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DESIGN
 a creative activity defined as the synthesis, the putting together of ideas to
achieve a desired purpose
 the creation of manufacturing process to fulfill a particular need which may
be public need or commercial opportunity
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PLANT DESIGN
 includes items related directly to the complete plant, such as plant layout,
general service facilities, and plant location
PROCESS DESIGN
 establishes the sequence of chemical and physical operations; operating
conditions; the duties, major specifications, and materials of construction
of all process equipment
 starts from the flowsheet development to the evaluation of bids and
recommendations of qualified vendors, including preparation of
specifications and heat balances
PROCESS DESIGN DOCUMENTS
 useful in communicating ideas and plans to other engineers involved with
the design
 maintained after construction of the process facility for the operating
personnel to refer to
 useful when modifications to the facility are planned
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BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM
 very simple diagrams composed of rectangles and lines indicating major
material or energy flows
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PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM
 more complex diagrams of major unit operations as well as flow lines
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PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN
 show valving along with instrument locations, process control schemes, and
piping sizes
OTHER EXAMPLES OF PROCESS DESIGN DOCUMENTS
1. specifications
2. operating manuals
3. accident plans
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DESIGN PROCESS
 a methodical series of steps that engineers use in creating functional
products and processes
 highly iterative - parts of the process often need to be repeated many times
before another can be entered
 “a decision making process” -Accreditation Board for Engineering and
Technology
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FORMULATING PROBLEM
 one of the most critical steps in the design process where it is very important
that the problem being addressed is actually the problem that is important
to potential customers
1. Establishing Functional Requirements
Functional requirements are those which are defined to be the output as a
function of input. It usually defines the technical functionality of the system.
 process flows
 calculations
Non – functional requirements elaborates a performance characteristic of the
system.
 time required to compute output
 availability
 compliance and legal requirements
 disaster recovery
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2. Determine Constraints
When considering possible ways of achieving the objective the designer will
be constrained by many factors which are called the design constraints. With
so many different types of constraints, it’s inevitable that some of them may
conflict with one another on a particular design project.
 internal constraints
 external constraints
Internal constraints are those which the designer has some control. External
constraints are those which are fixed and invariable.
3. Set Performance Targets
Target-setting will help you implement your strategies.
DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS
 what you will get after establishing the requirements of the design, meeting
the constraints and setting performance targets
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GENERATING ALTERNATIVES
 the creative part of the design process after meeting the criteria and
constraints
 the part concerned with the generation of possible solutions for analysis,
evaluation, and selection or ways of meeting objective problems
 sources may be past experiences or new things to be tried and tested
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ITERATIVE REDESIGN
 means that the development of a detailed design from a design concept
may occupy the majority of time allocated to a new product design
project
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ANALYZING ALTERNATIVES
 is carried out by means of a feasibility study to produce the needed
feasible alternatives
 an evaluation and analysis of the potential of a proposed project to
support the process of decision making
 helps to narrow the scope of the project to identify the best scenario
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EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES
 stage where the design selection will begin; the stage after the designer
has identified a few candidate designs that meet the objectives
 usually economic performance, although factors such as safety and
environmental impact may also play a strong role