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5 , MAY 1982


Two Dimensional Digital Si@ Processing 1: Lincspl Filters (Topics in Reliability problems have existed since the dawn of the industrial
AppliedPhysics, Volume 42)-T. S. Huang, Ed. (Berlin-Heidelberg- age. At f i t , such problems were mainly confhed to mechanical sys-
New York: Springer, 1981, 210 pp.). Reviewed by Edward S.Angel, tems.However, with technological progress,new reliability problems
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univm'ty of New arose in such areas as electric power systems, communication systems,
Mexico, Albuquerque,hW 87131. aerospace, and computers. Thus reliability problems have continually
become more complex. Lack of reliability is wasteful and hazardous,
Recent advances in digital image processing, speech recognition, g e e and slows down the pace of technological progress. More redundancy
physical data analysis, L S I circuit design, and many other areas have must be provided to ensure the operation of a system whose compo-
generated a great amount of work on the design of multidimensional nents are expected to fail, thus raising the cost.
filters. In the six years since the publication of the predecessor [ 11 of Despite the large amount of research done on engineering reliability
this volume, there have been significant advances in both the theory in the last three decades, as attested by an ever-increasing number
and practice of two-dimensional signa processing. This is evidenced of papers, relativelyfew books have been published on the subject.
not only by the more cohesive and lucid presentation of this volume, This book by Dhillon and Singh, the twelfth volume in the Wiley
but also by the fact that this is the first of three volumes on the topic. Series on Systems Engineering and Analysis, is a welcome and timely
Volumes I1 and I11 will deal with two-dimensional transforms and contribution.
median filtering, respectively. The book contains eleven chapters and an appendix. Chapter 1 em-
After a short introduction, the book has four technical chapters, phasizes the importance of reliability engineering in the planning, d e
each by distinguished researchers in the field. The first section is on sign and operation of complex systems. Chapter 2 provides the requisite
the designof two-dimensional nomecursive filters by Mersereau. Al- mathematical background to prepare the reader for the fundamental
though the chapter is brief, it covers the three main design methods: concepts in reliability theory presented in Chapter 3. The book exten-
windows, transformations, and equhipple algorithms. The discussion sively treats the methods of fault-free analysis and common-cause
provides a goodpicture of the comparativeadvantagesand disadvantages failures in Chapter 4. The important topics of software reliability,
of each of the design strategies without going into detail of the particuh mechanical reliability, and human reliability are covered in Chapters 5
algorithms. through 7. The techniques of reliability assessment of three-state d e
The next chapter by Ramamoorthy and Bruton is concerned with the vice systems are covered in Chapter 8 (and Appendix).
design of two-dimensional recursive filters. The design of two-dimen- Even though reliability is a general concept applicable to different
sional recursive filters is far more M c u l t than one-dimensional coun- types of systems, some of these systems have their own specific relia-
terparts for a number of reasons. Robably the two most bothersome bility developments. The book treats three of these specific areas,
problems are the lack of a Fundamental Theorem of Algebra for poly- namely, power system reliability, transit system reliability and computer
nomials in more than one variable, thus leading to difficulties in estab- system reliability in the last three chapters.
lishing stability of multidimensional filters, and the variety of ways in The book is easily readable by anyone with an engineeringbackground.
which r d o n can be defined in multiple dimensions. The introduc- It does not get bogged down in mathematical rigor and details; rather, it
tion of this and the next chapter provide a good background to these emphasizes the concepts. The treatment of material proceeds in a logical
problems for those familiar with design of one-dimensional recursive manner. The chapters are organized in a sensiile sequence and are
filters. This chapter includes three methods for the design of quarter- generally well balanced. An exception to this is Chapter 5 which, in
plane recursive filters and three methods for the design of nonsym- the reviewer's opinion, is too short for such an important modem topic
metric half-plane filters. as software reliability. Examples often illustrate the application of con-
The following chapter, the longest in the book, is concerned with the cepts. However, more examples, in both quality and substance, would
stability of two-dimensional recursive filters. O'Connor and Huang start have further enriched the book. Amplereferences are given on each
with an excellent discussion ofthe problems of stability and recursion in topic and they are generally exhaustive and up to date. This is a good
two dimensions. This is followed by a discussion of the major stability service for the reader who is interested in further reading and research.
theorems. The largest part of the chapter is devoted to a number of The book is a valuable reference for engineers involved in systems
stability tests. Throughout, the authors have been careful to include planning, design and operation. It could also be used as a text for a
examples and to point out the practical difficulties involved in imple c ow on the general subject of reliability engineering as well as power
menting the various tests. system reliability, transit system reliability or computer system reliabil-
A fiual chapter by Woods is a brief introduction to Kalman filtering ity, depending on the selection of chapters to be covered. (Chapters 1
in two dimensions. This chapter deals with a subject which,while through 4 should be common to all). However, as such it has a drawback
certainly related to theprevious chapters, probably requires more back- in that it lacks problems on each topic. A seriesof problems at the end
ground than do the others. While Woodshas presented his own approach of some chapters would have been a good asset to the book. Also, a
very well, this chapter lacks some of the introductory material, gen- demonstration of the application of computer methods in reliability
erality and perspective contained in the rest of the book. analysis would havebeen beneficial.
Overall, this volume is a valuableand timely contribution. The authors In summary, the book is interesting, carefully organized and written,
and editor have done a fine job of presenting important current material providing general coverage for a multidisciplined subject in a reasonable
in a readable format. The notation, while not totally consistent, should size.
present no problem to the reader. The reader should be familiar with
one-dimensional 'digital filtering and also be ready to make use of the Reprinted from IEEECircuitsandSystemsMagazine,December 1981.
many references in reading this work.
[ 1 1 Picture Procew'ng and Digital Filtering (Topics in Applied Physics,
Volume 6), T. S. Huang, Ed. New York: Springer, 1975.
Reprinted from IEEECircuitsandSystemsMagazine,December 1981.
Fast Fourier Transform and Convdution Algorithm-H. J. Nussbaumer
(Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer, 1981, 248 pp.). Reviewed by
Edward S.Angel, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque,NM 87131.
W e most electrical engineers now regard the Fast Fourier Trans-
Engineering Relibility,New Techniques and Applications-B. S.Dhillon of the algorithm itself is
form as a standard tool ofthe trade, the M ~ U E
and Chanan Singh (New York: Wiley, 1981,339 pp.). Reviewed b y M. often unknown to theuser. Recent advances in number theoretic trans-
Malek-Zauarei, Depmtment of Electricnl and Computer Engineehg, forms and the Winograd algorithms have made available m y more o p
University ofNew Mexico, Albuquerque,h"87131. tions than the usual base two FFT,but these new results require a much
deeper understanding of the underlying mathematics. This small volume
In this era of automation, reliability engineering has a special place. is dkcted towards this need. It is concise but well written and should
The importance of reliability engineering becomes apparent when, in be accessl'ble to most graduate students in electrical engineering, al-
everyday life, we expect on-time transportation, reliable communica- though it may require some additional reading on number theory and
tion, and a steady supply of electric power and other utilities. The modern algebra.
complex systems providing these d ce s consist of many commnents,