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PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM CORN

A Plant Design Report

In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

Second Semester

S.Y. 2017-2018

By:

Harvey O. Acerit

Aileen T. Mamauag

Arjanelle A. Sibal

Jonalbeth B. Soriano

May 2018
LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

May 27, 2018

Engr. CAESAR POBRE LLAPITAN

Instructor

Chemical Engineering Department

Cagayan State University

Dear Engr. Llapitan:

We are submitting herewith our plant design report entitled “Production of Eethanol from

Corn” as a chemical engineering plant design course requirement. The objective of the design

report is to perform a study on the proposed process design for the production of ethanol using

corn as the raw material.

The report shows a concise overall process flow diagram, detailed Material and Energy

balance, Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID), Qualitative and Quantitative Block

Diagrams, the process description, summary of material and energy balance calculations and

equipment design and specifications, market study, costing and product safety, health and

environmental impacts. We hope that this will merit your approval.

Very truly yours,

Harvey O. Acerit

Aileen T. Mamauag

Arjanelle A. Sibal

Jonalbeth B. Soriano

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our gratitude to the people who have given us strength and
support throughout the completion of this Chemical Engineering Plant Design report:

To Engr. Caesar Pobre Llapitan, for his constant guidance, profound insights,
constructive suggestions and motivation in the completion of this report.

To our friends and classmates for their support and encouragement when we are
apprehended by the urgency of the situation to finish thoroughly this requirement.

To our families for their invaluable support morally and financially, unconditional love,
prayers and encouragement.

Above all, to the Almighty God, our creator and provider of knowledge and strength
and to whom this design report is endowed strength and to whom this design report is endowed.

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CERTIFICATION

This Project Design hereto entitled “Production of Ethanol from Corn”, prepared and submitted

by Harvey O. Acerit, Aileen T. Mamauag, Arjanelle A. Sibal and Jonalbeth B. Soriano in

partial fulfillment of the requirements for the course Plant Design, has been examined and is

recommended for acceptance and approval.

___________________________

ENGR. CAESAR P. LLAPITAN

Instructor

APPROVAL

This Project Design is hereby approved and accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the course Plant Design.

___________________________

ENGR. MONICO U. TENEDOR

Department Chairperson

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Philippines is a major and user of renewable energy and has for years required

biodiesel and ethanol in local petroleum diesel fuel and gasoline. Bioethanol production is one

of the most potential and realistic method for producing renewable energy source. Bioethanol

is produced mainly from sugar cane and corn. The design of a sustainable process for producing

bioethanol requires a methodological approach whereby economical, environmental and social

criteria are systematically integrated from the early stages of the process design.

Chapter 1 includes the product information and product properties. Process selection

is also shown in this chapter where it includes the comparison of the alternatives that are

commonly used in the manufacturing process and the anatomy of the new process design based

from these alternatives.

In Chapter 2, the product demand and supply of ethanol are shown. The chapter shows

that demand of ethanol is increasing while the supply is not enough to cover the demand. It

also discusses the type of consumers and the major firm-users that purchase ethanol. Marketing

program, promotions and the package that will be used are also indicated.

In Chapter 3 the technical study of the ethanol plant is presented. Block flow diagrams

are indicated to show the general flow of processes. Process topology is also included in this

chapter which shows the different streams and equipment used. It also discusses the material

and energy balances accounted in the process of ethanol production. Different utility

requirements such as energy consumption and water consumption were also elaborated. This

chapter shows the process flow diagram and the Piping & Instrumentation diagram of the

processes and equipment used for the said product.

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In Chapter 4, the economic study of the ethanol plant is discussed. The plant total

capital investment s are shown in constant annual profit and changing annual profit based on

the yearly demand from market study. It also elaborates the estimated cost for each equipment,

the payback period, the return of investment and other economic aspect for putting up the plant.

Cash flow diagrams for are shown for easy understanding of its feasibility. The graphical

representations also denote that the plant will be profitable if constructed.

Chapter 5 discusses the safety and health of workers and the environment. Risk

management and government regulations involved in the process were provided.

Environmental constraints like hazard and operability studies, pollution prevention, and life

cycle analysis were also discussed in this chapter.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Letter of Transmittal....................................................................................................................i
Acknowledgement......................................................................................................................ii
Certification and Approval........................................................................................................iii
Executive Summary..................................................................................................................iv
Table of Contents......................................................................................................................vi
List of Tables..........................................................................................................................viii
List of Figures...........................................................................................................................ix

CHAPTER I ............................................................................................................................. 1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................... 1
A. Product Information ............................................................................................................... 1
B. Product Properties .................................................................................................................. 5
C. Process Selection ..................................................................................................................... 6
D. Proposed process of Ethanol Production ............................................................................. 10
E. Site Selection .......................................................................................................................... 12
1. Comparative Factors ........................................................................................................ 13
2. Site Considerations ........................................................................................................... 14
3. Site Layout ......................................................................................................................... 15
4. Plant Layout ...................................................................................................................... 16
CHAPTER II .......................................................................................................................... 17
MARKET STUDY ................................................................................................................. 17
A. GLOBAL ETHANOL MARKET ........................................................................................... 17
1. Global Past and Future Ethanol Production for Years ...................................................... 21
B. LOCAL MARKET (PHILIPPINES) ...................................................................................... 22
1. Production ............................................................................................................................. 23
2. Consumption ......................................................................................................................... 24
3. Local Past and Future Ethanol Production for Years ........................................................ 25
C. DIFFERENT CONSUMERS .................................................................................................. 25
D. PACKAGING ........................................................................................................................... 26
E.TRADE AND PRICES .............................................................................................................. 26
CHAPTER III ........................................................................................................................ 28
TECHNICAL STUDY ........................................................................................................... 28

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A. Process Description ............................................................................................................... 28
B. Material Balance Summary.................................................................................................. 35
C. Energy Balance Summary .................................................................................................... 43
D. Utility Requirement .............................................................................................................. 48
E. Equipment Summary ............................................................................................................ 49
F. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram ................................................................................. 67
CHAPTER IV......................................................................................................................... 77
COSTING AND PROJECT EVALUATION ...................................................................... 77
A. Estimation of Equipment Cost ............................................................................................. 77
B. Estimation of Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) .................................................................... 79
C. Estimation of Total Capital Investment .............................................................................. 84
D. Estimation of Production Cost ............................................................................................. 84
E. Profitability Analysis ............................................................................................................ 87
CHAPTER V .......................................................................................................................... 93
HEALTH, SAFETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT............................................................ 93
A. Risk Assessment .................................................................................................................... 93
B. Government Regulations ...................................................................................................... 98
C. HAZOP Studies ................................................................................................................... 104
D. Pollution Prevention ........................................................................................................... 106
E. Life Cycle Analysis .............................................................................................................. 106
CHAPTER VI....................................................................................................................... 110
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................... 110
REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 112
APPENDIX ........................................................................................................................... 115

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Property of Ethanol 5

Table 1.2 Comparison of the Three Alternatives Method 10

Table 2.1 Philippine Ethanol Mandate 23

Table 3.1 Grain Composition 36

Table 3.2 Dry Mill Process Solid/Liquid Percentages 36

Table 3.3 Conversion Rates as a Percentage of Theoretical Yield 37

Table 3.4 Ethanol Content of the Down Streams 37

Table 3.5 Theoretical Weight of Enzymes Needed 38

Table 3.6 Summary of Material Balance Calculations 41

Table 3.7 Legend of Streams in Figure 3.3 44

Table 3.8 Specific Heat Capacity of Streams 45

Table 3.9 Summary of Energy Balance Calculations 46

Table 3.10 Average Energy and Water Usage per Gallon Ethanol Produced 49

Table 3.11 Control Element Symbols 67

Table 3.12 Instrumentation Line Symbols 68

Table 3.13 Location of Instruments 68

Table 3.14 ISA Identification Letters 68

Table 3.15 Control Valve 69

Table 4.1 Cost Indices 77

Table 4.2 Purchased Equipment Cost 78

Table 4.3 Breakdown of Direct and Indirect Costs 80

Table 4.4 Calculated Percentage of Components and Items 81

Table 4.5 Fixed Charges 85

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Table 4.6 Summary of Total Production Cost 86

Table 4.7 Depreciation using MACRS 89

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Wet Milling Process for the Production of Ethanol 7

Figure 1.2 Dry Milling Process for the Production of Ethanol 8

Figure 1.3 Ethanol Production from Cellulosic Material 9

Figure 1.4 Anatomy of the Proposed Process 10

Figure 2.1 Global Bioethanol Market by Type 17

Figure 2.2 Global Bioethanol Market by Blend 18

Figure 2.3 Global Bioethanol Market by Application 19

Figure 2.4 Global Bioethanol Market by Region 20

Figure 2.5 World Ethanol Production/Trade 22

Figure 2.6 Fuel Ethanol Production of Philippines 24

Figure 2.7 Fuel Ethanol Consumption of Philippines 24

Figure 2.8 Fuel Use Projection 25

Figure 2.9 Global Ethanol Production, Trade and Prices (2017) 27

Figure 3.1 Block Flow Diagram 33

Figure 3.2 Process Topology 34

Figure 3.3 Qualitative Block Diagram 39

Figure 3.4 Quantitative Block Diagram 40

Figure 3.5 Temperature Profile for Ethanol and DDGS Production 44

Figure 3.6 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram 71

Figure 3.7 Control and Instrumentation of Hammer Mill 72

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Figure 3.8 Control and Instrumentation of Weigh Tank 72

Figure 3.9 Control and Instrumentation of Slurry Tank 73

Figure 3.10 Control and Instrumentation of Steam Cooker 73

Figure 3.11 Control and Instrumentation of Cook Retention Tank 74

Figure 3.12 Control and Instrumentation of Saccharification Tank 75

Figure 3.13 Control and Instrumentation of Fermentor 75

Figure 3.14 Control and Instrumentation of Beer Column 76

Figure 3.15 Control and Instrumentation of Ethanol Column 76

Figure 4.1 Cumulative Cash Flow Position Diagram 91

Figure 5.1 Inputs and Outputs of the System 106

Figure 5.2 System Boundaries 106

Figure 5.3 Raw Material Acquisition 107

Figure 5.4 Consumer Use and Final Disposal 107

Figure 5.5 Recycling Subsystem 108

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Product Information

Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a clear, flammable, colorless and slightly toxic chemical

compound with acceptable odor. It can be produced either from petrochemical

feedstock by acid-catalyzed hydration of ethane, or from biomass feedstock through

fermentation. It is also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and EtOH. On a global

scale, synthetic ethanol accounts for about 3-4% of total production while the rest is

produced from fermentation of biomass-mainly sugar crops. Ethanol has the same

chemical formula regardless of whether it is produced from starch-and sugar-based

feedstock, such as corn grain, sugarcane, or from cellulosic feedstock.

1. Technology

Ethanol or ethyl alcohol has existed since the beginning of recorded history. The

ancient Egyptians produced alcohol by naturally fermenting vegetative materials.

Also in ancient times, the Chinese discovered the art of distillation, which increases

the concentration of alcohol in fermented solutions. Ethanol was first prepared

synthetically in 1826, through the independent effort of Henry Hennel in Britain

and S.G in France. Michael Faraday prepared ethanol by the acid-catalyzed

hydration of ethylene in 1828, in a process similar to that used for industrial

synthesis of ethanol today. The face of ethanol production technology is old and

ever changing. It is widely noted that centuries ago man discovered and began

employing fermentation technology to produce alcohol/ethanol.

Feedstock for the ethanol production can be broadly classified into : (i)

Monomeric Sugars, these are substrates in which carbohydrate is present in the form

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of simple, directly fermentable six-and twelve carbo sugar molecules such as

glucose, fructose, and maltose. Such feedstock include sugarcane, sugar beets, fruit

(fresh or dried), citrus molasses, and cane sorghum. (ii) Starch, contain slightly

complex carbohydrates and need to be enzymatically processed to yield simple

sugars. Examples of these are corn, grain sorghum, barley, and wheat and

root/tubular crops such as cassava, potatoes, cacti and arrowroot. (iii) Cellulosic

Biomass, lignocellulosic biomass such as that obtained from forest and agricultural

residues, also serves as feedstock for ethanol production.

2. Worldwide production of ethanol

Bioethanol and biodiesel are the most promising clean and alternative

renewable fuels. These can be used in the form of a gasoline/ diesel blend.

Bioethanol is currently produced mainly from corn (United States) and sugarcane

in Brazil. The United States and Brazil are the two major country in producing

ethanol. There is also growing interest in developing commercially viable cellulose

to ethanol technology. The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel source is presently

a worldwide topic of discussion and research. Through decades of research and

development, the production of fuel ethanol has been developing throughout the

world. Conventional processes have been maximized while advances continue to

be made in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. (Onuki; 2008)

3. Local production

The Philippines, Biofuels Act of 2006 (R.A. 9367) provides the legal basis for

the production in the country. Specifically for the Philippine sugar industry, ethanol

production for fuel will expand the market for sugar. The Republic Law No. 9367

enforces the blending of Bio-ethanol to Automobile Fuels. There are four feedstock

used in the production of ethanol in the country namely sugarcane, molasses,

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cassava and sweet potato but sugarcane and molasses are the most currently used

as ethanol feedstock in the country. (Survey; 2014)

4. Uses and Application of Ethanol

a. Medical

i. As an Antiseptic

Ethanol is used in medical wipes and in most common antibacterial hand

sanitizer gels.

ii. As an Antitussive agent

Ethanol is also widely used, clinically and over the counter, as an

antitussive agent.

iii. As an Antidote

Ethanol may be administered as an antidote to methanol poisoning.

b. Recreational

Ethanol is commonly consumed as a recreational drug, especially while

socializing, due to its psychoactive effects.

c. Fuel

i. Engine Fuel

The largest single use of ethanol is as an engine fuel and fuel additive.

A percentage of ethanol is combined with gasoline. This is beneficial

because the ethanol:

 decreases the fuel's cost

 increases the fuel's octane rating

 decreases gasoline's harmful emissions

Any amount of ethanol can be combined with gasoline, but the most

common blends are E10 and E85 in US and E25 in Brazil. More than 20%

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of Brazilian cars are able to use 100% ethanol as fuel, which includes

ethanol-only engines and flex-fuel engines. Flex-fuel engines in Brazil are

able to work with all ethanol, all gasoline or any mixture of both. In the US

flex-fuel vehicles can run on 0% to 85% ethanol (15% gasoline) since higher

ethanol blends are not yet allowed or efficient.

ii. Rocket Fuel

Ethanol was commonly used as fuel in early bipropellant rocket (liquid

propelled) vehicles, in conjunction with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen.

The German V-2 rocket of World War II, credited with beginning the space

age, used ethanol, mixed with 25% of water to reduce the combustion

chamber temperature. The V-2's design team helped develop U.S. rockets

following World War II, including the ethanol-fueled Redstone rocket

which launched the first U.S. satellite.

iii. Fuel Cells

Commercial fuel cells operate on reformed natural gas, hydrogen or

methanol. Ethanol is an attractive alternative due to its wide availability,

low cost, high purity and low toxicity.

iv. Household Heating

Ethanol fuels flue-less, real flame fireplaces. It provides almost the same

visual benefits of a real flame log or coal fire without the need to vent the

fumes via a flue as ethanol produces very little hazardous carbon monoxide,

and little or no noticeable scent. An additional benefit is that, unlike a flue

based fireplace, 100% of the heat energy produced enters the room. This

serves to offset some of the heat loss from an external air vent, as well as

offset the relatively high cost of the fuel compared to other forms of heating.

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d. Feedstock

Ethanol is an important industrial ingredient. It has widespread use as a

precursor for other organic compounds such as ethyl halides, ethyl esters,

diethyl ether, acetic acid, and ethyl amines.

e. Solvent

Ethanol is miscible with water and is a good general purpose solvent. It is

found in paints, tinctures, markers, and personal care products such as

mouthwashes, perfumes and deodorants.

B. Product Properties

Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol; can be used as fuel alcohol, drinking alcohol,

and grain alcohol. The common type of ethanol is the one found in alcoholic beverages.

It is also used as fuel for cars and often called alcohol or spirit. A fuel’s octane rating

is the measure of its ability to resist “knocking” or “pinging”. Ethanol has an octane

rating of 113 which offers more engine knock resistance at a lower cost than any other

gasoline additive on the planet. Ethanol is the lowest-cost octane source. Table 1 shows

the different property of ethanol.

Table 1.1 Property of ethanol

Ethanol

Chemical Formula C2H6O


Molar Mass 46.07 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 0.789 g/cc
Melting Point −114 °C
Boiling Point 78.37 °C

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Flash point 14 ˚C
Other names Absolute alcohol/ Alcohol
Cologne spirit, Drinking alcohol
Ethane monoxide
Ethylic alcohol, EtOH
Ethyl alcohol
Ethyl hydrate
Ethyl hydroxide
Hydroxyethane
Methylcarbinol

C. Process Selection

The ethanol production process varies with the feedstock types. Depending on the

substrate complexity, various pretreatment methods are needed. For the production

from sugarcane, sugar beets and sorghum stalks, all of which contain simple sugars

such as glucose and sucrose, no pretreatment is needed except size reduction and

pressing. For starchy such as corn, sorghum and cassava, grinding or milling followed

by enzyme hydrolysis is needed to be obtain fermentable sugar. Lignocellulosic

biomass requires more comprehensive physical and chemical pretreatment to

enzymatic hydrolysis to release simple sugars.

1. Different processes use for the production of Ethanol

a. Wet milling process

The first step in the wet milling process is steeping, where the corn kernel is

placed in an aqueous solution of 0.1–0.2% SO2 and allowed to cook at 48–52◦C

for 30–50 hours. This facilitates downstream fractionation by hydrolyzing

disulfide bonds in proteins so that they are more soluble. The corn is then ground

in its wet state and oil, fiber, and gluten are separated from the starch for further

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processing into value-added co-products. During saccharification, enzymes

break down the starch into glucose. In the fermentation step, yeast grown in

seed tanks is added to the corn mash to ferment the simple sugars (glucose) to

ethanol. Finally, ethanol is separated from the water by means of distillation and

dehydration. (Chaudhary; 2012).

Gluten
Corn Fiber
(Gluten Meal)
(Gluten Feed)

Steeping
Starch/Gluten
Centrifugation
Separation

Starch
Grinding
Alpha-amylase/ Saccharification
Gluco-amylase

Germ (oil)

Yeast Fermentation
Germ Separation

Distillation

200 proof
Dehydration
Ethanol

Figure 1.1 Wet milling process for the production of ethanol

b. Dry Milling process

In a dry mill, cleaned corn is first ground in hammer mills, which breaks the

tough outer coating of the seed and grinds the corn into a fine powder. During

the liquefaction process, water and enzymes are added to the ground corn in

order to create a slurry. The gelatinized starch feedstock is easier to hydrolyze

into monomeric sugars than uncooked corn, although processes that avoid the

cooking step are being considered for ethanol plants. Saccharification and

fermentation are similar to the processes performed in a wet mill. Ethanol is

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obtained from the water slurry via a number of complex steps including

distillation and dehydration. A co-product of the dry milling process, heavy

stillage, leaves the bottom of the first distillation column. The heavy stillage is

centrifuged to remove the majority of the solids. The thin stillage is partly

recycled to the liquefaction step. The centrifuged solids are referred to as wet

cake or wet distiller’ grain (35-40% solids). These are further dried to give

DDGS. (Chaudhary; 2012)

Ethanol

Gluco-amylase Dehydration
Alpha-amylase,
Corn Yeast
water

Milling Liquefaction Saccharification Fermentation Distillation

Heavy
Stillage

Separation Centrifugation
Backset Thin Stillage
Wet cake

Dryer
Syrup

Dried Distiller's
Grain with
Solubles(DDGS)

Figure 1.2 Dry milling process for the production of ethanol

c. Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass

The difficulties of using cellulosic materials are there poor porosity, high

crystallinity, and lignin contents. Various kinds of pretreatment techniques have

been investigated, such as steam, acid and alkali treatments. In the ethanol

production from cellulosic material, the feedstock is delivered to the feed

handling area for storage and size reduction. From there, the biomass is

8
conveyed to pretreatment and conditioning. Pretreatment is used to reduce the

crystallinity of cellulose and disrupt the heterogeneous structure of cellulosic

material and in this process detoxification is applied. Enzymatic hydrolysis (or

saccharification) coupled with co-fermentation of the detoxified hydrolyzate

slurry is carried out in a continuous hydrolysis trank and anaerobic fermentation

tanks in series. After several days of saccharification and fermentation, most

cellulose will have been converted to ethanol. Product recovery is present after

fermentation which involves distilling the beer to separate the ethanol from the

water and residual solids. (Farid;2008)

Ammonia
Steam Glucose Enzyme
Acid Production
Nutrients

Cellulase Enzymatic
Feedstock Feed chips Pretreatment/
Hydrolyzate Hydrolysis and
Handling Conditioning
Nutrients Fermentation

Recycle
Evaporation Water
Vent Beer Vent
Flash
Condensate

Distillation
Wastewater
Nutrients Steam Dehydration
Treatment
Solids Separation

Stillage
Lignin Ethanol
Product

Fuel Burner/Boiler Steam


Anaerobic Turbogenerator
Electricity Storage
iogas

Figure 1.3 Ethanol production from Cellulosic material

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Table 1.2 Comparison of the tree alternatives method
Process Advantage Disadvantage
Wet milling process  More versatile  Higher cost of
construction and
operation

Dry milling process  More efficient  A need of


 A variety of high- sophisticated
valued coproducts marketing to dispose
are produced. of coproduct
Process using cellulosic  Greater ethanol  Conversion of
material production cellulosic biomass to
ethanol is more
difficult

D. Proposed process of Ethanol Production

1. Anatomy of the process

The basic component of a typical chemical process of the ethanol production is

shown in the figure below. Each block represents a stage in the overall process a

product from the raw materials wherein the raw material used in the process is corn

kernel. The figure represents a generalized process; not all the stages will be needed

for any particular process and the complexity of each stage will depend on the nature

of the process.
Product Purification Product Sales
Raw Material Raw Material Product Separation Storage
Reaction
Storage Preparation
Dehydration

Feedstock Product
Milling Liquefication Saccharification Fermentation Distillation Distribution
Storage Storage
Centrifugation
Drying
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 6
Stage 5
Figure 1.4 Anatomy of the proposed process

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a. Stage 1. Raw Material Storage

Corn kernels are stored in a storage room ready for the feed preparation

b. Stage 2. Feed Preparation

The first process for the feed preparation involves milling wherein the size

reduction of corn kernels will happen. The feed preparation also involves

liquefaction and saccharification, conversion of starch to dextrin to glucose

happens respectively.

c. Stage 3. Reaction

Fermenter is the reactor present in the process which is the heart of the

process. Fermentation is the most important part in the process.

d. Stage 4. Product Separation

The product and by-product are separated using distillation. Ethanol is

delivered to a molecular sieve for the next stage which is dehydration and a

stillage is also delivered to a centrifuge ready for the next stage to produce a by-

product of distillers’ dried grain

e. Stage 5. Product Purification

The main product ethanol will undergo dehydration to produce a 99-100 %

ethanol. Centrifuge is used to purify the whole stillage removing the liquid

phase of the stillage which will be ready for drying to produce a dried distillers’

grain.

f. Stage 6. Product Storage

The ethanol is the main product in the process which will be stored in tanks.

The distillers’ dried grain is the by-product in the process. Both products will

be stored in their respective storage ready for the distribution.

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Below shows the general conversion of starch and its conversion rates to ethanol.

A detailed process of ethanol production from corn will be discuss in the chapter 2 of

this paper.

alpha- gluco- Yeast


amylase amylase
Starch
(C6 H10 O5 )n Dextrin Glucose Ethanol
+ 98% (C6 H12 O6 )10 99% (C6 H12 O6 ) 94% 2(C2H5OH)
Water (H2 O)

E. Site Selection

Determining the possible site location is very vital in starting an ethanol plant.

For this purpose, different considerations need to be reviewed to optimize the location

of the plant. The accessibility of the feedstock for ethanol plant is the most important

factor to be considered because it is beneficial to the operational phase of the plant.

Ilagan City also known as the “Corn Capital of the Philippines” is the most

promising place in building the ethanol plant. The city contributes for the 21% annual

national yellow corn production in Isabela which is cited as the top grain producer of

the Philippines, achieving high production rates for corn (almost 16% of the national

Production. The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) shows that 21.68% share of the

total agricultural output of the Cagayan Valley is corn.

Based on the information, the availability of the feedstock is not a problem in

Isabela, hence, a site within or near the region is considered as a practical choice

considering the availability of the feedstocks.

Ilagan City is selected as a probable area for building up ethanol production

plant because of the capacity of the city in producing corn.

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1. Comparative Factors

 Raw Material Supply

Despite natural calamities such as floods and drought, Isabela continues its lead in corn

production and remains as the Philippine’s top corn producing province. In addition, part of

the development plans of the province is to concentrate on high value commercial crops,

including fruits and vegetables, and identify the niche markets. Value-added production

commands higher prices for raw agricultural products. By applying this development strategy,

it opens more agribusiness possibilities and other investment areas as well.

As stated in the Official page of Isabela, it contributes 21% of the annual national yellow corn

production in the Philippines. So, the demand for the feedstocks is not a major problem in

putting the ethanol plant in Ilagan City, Isabela.

 Transportation

For travel between cities and towns, there are buses and van shuttles that ply the major

highways. For short trips around towns, the tricycle is the main mode of transport. But if you’re

traveling in a group, it’s really more convenient to have your own private vehicle for getting

around. Getting to some of the eco-tourism sites requires long land travel on rough roads where

jeeps and trucks are the main mode of transport.

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Going to Calamagui 2nd will take 41 minutes with reference to the center of Ilagan City, Isabela.

Therefore, the proximity of road and estimated cost for transportation is less.

 Availability of Labor

In the 2015 census, Ilagan City has a population of 1,593,566. The labor force participation

rate based on 2018 was found to be 65.3 with an employment rate of 95.8% in whole Region

2.

Therefore, putting up ethanol plant in Ilagan City, Isabela will result in more available works

in the city which is advantageous to residence since the employment rate is very high.

 Utilities

The power service in the city is mainly supplied by Isabela II Electric Cooperative (ISELCO

II). Water and power supply for the municipality has yet to be improved. The level III

waterworks within the urban area has served only 30 % of the existing households. Power

outages should be minimized to support the socio-economic activities with the locality that

would redound to better service delivery from these vital economic boosters.

 Telecommunication

The site has a better signal quality needed for communication purposes. The telephone and

internet services are provided by Philippines Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT). For

the cellular phone services, Globe Telecom and Smart Communications are in charge.

2. Site Considerations

Calamagui 2nd is a barangay in the city of Ilagan, in the province of Isabela. Its population as

determined by the 2015 Census was 3,109. This represented 2.14% of the total population of

Ilagan. It is situated at approximately 17.1214, 121.8659, in the island of Luzon. Elevation at

these coordinates is estimated at 54.6 meters or 179.1 feet above mean sea level. The land is

14
mainly composed of residential areas and high plateaus. The Cagayan River runs through the

western portion of the city.

3. Site Layout

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4. Plant Layout

Maintenance
Canteen
Office Storage Facility
Administration Parking
Building Area

House
Guard
Parking Area
Clinic
Main Gate
Cagayan River

Control
Room

Laboratory
Parking
Production Area Area for
Trucks

Co-generation
Area

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CHAPTER II

MARKET STUDY

A market study (also known as market analysis, market assessment, market sounding,

market research, etc.) allows us to determine how suitable a particular market is for your

industry. It can be used to evaluate your current, or look at new markets. Market study helps

us to identify the attractiveness of a market and also detects current and future risks of operating

in that location. Market study provides a holistic, or well-rounded picture of the markets you

are interested in operating in.

A. GLOBAL ETHANOL MARKET

The global bioethanol market was valued at US$57,650 million in 2017 and is expected

to register a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR ) of over 5%.

i. BY TYPE

Figure 2.1 Global Bioethanol Market by Type

On the basis of type segmentation, corn-based bioethanol segment is expected to

contribute major revenue share and expected to maintain its dominance over the forecast

17
period. Corn-based bioethanol witness highest CAGR over 5.0%, owing North America and

Latin America provides subsidies for corn production to promote corn production.

ii. By Blend

Figure 2.2 Global Bioethanol Market by Blend

On the basis of blend segmentation, E15 to E70 segment is estimated to contribute

major revenue share and expected to maintain its dominance over the forecast period. US

government passed a regulation under Energy Independence and Security Act, which mandates

consumption of renewable fuels in transportation sector. E70 blend is used as winter blend in

US and Sweden as transportation fuel during cold weather to avoid starting problems of

vehicles. While, the Brazilian government made mandated of blending ethanol with gasoline

between 10% to 22%.

18
iii. By Application

Figure 2.3 Global Bioethanol Market by Application

Among all the application segments, transportation segment is expected to register

highest CAGR over 5.5%. Bioethanol is used to blend the petrol that is used fuel in

transportation. Ethanol burns clean and protects the engines, and often extends engine

maintenance, boosting octane, and release low greenhouse gas emissions compared to pure

gasoline.

Government initiatives to promote the use of bioethanol as fuel in transportation is

expected to fuel the market growth over the forecast period. Bioethanol for Sustainable

Transport (BEST) was a four-year plan started by European Union for promoting bioethanol

as vehicle fuel in Europe.

19
iv. By Region

Figure 2.4 Global Bioethanol Market by Region

North America market is expected to dominate the global bioethanol market, and it

accounts for largest market revenue over US$ 24,500 million in 2017 as compared to that of

markets in other regions. Dominance by North America market is expected to continue over

the forecast period with comparatively higher CAGR than that of other regions, owing to higher

demand among consumers in countries in the region. Presence of leading bioethanol

manufacturers in this region and increasing consumers of bioethanol in this region is expected

to fuel the market growth over the forecast period. North America is the largest producer and

consumer of bioethanol.

In 2017, Latin America accounted for the second largest revenue share contribution to

the global bioethanol market. Revenue from the bioethanol market in Brazil is expected to

expand significantly over the forecast period, owing to increasing number of industries engaged

in ethanol manufacturing, and abundant availability of sugarcane in the country.

Brazil is a major exporter of bioethanol, which is further expected to drive market

growth. According to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

20
(ECLAC), Brazil is the second largest producer of bioethanol. Most of the vehicles in Brazil

are ran on ethanol fuel. Bioethanol accounts about 40% of the fuel consumed in the country.

The Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing region in the global bioethanol

market. China has been one of the largest importers of bioethanol in the Asia Pacific region

and is expected to continue this trend over the forecast period. This can be attributed to rapidly

growing transportation industry and rising demand for bioethanol for alcoholic beverages in

the country.

1. Global Past and Future Ethanol Production for Years

Coarse grains and sugarcane will remain the dominant ethanol feedstock. Molasses use

in ethanol production will increase in India. Vegetable oil continues as the feedstock of choice

in biodiesel production. Biodiesel production based on non-agricultural feedstock and in

particular waste oil and tallow will develop in the European Union and the United States.

Lignocellulosic biomass based ethanol is projected to account for less than 1% of world ethanol

production by 2025.

Biofuel production is expected to consume 10.4% and 12% of global coarse grains and

vegetable oil production respectively in 2025. By 2025, 22% of global sugarcane production

should be used to produce ethanol.

21
Figure 2.5 World Ethanol Production/Trade (2008-2025)

Source: OECD/FAO (2016), “OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook”, OECD Agriculture

statistics (database)

B. LOCAL MARKET (PHILIPPINES)

The Philippines was the first country in Southeast Asia to enact biofuels legislation.

The blend mandate was gradually increased in accordance with the Biofuels Act 2007, ending

with a 10 percent ethanol requirement in August 2011, which remains the current mandate. In

table 2.1, the aspirational goals to raise ethanol mandate are based on the National Renewable

Energy Program of the Philippine Energy Plan 2012-2030 to meet the government’s Energy

Reform Agenda.

22
Table 2.1 Philippine Ethanol Mandate

PHILIPPINE ETHANOL MANDATE

Date Signed Published Effective Remarks

R.A. 9367 1/12/2007 1/22/2007 2/06/2007

Ethanol

- 5% blend 2/06/2009 - By volume

- 10% 8/06/2011 - Implementation of 10%

blend blend

Target

Blend 2012 - - All oil companies

- 10% (full) onwards - Projected

- 20% 2020 - Projected

- 85% 2025

1. Production

In 2016, fuel ethanol production for the Philippines was 4 thousand barrels per day. Fuel

ethanol production of the Philippines increased from 0 thousand barrels per day in 1996 to 4

thousand barrels per day in 2016 growing at an average rate of 16.60%.

23
Figure 2.6 Fuel Ethanol Production of Philippines

2. Consumption

In 2016, fuel ethanol consumption for the Philippines was 8.4 thousand barrels per day.

Fuel ethanol consumption of Philippines increased from 0 thousand barrels per day in 1997 to

8.4 thousand barrels per day in 2016 growing at an average annual rate of 201.07%.

Figure 2.7 Fuel Ethanol Consumption of Philippines

24
3. Local Past and Future Ethanol Production for Years

In a report by USDA Foreign Agricultural Services, the continued growth of Philippine

economy and its expanding population are expected to drive fuel demand through 2026.

Starting from 2016, fuel demand projections are based on Post’s estimates with the assumption

of five percent demand growth annually.

Figure 2.8 Fuel Use Projection

(Source: USDA Foreign Agricultural Service GAIN Report: Philippine Biofuels Situation

and Outlook 2016)

C. DIFFERENT CONSUMERS

Bioethanol can be used as a transportation fuel, fuel for power generation, feedstock in

chemical industry, fuel for fuel cells and in cogeneration systems, in cosmetics industry and in

manufacturing processes owing to its clean burning and easy availability. Rapid growth in the

transport and automotive sector all over the globe is likely to propel the consumption for these

fuels over the next seven years. Fluctuating oil prices and rising dependence on conventional

sources will drive the bioethanol market growth over the forecast period. Moreover, increasing

25
consumption of power is likely to spur the use of ethanol in power plants and chemical industry.

In addition, government and environmental regulations from European Union and the U.S. will

surge the market growth over the projected period. Rapidly growing cosmetic industry is

further predicted to propel the growth in the near future. Furthermore, it can be blended with

petrol or diesel which makes it environment friendly and improves the efficiency of the fuel

owing to high octane value, thus leading to energy security. Blending ethanol with conventional

fuel does not require change of vehicle engines which will spur the demand for bioethanol as

a fuel over the projected period. Encouraging the use of this renewable resource is likely to

impact the agricultural sector and rural economy on account of higher demand for fuel crops.

D. PACKAGING

Ethanol can be packaged in small or large amount. Since ethanol is volatile, the

container should be closed tight. The containers should be properly labelled. Labels shall

contain the following information like symbol of flammable, statement of necessary

precautions, etc. The container is recyclable and can be refilled by sales outlet nearby.

E.TRADE AND PRICES

Global trade in biofuels relative to production remains modest; only about one-tenth of

total biofuel production by volume is traded internationally. Over the past years, ethanol price

per liter has been unstable but is remarkably increasing through the years. The price of ethanol

is usually set at 25% to 30% less than gasoline because of its lower thermal capacity. However,

the price gap is narrowing down given the expected continuing increase in the price of gasoline

and as well as ethanol economy. Government incentives in the form of tax subsidies also play

an important role in reducing the price of bioethanol.

26
Figure 2.9 Global Ethanol Production, Trade and Prices, with projections to 2017

27
CHAPTER III

TECHNICAL STUDY

A. Process Description

1. Reactor Feed Preparation

a. Cleaning

The corn kernels must be cleaned prior to processing. The incoming stream of

corn kernels, as received, is typically passed through a screener or scalper or

multiple screeners or scalpers arranged to remove oversized materials (e.g., corn

cobs, husks, sticks) and smaller materials. The unwanted materials tend to account

for a very small portion of the incoming corn stream. The corn may also pass

through a destoner, which separates objects based on weight and can be used to

remove heavier objects (e.g., stones, glass) from the process stream. During the

cleaning process, pressurized air may be used to remove chaff and dust. In addition,

the process stream will usually pass through a magnetic separator to remove any

tramp metal that may be remaining.

b. Milling

Once the corn has been cleaned, the whole kernels are conveyed to a milling

operation typically a hammer mill or impact mill. A kernel of corn consists of a

fiber shell which contains starch, protein, gluten and germ. The shell needs to be

broken and the starch disrupted to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis during cooking.

This can be accomplished using a hammer or roller mill (with screens between 3.2

to 4.0 mm) to grind the corn into a fine meal.

28
c. Liquefaction

Corn Starch is composed of glucose units joined through a linkage in chains by

a 1-4 and in branches by a 1-6 glycosidic bonds. The linear starch molecules are

called amulose, whereas the branched on is called amylopectin. The whole milled

grain is slurried with water, and a thermo-stable enzyme a-amylase is added which

breakdown the starch polymer (hydrolyze a 1-4 bond) and produce soluble dextrin.

The most effective use of alpha-amylase occurs when the pH of the slurry is

between 6.0 and 6.5, and the pH is kept in this range from the time the alpha-

amylase is added until liquefaction is complete. Anhydrous ammonia and various

other bases (e.g. lime) may be added if the pH falls below the optimal range,

whereas sulfuric acid might be added if the pH starts to exceed the optimal range.

Liquefaction is accomplished using jet-cookers that inject steam into the corn flour

slurry to cook it at temperatures above 100°C (212°F). The heat help reduce the

levels of bacteria in the mash by 90%.

Reaction:
 amylase
(C6 H10O5 ) n  H 2 O a (C6 H12O6 )10
d. Saccharification

After liquefaction, the slurry, now called “corn mash,” is cooled to

approximately 30°C (86°F), and a second enzyme (glucoamylase) is added.

Glucoamylase breaks down the dextrins into glucose, which completes the

breakdown of the starch into simple sugars. The most effective use of glucoamylase

occurs when the solution pH is between 4.0 and 5.5, which is considerably lower

than the pH in the liquefaction process. Therefore, the solution pH must be lowered

to achieve optimal enzymatic activity. The pH reduction at this stage is typically

29
accomplished by blending in a lower pH stillage solution generated later in the

process or by adding sulfuric acid.

Reaction:

C6 H12O6 10 gamylase


10C6 H12O6

2. Reactor

a. Fermentation

Yeast is added to the mash to ferment the sugars. During this process, the yeast

eat the sugars, and in the process produces heat, ethanol and carbon dioxide. The

whole process requires 48-72 hours and the liquid phase of the beer is typically 8 to

12 percent ethanol by weight. CO2 released can be captured and sold for the use in

carbonating soft drinks, dry ice and some beverages industries. Unlike the upstream

processes (milling, liquefaction, saccharification) that operate continuously,

fermentation typically operates as a batch process. Most facilities have numerous

tanks dedicated to fermentation and they typically operate in groups of three: while

one tank is being filled, another is fermenting, and the third is emptying and made

ready for filling. With this arrangement, upstream production never needs to halt

between batches. Larger facilities can have multiple groupings of three tanks.

Reaction:

C6 H12O6  2C2 H 5OH  CO2


yeast

3. Separator

a. Distillation

The beer mixture is pumped into a beer column where the purified ethanol is

collected from the vapor portion of columns and spent solids (stillage) from the

30
bottom. The ethanol stream is further purified in an ethanol column. The columns

utilize the differences in the boiling points of ethanol (78oC) and water (100oC) as

a milestone to boil off and separate the ethanol. By the time the product stream is

ready to leave the distillation columns, it contains about 95% ethanol by volume

(190-proof).

b. Dehydration

The ethanol still contains about 5% water. Alcohol and water form an azeotrope

at this point and cannot be separated further. To carry out this operation, it is passed

through a molecular sieve to physically separate the remaining water from the

ethanol. The molecular sieve is a bed of specialized beads that selectively adsorb

water based on molecule size. The beads are commonly made from zeolite, a type

of aluminosilicate. Similar to fermentation tanks, facilities typically operate

multiple molecular sieves so that when one sieve needs to be regenerated another is

always available to handle the ethanol stream. This step produces 99-100% ethanol.

c. Centrifugation

The stillage collected from the beer column contains 66% liquid. Centrifuge is

used to separate the liquid and solid phase of the whole stillage. The Wet Distillers’

Grain with Solubles or WDGS (40% moisture) is transported into a dryer using a

conveyor while the thin stillage (93% moisture) is first sent to an evaporator. Some

of the thin stillage is routed back to the slurry tank as a makeup water.

d. Evaporation

The evaporator concentrates the thin stillage from 93% to 40% moisture

content. The feed is heated up to 105oC and the water evaporated can be utilize in

the cooker reducing the amount of heat and fresh water required in the upstream.

31
e. Dryer

WDGS is often dried to 10-12 percent moisture. This can be done in a rotary

drum dryer or in a ring dryer to form dried distillers’ grain with solubles (DDGS).

Dryer temperatures can vary considerably (from 220 oF to 380oF) depending on

many factors, such as the type of dryer used, the dryer residence time and feed rate,

and the target moisture content.

32
Steam
Thin Stillage
Fresh water Acid Gluco-amylase Yeast Water
CO2

Corn Hammer Milled Slurry Mash Saccharification Mash CO2


Cooker Fermentors CO2
Kernels Mill Grains Tank Slurry (Dextrin) Tank (Glucose) Scrubber

Alpha-amylase
Waste Water
Ammonia
Beer
Lime
EthanolWater
Wet Ethanol
Azeotropic Ethanol

Dehydrated Molecular Ethanol Beer


Ethanol Sieve Column Column

Process Water
Stillage
Steam

Evaporator Centrifuge
Thin Stillage

Conc.Thin Stillage Wet Distillers Grain


with Soluble (WDGS)
Water
Distillers' Grain
with Soluble
Dryer
Dried Distillers Grain
with Soluble (DDGS)

Figure 3.1 Block Flow Diagram

33
M-101 T-101 T-102 R-101 H-101 T-103 E-101 R-102 E-102 R-103 G-101 N-101
Hammer Weigh Slurry Steam Steam Cook Mash Saccharification Mash Fermentors Degasser Beer Degas
Mill Tank Tank Cooker Heater Retention Tank Pre-Cooler Tank Post-Cooler Vent Condenser

S-101 T-104 T-105 T-106 T-107 E-103 E-104 E-105 C-101 T-108 V-101 D-101
CO2 Beer Ethanol Adsorption Adsorption Anhydrous Ethanol Water Stillage Centrifuge Thin Stillage Stillage DGS
Scrubber Column Column Column 1 Column 2 Ethanol Cooler Cooler Cooler Tank Evaporator Dryer
G-AMYLASE
8
A-AMYLASE
4
WATER
3
CORN
1
H-101
2 M-101
R-102
E-101
6
5 7
R-101
T-101 T-103
T-102 E-102
9
WATER CO2
14 15
YEAST WASTE WATER
10 16
S-101
E-103
ETHANOL
21
13

18 19
R-103
N-101 T-104 T-105 T-106 T-107

11
12 17

G-101
E-105
22

Figure 3.2 Process Topology E-104


23 PROCESS WATER
20
26

24
MOISTURE
V-101
28
34 T-108 27
D-101 DDGS
C-101 29
25
B. Material Balance Summary

For each of the block shown in the block flow diagram, the material balance is

written as:

Material in  Material out

or
Mi  Mo

m n
or M
j 1
i, j   M o ,k
k 1

Where j represents the type of material inputs with a total of m inputs, and k

represents the type of material outputs with a total of n outputs.

The plant is assumed to produce a 100 000 kg/day of 99.5% ethanol and DDGS

as a co-product in a dry mill process.

In the dry mill ethanol process, the whole grain is processed, and the residual

components are separated at the end of the process. The ethanol production facility

run continuously with scheduled shut down periods for maintenance.

The basic steps include milling, cooking, liquefaction, saccharification,

fermentation, distillation/dehydration, centrifugation, evaporation, and drying. If

the ethanol plant is taken as a single system, the inputs are corn and water plus

energy, while the outputs are ethanol, solids (by‐products), wastewater, and CO2.

Degrees of freedom analysis are used when the number of unknowns and

independent equations have been determined. It is an analysis whether a problem is

solvable or not.

The following tables of properties are used for the material balance calculations:

the grain composition, the solid/liquid percentage of every streams, the assume

ethanol content in the downstream, the theoretical conversion rates of the three main

reactions as well as the needed weight of enzymes.

35
Table 3.1 Grain Composition
Grain Percent Average (Dry matter)
Carbohydrates (Total) 84.1
Starch 72.0
Fiber (NDF) 9.5
Simple Sugars 2.6
Protein 9.5
Oil 4.3
Minerals 1.4
Others 0.7
TOTAL 100

The production starts with corn as input. Table 3.1 lists the composition of corn.

It is used mainly in the upstream material balance calculations especially

component balances.

Table 3.2 Dry Mill Process Solid/Liquid Percentages


Product Liquid (w/w%) Solids (w/w%)
Slurry 67.0 33.0
Mash 77.8 22.2
Beer 89.0 11.0
Whole Stillage 66.0 34.0
Thin Stillage 93.0 7.0
WDGS 40.0 60.0
DDGS 89.0 11.0

Table 3.2 is used along with the conversion rates in Table 3.3 to determine the

theoretical yield of co-products from grain and the water needed in the production.

36
Table 3.3 Conversion Rates as a Percentage of Theoretical Yield
Starch to Dextrin Conversion : 98.0%
 amylase
(C6 H10O5 ) n  H 2 O a (C6 H12O6 )10
Dextrin to Glucose Conversion: 99.0%

C6 H12O6 10 gamylase


10C6 H12O6
Starch 
 Glu cos e 97.0%
Glucose to Ethanol Conversion: 94.0%

C6 H12O6  2C2 H 5OH  CO2


yeast

Starch 
 Ethanol 91.2%

Ethanol and CO2 yields were calculated as function of the corn composition and

conversion rates. The DDGS came from starch, dextrin and glucose that was not

converted to alcohol in the fermentation process.

Table 3.4 Ethanol Content of the Down streams


Streams Weight Percent Ethanol
Beer 8.9
Wet Ethanol 60.0
Process Water 0.05
Azeotropic Ethanol 95.0
Ethanol Water (Recycle) 73.0
Dehydrated Ethanol 99.5

Aside from the main raw materials needed in the plant, the addition of enzymes

greatly contributes to the production process. Table 3.4 shows the corresponding

amount of enzymes needed for the three main reactions of the process.

37
Table 3.5 Theoretical Weight of Enzymes Needed in the Dry Mill Process
Estimated Weight
weight needed
Enzymes Unit Process needed
(kg)
(kg/kg corn)
A-Amylase Liquefaction 0.000811 per kg starch 0.000582
G-Amylase Saccahrification 0.000854 per kg dextrin 0.000680
Yeast Fermentation 0.000244 per kg glucose 0.000194

38
Steam
Fresh water Thin Stillage
605991.93 Gluco-amylase Yeast Water
kg/day
CO2
Milled Mash Mash
Corn Kernels Slurry Cooker Saccharification
Hammer Mill Grains Slurry Tank (Dextrin) (Glucose) Fermentors CO2 Scrubber
210 o C, 1atm Tank CO2
40 o C, 1atm 80 o C, 1atm 35 o C, 1atm 30 o C, 1atm
68 o C, 1atm

Waste Water
Beer
Alpha-amylase
Ethanol Water
Wet Ethanol
Azeotropic Ethanol
Dehydrated
Ethanol Molecular Ethanol Column Beer Column
Sieves 80 o C, 1atm 80 o C, 1atm
80 o C, 1atm
Process Water
Stillage

Steam

Evaporator Centrifuge
105 o C, 1atm Thin Stillage 70 o C, 1atm

Conc.Thin Stillage Wet Distillers' Grain


with Soluble (WDGS)
Water
Distillers' Grain with
Soluble Dryer
150 o C, 1atm
Dried Distillers' Grain
with Soluble (DDGS)

Figure 3.3 Qualitative Block Diagram

39
Steam
Fresh water Thin Stillage
605991.93 Gluco-amylase Yeast Water
208. 41 kg/day 58.95 kg/day 111073.00
kg/day
CO2 kg/day
Milled Mash Mash
Corn Kernels Slurry
Hammer Grains Slurry (Dextrin)Saccharification (Glucose) CO2
Cooker Fermentors CO2
312244.33 Mill 312244.33 Tank 953153.86 1415811.96 Tank 1415811.96 Scrubber
kg/day kg/day kg/day kg/day kg/day
Waste Water
Beer
Alpha-amylase
1304738.97
182.28 kg/day Ethanol Water
Wet Ethanol kg/day
20454.55 Azeotropic Ethanol
kg/day 165888.24
Dehydrated 120454.55
kg/day
Ethanol Molecular kg/day Ethanol Beer
Sieves Column Column
100000.00
kg/day Process Water
Stillage
65888.24 1138850.73
Steam kg/day 34917.59 kg/day
462658.11 kg/day
kg/day 523763.90
kg/day
Evaporator Centrifuge
Thin Stillage
580169.24
Conc.Thin Stillage Wet Distillers' Grain kg/day
61105.79 with Soluble (WDGS)
kg/day Water
208954.78
Distillers' Grain
kg/day
with Soluble
Dryer
Dried Distillers' Grain
432320.24 with Soluble (DDGS)
kg/day

Figure 3.4 Quantitative Block Diagram

40
A summary of flow rates table is established to show and to check whether the

sum of all input flow rates equals the sum of the output stream.

Table 3.6 Summary of Material Balance Calculations


Inflow Outflow
Equipment Streams
(kg/day) (kg/day)
Corn Kernels 312244.33
Hammer Mill Milled Grains 312244.33
Milled Grains 312244.33
Fresh Water 605991.93
Slurry Tank Recycle from
34917.59
Centrifuge
Slurry 953153.86
Slurry 953153.86
Steam from
Cooker 462658.11
Evaporator
Mash (Dextrin) 1415811.96
Mash (Dextrin) 1415811.96
Saccharification Tank
Mash (Glucose) 1415811.96
Mash (Glucose) 1415811.96
Fermentors Beer 1304738.97
Carbon Dioxide 111073.00
Beer 1304738.97
Beer Column Wet Ethanol 165888.24
Stillage 1138850.73
Wet Ethanol 165888.24
Ethanol Water
20454.55
Ethanol Column from Mol.Sieves
Azeotropic Ethanol 120454.55
Process Water 65888.24
Azeotropic Ethanol 120454.55
Molecular Sieves Ethanol Water 20454.55
Dehydrated Ethanol 100000.00

41
Stillage 1138850.73
Thin Stillage
34917.59
(to Slurry Tank)
Centrifuge Thin Stillage
523763.90
(to Evaporator)
Wet Distillers' Grain
580169.24
with Solubles
Thin Stillage 523763.90
Steam to Evaporator 462658.11
Evaporator
Concentrated Thin
61105.79
Stillage
Wet Distillers' Grain
580169.24
with Solubles
Concentrated Thin
61105.79
DGS Dryer Stillage
Water 208954.78
Dried Distillers'
432320.24
Grain with Solubles
TOTAL 9428260.03 9428260.03

42
C. Energy Balance Summary

Two heat balance equations were used in the calculations.

Q  mCpT

Q  mH

Where

m is the mass flowrate in kg/s,

Cp is the specific heat capacity in kJ/kgoC,

ΔT is the temperature difference in oC and

ΔH is the enthalpy in kJ/kg.

From Chemical Reaction Engineering by Octave Levenspiel, the energy balance

equation on reactor is:

Q  Cp2 Tx A  Cp1 T (1  x A )  H r x A

Where

Cp2 is the mean specific heat capacity of the converted product,

Cp1 is the mean specific heat of unreacted feed stream,

xA is the fractional conversion and

ΔHr heat of reaction

Energy can be in the form of mechanical energy done on the system, a heat gain

or loss due to a change in temperature or work done. Data and assumptions

regarding the streams leaving and entering the equipment such as sensible heat, heat

of vaporization, heat capacity and mass flow rates and temperature of streams were

needed.

43
250

200

150
T(deg.C)

100

50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Streams

Figure 3.5 Temperature Profile for Ethanol and DDGS Production

Table 3.7 Legend of Streams in Figure 3.3

Streams Black Blue Red


1 Corn Kernels
2 Milled Grains
3 Slurry
4 Mash (Dextrin)
5 Mash (Dextrin)
6 Mash (Dextrin)
7 Mash (Glucose)
8 Mash (Glucose)
9 Beer
10 Wet Ethanol Stillage
Azeotropic Thin Stillage(up)/
11
Ethanol WDGS(down)
Conc. Thin
Dehydrated
12 Stillage(up)/
Ethanol
WGDS(down)
Dehydrated
13 DDGS
Ethanol

44
Table 3.8 Specific Heat capacity of Streams
Streams Cp (kJ/kgoC)
Corn/Milled Grains 1.800
Slurry 1.218
Mash(Dextrin) 1.218
Mash(Glucose) 1.2552
Beer 0.805
CO2 0.9185
Wet Ethanol 3.055
Stillage/WDGS 4.184
DDGS 2.536
Ethanol Water 3.055
Azeotropic Ethanol 3.357
Process Water 4.188
Dehydrated Ethanol 1.637

Table 3.8 shows the different specific heat capacities used for the computation of the

sensible heat of streams or the heat gain/loss of a stream.

45
Table 3.9 Summary of Energy Balance Calculations
Input, Output, Heat
Temp.
Equipment Streams Qin Qout Loss/Gain
(oC)
(kW) (kW) (kW)
Corn Kernels 25 162.63
Hammer Mill Milled 97.58
40 260.21
Grains
Milled
40 260.21
Grains
Fresh Water 25 790.83
Slurry Tank -10.59
Thin Stillage
70 118.65
(Recycle)
Slurry 80 1074.96
Slurry 80 1074.96
Steam 210 15516.84
Cooker -12400.33
Mash
210 4191.47
(Dextrin)
Mash
210 4191.47
Cook Retention (Dextrin)
-2594.72
Tank Mash
80 1596.75
(Dextrin)
Mash
Pre-cooler to 80 1596.75
(Dextrin)
Saccharification -997.97
Mash
Tank 30 598.78
(Dextrin)
Mash
30 598.78
Saccharification (Dextrin)
799.91
Tank Mash
68 1398.69
(Glucose)
Post-cooler Mash
68 1398.69
from (Glucose)
-781.62
Saccharification Mash
30 617.07
Tank (Glucose)

46
Mash
30 617.07
(Glucose)
Fermentors Carbon -150.26
35 41.34
Dioxide
Beer 35 425.47
Beer 35 425.47
Beer Column Wet Ethanol 38 222.89 4209.36
Stillage 80 4411.94
Wet Ethanol 38 222.89
Ethanol
35 25.34
Water
Ethanol
Azeotropic 194.60
Column 40 187.19
Ethanol
Process
80 255.64
Water
Azeotropic
40 187.19
Ethanol
Moecular Ethanol
80 57.92 22.25
Sieves Water
Dehydrated
80 151.52
Ethanol
Ethanol
80 57.92
Ethanol Water Water
-32.58
Cooler Ethanol
35 25.34
Water
Dehydrated
80 151.52
Dehydrated Ethanol
-85.23
Ethanol Cooler Dehydrated
35 66.29
Ethanol
Stillage 80 4411.94
Stillage Cooler -551.49
Stillage 70 3860.45
Evaporator Thin Stillage 70 1780.35 12866.78

47
Steam to
105 14336.53
Cooker
Conc. Thin
105 310.60
Stillage
WDGS 70 1966.69
Conc. Thin
105 310.60
DGS Dryer Stillage 6344.98
Water 150 6718.75
DDGS 150 1903.52

D. Utility Requirement

1. Water Consumption

The water used in the bioethanol pant can be city water, groundwater or surface

water. The type of water used depends on its application. Water is recycled and re-

used, after prior appropriate purification treatment, for specific process applications

such as liquefaction, cooking, steam generation, scrubbing and cooling. Water

treatment is used to provide the requisite quality of water to a variety of different

processes, many of which with have their own individual technical requirements.

2. Energy Consumption

Ethanol production requires electrical and thermal energy at every step of the

process. Electricity is needed for lighting, for plant process control, for heating and

as driving power for machinery. It is usually generated and supplied by utility

companies. When steam and electricity are generated on-site the efficiency factor

can be considerably higher.

48
Table 3.10 Average Energy and Water Usage per gallon of Ethanol produced

Utility Unit Value

Energy (Ave Use per gal EtOH)

a. Thermal Mbtu’s 31 879

b. Electrical kWh’s 1.14

TOTAL Mbtu’s 31.879

Water (Ave Use per gal EtOH)

a. Fresh Gal 4.9

b. Recycled Gal 1.2

TOTAL Gal 6.1

E. Equipment Summary

Equipment Unit Operation/Process

Hammer Mill Milling

Slurry Tank Mixing

Steam Cooker Cooking

Mash Pre-cooler Cooling

Saccharification Tank Saccharification

Fermentor Fermentation

Beer Column Distillation

Ethanol Column Distillation

Adsorption Column Adsorption

Anhydrous Ethanol Cooler Cooling

Ethanol Water Cooler Cooling

49
Stillage Cooler Cooling

Centrifuge Centrifugation

Stillage Evaporator Evaporation

DGS Dryer Drying

50
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Hammer Mill
Equipment Code: M-101
Type/Description: Swing-sledge Hammer Mill
Function: To reduce the size of corn kernels.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Dimensions:
Length: 1.5494 m
Width: 1.7272 m
Inside Diameter: 0.7620 m
Inside Width: 0.5080 m
Feed Opening: 0.4318 by 0.5080 m
Pulley Speed: 1000 – 3000 rpm
Approximate hp: 40
Feed Particle Size: 5 to 30 mm
Product Particle Size: 0.01 to 0.1 mm
Reduction Ratio: 400
Operating Conditions: 40°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Steel


Method of Procurement: Purchase

51
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Slurry Tank
Equipment Code: T-102
Type/Description: CSTR
Function: To prepare the milled grains before
cooking (liquefaction).
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Dimensions:
Diameter: 1.8885 m
Height: 3.7770 m
Impeller Diameter: 0.5666 m
Width of Baffles: 0.1889 m

Operating Conditions: 80°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

52
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Steam Cooker
Equipment Code: R-101
Type/Description: CSTR
Function: To breakdown the starch polymer
(hydrolyze a 1-4 bond) and produce
soluble dextrin.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Dimensions:
Head Thickness: 4.5484 mm
Shell Thickness: 4.7927 mm
Diameter: 1.3360 m
Length: 4.0081 m
Volume: 6.6162 m3
Inside Depth of Dish: 0.5926 m

Operating Conditions: 210°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

53
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Mash Pre-cooler
Equipment Code: E-101
Type/Description: Heat Exchanger
Function: To prepare the mash before
Saccharification.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Area: 84.17 m2
Type: Shell-and-Tube

Operating Conditions: 30-80°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

54
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Saccharification Tank
Equipment Code: R-102
Type/Description: CSTR
Function: To breakdown the dextrins into
fermentable sugars.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Dimensions of Reactor Vessel:
Height: 12.7250 m
Diameter: 6.3625 m
Impeller Diameter: 1.9088 m
Width of Baffles: 0.6363 m

Operating Conditions: 68°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction:
Shell: Stainless Steel
Outer Jacket: Carbon Steel
Method of Procurement: Fabrication

55
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Mash Post-cooler
Equipment Code: E-102
Type/Description: Heat Exchanger
Function: To prepare the mash before
Fermentation.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Area: 90.60 m2
Type: Shell-and-Tube

Operating Conditions: 30-68°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

56
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Fermentors
Equipment Code: R-103a, R-103b, R-103c
Type/Description: CSTR
Function: To convert the fermentable sugars
into ethanol.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 3
Dimensions of Reactor Vessel:
Thickness: 0.0306 m
Height: 15.11 m
Diameter: 10.07 m
Volume: 1419.3630 m3
Dimensions of Impeller:
Diameter: 3.36 m
Distance from Tank Bottom: 3.36 m
Disc Diameter: 2.52 m
Blade Length: 0.84 m
Blade Width: 0.67 m
Blade Tip Distance from Tank Bottom: 2.01 m
Operating Conditions: 35°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

57
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Beer Column
Equipment Code: T-104
Type/Description: Closed, vertical
Function: To separates the liquid content of the
beer from its solid part
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
No. of Stages: 12
Reflux Ratio: 2.00
Feed Location: 4
Type of Column Internal: Sieve Tray
Dimensions of Column:
Diameter: 2.57 m
Height: 51.40 m

Operating Conditions: 80°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

58
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Ethanol Column
Equipment Code: T-105
Type/Description: Closed, vertical
Function: To concentrate ethanol-water mixture
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
No. of Stages: 45
Reflux Ratio: 4.3
Feed Location: 4
Type of Column Internal: Sieve Tray
Dimensions of Column:
Diameter: 3.05 m
Height: 61 m

Operating Conditions: 80°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

59
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Adsorption Columns
Equipment Code: T-106, T-107
Type/Description: Closed, vertical, pressure swing with
regeneration
Function: To adsorb water from azeotropic
ethanol using an adsorbent.
Mode of Operation: Continuous, Bulk Separation

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 2
Properties of Adsorbent:
Adsorbent: 3A Molecular Zeolite
Pore Diameter: 0.3 mm
Particle Density: 670 – 740 kg/m3
Particle Porosity: 0.2
Surface Area: 7×10-5 m2/kg
Water Capacity: 20%
Dimensions of Column:
Diameter: 1.83 m
Height: 4.88 m
Height of Adsorbent inside the Column: 2.89 m

Operating Conditions: 80°C, 1 atm


Material of Construction: Carbon Steel
Method of Procurement: Fabrication

60
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Anhydrous Ethanol Cooler
Equipment Code: E-103
Type/Description: Heat Exchanger
Function: To cool the ethanol from adsorber
columns.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Area: 5.51 m2
Type: Shell-and-Tube

Operating Conditions: 35-80°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

61
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Ethanol-Water Cooler
Equipment Code: E-104
Type/Description: Heat Exchanger
Function: To cool the ethanol-water mixture
from adsorber columns back to
ethanol column.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Area: 2.11 m2
Type: Shell-and-Tube

Operating Conditions: 35-80°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

62
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Stillage Cooler
Equipment Code: E-105
Type/Description: Heat Exchanger
Function: To cool the stillage from ethanol
column before centrifugation.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Area: 18.09 m2
Type: Shell-and-Tube

Operating Conditions: 70-80°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

63
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Centrifuge
Equipment Code: C-101
Type/Description: Centrifugal Sedimentation
Function: To separate the solids from liquid
part of the stillage.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Diameter: 11.0110 m
Height: 12.2112 m
Rotational Speed: 1000 rpm

Operating Conditions: 70°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

64
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: Stillage Evaporator
Equipment Code: V-101
Type/Description: Calendria
Function: To concentrate the thin stillage before
drying.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Area: 115 m2
Tube Thickness: 4.85 mm
Calendria Sheet Thickness: 10 mm

Operating Conditions: 105°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction:
Shell: Carbon Steel
Tube: Brass
Method of Procurement: Fabrication

65
EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATION SHEET

GENERAL DETAIL
Equipment Name: DGS Dryer
Equipment Code: D-101
Type/Description: Rotary Drum
Function: To dry the DGS for animal feed.
Mode of Operation: Continuous

TECHNICAL DETAIL
No. of Units: 1
Length: 22.43 m
Inner Diameter: 2.46 m
Shell Thickness: 10 mm
Insulation Thickness: 40 mm
Feed Pipe Diameter: 21”
Inlet Pipe Diameter: 28”
Outlet Pipe Diameter: 32”
Rotation: 3 rpm

Operating Conditions: 150°C, 1 atm

Material of Construction: Carbon Steel


Method of Procurement: Fabrication

66
F. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) is a detailed diagram that shows

the piping and vessels with its proper instrumentation and control devices. P and ID is

foundational to the maintenance of the process that it graphically represents. Also, it

provides the basis for the development of control schemes, like Hazard and Operability

Study (HAZOP).

P and ID diagram is established thoroughly for the production of ethanol

from corn kernel. This diagram will show the complete details of instruments, piping

requirement, different control loops, control systems, signal lines, and different

equipment/vessel comprising the facility. Equipment use in the production of ethanol

are carefully analyze in order to produce the expected quality of ethanol. This will

consider the preliminary treatment of the corn kernels, effectiveness in conversion of

starch to dextrin to glucose and into ethanol, temperature and concentration during

fermentation and distillation and nutrient amount necessary for cultivating microbes.

These factors need to be considered because it will greatly affects the flow of operation.

Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams entails with logical, concise and easy-to-

understand sequence of unit process equipment.

1. Symbols and Codes

Table 3.11 Control Element Symbols

Symbol Description

Gate valve

 Control valve

 Pneumatic valve

67
Table 3.12 Instrumentation Line Symbols
Symbol Applications

Process connection to instruments

Electrical signal

Table 3.13 Location of Instruments

Discrete Location and Accessibility

 Located in Field.

 Not panel, cabinet, or console mounted.

 Visible at field location.

 Normally operator accessible.

2. Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation (ISA) Identification Letters

Table 3.14 ISA Identification Letters


Letter Position - (XYY)
First Letter (X) Succeeding Letters(YY)

A Alarm

C Controller

F Flow

H High

I Indicator

L Level Low

T Temperature Transmitter

68
3. Selection of Control Valve

The control valve manipulates a flowing fluid, such as gas, steam, water or chemical

compounds, to compensate for the load disturbance and keep the regulated process

variable as close as possible to the desired set point.

Table 3.15 Control Valve


Control Equipment
Operating Principle
Valve Name

Rate of flow control valve prevents

excessive flow by limiting flow to

a preselected minimum rate,

regardless of changing line

pressure. The pilot control

responds to the differential

Rate of Flow pressure produced across an orifice


Flow Control Valve
Control Valve plate installed downstream of the

valve. Accurate control is achieved

as very small changes in the

controlling differential pressure

produce immediate corrective

action of the main valve. (CLA-

VAL)

Modulating float valve will be

Modulating used in the production process.


Level Control Valve
Control Valve Modulating float valves maintain a

constant liquid level in a storage

69
tank by compensating for

variations in supply or demand and

are used to control the flow into or

out of a tank by either opening or

closing on a rising level. (CLA-

VAL)

70
G-AMYLASE

A-AMYLASE

WATER TI
FT
FT
CORN FT
TA FC
FC
FC H-101 TI TIH TIL
FT
2 TC
M-101 FC
FC
LA R-102
`
FC FC E-101 TI
LC
`
FC
Figure 3.6 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram for the

`
R-101 ` ` FC
FC
FC T-103
T-101 TC TI E-102
T-102
Production of Ethanol from Corn Kernel

FC FC `
WATER CO2
FC
YEAST WASTE WATER

S-101
FC FC
FC

FT FC ETHANOL
FC TT
E-103

TI
TT FC FC TT

TC
TI TI TI
R-103 FT
TI T-104 T-105 T-106 T-107
FC N-101
FC
FT FC FT
FC TT

FC
FC TI

FC
FC
FC
G-101
TI FC
FC FC

TI
E-104
PROCESS WATER
E-105

FC

FC LI FC FT
FC
MOISTURE
V-101

TC

71 T-108
FT FC
DDGS
TI
C-101

D-101
4. Individual Control and Instrumentation of Equipment

a. Hammer Mill

CORN

FC

Figure 3.7 Control and Instrumentation of Hammer Mill

After the preliminary treatment of corn, flow controller is installed after this

equipment to control the flow of treated corn. This will help to prevent choking in

the next equipment which is the major cause of stopping the whole operation.

b. Weigh Tank

LA

LC

Figure 3.8 Control and Instrumentation of Weigh Tank

Since the flow is controlled in hammer mill, it is necessary also to control the

level of weighing tank. Inside the tank, there is a level alarm which is triggered

when it meets the capacity of the tank. This alarm is connected to level controller

automatically.

72
c. Slurry Tank

A-AMYLASE

WATER

FT

FC

FT

FC

FC
FC

Figure 3.9 Control and Instrumentation of Slurry Tank

Water, A-amylase and the treated corn must in proper ratio. Therefore, flow

controller in each of them is installed. After mixing, another flow controller is

installed at the product stream in order to observe the amount that needs to be

processed further.

d. Steam Cooker

TI

TA

TC

Figure 3.10 Control and Instrumentation of Steam Cooker

73
Heat is very significant in this equipment. Cooking requires a specific amount

of heat to prevent over cooked. Hence, temperature control is necessary. Manual

controlling of heat is difficult and take a high risk in safety. So, temperature control

is installed to avoid accident and to easily control cooking the slurry.

e. Cook Retention Tank

TI TIH TIL

FC

FC TI
`

` `

Figure 3.11 Control and Instrumentation of Cook Retention Tank

Before entering in this equipment, flow and temperature of the mash must be

controlled. Cook retention tank is use as storage and use in lowering the temperature

of the mash. When the desired temperature of the mash is reach, the mass out is also

controlled by flow controller. After the heat exchanger, temperature indicator is

installed to verify the temperature of the mash.

74
f. Saccharification Tank

G-AMYLASE
FT

FC

FC

`
FC

TC TI

Figure 3.12 Control and Instrumentation of Saccharification Tank

Mash is charged into saccharification tank and mixed with G-amylase. Starch

content of the mash will be converted into dextrin in this equipment. Flow is

controlled in both mash stream and G-amylase so that proper ratio is secured.

g. Fermentor
YEAST

FC

FC TT FT FC

TI

TI

FC

Figure 3.13 Control and Instrumentation of Fermentor

The amount of inputs in fermentors must be controlled. The mash temperature

must also know in order to cultivate the yeast. The flow of yeast is also controlled

so that the volume requirement of fermentors must be maximized.

75
h. Beer Column

FT

FC
FT FC

FC

TI

Figure 3.14 Control and Instrumentation of Beer Column

Flow controllers are very necessary in this equipment. The formation of beer

takes place in this equipment.

i. Ethanol Column

FT
FC TT

FC
TI

PROCESS WATER

Figure 3.15 Control and Instrumentation of Ethanol Column

The beer formed will proceed to ethanol column. The flow and temperature of

the beer will tell the efficiency of the separation process. Ethanol is the product of

this scheme, therefore, it is very important to account the volume of ethanol

produced.

76
CHAPTER IV

COSTING AND PROJECT EVALUATION

A. Estimation of Equipment Cost

The cost of purchase equipment is the primary basis in estimating the capital investment

of any processing industry. Cost of purchased equipment are estimated and obtained

from reliable sources such as fabricators, manufacturers or suppliers. The capacity of

equipment calculated in the equipment design and other specifications presented in the

study are used as the basis for cost estimation of each equipment. Cost estimates in this

study were obtained from www.matche.com and some, particularly distillation column,

are obtained from the book entitled “Plant Design and Economics for Chemical

Engineers” 5th Edition by Peters et.al using www.mhhe.com. Cost indices are utilized

to give the cost estimate for the present time.

Table 4.1 Cost Indices

Year Chemical Engineering Plant Source/Used as Cost Index

Cost Index, CEPCI

2002 390.4 Plant Design and Economics for

Chemical Engineers, 5th Edition;

www.mhhe.com

2014 567.3 September, 2013 final cost index

2018 587.96 March 2018 (Prelim) cost index

 Cost index at 2018 


Present Cost(2018)  (Original Cost at 2014) 
 Cost index at 2014 

77
 Cost index at 2018 
Present Cost(2018)  (Original Cost at 2002) 
 Cost index at 2002 

Table 4.2 Purchase Equipment Cost

Name of No. of Cost($) in Cost ($) in Total Cost Cost(Ᵽ) in

Equipment Units 2014 2018 ($) in 2018 2018

Major

Equipment

Hammer Mill 1 145200 150487.9112 150487.9112 7917199.106

Fermentor 3 654800 678646.5856 2035939.757 107111197.8

Beer Column 1 656509 988732.1507 988732.1507 52017396.19

Ethanol Colum 1 986645 1485931.85 1485931.85 78175171.81

Adsorption 2 80708 121549.8865 243099.773 12789527.68

Column

DGS Dryer 1 94100 97526.94518 97526.94518 5130912.091

Stillage 1 327500 339426.9346 339426.9346 17857318.91

Evaporator

Auxiliary

Equipment

Steam Cooker 1 50500 52339.11511 52339.11511 2753571.314

Slurry Tank 1 116200 120431.7857 120431.7857 6335940.332

Saccharification 1 113000 117115.2477 117115.2477 6161456.605

Tank

Anhydrous 1 10700 11089.67389 11089.67389 583429.9613

Ethanol cooler

78
Ethanol Water 1 7700 7980.419531 7980.419531 419851.4676

cooler

Stillage cooler 1 10100 10467.82302 10467.82302 550714.2626

Centrifuge 1 257900 267292.2334 267292.2334 14062297.86

Mash Pre- 1 43900 45498.75551 45498.75551 2393698.627

cooler

Mash Post- 1 45200 46846.09907 46846.09907 2464582.641

cooler

TOTAL 5914806.475 311179151.6

Note: $1.00 = Ᵽ52.6102 (Updated as of May 25, 2018)

B. Estimation of Fixed Capital Investment (FCI)

The fixed capital investment is defined as the capital needed to supply the required

manufacturing and plant facilities. It is categorized into manufacturing fixed capital

investment (direct costs) and nonmanufacturing fixed capital investment (indirect

costs).

The estimation of FCI is based from the book, “Plant Design and Economics for

Chemical Engineers” by Peters, Timmerhaus & West (2003). This is calculated by

choosing the appropriate percent fixed capital investment (%FCI) shown in Table 4.2.

The obtained value of FCI is Ᵽ1,580,790,090.

79
Table 4.3 Breakdown of Direct and Indirect Costs

Component Range Selected Normalized FCI, Estimated Cost (Ᵽ)

of FCI, FCI, % %

Direct Cost

Purchased 15-40 25 19.68503937 311179151.6

Equipment

Purchased 6-14 10 7.874015748 124471660.6

Equipment

Installation

Instrumentation 2-12 8 6.299212598 99577328.51

and Controls

Piping 4-17 10 7.874015748 124471660.6

Electrical 2-10 7 5.511811024 87130162.45

Systems

Buildings 2-18 12 9.448818898 149365992.8

(including

services)

Yard 2-5 3 2.362204724 37341498.19

Improvements

Service 8-30 20 15.7480315 248943321.3

Facilities

Land 1-2 1 0.7874015748 31117915.16

Indirect Costs

80
Engineering & 4-20 10 7.874015748 124471660.6

Supervision

Construction 4-17 9 7.086614173 112024494.6

Expenses

Legal Expenses 1-3 2 1.57480315 24894332.13

Contractor’s 2-6 2 1.57480315 24894332.13

Fee

Contingency 5-15 8 6.299212598 99577328.51

TOTAL FCI 127 100 1,580,790,090

Checking if the estimated costs are within the range known in the book “Plant Design

and Economics for Chemical Engineers” by Peters, Timmerhaus, & West (2003):

Table 4.4 Calculated Percentage of Components and Items

COMPONENT Estimated Cost Range Calculated

(Ᵽ) Percentage (%)

Direct Cost 1039298542 65-85% of FCI

Purchased 311179151.6 15-40% of FCI 19.68503937

Equipment

Purchased 124471660.6 25-55% of purchased- 40

Equipment equipment cost

Installation

Instrumentation 99577328.51 8-50% of purchased- 32

& Controls equipment cost

81
Piping 124471660.6 10-80% of purchased- 40

equipment cost

Electrical 87130162.45 10-40% of purchased- 28

Systems equipment cost

Building 49365992.8 10-70% of purchased- 15.86417102

(including equipment cost

services)

Yard 286284819.5 40-100% of purchased- 92

Improvements equipment cost

and Service

Facilities

Land 31117915.16 1-2% of FCI 1.968503937

Indirect Costs 385862148 15-35% of FCI

Engineering & 124471660.6 5-30% of direct cost 11.9765068

Supervision

Construction 136918826.7 10-20% of FCI 8.661417323

Expenses &

Contractor’s

Fee

Legal Expenses 24894332.13 1-3% FCI 1.57480315

Contingency 99577328.51 5-15% of FCI 6.299212599

82
Checking if the Direct and Indirect Costs are within the allowable range:

Direct Costs = material and labor involved in actual installation of complete facility

(65-85% of FCI)

Direct Costs = Equipment + Installation + Instrument + Piping + Electrical + Buildings

+ Service Facilities + Yard Improvements + Land

Total Direct Costs = 1039298542 PHP

Total Direct Costs


% Direct Costs  x 100%
FCI
1039298542
%Direct Costs  x 100%
1580790090
%Direct Costs  65.74551223 PHP

This is within the allowable range which is 65-85% of FCI.

Indirect Costs are expenses which are not directly involved with material and labor of

actual installation of complete facility (15-35% of FCI).

Indirect Costs = Engineering and Supervision + Legal Expenses + Construction

Expenses + Contractor’s Fee + Contingency

Total Indirect Costs = 385862148 PHP

Total Indirect Costs


% Indirect Costs  x 100%
FCI
385862148
%Indirect Costs  x 100%
1580790090
%Indirect Costs  24.40944882 PHP

This is within the allowable range which is 15-35% of FCI.

83
C. Estimation of Total Capital Investment

The total capital investment includes all the capitals necessary to get the project in

progress. This includes the manufacturing fixed-capital investment and the working-

capital investment along with the investment required for all necessary auxiliaries and

nonmanufacturing facilities. In most chemical process industries, working capital

initially amounts to 10-20% of total capital investment. In this report, the Working

Capital is calculated as 15% of the Total Capital Investment.

Total Capital Investment = Fixed Capital investment + Working Capital Investment

TCI  FCI  WCI


TCI  1580790090  0.15(TCI)
(1 - 0.15)TCI  1580790090
TCI  1859753047 PHP

Thus the value of the working capital investment can be computed as follows:

WCI  0.15TCI
WCI  0.15 ( 1859753047 )
WCI  278962957.1 PHP

D. Estimation of Production Cost

Production costs refer to the costs incurred in manufacturing a good or providing a

service. This includes a variety of expenses including, but not limited to, labor, raw

materials, consumable manufacturing supplies and general overhead. Production cost

is generally divided into two categories: manufacturing costs and general expenses.

Manufacturing costs are also referred to as operating or production costs. This is further

subdivided into interpretation of variable, fixed, and overhead costs.

84
Fixed Charges

This classification covers the expenses that are practically constant from year to year and not

greatly influenced by the rate of production such as depreciation, property taxes, insurance, and

rent. The tax and insurance rates were estimated at 1% and 0.4% of the fixed capital investment

(FCI), respectively. No cost for rent was considered.

Table 4.5 Fixed Charges

Cost Items Percentage Range Basis Cost Estimate

Local taxes 1-4% of FCI 1 % of FCI 15807900.9

Insurance 0.4-1% of FCI 0.8% of FCI 12643207.2

TOTAL 142271108.1

Total Production Cost

Using the estimated value of fixed charges, initial estimation of the total production

cost can be calculated. Considering that fixed charges is 10-20% of total production

cost, a value of 15% is arbitrarily selected. Thus, the initial value of the total production

cost is estimated as follows:

Fixed charges  0.15 (Total Production Cost)


Fixed charges
Total Production Cost 
0.15
142271108.1
Total Production Cost (TPC) 
0.15
Total Production Cost (TPC)  984874054 PHP

From the estimated total production cost, the different cost items are determined. The

estimates presented are determined by arbitrarily selecting percentage among the ranges

provided by Peters & Timmerhaus.

85
Table 4.6 Summary of Total Production Costs

Cost Items Allowable range Basis of Cost Estimate/yr

Computations

I. Manufacturing Cost

A.Direct Production About 66% of

Cost TPC

Raw Materials 10-80% of TPC Selling price (15% 147731108.1

of TPC)

Operating Labor 10-20% of TPC 10% of TPC 98487405.4

Direct supervisory and 10-20% of 10% of TPC 98487405.4

clerical labor operating labor

Utilities 10-20% of TPC 20% of TPC 196974810.8

Mainetenance and 2-10% of FCI 3% FCI 29546221.62

repairs

Operating supplies 0.5-1% of FCI 1% FCI 9848740.54

Laboratory charges 10-20% of 15% of operating 14773110.81

operating labor labor

Patents and royalties 0-6% of TPC 1% of TPC 9848740.54

B. Fixed charges 10-20% of TPC

Local Taxes 1-4% of FCI 1% of FCI 15807900.9

Insurance 0.4-1% of FCI 0.8% of FCI 12643207.2

C. Plant Overhead 5-15% of TPC 10% of TPC 98487405.4

Cost

II. General Expenses 15-25% of TPC

86
Administrative costs 2-5% of TPC 2% of TPC 19697481.08

Distribution and 2-20% of TPC 10% of TPC 98487405.4

marketing costs

Research and 5% of TPC 5% of TPC 49243702.7

development costs

Total Production Cost 875442794.5

E. Profitability Analysis

A profitability is made in order to present and provide a measure of the attractiveness

and feasibility of the project.

Currently, according to ICIS, a market information provider, the fuel-grade ethanol

price in Southeast Asian market is $527 per cubic meter or approximately Ᵽ26350 per

cubic meter in Philippine currency. With this information, this report must have a lower

bioethanol price or equivalent to the current market price to compete in the market.

Total Product Cost


Ethanol Price 
Annual Plant Capacity
875442794.5
Ethanol Price 
100000 * 365 kg/yr
785.1 kg/m 3
Ethanol Price  18830.41474 PHP

The calculated ethanol price is lower than the market price which means that the ethanol

produced could compete in the market together with experienced producers. Hence, in

order to maximize the profit of the plant, the selling price of the ethanol produced would

be Ᵽ23000/m3.

87
Total Income  Annual Plant Capacity Selling Price 
 100000 * 365kg/yr 
Total Income   3

 23000 / m 3 
 785.1 kg/m 
Total Income  1069290536 PHP / yr

This accounts for the total money received annually by the company from selling all

the ethanol produced during operation.

Gross Income  Total Income - Total Product Cost


Gross Income  1069290536  875442794.5
Gross Income  1944733331 PHP

Therefore, the gross income accounts for a total money received annually by the

company from selling all the ethanol produced during operation and deducting total

cost of production. Hereafter, considering a 35% tax rate and having to subtract it from

the gross income.

Nevertheless, to compute for the time when the capital invested is returned or more

commonly known as payback period, the depreciation which accounts for the allocated

cost of tangible assets over its useful life must be known. The cost of tangible assets is

the direct cost from less the non-depreciable assets, land and equipment installation

cost.

Tangible Assets Cost  Direct Cost  Land Cost  Equipment Installati on Cost
Tangible Assets Cost  385862148 - 31117915.16 - 124471660.6
Tangible Assets Cost  230272572.2 PHP

88
Using Straight-Line Depreciation Method,

Recovery Period of Chemical Plant = 10 years

Tangible Assets Cost


Depreciati on 
Recovery Period
230272572.2
Depreciati on 
10
Depreciati on  23027257.22 PHP

1580790090
Payback Period 
1264076665  23027257.2

Payback Period  1.23 years

Using Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS),

Recovery Period of Chemical Plant = 5 years

Table 4.7 Depreciation using MACRS

Year Unadjusted Depreciation Depreciation Adjusted Basis

Basis rate

0 230272572.2 20 46054514.44 178691516

1 230272572.2 32 73687223.1 206324224.7

2 230272572.2 19.2 44212333.86 176849335.5

3 230272572.2 11.52 26527400.32 159164401.9

4 230272572.2 11.52 26527400.32 132637001.6

5 230272572.2 5.76 132637001.6 0

89
Total 349645873.6

Depreciation

Average 58274312.27

Annual

Depreciation

1580790090
Payback Period 
1264076665  58274312.27

Payback Period  1.20 years

Since, the payback periods for the depreciation methods are close, with MACRS faster

by just a factor of 0.03 to Straight-line method, the design engineer can choose either

of the two. However, given the economical setup of Philippines, it is more preferable

to use straight line method. Therefore, for this design paper, a payback period of 1.23

years is chosen.

Return of Investment

Return of investment (ROI) is an economical tool used for financial decision. This

measures the benefits obtained from inventing of some resource. Moreover, this is a

profitability ratio to determine the profit of an investment as a percentage of its original

cost.

90
Annual Net Profit
%ROI  100
Total Capital Investment
1264076665
%ROI  100
1859753047

%ROI  67.97 %

It can be concluded from the calculated ROI that this report is considered attractive for

operations.

91
Figure 4.1 Cumulative Cash Flow Position Diagram

92
CHAPTER V

HEALTH, SAFETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

A. Risk Assessment

An industry with its complex nature of activities involving various plant

machineries, raw materials, products, operations, and environmental discharge has a

number of associated hazards. A minor failure can lead to major failures resulting into

a disaster causing heavy losses to life, property, and environmental. A number of

hazards associated with the biofuel industry in each stage of the plant cycle from the

concept selection through to the discharging. There are many other challenges like

engineering unknowns, lack of reliable failure rate data, inconsistency in applicable

regulations, low skills, and entry of new manufacturers (Nair, 2011). Risk assessment

is being conducted to guarantee safety and reliability of any new plant. It is necessary

to have a risk assessment studies as they form an integral part of an occupational health

and safety management plan. Risk assessment in process design can be considered

under the following broad headings:

 Identification of hazards and risk factors.

 Analysis and evaluation of risk associated with the hazard.

 Elimination of hazard or control of risk.

1. Hazard Identification

In process safety and loss prevention, it is said, ‘once the hazards have been

identified, half the battle is won’ (Mannan). A number of hazard identification

methods and techniques are available and have been practiced. Different methods

are required at different stages of a project and also the depth of the study depends

on the complications and extent of risk from the facility/operation.

93
Hazards associated with the biofuel industry are categorized as follows:

a. Hazards from Materials

The principal hazards from materials in the form of raw materials, catalysts,

intermediates and finished products include:

 Fire Hazards.

 Explosion hazards and overpressure releases.

 Runaway/uncontrolled reaction.

 Toxic hazards.

 Steam flashes.

b. Hazards from Operations and Handling

Operational accidents in the biofuel industry range from slips, trips, and falls

to major incidents like fire and explosion. Hazards, causes, hazardous events

and related consequences during operation and handling (storage, processing,

handling etc.) are given below:

i. Storage of Flammable and Toxic Materials

This includes raw materials, additives, intermediates, finished products

and by-products in different forms/phases, sizes, shapes, temperature, and

pressure as required by the process.

ii. Processing of Hazardous Materials

One of the major hazards is the accidents that could result from biofuel

manufacture is release of flammables, toxics and corrosives. Some

examples of hazards related to processing is given below:

 High operating or storage temperature/pressure (e.g. leading to process

runaway)

 Overflow of tank, vessel, reactor or tanker.

94
 Lower temperature (solidification of biodiesel often resulting in

plugging).

 Improper selection of appropriate equipment/machinery/rated

vessels/pipe work suitable for the process.

 Inadequate installation, inspection and maintenance.

 Use of unclassified equipment and machinery in explosive atmosphere.

iii. Material Handling

A range of materials in solid form, liquid form and gaseous form are

transferred between equipment, process vessels, storage etc. This involves

a number of tools and transfer system from shovel to conveyor system to

pipelines and pumps. Manual handling of hazardous materials results in

occupational injuries and sometimes fatalities. Some related hazards are:

 Material loss, damage due to inadequate or improper conveyor system.

 Poor housekeeping leading to dust hazards and dust explosion hazards.

 Release from pipelines, vessels and valves.

a. Hazards from Design, Construction, and Commissioning

Typically, biofuel plants mainly small/medium scale and occasionally large

scale plants are built in an existing facility/building or near to an existing

facility/building/plant. Some of the hazards are very significant when the

existing facility (old barn, garage or storage deport) is modified and converted

to a biofuel processing facility. One of the common failures is failing to

recognize the additional requirements to adhere to (e.g. building regulation

codes, electrical installation requirements etc). If the associated hazards in

conversion are not identified and addressed, the facility as such could pose high

risk due to operation.

95
The following are some of the causes associated to biofuel plant projects

that may result hazards and hazardous events:

i. Improper selection of:

 The technology or methodology for the manufacture.

 The chemical and raw materials used for the production.

 The location of the facility.

ii. Inadequate facility for the selected process:

 Land area.

 Nearby facility and effects from and on them.

 Proximity to utilities (water, steam, power etc.).

iii. Unsafe design and layout.

 Inadequate separation distances (to restrict the spread of fire etc.).

 Inadequate design specification (not for maximum design pressure etc.).

 No access for inspection, maintenance etc.

 No provision of emergency escape.

 Thermal radiation from open flames/flares or equipment/vessel

operating at high temperature (no or improper insulation etc.).

iv. Faulty construction and commissioning.

 Use of inappropriate material of construction of the facility

(incompatible for the material handled/processed).

 No/improper foundation.

 Inadequate strength of load bearing members.

v. No/inadequate provision for:

 Ventilation.

 Lighting.

96
 Rest and cleaning.

 Weather protection.

 Protection from external factors (vehicle collision, attacks from

animals/pests etc.).

2. Risk management

Risk management is the term used to cover the whole process of identifying and

assessing risk, setting goals and creating and operating systems for their control.

Though the biofuel manufacturing facility often does not come under major

accident hazard regulations, it is prudent that the risk from the biofuel industry is

assessed and managed considering the nature of hazards and the stakeholders

involved. The depth of risk assessment should be proportional to the extent of risk

involved in the process and facility.

97
B. Government Regulations

The policy and legislative actions of any government, at national, state, and local

levels, have significant impacts on the management and control of risk in the biofuel

industry.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Compliance

Occupational safety and health administration ensures safety and healthy working

environment by enforcing workplace laws and standards. At the request of the

Renewable Fuels Association (RFA), the ERI Solutions, Inc. of Colwich, KS developed

an outline of the general plant and employee safety regulatory compliance requirements

for the bioethanol production industry.

a. Recordkeeping (OSHA 1904).

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) requires covered

employers to prepare and maintain records of occupational injuries and illnesses.

OSHA also establishes requirements and criteria for reporting work-related injuries,

illnesses, and fatalities.

b. Walking/Working surfaces (OSHA Subpart D).

Establishes requirements concerning guarding floor & wall openings, stairs and

ladders. OSHA requires the use of a guardrail system to protect workers from falls

of 4’ or more to lower levels.

c. Exit routes (OSHA 1910.37).

Establishes requirements for the proper design and construction of exit routes.

Requirements cover construction materials, opening dimensions, accessibility

conditions and capacity.

98
d. Emergency Action Plan (OSHA 1910.38).

An Emergency Action Plan (EAP) must be developed and include procedures

for reporting emergencies, emergency evacuation, and for employees performing

medical or rescue duties. OSHA also establishes requirements for alarm systems

and training personnel on the EAP.

e. Fire Prevention Plan (OSHA 1910.39).

Establishes requirements for employers to identify flammable and combustible

materials stored in the workplace and develop ways to control workplace fire

hazards. Completing a fire prevention plan and training employees will reduce the

probability that a workplace fire will occur or spread.

f. Occupational Noise Exposure (OSHA 1910.95).

Requires employers to identify if any employees are exposed to noise levels at

85 decibels or more over eight (8) working hours. A hearing conservation program

must be implemented if it is determined that employees may be exposed to levels

above this threshold.

g. Flammable and Combustible Liquids (OSHA 1910.106).

Establishes requirements for the handling, storage and use of flammable and

combustible liquids with a flash point below 200°F. Ethanol is considered a Class

1B flammable liquid (Flash point 73°F).

h. Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia (NH3) (OSHA 1910.111).

Facilities that have anhydrous ammonia systems must comply with this

standard. If the process contains over 10,000 pounds of anhydrous ammonia, OSHA

1910.119 also applies (see Process Safety Management (PSM) below).

99
i. Process Safety Management (PSM) (OSHA 1910.119).

The purpose of this standard is to prevent or minimize the consequences of a

catastrophic release of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals. Since

ethanol is considered a flammable liquid, ethanol production facilities are required

to comply with this standard if they process or store over 10,000 pounds of ethanol.

OSHA also lists threshold quantities for other highly hazardous chemicals that are

covered under the PSM regulation. Other common chemicals in use at ethanol

production facilities that may fall under PSM regulations are anhydrous (or

aqueous) ammonia, hydrochloric acid, denaturant, and chlorine dioxide. This is not

an all-inclusive list, but if you have these chemicals at your site, you should

determine for sure whether or not you meet the threshold quantity for that specific

chemical.

j. Emergency Response (OSHA 1910.120).

Employers must address what action employees are to take when there is an

unwanted release of hazardous chemicals. Employers may decide to train and

mobilize employees to control or mitigate the release according to the requirements

of 1910.120 the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response

(HAZWOPER) standard. Employers may also decide to have employees evacuate

the danger area and have local community emergency response organizations

respond to the release.

k. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (OSHA Subpart I).

Contains regulations for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) selection and use

concerning eyes, face, head and extremities. All ethanol production facilities must

perform and document a workplace hazard assessment so the proper PPE can be

designated and communicated for all areas of your facility.

100
l. Permit Required Confined Spaces (OSHA 1910.146).

Requires employers to develop practices and procedures to protect employees

working in permit-required confined spaces (PRCS). The standard requires an

evaluation to determine the existence of PRCSs, the implementation of a written

confined space program, and the establishment of rescue/emergency procedures.

The employer must decide either to train employees on entry rescues or rely on

available external sources to provide entry rescues. Either method must be

documented as to its availability and reliability to respond in the event of an

emergency. All PRCSs must be labelled or communicated according to the

requirements of the standard.

m. Lockout/Tagout (OSHA 1910.147).

Requires implementing practices and procedures to shut down equipment,

isolate it from energy sources and prevent the release of potential hazardous energy

while maintenance and service activities are being performed. Employers must

develop and document specific procedures for all equipment and machinery that

may be serviced within their facility.

n. Medical Services and First Aid (OSHA 1910.151).

Employers must ensure that medical personnel and adequate first aid supplies

are available to workers to handle potential workplace injuries if a medical facility

is not in near proximity to the workplace.

o. Fire Protection (OSHA Subpart L).

Standards for portable fire extinguishers, fire brigades, and employee alarm

systems, automatic sprinkler systems and fixed extinguishing systems.

101
p. Powered Industrial Trucks (OSHA 1910.178).

Establishes requirements for powered industrial trucks and training

requirements for operators of powered industrial trucks.

q. Machinery and Machine Guarding (OSHA 1910.212).

General requirements for machine guarding.

r. Welding, Cutting and Brazing (OSHA Subpart Q).

Contains regulations for oxygen fuel cutting and welding, arc welding and

cutting, and resistance welding. The standards also contain training requirements

for personnel who will be performing welding, cutting or brazing.

s. Grain Handling (OSHA 1910.272).

Contains requirements for control of grain dust fires or explosions and other

hazardous associated with grain handling facilities.

t. Electrical (OSHA Subpart S).

Contains regulations regarding electrical hazards in the workplace. Subpart S is

based on older versions of the national consensus standard NFPA 70E. OSHA has

proposed an update to Subpart S to reflect the more current editions of NFPA 70E.

u. Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records (OSHA 1910.1020).

This standard is triggered if an employee is exposed to toxic substances or

harmful physical agents in the workplace. These exposure and medical records must

be retained in accordance with this regulation. The records must also be made

available to employees or their designated representative.

v. Blood borne Pathogens (OSHA 1910.1030).

This standard applies to all possible occupational exposure to blood or other

potentially infectious materials (OPIM). Occupational exposure means reasonably

anticipated contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may

102
result from performance of an employee’s duties. Employees who are responsible

for rendering first aid or medical assistance as part of their job duties are covered

by the protections of the standard.

w. Hazard Communication (OSHA 1910.1200).

Also, referred to as the “Right-to-Know” standard, Hazard Communication

establishes requirements for ensuring that chemical hazards and their associated

protective measures are disseminated to employees who could be potentially be

affected by these hazards.

x. Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Labs (OSHA 1910.1450).

This standard requires a laboratory to develop a Chemical Hygiene Plan which

addresses specific hazards found in the laboratory. This standard does not apply to

typical facility laboratory, as they generally only perform quality assurance/quality

control type laboratory operations.

103
C. HAZOP Studies

Safety and reliability in the design of plant initially relies upon the application of

various codes of practice, or design codes and standards. These represent the

accumulation of knowledge and experience of both individual experts and the industry

as a whole. Such application is usually backed up by the experience of the engineers

involved, who might well have been previously concerned with the design,

commissioning or operation of similar plant. However, it is considered that although

codes of practice are extremely valuable, it is important to supplement them with an

imaginative anticipation of deviations which might occur because of errors in operation

(e.g. equipment malfunction, operator error etc.). The HAZOP Study is an opportunity

to correct these faults before such changes become too expensive, or impossible to

accomplish.

A HAZOP study is a structured and systematic examination of a planned of existing

process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks

to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient operation. The basic concept of HAZOP

study is to take full description of the process and to question every part of it to discover

what deviations from the intention of the design can occur and what the causes and

consequences of these deviations may be. (Hazard Identification and Control, Sam

Mannan, 2005)

Potential Hazards in Biofuels Production and Handling

 Fire and explosion Hazards of Biofuels

Employers producing biofuels may expose workers to potential fire and

explosion hazards, and protect them from these hazards by preventing releases,

avoiding ignition of spills, and having appropriate fire protection systems and

emergency response procedures.

104
Sufficient controls include:

 Good facility layout

 Proper design of vessels and piping systems

 Proper selection of electrical equipment for use in hazardous areas

 Adequate instrumentation with alarms, interlocks, and shutdowns

 Operating procedures

 Good maintenance practices

 Safe work procedures

 Chemical Reactivity Hazards in Biofuel Manufacturing

Biofuels manufacturing processes can present reactive hazards. The gases

produced during ethanol fermentation need to be properly vented to avoid over

pressuring equipment and piping.

Controls to keep the process within safe limits include:

 Controlling the rate and order of chemical addition

 Providing robust cooling

 Segregating incompatible materials to prevent inadvertent mixing

 Use of detailed operating procedures

 Toxicity Hazards in Biofuel Manufacturing

Biofuels and the chemicals used in the manufacturing process present toxic

exposure hazards that need to be carefully controlled to protect workers.

Controls needed include:

 Good engineering, design and fabrication

 Maintenance practices to prevent releases, ventilation, and drainage to

reduce exposures

 Appropriate use of personal protective equipment

105
These hazards are in addition to normal workplace hazards, such as walking/working

surface hazards, electrical hazards and other similar hazards.

D. Pollution Prevention

The increasing production of ethanol has been established as an important

contributor to future energy independence. But the waste streams from many varying

processes that are being developed contain a variety of components which could be

potentially harmful to the environment if adequate care is not taken to manage those

risks (Menetrez, 2010). Pollution prevention is needed to reduce risks and

environmental concerns. At production facilities, there are several points in the process

that create the possibility of release:

 Storage in tanks

 Movement in piping systems

 During transfer to trucks

E. Life Cycle Analysis

Life cycle analysis is used to quantify and evaluate the environmental performance

of a product, process or activity from cradle to grave, that is, considering the whole life

cycle of the process. It starts at the first step of the process being investigated. For this

proposed design, the first step is the transportation of corn kernels to the mill.

Additionally, this accounts all the wastes released to the environment and the

corresponding waste treatment the plant will put up to minimize the risk of the waste in

the environment and nearby community.

The LCA at the different stage of ethanol production methods and product

development is presented in the following illustration.

106
1. Inputs and Outputs of a System

INPUTS OUTPUTS

RAW EMISSIONS TO AIR


CO2 (111, 072.9956 kg/day)
Corn Kernels (312, 244.3329 kg/day ),
Yeast (58.95 kg/day)

ENERGY USABLE PRODUCTS


SYSTEM
Ethanol (100, 000 kg/day),
stillage (1, 138, 850.728 kg/day)

WATER OTHER RELEASES


(Heat)
Figure 5.1 Inputs and Outputs of the System

The figure shows the input materials necessary for the production of ethanol

and the corresponding emissions. CO2 emissions are subjected to treatment which

is the CO2 scrubber for recycle and industrial use. From the heat balance, there are

less amount of heat losses so there is no need for the tanks to be jacketed.

a. System Boundaries

INPUTS OUTPUTS

Raw Materials Atmospheric emissions


(Corn kernels, Enymes) Raw Material Acquisition (CO2)
(Milling)

Material Manufacture
(Fermentation, Distillation)

Solid & Liquid wastes


Energy (dirt,water)
Final Product Collection
(Storing in Cylindrical Vessels)

Transportation/Distribution
(Trucks/ Alcoholic beverage
manufacturers, refueling stations)
Other Environmental Release
Water (Heat)
Consumer use and Final Disposal
(Fuel, Alcoholic beverages)

Figure 5.2 System Boundaries

107
The corn kernels will be acquired from milling and fresh water will be used.

The product which is the ethanol will be stored in a tank for distribution. For the

whole process, the atmospheric emissions will be a negligible amount of steam

coming out of the cooker. CO2 will be scrubbed in the process. The dried stillage

will be used as feed for animals.

2. Raw Material Acquisition

Inputs
(Corn Kernels)

Transportation
(Carrier trucks)

Outputs
Energy
(Milled Grains)

Equipment
(Hammer Mill)

Figure 5.3 Raw Material Acquisition

The main raw material (corn kernels) will be harvested at different places and

is delivered to the milling stage through carrier trucks. The milling stage uses

hammer mill to produce the milled grains used for the processing of the ethanol.

3. Consumer Use and Final Disposal

USE
(Denaturing plants)

Point of Use MAINTENANCE


Transportation/Distribution Waste
(beverages, fuel) (Stored before Disposal
(Trucks) Management
distribution)

Recycle
RE-USE
(by-products: DDGS,
CO2 )

Figure 5.4 Consumer Use and Final Disposal

108
The final product which is 99.5 % ethanol has a variety of uses. In its denatured

state, it is used as the main element of biofuels. It can also be used as solvent in

chemical solutions. For distribution, the product will be contained in a rigid and

sealed containers to avoid losses due to leakage or evaporation since the product is

volatile. As long as there is no contamination of the final product, no amount is

wasted and disposed.

4. Recycling

CORN CORN
KERNELS KERNELS

ETHANOL CO2

Stillage, DDGs CO2

Drying Scrubbing with water

Feed stocks and CO2 scrubbed


fertilizer

Figure 5.5 Recycling Subsystem

Recycling is made in order to minimize the harmful effects of ethanol plant

emissions into the environment and it is also of great effect on the profitability of

the plant. Thus, the stillage removed from the beer column is recovered and is dried

for use as feed stocks. As for the carbon dioxide, it will be scrubbed with water

using the CO2 scrubber to produce carbonic acid.

109
CHAPTER VI

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary and Conclusions

The ultimate purpose for developing detailed process design and cost estimate is to

determine the economics of ethanol production from corn. The purpose of this analysis is to

demonstrate whether or not corn-based ethanol can be cost-competitive on its own merits and

if it cannot, to give policy makers a sense of magnitude of incentive required to make it so.

Based on our economic analysis with annual net profit of 1,264,076,665, the payback

period calculated is 1.23 years which makes production of ethanol from corn feasible.

Economic analysis based on annual demand of ethanol in the Philippines is also shown in our

economic study. The return of investment (ROI) calculated is 67.97% which signifies that this

report is deemed attractive for operation.

In addition to the reasons of ethanol plant’s feasibility is that the Philippines produces

more corn than its demand wherein Region 2 and Isabela is the top corn producer region and

province in the country, respectively. This would be the first plant that will produce a corn

based ethanol in the Philippines. Supply of raw materials will not be a problem during

operations.

110
Recommendations

To improve the feasibility of the design project, the designers recommends

1. Exploring other raw materials for ethanol production that is cheaper and at the

same time will produce a product of good quality. Corn biomass can also be

used as a feed for the production of ethanol.

2. It is also recommended that further study of the process design and choice of

equipment must be conducted to validate or improve its feasibility. Choice of

materials and improvement of equipment may greatly affect the feasibility of

the project.

3. It is advised to consider co-generation operations of the plant in order to

augment profit and project self-sufficiency in the use of energy.

4. Economic viability of by-products must be explored for added income to the

company.

111
REFERENCES

Acora, German, et al. (2013). Process design and sustainability in the production of bioethanol
from lignocellulosic materials. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458
http://www.ejbiotechnology.info DOI: 10.2225/vol16-issue3-fulltext-7
Ajibola, F.O., Edema, M.O.and Oyewole, O.B. (2012). Enzymatic Production of Ethanol from
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114
APPENDIX

A. Material Balance Calculations

1. Adsorption

Basis: 100 000 kg dehydrated ethanol /day

Ethanol Water
m2 (recycle to Ethanol Column)
73 wt% EtOH

Azeotropic Ethanol Molecular


m1
95 wt% EtOH Sieves

m3 Dehydrated Ethanol
99.5 wt% EtOH

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 = m 2 + m 3

m1 = m2 + 100 000 (1)

Ethanol Balance:

0.95m1 = 0.73m2 + 0.995m3

0.95m1 = 0.73m2 + 0.995(100 000) (2)

Degree of Freedom analysis: 2 unknown variables – 2 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1 and 2:

m1 = 120 454. 5455 kg azeotropic ethanol/day

m2 = 20 454. 5455 kg ethanol water/day

115
2. Ethanol Distillation

Ethanol Water
(from Molecular Sieves)
m4 = 20 454. 5455 kg/day
Azeotropic Ethanol
73 wt% EtOH
m2 m2 = 120 454. 5455 kg/day
95 wt% EtOH
m4
Wet Ethanol Ethanol
m1
60 wt% EtOH Column

m3 Process Water
0.05 wt% EtOH

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 + m4= m2 + m3

m1 + 20 454. 5455 = 120 454. 5455 + m3 (1)

Ethanol Balance:

0.50m1 + 0.73m4 = 0.95m2 + 0.0005m3

0.60m1 + 0.73(20 454. 5455) = 0.95(120 454. 5455) + 0.0005m3 (2)

Degree of Freedom analysis: 2 unknown variables – 2 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1 and 2:

m1 = 165 888. 2402 kg wet ethanol/day

m3 = 65 888. 24022 kg process water/day

116
3. Beer Distillation

Wet Ethanol
m2 m2 = 165 888. 2402 kg/day
70 wt% EtOH
Beer
11 wt% Solid
m1 Beer Column
89 wt%Liquid with
10 wt% Ethanol
Stillage
m3 34 wt% Solids
66 wt% Liquid with
negligible EtOH content

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 = m 2 + m 3

m1 = 165 888.2402 + m3 (1)

Ethanol Balance:

(0.10)(0.89)(m1) = 0.70m2

0.089m1 = 0.70(165 888.2402) (2)

Degree of Freedom analysis: 2 unknown variables – 2 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1 and 2:

m1 = 1 304 738. 968 kg beer/day

m3 = 1 138 850. 728 kg stillage/day

117
4. Centrifugation

25% of m2
(routed back to Slurry Tank)

m4
Thin Stillage
7 wt% solids m2 m5

Stillage
m1 = 1 138 850. 728 kg/day m1 Centrifuge
34 wt% solid

WDGS
m3
60 wt% solid

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 = m 2 + m 3

1 138 850. 728 = m2 + m3 (1)

Solid Balance:

0.34m1 = 0.07m2 + 0.60m3

0.34(1 138 850. 728) = 0.07m2 + 0.60m3 (2)

Splitter:

m2 = m 4 + m 5 (3)

0.25m2 = m4 (4)

Degree of Freedom analysis: 4 unknown variables – 4 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1, 2, 3 and 4:

m2 = 558 681. 4892 kg thin stillage/day

m3 = 580 169. 2388 kg WDGS/day

m4 = 34 917. 59308 kg/day

m5 = 523 763. 8961 kg/day

118
5. Evaporation

Steam
m2
(to Cooker)

Thin Stillage
m1 = 523 763. 8961 kg/day m1 Evaporator
7 wt% solids

Conc. Thin Stillage


m3
60 wt% solids

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 = m 2 + m 3

523 763. 8961 = m2 + m3 (1)

Solid Balance:

0.07m1 = 0.60m3

0.07(523 763. 8961) = 0.60m3 (2)

Degree of Freedom analysis: 2 unknown variables – 2 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1 and 2:

m2 = 462 658. 1082 kg H2O/day

m3 = 61 105. 78788kg conc. thin stillage/day

119
6. Distillers’ Grains with Solubles (DGS) Drying

Conc. Thin Stillage


m2 = 61 105. 78788 kg/day
60 wt% solids
m3 H2O
m2
WDGS
m1 = 580 169. 2388 kg /day m1 DGS Dryer
60 wt% solids

m4 DDGS
11 wt% moisture

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 + m2= m3 + m4

580 169. 2388 + 61 105. 78788 = m3 + m4 (1)

Solid Balance:

0.60m1 + 0.60m2 = 0.89m4

0.60(580 169. 2388) + 0.60(61 105. 78788) = 0.89m4 (2)

Degree of Freedom analysis: 2 unknown variables – 2 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1 and 2:

m3 = 208 954. 784 kg H2O/day

m4 = 432 320. 2427 kg DDGS/day

120
7. Fermentation

Yeast
my mCO2

Beer
m2 = 1 304 738. 968 kg/day
Mash (Glucose) m1 Fermentors m2 11 wt% Solid
89 wt%Liquid with
10 wt% Ethanol

Glucose to Ethanol Conversion: 94.0%

C6 H12O6  2C2 H 5OH  CO2


yeast

180 kg 92 kg 88 kg

0.0002 kg of yeast is needed for every 0.82 kg of glucose feed.

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 = m2 + mCO2 (1)

CO2 produced:

88
mCO2 = (0.10) (0.89) m2 × (2)
92

Glucose in the feed:

m1glucose = (0.10) (0.89) m2 × 180 (3)


92(0.94)

Yeast needed:

0.0002
my = m1glucose × (4)
0.82

Degree of Freedom analysis: 4 unknown variables – 4 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

121
Solving Eq. 1, 2, 3 and 4:

m1 = 1 415 811.964 kg mash(glucose)/day

mCO2 = 111 072. 9956 kg CO2/day

m1glucose = 241 696. 5572 kg glucose/day

my = 58.95 kg yeast/day

8. Saccharification

g-amylase
mg

Mash(Glucose)
Saccharification
Mash (Dextrins) m1 m2 m2 = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day
Tank
mglucose = 241 696. 5572 kg/day

Dextrin to Glucose Conversion: 99.0%

C6 H12O6 10 gamylase


10C6 H12O6

0.0007 kg of g-amylase is needed for every 0.82 kg of dextrin feed.

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 = m 2 (1)

Dextrin in the feed:

1
m1dextrin = 241 696. 5572 × (2)
0.99

G-amylase needed:

0.0007
mg = m1dextrin × (3)
0.82

Degree of Freedom analysis: 3 unknown variables – 3 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

122
Solving Eq. 1, 2 and 3:

m1 = 1 415 811.964 kg mash(dextrin)/day

m1dextrin = 244 137. 9366 kg dextrin/day

mg = 208. 41 kg g-amylase/day

9. Liquefaction

Makeup water from Centrifuge Steam from Evaporator


Fresh Water m3 = 34 917. 59308 kg/day m4 = 462 658. 1082 kg/day

m2 m3 m4
Milled Grains
72 wt% Starch Mash(Dextrin)
m1 Slurry Tank Slurry Cooker m5 m5 = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day
mdextrin = 244 137. 9366 kg/day

ma
a-amylase

Starch to Dextrin Conversion: 98.0%

 amylase
(C6 H10O5 ) n  H 2 O a (C6 H12O6 )10

0.74 kg 0.82 kg

0.0006 kg of g-amylase is needed for every 0.74 kg of dextrin feed.

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 + m 2 + m 3 + m4 = m 5 (1)

Starch in the feed (milled grains):

0.74
m1starch = 244 137. 9366 × (2)
0.82(0.98)

m1starch = 0.72m1 (3)

123
A-amylase needed:

0.0006
ma = m1starch × (4)
0.74

Degree of Freedom analysis: 4 unknown variables – 4 equations = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1, 2 and 3:

m1 = 312 244. 3329 kg milled grains/day

m1starch = 224 815.9197 kg starch/day

m2 = 605 991. 9298 kg H2O/day

ma = 182.28 kg a-amylase/day

10. Milling

Corn Kernels m1 Hammer Mill m2 Milled Grains


m2 = 312 244. 3329kg/day

Overall Mass Balance:

m1 = m 2 (1)

Degree of Freedom analysis: 1 unknown variable – 1 equation = 0

The problem is solvable.

Solving Eq. 1:

m1 = 312 244. 3329 kg corn kernels/day

124
B. Energy Balance Calculations

1. Heat Gained During Milling

Corn Kernels, 25oC Hammer Mill Milled Grains, 40oC


m = 312 244. 3329kg/day m = 312 244. 3329kg/day

Given:

m = 3.614kg/s ; Tin = 25oC ; Tout = 40oC ; Cp = 1.800kJ/kgoC

Where:

m = mass flowrate

Cp = specific heat

The energy required

Q  mCpT  3.614(1.800)(40  25)

Q = 97.58 kW

2. Slurry Tank

Fresh Water, 25oC Thin Stilage from Centrifuge, 70oC


m2 = 605 991. 9298 kg/day m3 = 34 917. 59308 kg/day

Milled Grains, 40oC Slurry, 80oC


Slurry Tank
m1 = 312 244. 3329kg/day m4 = 953 153. 8558kg/day

Stream Mass Flowrate Temperature Cp H


(kg/s) (oC) (kJ/kgoC) (kJ/kg)
Milled Grains 3.614 40 1.800 -
Fresh Water 7.014 25 - 112.75
Thin Stillage 0.404 70 - 293.69
Slurry 11.032 80 1.218 -

125
Input:

Sensible Heat of Milled Grains

Q  mCpT  3.614(1.800)(40)

Q  260.21kW

Sensible Heat of Fresh Water

Q  mH  7.014(112.75)

Q  790.83kW

Sensible Heat of Thin Stillage

Q  mH  0.404(293.69)

Q  118.65kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of Slurry

Q  mCpT  11.032(1.218)(80)

Q  1074.96kW

Q  output  input

Q  1074.96  (176.07  790.83  118.65)

Q = -10.59 kW

3. Steam Cooking

126
Steam, 210oC
m2 = 462 658. 1082 kg/day

Slurry, 80oC Mash(Dextrin), 210oC


Cooker
m1 = 953 153. 8558kg/day m3 = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

Stream Mass Flowrate Temperature Cp H


o
(kg/s) ( C) (kJ/kgoC) (kJ/kg)
Slurry 11.032 80 1.218 -
Steam 5.355 210 - 2897.64
Mash(Dextrin) 16.387 210 1.218 -

Input:

Sensible Heat of Slurry

Q  mCpT  11.032(1.218)(80)

Q  1074.96kW

Sensible Heat of Steam

Q  mH  5.355(2897.64)

Q  15516.84kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of Mash

Q  mCpT  16.387(1.218)(210)

Q  4191.47kW

Q  output  input

Q  4191.47  (1074.96  15516.84)

Q = -12400.33 kW

4. Cook Retention Tank

127
Mash(Dextrin), 210oC Cook Retention Mash(Dextrin), 80oC
m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day Tank m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

Heat Lost on the Retention Tank

Q  mCpT  16.387(1.218)(80  210)

Q = -2594.72 kW

5. Pre-Cooling to Saccharification Tank

Cooling Water, 25oC

Mash(Dextrin), 80oC Mash(Dextrin), 30oC


Cooler
m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

Cooling Water, 50oC

Given:

m = 16.387kg/s ; Tin = 80oC ; Tout = 30oC ; Cp = 1.218kJ/kgoC

Where:

m = mass flowrate

Cp = specific heat

The energy required

Q  mCpT  16.387(1.218)(30  80)

Q = -997.97 kW

Enthalpy of Water at 1atm (Perry 8th)

128
T = 25oC ; H = 112.75 kJ/kg

T = 50oC ; H = 209.83 kJ/kg

ΔH = 97.08 kJ/kg

Required Cooling water Flowrate

Q 997.97
m 
H 97.08

m = 10.28 kg/s

6. Saccharification Tank

Mash(Dextrin), 30oC Saccharification Mash(Glucose), 68oC


m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day Tank m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

99.0% Conversion of Dextrin to Glucose

68oC conversion Temperature

From Chemical Reaction Engineering by Octave Levenspiel, the energy

balance equation on reactor is:

Q  Cp2 Tx A  Cp1 T (1  x A )  H r x A

Where:

Cp2 = mean specific heat capacity of completely converted product

Cp1 = mean specific heat of unreacted feed stream

ΔHr = heat of reaction

Data:

129
Cp2 = 1.2552 kJ/kgoC

Cp1 = 1.200 kJ/kgoC

ΔHr = 0.722 kJ/kg

Substituting the data,

Q  1.2552(68  30)(0.99)  1.200(68  30)(1  0.99)  0.722(0.99)

Q = 48.391 kJ/kg

At feed mass flowrate of 16.387kg/s, the heat required is

Q  16.378(48.391)

Q = 792.55 kW

For Heat Loss Calculation

Input:

Q  mCpT  16.387(1.218)(30)

Q = 598.78 kW

Output:

Q  mCpT  16.387(1.2552)(68)

Q = 1398.67 kW

Q  output  input

Q  1398.67  598.78

Q = 799.91 kW

7. Post-Cooling after Saccharification Tank

130
Cooling Water, 25oC

Mash(Glucose), 68oC Mash(Glucose), 30oC


Cooler
m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

Cooling Water, 50oC

Given:

m = 16.387kg/s ; Tin = 68oC ; Tout = 30oC ; Cp = 1.2552kJ/kgoC

The energy required

Q  mCpT  16.387(1.2552)(30  68)

Q = -781.62 kW

Required Cooling water Flowrate

Q 781.62
m 
H 97.08

m = 8.05 kg/s

8. Fermentors

131
CO2

Beer, 35oC
m2 = 1 304 738. 968 kg/day
Mash(Glucose), 30oC 11 wt% Solid
Fermentors
m1 = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day 89 wt%Liquid with
10 wt% Ethanol

Stream Mass Temperature Cp


Flowrate(kg/s) (oC) (kJ/kgoC)
Mash 16.387 30 1.2552
CO2 1.286 35 0.9185
Beer 15.101 35 0.805

Input:

Sensible Heat of Mash

Q  mCpT  16.387(1.2552)(30)

Q  617.07kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of CO2

Q  mCpT  1.286(0.9185)(35)

Q  41.34kW

Sensible Heat of Beer

Q  mCpT  15.101(0.805)(35)

Q  425.47kW

Q  output  input

Q  (41.34  425.47)  617.07

Q = -150.26 kW

9. Beer Column

132
Wet Ethanol, 38oC
m2 = 165 888. 2402 kg/day
70 wt% EtOH
Beer, 35oC
m2 = 1 304 738. 968 kg/day
11 wt% Solid Beer Column
89 wt%Liquid with
10 wt% Ethanol
Stillage, 80oC
m3 = 1 138 850. 728 kg/day
34 wt% solid

Stream Mass Flowrate Temperature Cp


(kg/s) (oC) (kJ/kgoC)
Beer 15.101 35 0.805
Wet Ethanol 1.920 38 3.055
Stillage 13.181 80 4.184

Input:

Sensible Heat of Beer

Q  mCpT  15.101(0.805)(35)

Q  425.47kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of Wet Ethanol

Q  mCpT  1.920(3.055)(38)

Q  222.89kW

Sensible Heat of Stillage

Q  mCpT  13.181(4.184)(80)

Q  4411.94kW

Q  output  input

Q  (222.89  4411.94)  425.47

Q = 4209.36 kW

10. Ethanol Column

133
Ethanol Water, 35oC
(from Molecular Sieves)
m2 = 20 454. 5455 kg/day
Azeotropic Ethanol, 40oC
73 wt% EtOH
m3 = 120 454. 5455 kg/day
95 wt% EtOH

Ethanol
Wet Ethanol, 38oC
Column
m1 = 165 888. 2402 kg/day
70 wt% EtOH
Process Water, 80oC
m4 = 65 888. 2402 kg/day
0.05 wt% EtOH

Stream Mass Flowrate Temperature Cp


(kg/s) (oC) (kJ/kgoC)
Ethanol Water 0.237 35 3.055
Wet Ethanol 1.920 38 3.055
Azeotropic Ethanol 1.394 40 3.357
Process Water 0.763 80 4.188
Input:

Sensible Heat of Wet Ethanol

Q  mCpT  1.920(3.055)(38)

Q  222.89kW

Sensible Heat of Ethanol Water

Q  mCpT  0.237(3.055)(35)

Q  25.34kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of Azeotropic Ethanol

Q  mCpT  1.394(3.357)(40)

Q  187.19kW

Sensible Heat of Process Water

Q  mCpT  0.763(4.188)(80)

Q  255.64kW

Q  output  input

134
Q  (187.19  255.64)  (222.89  25.34)

Q = 194.60 kW

11. Molecular Sieves

Ethanol Water, 80oC


(recycle to Ethanol Column)
m2 = 20 454. 5455 kg/day
73 wt% EtOH
Azeotropic Ethanol, 40oC
Molecular
m1 = 120 454. 5455 kg/day
Sieves
95 wt% EtOH

Dehydrated Ethanol, 80oC


m3 = 100 000 kg/day
99.5 wt% EtOH

Stream Mass Flowrate Temperature Cp


(kg/s) (oC) (kJ/kgoC)
Azeotropic Ethanol 1.394 40 3.357
Dehydrated Ethanol 1.157 80 1.637
Ethanol Water 0.237 80 3.055
Input:

Sensible Heat of Azeotropic Ethanol

Q  mCpT  1.394(3.357)(40)

Q  187.19kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of Ethanol Water

Q  mCpT  0.237(3.055)(80)

Q  57.92kW

Sensible Heat of Dehydrated Ethanol

Q  mCpT  1.157(1.637)(80)

Q  151.52kW

Q  output  input

Q  (57.92  151.52)  187.19

135
Q = 22.25 kW

12. Cooling of Ethanol Water (Recycle to Ethanol Column)

Cooling Water, 25oC

Ethanol Water, 80oC Ethanol Water, 35oC


(recycle to Ethanol Column) Cooler (recycle to Ethanol Column)
m = 20 454. 5455 kg/day m = 20 454. 5455 kg/day
73 wt% EtOH 73 wt% EtOH

Cooling Water, 50oC

Given:

m = 0.237kg/s ; Tin = 80oC ; Tout = 35oC ; Cp = 3.055kJ/kgoC

The energy required

Q  mCpT  0.237(3.055)(35  80)

Q = -32.58W

Required Cooling water Flowrate

Q 32.58
m 
H 97.08

m = 0.34 kg/s

136
13. Cooling of Dehydrated Ethanol

Cooling Water, 25oC

Dehydrated Ethanol, 35oC


Dehydrated Ethanol, 80oC
Cooler m = 100 000 kg/day
m = 100 000 kg/day
99.5 wt% EtOH
99.5 wt% EtOH

Cooling Water, 50oC

Given:

m = 1.157kg/s ; Tin = 80oC ; Tout = 35oC ; Cp = 1.637kJ/kgoC

The energy required

Q  mCpT  1.157(1.637)(35  80)

Q = -85.23W

Required Cooling water Flowrate

Q 85.23
m 
H 97.08

m = 0.88 kg/s

137
14. Cooling of Stillage

Cooling Water, 25oC

Stillage, 80oC Cooler Stillage, 70oC


m = 1 138 850. 728 kg/day m = 1 138 850. 728 kg/day
34 wt% solid 34 wt% solid

Cooling Water, 50oC

Given:

m = 13.181kg/s ; Tin = 80oC ; Tout = 70oC ; Cp = 4.184kJ/kgoC

The energy required

Q  mCpT  13.181(4.184)(70  80)

Q = -551.49W

Required Cooling water Flowrate

Q 551.49
m 
H 97.08

m = 5.68 kg/s

15. Evaporator

138
Steam (to Cooker), 105oC
m2 = 462 658. 1082 kg/day

Thin Stillage, 70oC


m1 = 523 763. 8961 kg/day Evaporator
7 wt% solids

Conc. Thin Stillage, 105oC


m3 = 61 105. 78788 kg/day
60 wt% solids

Stream Mass Flowrate Temperature Cp H


(kg/s) (oC) (kJ/kgoC) (kJ/kg)
Thin Stillage 6.062 70 - 293.69
Steam 5.355 105 - 2677.22
Conc. Thin Stillage 0.707 105 4.184 -
Input:

Sensible Heat of Thin Stillage

Q  mH  6.062(293.69)

Q  1780.35kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of Steam

Q  mH  5.355(2677.22)

Q  14336.525kW

Sensible Heat of Conc. Thin Stillage

Q  mCpT  0.707(4.184)(105)

Q  310.60kW

Q  output  input

Q  (14336.525  310.60)  1780.35

Q = 12866.775 kW

16. DGS Dryer

139
Conc. Thin Stillage, 105oC
m2 = 61 105. 78788 kg/day
60 wt% solids
H2O, 150oC
m3 = 208 954. 784 kg/day

WDGS, 70oC
m1 = 580 169. 2388 kg /day DGS Dryer
60 wt% solids
DDGS, 150oC
m4 = 432 320. 2427 kg /day
11 wt% moisture

Stream Mass Flowrate Temperature Cp H


(kg/s) (oC) (kJ/kgoC) (kJ/kg)
Conc. Thin Stillage 0.707 105 4.184 -
WDGS 6.715 70 4.184 -
Steam 2.418 150 - 2778.64
DDGS 5.004 150 2.536 -
Input:

Sensible Heat of Conc. Thin Stillage

Q  mCpT  0.707(4.184)(105)

Q  310.60kW

Sensible Heat of WDGS

Q  mCpT  6.715(4.184)(70)

Q  1966.69kW

Output:

Sensible Heat of Steam Sensible Heat of DDGS

Q  mH  2.418(2778.64) Q  mCpT  5.004(2.536)(150)

Q  6718.75kW Q  1903.52kW

Q  output  input

Q  (6718.75  1903.52)  (310.60  1966.69)

Q = 6344.98 kW

C. Equipment Design Calculations

140
1. Hammer Mill

Corn Kernels m1 Hammer Mill m2 Milled Grains


m2 = 312 244. 3329kg/day

The grinder that will be used in this project is hammer mill. Hammer mills

accomplish size reduction by impacting a slow moving target with a rapidly

moving hammer. It employs rotating elements that beat the material until it is

small enough to pass through a screen located at the bottom of the mill casing.

312244.3329
m  14.34tons / hr
24  907.185

From Table 12.9 (a) of Chemical Process Equipment- Selection and Design

by Walas, at this capacity, 1 swing- Sledge Hammer mill is used. The grate spacing

is ¼ inch. The following data were also obtained:

Length = 5’1” or 1.5494 m

Width = 5’8” or 1.7272 m

Inside Diameter = 30” or 0.762 m

Inside width = 20” or 0.508 m

Feed opening = 17” × 20” or 0.4318 m × 0.508 m

Pulley speed = 1000 – 1300 rpm

Approximate hp = 40

2. Slurry Tank

141
Fresh Water, 25oC Thin Stilage from Centrifuge, 70oC
m2 = 605 991. 9298 kg/day m3 = 34 917. 59308 kg/day

Milled Grains, 40oC Slurry, 80oC


Slurry Tank
m1 = 312 244. 3329kg/day m4 = 953 153. 8558kg/day

The viscous mixture with enzymes is mixed for up to 0.25 hours.

For calculations the following data were used,

Mass of slurry = 953153.8558kg/day

Density of mash = 1220 kg/m3

Feed Volume

953153.8558 0.25
V    8.1383m 3
1220 24

For bioreactors the actual volume is 1.2-1.3 times the capacity.

V f  1.38.1383  10.5797m 3

From the book entitled Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering by Rajiv Duta,

the ratio of height to its diameter is 2. Therefore, the diameter of the reactor is:

D 2 H D 2 (2 D)
Vf  ; 10.5797 
4 4
D  1.8885m

For the Height

H  2 D  3.7770 m

Reactor impeller: According to Rajiv Duta, the ratio of the impeller diameter to

the tank diameter is equal to 0.3.

impeller diameter  0.3(1.8885)  0.5666m

1
Baffles: width  D  0.1889m
10

3. Steam Cooker
142
The slurry is then pumped through a jet cooker and held for 5 minutes.

For calculations the following data were used,

Mass of mash = 1 415 811.964 kg/day

Mass of Slurry = 953153.8558 kg/day

Mass of Water = 462658.1082 kg/day

Density of Slurry = 1220 kg/m3

Density of Water = 998 kg/m3

Feed Volume

 953153.8558 462658.1082  5
V     4.3224m 3
 1220 998  24  60

Vessel:

V f  1.3(4.3224)  5.6192m 3
L  3D
D 2 3D 3
Vf  L
4 4
D  1.3360m
L  4.0081m

Reactor Thickness:

Pstatic  gh  1137.33(9.81)( 4.0081)  44719.0938Pa


P  1.33(44719.0938  101325)  194238.6448Pa

For spot-examined carbon steel, E = 0.85 and S = 94500 kPa

Maximum Corrosion Allowance C = 0.003175 m (ASME Section I)

143
P( D / 2)
t reactor   C  4.7927mm
SE  0.6 P
0.885PLa
t head  C
SE  0.1P

where La = D/2

t head  4.5484mm

Inside Depth of Dish (IDD)


IDD  La  La  r   La  t head  r 
2 2

1
2

Where knuckle radius r = 0.06(D/2)

IDD  0.5926 m

Volume in Head

 2
Vhead  0.9 La 2 IDD 
 3 
Vhead  0.4985m 3

Total Reactor Volume

V  6.6162m 3

4. Mash Pre-Cooler

144
Cooling Water, 25oC

Mash(Dextrin), 80oC Mash(Dextrin), 30oC


Cooler
m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

Cooling Water, 50oC

Log mean temperature difference:

(80  50)  (30  25)


Tlm  =13.95°C
 80  50 
ln  
 30  25 

Correction Factor, F:

Th ,in  Th ,out 80  30
R  = 2.00
Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25

Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25
P  = 0.45
Th ,in  Tc ,in 80  25

From Figure 14.5a&b (Peters, Timmerhaus & West, 2004):

F < 0.85 (Appendix E: F should not less than 0.85)

Two shell passes, two rows of tubes (for more than two passes, use F = 1)

Tlm  1.00(13.95) = 13.95°C

Q 997970W
A  = 84.17 m2
UTlm W
(850 2 )(13.95K )
m K

5. Saccharification Tank

145
Mash(Dextrin), 30oC Saccharification Mash(Glucose), 68oC
m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day Tank m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

Residence time in the saccharification tank is 6 hours.

For calculations the following data were used,

Mass of mash = 1 415 811.964 kg/day

Mass of Slurry = 953153.8558 kg/day

Mass of Water = 462658.1082 kg/day

Density of Slurry = 1220 kg/m3

Density of Water = 998 kg/m3

Feed Volume

 953153.8558 462658.1082  6
V     311.2147m 3
 1220 998  24

For bioreactors the actual volume is 1.2-1.3 times the capacity.

V f  1.3(311.2147)  404.5792m 3

From the book entitled Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering by Rajiv Duta,

the ratio of height to its diameter is 2. Therefore, the diameter of the reactor is:

D 2 H D 2 (2 D)
Vf  ; 404.5791 
4 4
D  6.3625m

H  2 D  12 .7250 m

Reactor impeller: According to Rajiv Duta, the ratio of the impeller diameter to

the tank diameter is equal to 0.3.

impeller diameter  0.3(6.3625)  1.9088m

1
Baffles: width  D  0.6363m
10

6. Mash Post-Cooler

146
Cooling Water, 25oC

Mash(Glucose), 68oC Mash(Glucose), 30oC


Cooler
m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day m = 1 415 811. 964 kg/day

Cooling Water, 50oC

Log mean temperature difference:

(68  50)  (30  25)


Tlm  =10.15°C
 68  50 
ln  
 30  25 

Correction Factor, F:

Th ,in  Th ,out 68  30
R  = 1.52
Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25

Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25
P  = 0.58
Th ,in  Tc ,in 68  25

From Figure 14.5a&b (Peters, Timmerhaus & West, 2004):

F < 0.85 (Appendix E: F should not less than 0.85)

Two shell passes, two rows of tubes (for more than two passes, use F = 1)

Tlm  1.00(10.15) = 10.15°C

Q 781620W
A  = 90.60 m2
UTlm W
(850 2 )(10.15K )
m K

7. Fermentors

147
The whole fermentation process usually requires 48-72 hours.

myeast = 58.95 kg/day

58.95kg
V yeast  3
 0.0651m 3
905.105kg / m

mfeed = 1 415 811. 964 kg mash/day

1415811.964kg
Vmash  3
 925.37m 3
1530kg / m
Vtotal  925.43m 3

Reactor Volume:

Vreactor = 1.3Vcalc = 1.3(925.43) = 1203.06 m3

Reactor Diameter and Height:

H/D = 1.5

8Vreactor
Dreactor  3  10.07m
3
H reactor  15.11m

Reactor Thickness:

Pstatic  gh  1530(9.81)(15.11)  226790.523Pa


P  1.33(226790.523  101325)  436393.65Pa

For spot-examined carbon steel, E = 0.85 and S = 94500 kPa

Maximum Corrosion Allowance C = 0.003175 m (ASME Section I)

P( D / 2)
t reactor   C  0.030620m
SE  0.6 P
0.885PLa
t head  C
SE  0.1P

where La = D/2

t head  0.027397m

Inside Depth of Dish (IDD)


IDD  La  La  r   La  t head  r 
2 2

1
2

148
Where knuckle radius r = 0.06(D/2)

IDD  4.5265 m

Volume in Head

 2
Vhead  0.9 La 2 IDD 
 3 
Vhead  216.30m 3

Total Reactor Volume

V  1419.3630m 3

Dimensions of Impeller and Baffle

Dimpeller = Dreactor/3 = 3.36 m

Imp. Distance from Tank Bottom = 3.36 m

Baffle width = Dreactor/10 = 1.007 m

Imp. Disc Diameter = 3Dimp/4 = 2.52 m

Imp. Blade Length = Dimp/4 = 0.84 m

Imp. Blade Width = Dimp/5 = 0.672 m

Baffle Tip Distance from Tank Bottom = Dreactor/5 = 2.014 m

8. Beer Column

149
Wet Ethanol, 38oC
m2 = 165 888. 2402 kg/day
70 wt% EtOH
Beer, 35oC
m2 = 1 304 738. 968 kg/day
11 wt% Solid Beer Column
89 wt%Liquid with
10 wt% Ethanol
Stillage, 80oC
m3 = 1 138 850. 728 kg/day
34 wt% solid

9. Ethanol Column

Ethanol Water, 35oC


(from Molecular Sieves)
m2 = 20 454. 5455 kg/day
Azeotropic Ethanol, 40oC
73 wt% EtOH
m3 = 120 454. 5455 kg/day
95 wt% EtOH

Ethanol
Wet Ethanol, 38oC
Column
m1 = 165 888. 2402 kg/day
70 wt% EtOH
Process Water, 80oC
m4 = 65 888. 2402 kg/day
0.05 wt% EtOH

10. Adsorption Columns

The pressure required for this adsorption system ranges from 1 to 2.5 atm.

According to Green & Perry (2008), adsorption columns with pressures above

atmospheric must be designed like process pressure vessels. A process

pressurevessel has the following dimensions:

Column height = 4.88 m; Column diameter = 1.83 m

Height of adsorbent inside the column = 2.89 m

Operating conditions:

Temperature: 35-116°C; Pressure: 1-2.5atm

To determine the amount of 3A Molecular Zeolites needed, the following

ratio will be used:

20 kg H2O : 100 kg 3A zeolite

11. Anhydrous Ethanol Cooler


150
Cooling Water, 25oC

Dehydrated Ethanol, 35oC


Dehydrated Ethanol, 80oC
Cooler m = 100 000 kg/day
m = 100 000 kg/day
99.5 wt% EtOH
99.5 wt% EtOH

Cooling Water, 50oC

Log mean temperature difference:

(80  50)  (35  25)


Tlm  =18.20°C
 80  50 
ln  
 35  25 

Correction Factor, F:

Th ,in  Th ,out 80  35
R  = 1.80
Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25

Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25
P  = 0.45
Th ,in  Tc ,in 80  25

From Figure 14.5a&b (Peters, Timmerhaus & West, 2004):

F < 0.85 (Appendix E: F should not less than 0.85)

Two shell passes, two rows of tubes (for more than two passes, use F = 1)

Tlm  1.00(18.20) = 18.20°C

Q 85230W
A  = 5.51 m2
UTlm W
(850 2 )(18.20K )
m K

12. Ethanol Water Cooler

151
Cooling Water, 25oC

Ethanol Water, 80oC Ethanol Water, 35oC


(recycle to Ethanol Column) Cooler (recycle to Ethanol Column)
m = 20 454. 5455 kg/day m = 20 454. 5455 kg/day
73 wt% EtOH 73 wt% EtOH

Cooling Water, 50oC

Log mean temperature difference:

(80  50)  (35  25)


Tlm  =18.20°C
 80  50 
ln  
 35  25 

Correction Factor, F:

Th ,in  Th ,out 80  35
R  = 1.80
Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25

Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25
P  = 0.45
Th ,in  Tc ,in 80  25

From Figure 14.5a&b (Peters, Timmerhaus & West, 2004):

F < 0.85 (Appendix E: F should not less than 0.85)

Two shell passes, two rows of tubes (for more than two passes, use F = 1)

Tlm  1.00(18.20) = 18.20°C

Q 32580W
A  = 2.11 m2
UTlm W
(850 2 )(18.20K )
m K

13. Stillage Cooler

152
Cooling Water, 25oC

Stillage, 80oC Cooler Stillage, 70oC


m = 1 138 850. 728 kg/day m = 1 138 850. 728 kg/day
34 wt% solid 34 wt% solid

Cooling Water, 50oC

Log mean temperature difference:

(80  50)  (70  25)


Tlm  =36.99°C
 80  50 
ln  
 70  25 

Correction Factor, F:

Th ,in  Th ,out 80  70
R  = 0.40
Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25

Tc ,out  Tc ,in 50  25
P  = 0.45
Th ,in  Tc ,in 80  25

From Figure 14-4&14-5 (Peters, Timmerhaus & West, 2004):

F = 0.97 (One shell pass, two tube passes)

Tlm  0.97(36.99) = 35.88°C

Q 551490W
A  = 18.09 m2
UTlm W
(850 2 )(35.88K )
m K

153
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PLANT DESIGN ASSESSMENT RUBRIC

Project Name: PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM CORN Date:

Team Members: 1. Acerit, Harvey O.


2. Mamauag, Aileen T.
3. Sibal, Arjanelle A.
4. Soriano, Jonalbeth B.

Category/ Exceptional Acceptable Marginal Unacceptable Points


Dimensions (4) (3) (2) (1)
Organization Information is presented in a Information is presented in a Work is hard to follow as Sequence of information is
& Style logical, interesting way, which is logical manner, which is easily there is very little continuity.
difficult to follow.
easy to follow. followed. No apparent structure or
(2) Purpose of work is stated, continuity.
Purpose is clearly stated and Purpose of work is clearly stated but does not assist in Purpose of work is not
explains the structure of work. assists the structure of work. following work. clearly stated.
Content Demonstration of full At ease with content and able Uncomfortable with No grasp of information.
& knowledge of the subject with to elaborate and content. Clearly no knowledge of
Knowledge explanations and explain to some degree. Only basic concepts are subject matter. No
elaboration. demonstrated and questions are answered. No
(2) interpreted. interpretation made.
Design Clear and complete Overall sound understanding of Some understanding of Little or no grasp of
Problem and understanding of design goal the problem and constraints. problem. Major deficiencies problem.
Boundaries and constraints. Does not significantly impair that will impact the quality Incapable of producing a
solution. of Successful solution.
(2) solution.
Alternative Final design achieved after Alternative approaches Serious deficiencies in Only one design presented
Designs review of reasonable identified to some degree. exploring and identifying or clearly infeasible
alternatives. alternative designs. alternative given.
(1)

154
Use of Computer–aided tools are Computer–aided tools used Minimal application and Serious deficiencies in
Computer– used effectively to develop with moderate effectiveness use of appropriate tools. Understanding the correct
Aided Tools and analyze designs. to develop designs. selection and/or use of
(1) tools.

Application of Critical selection and Effective application of Serious deficiencies in No or erroneous


Engineering application of engineering Engineering principles proper selection and use of application of
Principles Principles ensuring reasonable resulting in reasonable engineering principles. engineering principles
results. solution. yielding unreasonable
(3) solution.
Final Design Design meets or exceeds Design meets desired Barely capable of achieving Not capable of achieving
desired objectives. objectives. desired objectives. desired objectives.

(5) Effective implementation of Moderately effective Minimal utilization of resource No implementation of


resource conservation and utilization of resource conservation and recycle resource conservation
recycle strategies. conservation and recycle potentials. and
potentials. Recycle strategies.
Format Format is consistent Format is generally Mostly consistent format. Work is illegible, format
& Aesthetics throughout including heading consistent including changes throughout, e.g.
styles and captions. heading styles and captions. font type, size etc.
(1)
Figures, Figures and tables are Figures and tables are neatly Figures and tables are legible, Figures and tables are
Graphs & presented logically and done and provide intended but not convincing. sloppy and fail to provide
Tables reinforce the text. information. intended information.
Many tables are not interpreted. Tables are not used
All tables are effectively Most tables are properly Important features are not effectively. Little
(2) interpreted and discussed in interpreted and important communicated or understood. understanding of
the report. features noted. important features or
issues.
Safety & Complete understanding of Sound understanding of Serious deficiencies in No understanding or
Health Issues health and safety issues health and safety issues. addressing health and safety appreciation of safety
leading to sound and Mostly effective in achieving issues leading to an unsupported and health related issues.
(2) supported results. supported results. and/or infeasible result.

155
Environmental Complete understanding of Sound understanding of Environmental aspects are No understanding or
Aspects Environmental aspects. Environmental aspects. Addressed ineffectively with appreciation of the
Effective in addressing of Mostly effective in little or no effect on end results. importance of
(2) Environmental issues leading addressing environmental environmental concerns.
to a better result. issues.
Spelling Negligible misspellings and/or Minor misspellings and/or Several spelling and Numerous spelling and
& Grammar grammatical errors. grammatical errors. grammatical errors. grammatical errors.

(1)
References Reference section complete Minor inadequacies in Inadequate list of references or No referencing system
and comprehensive. references. references in text. used.
Consistent and logical Consistent referencing Inconsistent or illogical
(1) referencing system. system. referencing system.
TOTAL

156