multi grades exists, and these are further
subdivided based on temperature and other environmental conditions.

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5) Grease
Greases are formed from thickening agent, base oil, and additives.
The purpose of the thickening agent is to hold the base oil and prevent it from
flowing away. Meanwhile, the base oil is a mineral oil or synthetic oil lubricant.
Whenever necessary, extreme pressure agents, oxidation inhibiters, oiliness agents,
and other similar additives are added as each individual grease manufacturer sees
fit.
Normally, types of grease are defined in terms of the thickening agent used. Calcium,
lithium, sodium, and other such grades exist, and these are further subdivided
based on other property classifications. The hardness of greases is expressed in
terms of consistency. For example, a grease can have a consistency of 000, 00, 0, or 1
to 6, with 6 being the hardest grade. Mixing of different types of grease produces a
marked reduction in consistency, and as this allows the grease to flow more easily, it
can lead to lubrication problems. In cases where the use of different types cannot be
avoided, the older grease must be fully removed before the new one is added.
6) Contamination degree
Any mixing of contaminants into hydraulic oil can lead to rapid wearing of sliding
parts, to seizure, and to other similar problems. NAS levels are used to indicate the
degree to which oil has become contaminated. Specifically, particles are classified by
size, and as shown in the following table, the number of each per 100 ml of oil is used
to define the contamination degree. Smaller grade numbers correspond to lower
degrees of contamination.

The following table shows a typical example of measurement results from a sample
of hydraulic oil.

When determining the final NAS rating, the grade corresponding to the highest
individual degree of contamination is chosen. Accordingly, the NAS grade for the

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hydraulic oil shown is 10. It is generally accepted that the contamination degree of
hydraulic oil is grade 8 when being filled into containers for shipment and grade 10
or thereabouts when performing actual work within machinery.
7) Metallic element analysis
Metallic element analysis is one of the methods used to analyze samples of hydraulic
oil and other fluids. By measuring the amount of various metals contained within an
oil sample, it is possible to estimate the condition of the hydraulic oil or reduction
gear fluid and of the associated hydraulic equipment.

If iron and copper levels are high as shown in the above chart, it is highly likely that
wear is occurring inside hydraulic equipment. High levels of aluminum and silicon
indicate the entry of soil, dust, or other external contaminants. Meanwhile, as
additives often contain phosphorus and zinc, high levels of these elements does not
necessarily indicate a problem.

2. Filters
1) Function
The role of filters is to remove contaminants that have entered circuits for hydraulic
oil or fuel, thus preventing abnormal wearing or seizure of equipment making up the
circuits in question. Filters contain a paper or plastic filter membrane that captures
contaminants having gotten mixed into a fluid as the fluid flows through the filter.
As gaps between the filter membrane and filter unit can allow fluid to pass through
the unit unfiltered, it is crucial that incorrect assembly or mounting is avoided.
2) Performance
Filter performance is normally identified in terms of filtration accuracy and a β
value. Filtration accuracy is determined through filter performance testing and is
expressed using micrometer units – for example, 10μ or 20μ. Meanwhile, a rating of
"β10 = 1.5" would mean that the number of particles of 10μ or larger upstream of the
filter divided by the number of particles of the same size downstream of the filter is
1.5. In other words, high values indicate that a large amount of particles are

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captured, and thus, the filter's performance level is high.
A high capture rate – that is, the ability to remove large amounts of contaminant –
also means that the filter membrane will become clogged up relatively quickly.
Accordingly, the service lives of filters are extended by increasing the surface area of
the filter element without impairing capture performance.

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Chapter 8. Servicing Know-how
1. Handling measurement devices
1) Calipers
Calipers are used to measure dimensions; specifically, section A measures outer
diameters, section B measures inner diameters, and section C measures depth. The
maximum measurement resolution depends on the type of calipers used. The
following diagram shows a standard graduated set of calipers capable of
measurement to a resolution of 0.05 mm.

In the calipers shown above, the main scale is graduated in units of 1 mm, while the
vernier scale divides 39 mm into 20 equal parts for easy reading. In other words, one
graduation on the vernier scale represents 1.95 mm, meaning that a gap of 0.05 mm
exists between a pair of graduations on the main scale and a single graduation on
the vernier scale. Whole number measurements of 1 mm or greater are determined
from the main scale, and fractions of less than 1 mm are determined from the
graduation on the vernier scale that is lined up with a graduation from the main
scale. In this way, measurements to a resolution of 0.05 mm can be made.

If, for example, the item to be measured has been setup correctly between the jaws of
the calipers described above and the scales were arranged as shown in the diagram,
the first step would be to read the vernier scale's zero position. As this 0 graduation
is positioned before 2 mm on the main scale, it indicates that the whole number
measurement is 1 mm. The next step is to determine which two of the graduations
from the main scale and the vernier scale line up precisely. In this case, the
vernier-scale graduation marked 8 is precisely lined up, indicating a fraction value
of 0.80 mm. Accordingly, the complete measurement is 1 + 0.80 = 1.80 mm. In
addition to the above-described calipers, other varieties featuring dial scales and

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digital displays are also available, and these generally allow measurements to be
made to a greater level of precision than the vernier-scale type.

2) Micrometers
As with calipers, micrometers are used to measure dimensions. The measuring
section of these tools features a high-precision screw, and by converting rotation
angle into a linear measurement, micrometers allow dimensions to be measured to a
greater degree of precision than calipers. As the thimble is turned, the screw
mechanism moves the spindle left or right.

Generally, the sleeve features graduations at 1-mm intervals on a base line, and
below this base line, a second scale has 1-mm graduations positioned between those
above. The spindle's screw pitch is 0.5 mm, and therefore, one turn of the thimble
produces 0.5 mm of motion of the spindle. A scale with 50 graduations is provided on
the outer surface of the thimble, and this allows measurements to be made to a
precision of 0.01 mm.
As the thimble operates using a screw mechanism, there is a risk of excessive
turning force producing significant error in measurements. For this reason, a
component known as a ratchet stop is usually provided at the end of the thimble.
Using the ratchet stop, the screw mechanism can be made to rotate freely when a
force above a certain level is applied; consequently, the turning force is kept
constant and the risk of measurement error can be reduced. The ratchet must be
turned whenever making measurements.

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To measure an item, it is setup within the micrometer and the thimble is then
turned using the ratchet stop until that component begins to rotate freely. The first
step is to read the sleeve scale at the position of the end of the thimble. In this case,
the reading on the upper scale is above 12, and the intermediate line on the lower
scale has been crossed. Therefore, the rough reading is 12 + 0.5 = 12.5 mm. Next, as
graduation 43 from the thimble scale is lined up with the sleeve's base line, the
detailed reading is 0.43. Accordingly, the final measurement is 12.5 + 0.43 = 12.93
mm.

3) Dial gauge
In contrast to calipers and micrometers, dial gauges do not provide a reading by
direct measurement of a workpiece and instead operate based on difference with
respect to a defined standard. The dial gauge itself is fixed in place, motion of the
probe in the axial direction is amplified by a gear and converted into rotation of
needles, and these needles allow a value to be read from a graduated scale.
Measurements can be made to a precision of 0.01 mm, with the longer needle
rotating once for 1 mm of motion of the probe and the shorter needle displaying 1
mm per graduation. The dial gauge ring shown below can be rotated in order to set
the scale plate to the zero position. In addition to this type, furthermore, other
varieties feature a crown that can be rotated for alignment.

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If, for example, a dial gauge were being used to measure the degree of looseness in a
component, the first step would be to setup the gauge's shaft in parallel with the
direction of motion of that component as a result of the looseness and for the probe to
be brought into contact with the component. Next, the component is moved fully to
one side in the direction of looseness, and either the current reading of the gauge's
needles is recorded or the ring is rotated to the zero position. Next, the component is
moved fully to the other side in the direction of looseness, and the reading at that
position is also recorded. Looseness is then determined as the difference between the
first and second readings. If the direction of motion and the orientation of the
spindle are not exactly aligned, the resulting measurement will not be accurate.
Accordingly, special care must be taken in this regard.

4) Circuit testers
As a basic function, circuit testers are capable of measuring direct-current voltage,
alternating-current voltage, direct current, alternating current, and resistance.
Special care must be taken when selecting the type of measurement to be made and
the corresponding method as mistakes can lead to tester malfunction or to scorching
and other similar component damage.
A. Current measurements
When measuring current, the tester is connected in series within the circuit.
The first step is to set the type of current to be measured as either direct or
alternating, and to then specify the measurement range. In the case of a
direct-current circuit, the tester's positive electrode is connected at the + side
and its negative electrode is connected at the – side.

B. Voltage measurements
When measuring voltage, the tester is connected in parallel between the
corresponding points of potential difference. The first step is to set the type of

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voltage to be measured as either direct-current or alternating-current, and to
then specify the measurement range. In the case of a direct-current circuit,
the tester's positive electrode is connected at the high-potential side and its
negative electrode is connected at the low-potential side.

C. Resistance measurements
In addition to measuring the resistance of various circuit components, circuit
testers can also be used to check for short circuits and open circuits. When
measuring a resistance, the tester's probes are connected to each side of the
component. If the component is still connected within the circuit, it is
important to confirm that a combined resistance is not being measured via
other sections of that circuit. In the configuration shown in the left diagram
below, the combined value of the two resistances would be measured;
meanwhile, only the rightmost resistance is measured in the diagram on the
right.

The positive and negative terminals can be setup on either side of resistors;
however, special care must be taken with regard to direction when the item to
be measured contains diodes and the like. Current from the tester's internal
battery is used to measure resistance values, and if it were to be connected in
the direction of flow of current through a diode, no current would reach the
actual components to be measured and a false reading would be produced.
When investigating short circuits and open circuits, resistance can be
measured between two points within a circuit or between one point and the
tester body. A resistance value of zero between two circuit points indicates

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that no open circuit has occurred; meanwhile, if the resistance value is
indicated as being infinity, an open circuit will have occurred. Similarly, a
resistance value of zero between a circuit point and the tester body indicates
that a short circuit has occurred, and if the resistance value is indicated as
being infinity, no short circuit will have occurred.

5) Torque wrenches
Devices used to measure the tightening torque of bolts and nuts are referred to as
torque meters, and devices used to tighten these items to a specific torque are
referred to as torque wrenches. Torque meters feature a needle and scale, and using
these, the tightening torque can be determined by applying torque to the nut or bolt
in either the direction of tightening or loosening until it starts to move.
The following photograph shows a preset-type torque wrench. In order to tighten
nuts and bolts to a specific torque using this device, its scale is simply set to that
torque. When the required torque is reached during tightening, the wrench will
provide notification in the form of an audible click. Once this click is heard,
tightening can be stopped. Certain torque wrenches have a different direction for
tightening and loosening, and if the wrong direction is used, it will not be possible to
tighten nuts and bolts to the specified torque. Accordingly, the tightening direction
should always be checked in advance.

In order to prevent aging of the internal spring, a torque wrench's scale should
always be returned to the smallest torque position before being stored. In addition,
calibration should be carried out on a regular basis. Torque wrenches and torque
meters should not be used for general tightening and loosening of nuts and bolts.

## 2. Handling general tools

1) Precautions
Incorrect usage of tools can result not only in damage to the tools themselves and the
components being worked on, but also to injury. In addition, the usage of broken or

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customized tools can also lead to accidents and should be avoided.

2) Socket wrenches
Socket wrenches and ratchet handles are used to tighten and loosen nuts and bolts.
Designed with a box-like shape, socket wrenches can completely enclose nuts and
bolt heads, preventing slip-off and allowing high torques to be applied.

Socket wrenches come in a wide range of different types, some of which are shown
right. Furthermore, the sizes shown on these wrenches refer to the across-the-flats
dimension of the corresponding nuts and bolts. If, for example, "19 mm" was
indicated on a socket wrench, it would mean that the wrench was intended for bolts
with an across-the-flats dimension of 19 mm.

Bolts and nuts should always be inserted fully into the socket wrench when
tightening or loosening. Failure to do so can lead to slip off and is inherently
dangerous. Before starting work on a nut or bolt, therefore, full insertion into the
socket wrench must be confirmed. When tightening nuts, the tip of the
corresponding bolt can push against the bottom of the socket wrench, essentially
lifting it off the nut. Special care should be taken in such a case.

Ratchet handles are used to turn socket wrenches. These tools feature a ratchet and

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latch, allowing reciprocating motion of the handle to be converted into rotation of the
insertion head. Switching of the lever allows for clockwise or counter-clockwise
rotation.

To use a ratchet handle, the handle's insertion head is inserted into a socket
wrench's recess. In order to prevent accidental slip-off of the socket wrench, the
insertion head features a spring-loaded ball that engages with a groove on the inner
surface of the recess.

3) Spanners
Spanners are used to tighten and loosen nuts and bolts.

Spanners are designed to fit a specific size of nut or bolt, and as shown below, they
must be used in a state of complete engagement.

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Angled engagement and incomplete engagement as shown in the following diagram
can lead to accidental slip-off, possibly resulting in injury. Furthermore, the use of a
hammer to knock a spanner can cause damage the spanner, nuts, and bolts, and if
the spanner were to come loose and be propelled by the hammer, a very dangerous
situation could develop.

4) Box-end spanners
Spanners are used to tighten and loosen nuts and bolts.
Box-end spanners have ring-shaped sockets at either end, ensuring that they do not
easily slip-off and allowing a large amount of torque to be applied. Furthermore, as
they feature a 12-point design, they can be used to make fine adjustments with
small rotation angles.

Featuring an engaged worm and rack, adjustable spanners have jaws that can be set
to precisely match the across-the-flats dimension of the nut or bolt to be tightened or
loosened. As shown in the following diagram, the jaws can be inclined at an angle of
15° or 23° to the handle.

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To use an adjustable spanner, the worm is turned to adjust the jaw width to match
the size of the nut or bolt, and with complete engagement having been made, the
handle is then rotated in the direction shown.

Turning in the opposite direction as shown below can cause the lower jaw and worm
to be placed under considerable stress, possibly leading to breakage. Furthermore,
any gap between the spanner's jaws and the nut or bolt or any angled engagement
can cause accidental slip-off, and as such, is inherently dangerous. Extending the
handle using a pipe or using a hammer to strike the spanner can also result in
permanent damage.

6) Hex keys
Hex keys are used to tighten and loosen bolts with hexagonal sockets in their heads,
and both standard and long types exist. Ball-point varieties featuring a ball section
at the end of the long arm are also available, and these can be used to tighten or
loosen at an angle. As the ball joint is narrower than the main shaft, however, it is
not ideal for full tightening or other operations requiring a large amount of torque to
be applied.

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If the hex key is not fully inserted into the bolt's socket, it may slip off during
loosening or tightening and cause injury or damage. Twisting of the shaft indicates
that a hex key is close to breakage and should not be used. Furthermore, if force is
applied to a hex key in any direction other than that of rotation, it may break at the
bend.

7) Screwdrivers
Screwdrivers are used to tighten and loosen both machine screws and wood screws.
Depending on the shape of groove in the corresponding screws, screwdrivers can be

As shown in Figures A and D, the size of the screwdriver head must perfectly match
the size of the groove in the screw. Meanwhile, if the head is too large as shown in
Figures B and E or too small as shown in Figures C and F, the screwdriver may
accidentally slip off during work, possibly leading to injury or damage to the screw
head. If the screw head were to be damaged in this way, it could become impossible
to subsequently loosen it.

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Chipping, cracking, or other similar damage to the head of the screwdriver can also
lead to accidental slip-off or to damage to the screw-head groove. Accordingly,
screwdrivers damaged in this way should not be used.

8) Pliers
Pliers are used to grip small items and to cut wires.

The section of the jaws to be used for gripping depends on the shape and size of the
item in question, and the degree by which the jaws open can be switched between
two different settings.

## A: Used to grip flat items and wires.

B: Used to grip pipes and other cylindrical items.
C: Used to cut wires.
D: Used to switch the opening width by moving the fulcrum between the two holes.

If a bolt were to be turned while gripped in the tip section, it would cause the jaws to
open. Accordingly, this mode of use is not recommended. If gripping a large item
causes the handles to move too far apart and makes them difficult to clasp, the
fulcrum position could be switched to bring them closer together.

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9) Hammer
A range of hammer variations exist for different tasks, some featuring metal heads
while others are made of plastic. In the case of head splitting or other damage
occurring as a result of extensive use, any further use in that condition may cause
material to become detached. Accordingly, a grinder should be used to make the
necessary repairs.

When working with a hammer, it should be struck squarely at the center of the
workpiece. Angled impact or striking at an edge should be avoided as they can result
in the workpiece surface being damaged.

## 3. Precautions when working with devices

1) Hydraulic devices
Hydraulic devices are badly affected by contamination. If contamination should get
into such a device or its hydraulic circuit, wearing of internal components may be
accelerated and sliding sections could seize up.
Whenever storing or transporting a new hydraulic device or an item removed from
machinery, all of its ports should be plugged or taped in order to prevent
contamination from entering. Insertion of workshop rags into ports is not sufficient

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in this regard as there is a high likelihood of portions of these rags or contamination
already attached to them entering the device. Accordingly, this approach should be
avoided.

2) O-rings
Small gaps will always be present at connections between pipes and hydraulic
devices and at other similar locations of surface-to-surface contact. O-rings are used
in order to prevent hydraulic from leaking via these gaps. When subjected to a
suitable amount of compression, O-rings form a seal with the corresponding contact
surfaces. If, however, an O-ring is too small for the gap to be sealed, it may spring
out when deformed under pressure, resulting in breakage. In order to prevent this
from occurring, an O-ring of a more appropriate size should be used or a second

O-rings can be of the fixed or moveable type, and with many different materials such
as rubber and Teflon being used, they come in a wide range of variations. Care
should be taken in choosing O-rings to match the required service conditions as poor
matching can result in splitting, swelling, pressure cracks, and other similar
damage.
If material were to adhere to an O-ring's contact surface, a gap could form between
the ring and the seat, leading to leakage. If cotton work gloves were to be used to
install O-rings, fibers or dust could become attached to the contact surface;
accordingly, this work should be done with bare hands. In addition, contact surfaces
must be cleaned and inspected to confirm that no foreign matter is present.

3) Seals

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Seals are used to prevent leakage past rotating objects such as motor output shafts
and sliding objects such as cylinder rods. As with O-rings, foreign matter must not
be allowed to adhere to contact surfaces.
Generally made of rubber or plastic, seals form a hermetic connection with shafts.
As high pressure is used to increase the impermeability of this connection, seals
must be oriented in a certain way during assembly. If they were to be assembled in
reverse, the ability to form a reliable seal would be impaired and leakage could occur.
Accordingly, orientation must be carefully checked at this time.

## U-packing is used to form a seal with components operating in an axial direction.

Furthermore, when design factors dictate that packing may deform, a backup
packing is also used. This must be placed on the low-pressure side of the original
packing so that it cannot escape from the gap when deformed under pressure. The
backup packing itself does not form a seal.

4) Seal tape
Sealing tape is used to prevent leakage past taper screws attached to pipe
connections, plugs, and the like. However, this tape is not used with O-ring seals or
taper seals such as straight screws or hose adaptors. As sealing tape is relatively soft,
care must be taken to prevent the adherence of contamination.

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The procedure for using sealing tape is as follows.
Step 1: Screw cleaning
Remove old sealing tape and any other contamination from both the male and
female screws.
Step 2:
Place the end of the sealing tape on the male screw and hold it in place using
a finger.
Wind the sealing tape around the screw in the opposite direction to that of
tightening. Also, ensure that the edge of the tape and the end of the screw are
separated by a distance equivalent to the width of one or two threads. If the
tape were to protrude beyond the end of the screw, it could be cut loose and
enter the hydraulic circuit.

Step 3:
Holding the sealing tape taut, wind it twice around the male screw.
Step 4:
Using your finger to press down at the end of the second winding, cut the
sealing tape.

Step 5:
Ensure that the sealing tape has not loosened, and press the cut end against
the wound section.
If the sealing tape is wound around the screw too many times, meshing

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Meanwhile, if the sealing tape were to be applied with a spiral pattern, it
could be cut free during tightening and prevent the required level of sealing
from being achieved. Accordingly, both of these practices should be avoided.

5) Electrical devices
A. During welding
Generally, the negative terminal of the excavator's battery is connected to the
body (GND/ground) and there is 24 V potential between the positive terminal
and the body. Closing and opening of an electrical circuit is conducted by
connecting and disconnecting the positive side with a battery relay.
Welding is performed onto the frame or attachment, which means welding is
done on the ground circuit in terms of electricity. During welding, high voltage
flows between the ground of the welder and the section to be welded. High
voltage from the welder goes back to the GND side of the electrical device if
left connected, which may damage the device.
Therefore, the ground of the welder should be located as near as possible to
the section where welding is performed, and the electronic devices such as the
controller should be removed.
B. Bundling the wiring
If a long wire is used for repairing the circuit and is left in a bundle, the wire
forms a coil so that various phenomena may occur. When electricity starts to
flow in a coil, the coil becomes resistant, and when you try to stop electricity, it
won't stop immediately. This may cause a delay in response for turning on or
off electricity. If strong magnetic field is generated, it may affect other lines as
noise, which may result in erroneous operations of the electric devices. You
should eliminate the extra wiring as much as possible when you repair.
C. Terminal contacts
If you touch wiring connector terminals directly with your hands during the
servicing of the electric devices, water and salt will adhere to them causing
them to rust, which may result in faulty connections. Static electricity from
the human body may damage IC circuit if the IC terminals are touched by
bare hands. Try to avoid touching any terminals by hand whenever possible.

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sludge.

9. Environmental issue
1) Environment and emission control
In general, hydraulic excavators run on a diesel engine. As a diesel engine burns
diesel oil and emits combustion gas, it carries environmental issues and energy
issues.
A. Environmental impacts
The operation of an engine forms substances that affect the environment.
• Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx is an oxide of nitrogen, and changes chemically into nitric acid in the
air, which is water-soluble and strongly acid substance. This causes acid
rain and adversely affects living things such as killing tress and threatening
the growth of aquatic animals.
• Hydrocarbon (HC)

## HC causes photochemical smog and has a harmful effect on the respiratory

system.
• Sulfur oxides (SOx)

SOx is an oxide of sulfur, and changes chemically into sulfuric acid in the
air, which is water-soluble and strongly acid substance. Like nitrogen
oxides, this turns into nitric acid and adversely affects living things. This is
emitted in proportion to a sulfur content of fuel used.
• Particulate matter (PM)

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PM is suspended matter such as black smoke and soot and has a harmful
effect on the respiratory system.
• Carbon monoxide (CO)

## CO is oxide of carbon and is chemically unstable matter. It tries to take in

oxygen and to become carbon dioxide, stable matter. As this matter exists
as carbon monoxide when there is no oxygen to link with, where there is
carbon monoxide, a state is created in which there is no oxygen. If CO is
inhaled, toxic symptoms may be produced.
• Carbon dioxide (CO2)

## CO2 is oxide of carbon produced by general combustion and is chemically

stable matter. This matter floats in the atmosphere and is one of
greenhouse gases that promote global warming.

B. Controlled substances
Substances controlled by Tier 3 (the third emission control) are nitrogen
oxides (NOx), hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate
matter (PM).
Substances that are likely to be formed are different between diesel engines
and gasoline engines.

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Substances subject Diesel Gasoline Condition for occurrence
to 3rd emission engine engine
control
Nitrogen oxides Much Little Occurs with complete combustion
(NOx) at high temperature
Hydrocarbon (HC) Little Much Occurs with incomplete
combustion due to lack of oxygen
Particulate matter Much Little Occurs with incomplete
(PM) combustion at low temperature
Carbon monoxide Little Much Occurs with incomplete
(CO) combustion due to lack of oxygen
As seen from the table, with complete combustion at high temperature,
particulate matter reduces but nitrogen oxides increase. With incomplete
combustion at low temperature, particulate matter increases on the contrary.
To cope with the emission control and to improve environmental issues, it is
necessary to reduce both of these.

2) Resources (Petroleum)
Petroleum, raw material of diesel oil, is substance in which carcasses of living things
have chemically changed over several hundred million years. About two hundred
million years ago, living things that lived in the water died, were deposited on the
bottom of the water and changed into fossils called kerogen. Earth and sand
accumulated on them, which were subjected to pressure and geothermal heat in the
ground for a long time and were decomposed into petroleum, natural gas and water.

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At present, the society is supported by the use of fossil fuels formed over a long
period. However, even with the current technologies, it is impossible to produce
petroleum and it is necessary to effectively use limited fossil fuels.

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