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7TH SEM (G1)

1. Insulation Coordination is the process of determining the proper insulation levels of

various components in a power system as well as their arrangements. It is the selection
of an insulation structure that will withstand voltage stresses to which the system, or
equipment will be subjected to, together with the proper surge arrester.
2. Properties of bundled conductors are:
A.Inductive reactance is larger than single conductor
B.Capacitive reactance is less than single conductor
C.Product of capacitive and inductive reactance is same as that of single conductor
3. Voltage up rating involves increasing the voltage of a transmission line to thenext
standard voltage level, which increases the power that can be transmitted through the
line without increasing the current. By taking this approach, the line is not brought any
closer to its thermal rating and losses are not increased.
4. This are those lines in which sending end voltage and current is equal toreceiving end
voltage and current. Hydro electric and thermal power plants are located at a great
distance from load centre. So it is necessary to use various compensation techniques
makes sending end voltage and current equals to receiving end voltage and current.
5. Facrors affecting corona loss are:
a. Frequency
b. Conductor size
c. Conductor spacing d. Line voltage
6. A concept is described for a possible definition of the intrinsic dielectric strength of
insulating materials, which can be considered as a fundamental materials property
similar to other material properties, such as young’s modulus, index of refraction, and
expansion coefficients.
7. When a solid dielectric subjected to electrical stresses for a long time fails.Tracking is
the formation of a continuous conducting paths across the surface of insulation mainly
due to surface erosion under voltage application.
8. Materials that has been used in transformer is transformer oil and insulating paper.
Transformer oil is suitable for high temperature and high voltage condition. The oil will
help the transformer to cool down the temperature. For large power transformer, it may
have external radiator to exchange the heat by convection and also can use cooling fan
and oil-to water heat exchangers.
10. In liquid: Physical properties of liquids, divided into two general categories: pure
liquids and liquid mixtures. On Earth, water is the most abundant liquid, although much of
the water with which organisms come into contact is not in pure form but is a mixture in
which various substances are dissolved.
11. A bundle conductor is a conductor made up of two or more sub-conductors and is
used as one phase conductor. Bundle conductors are also called duplex, triplex, etc.,
conductors, referring to the number of sub-conductors and are sometimes referred to as
grouped or multiple conductors.
12. Active heave compensation (AHC) is a technique used on lifting equipment to reduce
the influence of waves upon offshore operations. AHC differs from Passive Heave
Compensation by having a control system that actively tries to compensate for any
movement at a specific point, using power to gain accuracy.
13. Corona is the phenomenon of violet glow, hissing Noise & Production of Ozon
gas in An Over head Lines Is called Corona Loss.
14. The theoretical dielectric strength of a material is an intrinsic property of the bulk
material and is independent of the configuration of the material or the electrodes with
which the field is applied. This "intrinsic dielectric strength" corresponds to what would be
measured using pure materials under ideal laboratory conditions.
15. In electrical engineering, treeing is an electrical pre-breakdown phenomenon in
solid insulation. It is a damaging process due to partial discharges and
progresses through the stressed dielectric insulation, in a path resembling the branches
of a tree.

d d d d d d

d d
fig :GMD of bundled conducter . the bundled conducter are place
horizontally The distance between two conducter is 2D

18. PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) –is the most commonly used thermoplastic insulator for
cables.Cable Insulation Materials. The following materials are typically used for cable
insulation: Thermoplastic. Thermoplastic compounds are materials that go soft when
heated and harden when cooled.
19. Liquidity is the degree to which an asset or security can be quickly bought orsold in
the market without affecting the asset's price.
20. The development of a systematic theory of streamer breakdown of a gas requires the
consideration of the transport of the region of ionization toward the ionized gas in an
electric field depending on the form of the streamer, which in turn is determined by the
transport mechanisms.
21. Given:
400kv, N=2 D=3.18cm
r=0.015m B=45*10-2m r

=√r.B=(0.015*45*10-2)1/2 r

22. Various methods of generations of DC are:
A. Thermal power generation
B. Nuclear power generation
C. Wind power generation
D. Coal power generation
E. Geothermal power generation
F. Hydro power generation
23. The first Townsend coefficient ( α ), also known as first Townsend avalanche
coefficient is a term used where secondary ionisation occurs because the primary
ionisation electrons gain sufficient energy from the accelerating electric field, or from the
original ionising particle. The coefficient gives the number of secondary electrons
produced by primary electron per unit path length.