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RCOOH

+
NH3

RCOOAg
+ RCOOH
Br2 +
+ CCl4 R’OH

CH3COOH
+
PhCOOH

CH3COOH RCOOH
+ +
CH3COCl CH2N2

CH3COOH
+
CH2=C=O

MADE BY –
RAHUL BATRA
X II – B
12224
TO FIND OUT THE PERCENTAGE

COMPOSITION OF ASPIRIN IN

SOME OF THE MEDICINES USED IN

IN DAILY LIFE
I EXPRESS MY SINCERE THANKS AND DEEP THANKS OF
GRATITUDE TO RESPECTED MS.VANIKA ARORA MY
CHEMISTRY TEACHER, ADARSH PUBLIC SCHOOL, FOR HER
PRECIOUS GUIDANCE AND CONTINUOUS ENCOURAGEMENT
THROUGHOUT THE INVESTIGATION OF THE PROJECT AND
TO MY LAB ASSISTANT FOR THEIR HELP , WITHOUT WHICH
COMPLETION OF THIS PROJECT COULD NOT HAVE BEEN
POSSIBLE.

RAHUL BATRA
XII-B
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THE PROJECT “TO FIND THE %
COMPOSITION OF ASPIRIN IN SOME OF THE MEDICINES
USED IN DAILY LIFE” HAS BEEN COMPLETED BY RAHUL
BATRA OF CLASS XII-B OF MY SCHOOL DURING THE SESSION
OF 2008-2009 UNDER MY SUPERVISION

MS.VANIKA ARORA
CHEMSTRY TEACHER
ADARSH PUBLIC SCHOOL
 INTRODUCTION
 THEORY
 APPARATUS
 MATERIAL REQUIRED
 PROCEDURE
 CALCULATION AND OBSERVATION
 RESULTS
 PRECAUTIONS
 BIBILIOGRAPHY
There are two kind of pain killer namely narcotics like morphine. Also the
antipyretic drugs have direct action on the diseased part of the body.
Acetyl salicyclic acid is one such non-narcotic, anti-pyretic and is still
used for many ailments. Aspirin can be obtained in the form of tablets,
powder or combined with other drugs.

What is it used for?

* Mild to moderate pain including headache, migraine, neuralgia,


toothache, sore throat, period pain.

* Relieving aches, pains and fever associated with cold and flu.

* Relieving pain and inflammation of sprains and strains, rheumatic


pain, sciatica, backache, fibrositis, muscular aches and pains , joint
swelling and stiffness.

* To improve survival in emergency situation of a heart attack.


WARNING!
* Children under16 years of age should not take aspirin, unless on the
advice of doctor. This is because aspirin use in children has been
associated with a rare condition called Reye’s syndrome.this condition
affects the brain and liver and though extremely rare , can be fatal.
The causes of Reye’s syndrome are not fully understood ,but use of
aspirin to treat fever in children with a virus has been implicated. There
are many paracetamol and ibuprofen products not associated with Reye’s
syndrome available to treat pain and fever in this age group.For more
advice talk to your pharmacist.
* Do not exceed the recommended dse of this medicine , which will be
stated in the product packaging or information leaflet supplied with the
medicine.

SIDE EFFECTS
Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in
different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known
to be associated with this medicine. Because a side effect is stated here,it
does not mean that all people using this medicines will experience that or
any side effect .
* Indigestion(dyspepsia)
* Nausea
* Stomach or intestinal discomfort
* Sensation of ringing, or other noise in the ears(tinnitus)
* Worsening of asthma
* Allergic reactions such as skin rash, swelling of the lips, tongue and
throat (angioedema) or narrowing of the aiways(bronchospasm)
*Increased bleeding time
* Ulceratin or bleeding of the stomach or intestines
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPIRIN

FORMULA C9H8O4
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 180.16
MELTING POINT 135OC
Stable in dry air but hydrolysis to salicyclic acid and acetic acid in moist
air
pK = 3.49(250C)
One gram dissolves in 300ml water at room temperature

CHEMISTRY OF ASPIRIN
Aspirin , also known as 'acetylsalicyclic acid' .
The chemical structure of aspirin:
COOH

OCOCH3

ASPIRIN

In view of the above mentioned findings we consider it interesting and


useful to study the percentage of aspirin some medicines used in daily life.
TITRATION
The process used to ascertain the quality of a given constituent present.
(a) By adding liquid reagent of known strength.
(b) Measuring the volume necessary to convert the constituent to another form.
Case (a) : Salicyclic Acid
Case (b) : NaOH of known strength

This necessary strength is : M1V1 = M2V2


n1 n2
INDICATOR
An indicator is a substance that indicates the presence of certain substance. In
this case PHENOLPHTHALEIN indicates the presence of acidic/basic medium.

END POINT
The end point in the titration after the completion of the reaction and marked some
colour change.

MOLARITY
The number of moles of solute per litre of solution.
Burette

Pipette

Conical Flask

Clamp stand

Chemical Balance

Weight Box

Measuring Flask
 The end points of the reaction has to be noted down crefully.

 Weighing of oxalic acid for preparation of standard solution

must be done accurately.

 All apparatus should be first cleaned with soap water and

then rinsed with distilled water.

 The funnel should be removed before carrying out the

titration.

 The burette should be absolutely vertical.

 The lower meniscus should be used for taking the reading.


 Sodium Hydroxide

 Oxalic Acid

 Distilled Water

 Phenolphthalein

 Medicines containing Aspirin


 www.sbn.org.br

 www.bmj.com

 www.springerlink.com

 www.odadas.state.oh.us

 www.wipo.int
0.4 GM of Sodium Hydroxide was weight in a chemical balance and
dissolved in 100cc of distilled water to get 0.1M solution is deliquescent ,
the solution obtained above is not exactly of molarity 0.1M . Therefore this
solution was titrated against standard Oxalic acid of 0.05M. Now standard
Oxalic acid was pipette out in a conical flask and 4-5 drops of
phenolphthalein were added as the indicator . Then after taking the initial
reading of NaOH in the burette , it was let out drop by drop. The NaOH is
added till the solution in the conical flask changes from colourless to pink.
The colour change should be permanent . This was the end point of the
reaction . The same steps were repeated until three concordant readings were
obtained .

The concentration of NaOH was calculated from the formula


M1V1=M2V2

Then the tablets are taken and made into power, around three tablets of each
type were powdered and then dissolved in 100cc of water to get solution.

Now the standard NaOH solution was filled in the burette and 10cc of the
prepared solu tion of the medicine was taken (with a pipette) and put in a
clean conical flask 1-2 drops of phenolphthalein and indicator. Then after
taking the initial reading of sodium hydroxide in the burette, it was let out
drop by drop. The phenolphthalein turns pink in a basic medium . So the
NaOH is added until there is a colour change of the solution in the conical
flask from colourless to pink . The colour change indicated the end point of
the reaction (this is the point when all acid was consumed and there was one
extra drop of the base to make the colour of the phenolphthalein pink ).

The same steps were repeated until three concordant reading (of the column
of Sodium Hydroxide solution) was obtained . The first reading was done
quickly and rough result of the volume of, Sodium Hydroxide to be used
was obtained . This makes the following reading easier and faster to take.
Standardization of NaOH solution
Solution in Burette - NaOH
Solution in Pipette - Oxalic Acid
Molarity of Oxalic Acid - 0.05
Volume of Oxalic Acid - 10 mL
End Point - colourless to pink
Indicator - Phenolphthalein

S.No. Solution by Solution by Burette Final


Pipette Burette Final Reading
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 10 10 20.2 10.2

2 10 8 18 10.0

3 10 11 21 10.0

4 10 2 12 10.0

Concordant Reading (ml) 10.0


Weight of 3 tablets of Disprin 1.80gm
( dissolved ml of water )

Solution in Burette NaoH

Solution in Pipette Disprin tablet soln.

Molarity of NaOH 0.1M

Volume of Disprin sol. Used 10ml

End Point Colourless to pink

Indicator Phenolphthalein

S.No. Solution by Initial Final Volume of


Pipette Reading Reading NaOH used
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 10 11 15.1 4.1

2 10 7 11 4

3 10 8 12 4

4 10 6 10 4

Concordant Reading (ml) 4


NaOH

Disprin sol.(Acetyl Salicyclic Acid )

Z1 = 1 Z2 = 2

M1 = 0.1M M2 = ?

V1 = 4 ml V1 = 10ml

Where Z is the atomic mass

Z1 M1 V1 = Z2 M2 V2

= 1 x 0.1 x 4 = 1 x M2 x 10

# M2 = 0.040 moles/litre

Strength of aspirin in disprin = Molarity x mol.


= 0.040 x 180 gm/lt
= 7.2 gm/lt
= 0.900 gm/125 cc

% Composition = 0.900 x 100


1.80

= 50%
Weight of 3 Tablets of Anacin 1.20 gm
( dissolved ml of water )

Solution in Burette NaOH

Solution in Pipette Anacin tablet soln.

Molarity of NaOH 0.1 M

Volume of anacin sol. used 10 ml

End Point Colourless to pink

Indicator Phenolphthalein

S.No. Soluton by Initial Final Vol. of NaOH


Pipette Reading Reading used
(ml) (ml) (ml) (ml)

1 10 9 13.1 4.1

2 10 6 10.3 4.3

3 10 7 11.3 4.3

4 10 8 12.3 4.3

Concordant Reading(ml) 4.3


NaOH

Anacin Soln.(Acetyl Salicyclic Acid )

Z1 = 1 Z2 = 1

M1 = 0.1 M M2 = ?

V1 = 4.3 ml V1 = 10 ml

Z1 M1 V1 = Z2 M2 V2

=1 x 0.1 x 4.3= 1 x M2 x 10

# M2 = 0.1 x 4.3 = 0.043 moles/litre


10

Strength of Aspirin in Anacin = Molarity x mol.


= 0.043 x 180 gm/lt
= 7.74 gm/lt
= 0.96 gm/125 cc

% Composition = 0.96 x 100


1.20
= 80%
Weight of 3 tablets 1.10 gm
( dissolved ml of water )

Solution in burette NaOH

Solution in pipette Aspro tablet soln.

Molarity of NaOH 0.1 M

Volume of Disprin sol. Used 10 ml

End Point Colourless to Pink

Indicator Phenolphthalein

S.No. Solution by Initial Final Vol. of


Pipette Reading Reading NaOH used
( ml ) ( ml ) ( ml ) ( ml )

1 10 0.0 3.8 3.8

2 10 3.8 7.8 4.0

3 10 7.8 11.8 4.0

4 10 11.8 15.8 4.0

Concordant Reading ( ml ) 4.0


NaOH

Aspro Soln. ( Acetyl Salicyclic Acid )

Z1 = 1 Z2 = 1

M1 = 0.1 M M2 = ?

V1 = 4 ml V1 = 10 ml

Z1 M1 V1 = Z2 M2 V2

= 1 x 0.1 x 4 = 1 x M2 x 10

# M2 = 0.1 x 4 = 0.040 moles/litre


10

Strength of Aspirin in Aspro = Molarity x mol.


= 0.40 x 180 gm/lt
= 0.96 gm/ 125 cc

% Composition = 0.9 x 100


1.10
= 81.81 %
IT WAS FOUND THAT:

Percentage Composition of Aspirin in Disprin tablet is 50%


Percentage Composition of Aspirin in Anacin tablet is 80%
Percentage Composition of Aspirin in Aspro tablet is 81.81%

Maximum Content of Aspirin is present in Aspro


Minimum Content of Aspirin is present in Disprin

THEREFORE DISPRIN IS THE SAFEST AMONG THEM TO BE USED

FOR CURING HEADACHES ETC. ASPRO IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE