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by polymer packages

Following a book [Vergnaud, J. M.; Rosca, I. D. Assessing Food Safety of Polymer Packagings; Smithers

Rapra Ltd.: Shawbury, Shropshire, UK, 2006] written on this subject, problems arising in food protection by

polymer packages are examined in this survey, from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. The

process of release of the polymer additives into the packaged food is established: the transfer is controlled

either by transient diffusion through the thickness of the package or by convection at the package–food

interface and through the food as well. As recycling of old polymer packages in new polymer packages is now

common, the time of protection of the food is evaluated when the new package consists of two layers, the

virgin polymer layer being in contact with the food. Active packages able to deliver an antimicrobial agent in

the food are also briefly examined. Finally, an attempt is made to define the operational conditions of a

standardised test as well as the best way to calculate the diffusivity and convection coefficient.

By Iosif-Daniel Rosca, micro-organisms. Plastics are also able true that poly-olefins produce

Jean-Maurice Vergnaud to reduce the loss of components such energy in burning, but it does not

as water or flavour in the packed mate- work well for PVC.

rial to a great extent. Resulting from (ii) The other way consists of reusing

INTRODUCTION this protection, plastic packages them as new packages. However, it

enable the consumer to use foodstuffs should not be ignored that very

Before 1950, food was sold mainly in nearly perfect hygienic conditions, often the old cans or bottles made

from bulk containers, the packaging and to store them without loss in qual- of plastics are commonly used to

done by the retailer after selling. For ity over an extended period of time. keep other liquids such as chemi-

example, milk was taken from a large But it is also true that plastics contain cals potentially dangerous for

milk can by a soup-ladle to be dropped low-molecular weight compounds such health. And in the same manner

in the milk-jug of the consumer. Pre- as oligomers and sometimes mono- as the additives initially in the vir-

packaging was developed in the mid mers, and additives such as plasticizers, gin polymer may migrate into the

1900s with the production of sealable lubricants, stabilizers and antioxidants, food, these chemicals may deeply

glass bottles and airtight metal cans. which are absolutely necessary either diffuse into the old polymeric

Later on, flexible materials, such as for the processing or the stability of the package, and washing even with

cellophane, were introduced instead final polymeric materials. The draw- boiling water is not able to extract

of grease-proof paper. Today, since back that results is the possible migra- them. Thus, we have to deal with a

they exhibit outstanding food protec- tion of these additives from the package potentially polluted material. And

tion properties such as air-tightness into the packaged material, leading to a finally, the only way to resolve the

and durability, plastics are used prefer- potential ingestion problem of major problem is to build new packages

entially for packaging foodstuffs. concern. For this reason, a list of non- consisting of two layers, the one

It is true that plastic packages are authorised additives has been drawn made of the recycled polymer,

capable of retarding and sometimes under the guidance of the European while the other made of virgin

preventing detrimental changes in Community (EEC) and the United polymer that will be put in contact

the packed material due to external States Food and Drug Administration with the food.

influences such as oxygen, light, and (FDA, Washington, DC, USA).

Moreover, as the use of plastic

packages is now widely spread over And following this way, as these

Iosif-Daniel Rosca is affiliated with all countries, a large amount of old multi-layer packages are obtained by

Department of Polymer Chemistry, packages is disseminated in the gar- co-extrusion or co-moulding for bot-

Polytechnic University, Bucharest, bage heaps. Thus the problem appears tles, at a temperature at which the

Romania. with the question: what to do with polymers are melted, an additional

these old plastics of various kinds? A transfer (by diffusion or perhaps by

Jean-Maurice Vergnaud is affiliated few ways are already explored, waiting convection) takes place between the

with University of St-Etienne, Route to be widely used: recycled and the virgin polymer layers.

de Chavanne, 42400 Saint-Chamond, At that time of the studies, heat transfer

France (Tel.: 4 77 31 86 73; has to be looked upon, and the effect of

fax: 4 77 31 86 73; e-mail: vergnaud. (i) One way consists of burning them the temperature-dependency of the

jean-maurice@wanadoo.fr). in the same way as crude oil; it is diffusivity estimated.1

14 ß Division of Chemical Health and Safety of the American Chemical Society 1871-5532/$32.00

Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jchas.2006.08.006

The process of material transfer from of the parameters of interest, especially where the concentration of the diffus-

the package into the food can be gen- the diffusivity and the coefficient of ing substance C depends on the time, t

erally described by either transient convection on this rate of transfer, as and distance, x.1,13

Fickian diffusion through the package well as the ratio of the volumes of At the packaging–liquid interface,

or convection in the liquid food as well liquid and packaging, is evaluated. the rate at which the substance is trans-

as at the solid–liquid (that is, package– Some results are given in the case of ferred into the liquid is constantly

food) interface; the process of transfer is a single layer package by studying the equal to the rate at which this sub-

controlled only by diffusion through the effect of the thickness of the package as stance is brought to the surface by

solid food. Various attempts have pre- well as that of the rate of stirring of the internal diffusion through the polymer

viously been made by assuming that the liquid, which acts upon the coefficient packaging, leading to the relation:

rate of convection at the solid–liquid of convective transfer. In all cases, the @C

interface is infinite, leading to the fact results are expressed in terms of pro- D ¼ hðC L;t C eq Þ (2)

@x

that the concentration of the material files of concentration of the diffusing

on the solid surface falls instanta- substance developed through the where h is the coefficient of transfer by

neously to the value at equilibrium as thickness of the package and of the convection in the liquid next to the

soon as it is in contact with the liquid, kinetics of transfer of this substance surface, CL,t the concentration of the

e.g., 0 when this liquid is initially pure.2 in the liquid.5,6 Dimensionless num- diffusing substance on the surface of

Other attempts have been made by con- bers are used, as often as it was possible the solid at time t, and Ceq is the con-

sidering the thickness of the package as so as to build general curves called centration of the diffusing substance

semi-infinite,3 essentially because this master curves, which can be used in on this surface required to maintain

assumption leads to a very simple equa- various different cases. equilibrium with the concentration of

tion. The values of the diffusivity found The problem of a bi-layer system this substance in the liquid, at time t.

in the literature collected from experi- where the package consists of the layer The value of the coefficient of con-

ments made by various authors whose made of the recycled polymer bound to vection, h, largely depends on the type

operational conditions were either dif- the virgin polymer layer is also exam- of convection; being rather low in

ferent or not clearly defined, are lying ined. This virgin layer being placed in motionless liquid, it increases notably

within a very large range.4 Thus the contact with the food plays the role of a with the rate of stirring of the liquid up

values of the diffusivity obtained for functional barrier. The effect of the to a very large value when the liquid is

the additives in Low Density Polyethy- various parameters is determined, strongly stirred.

lene (LDPE), differ from one to another without forgetting the effect of the Finally, both the Eq. (1) expressing

by not less than 100. As the time neces- mass transfer taking place between the variation of the concentrations

sary for a given transport is inversely these two layers during the stage of with time and space in the polymer

proportional to the diffusivity, it means co-extrusion.1,7–9 and the Eq. (2) defining the so-called

that the time for contamination should The function of the active packages boundary condition, are the funda-

also vary by 100 times, e.g., from 10 days is shortly considered, when the pack- mental equations of diffusion through

to 3 years. age is able to release an antibacterial a sheet of an isotropic material. There

Fortunately, at the present time, the agent,10,11 and an example of kinetics are the basic equations for calculation

theoretical treatment of the process of is given.12 of the kinetics of the transfer of a pol-

mass transfer controlled by diffusion– Finally, an attempt is made in order lutant from the polymer in the liquid,

convection with liquid food or even by to describe the operational conditions as well as of the profiles of concentra-

diffusion–diffusion when the food is necessary for predicting a standardised tion of this pollutant developed

solid is precisely described.1 Emphasis test and apparatus, which should be through the thickness of the package.

has been placed on the fact that an used by everybody working in the field Eq. (1) is a partial derivative equation,

infinite rate of convection cannot exist of food pollution. On the other hand, since the concentration C depends on

at the package–liquid interface, and the best equation leading to the safer the two parameters of time and space.

consequently we have to deal with results is drawn so that the results of

more complex equations. The question these experiments could be expressed Finite Coefficient of Convection h at the

of the volume of the package as a in valuable data.1 Solid–Liquid Interfaces and Infinite

Volume of Liquid

fraction of the volume of the liquid is

also considered. In fact, the problems The initial condition given by a uni-

of diffusion are not simple to resolve, THEORETICAL

form concentration of the diffusing

either by considering the experiments substance through the polymer thick-

or by making calculation. When the diffusivity D is constant, ness is expressed by the Eq. (3):

The purpose of this paper is to being independent of the concentra- t ¼ 0; L < x < þ L; C ¼ C in

describe precisely the process of trans- tion, the equation of transient diffusion sheet (3)

fer of the diffusing substance from the is written as follows:

polymer packaging into the liquid The solution of this problem with the

@C @2 C

food, and to present the various equa- ¼D 2 (1) above initial and boundary conditions

tions, which are widely used. The effect @t @x is given for the profiles of concentra-

tion developed through the thickness the package, the kinetics of transfer is with respect to the plane at the abscissa

of the sheet as follows1,13: expressed by1,6,13: 0, the thickness L, which represents

half the thickness of a sheet in contact

C 1 C x;t X 1

2R cosðbn ðx=LÞÞ Mt X1

2að1 þ aÞ

¼ 2

¼1 with the liquid on both sides, is also the

C 1 C in 2

n¼1 ðbn þ R þ RÞcosbn

M1 n¼1

1 þ a þ a2 q2n total thickness of the package in con-

Dt q2 Dt tact with the liquid on one side only.

exp b2n 2 (4) exp n 2 (10)

L L Thus the term L in Eqs. (4) and (7) for a

finite value of the coefficient of con-

where the bns are the positive roots of where the qns are the non-zero positive vection h, and in the Eq. (10) for the

b tan b ¼ R (5) roots of: infinite value of h, represents the total

tan qn ¼ aqn (11) thickness of the packaging, as well as

and the dimensionless number R is in the Eq. (12) when the volume of

given by: and the ratio of the volumes of liquid liquid and the coefficient of convection

hL and polymer sheet is a. are both infinite.

R¼ (6)

D The Coefficient of Convection and the

Volume of Liquid are Both Infinite Active Packaging when an

The kinetics of transfer of diffusing Antimicrobial Agent is Released into

substance by using the dimensionless When the volume of liquid is infinite,

the Food

number Mt/M1 is expressed in terms a = 1, the roots of the Eq. (11) relative

The diffusing substance is an antimi-

of the dimensionless number Dt/L2 by to the value of qn, are in the form:

crobial agent able to kill the bacteria.

the following equation1,6,13: qn = (n + 0.5)p, and thus the Eq. (10)

The kinetics of transfer of this agent

reduces to the Eq. (12):

M1 M t X 1

2R2 into the liquid is described by the

M1

¼ 2 2 2 Mt 8 X1

1 Eqs. (5)–(7). Moreover, when a reac-

n¼1 bn ðbn þ R þ RÞ ¼1 2

M1 p n¼0 ð2n þ 1Þ2 tion takes place in the liquid food, the

Dt amount of the agent located in the food

exp b2n 2 (7) ð2n þ 1Þ2 p2

L exp Dt (12) is given by the relationship:

4L2

Of course, the total amount of sub- dY dM

In the same way, with the hypothetical ¼ KY t (13)

stance enters or leaves the sheet, dt dt

depending on the relative values of case of the infinite value of the coeffi-

where dM/dt is the rate of release of

the concentrations C1 and Cin, as cient of convection, the dimensionless

the agent by the package in the liquid

shown previously1 in Eqs. (8) and (80 ): number R becomes infinite, and the bns

at time t, Y the amount of the agent

values are given by: bn = (n + 0.5)p, so

C 1 > C in ; remaining free in the food, at time t and

that the Eq. (7) also reduces to the

absorption of diffusing substance by K is the rate constant of the 1st order

Eq. (12).

reaction of consumption of this

the sheet (8)

The Coefficient of Convection and the agent.14

Volume of Liquid are Both Finite The mathematical treatment is not

C 1 < C in ; possible, but the problem has been

In this case, the mathematical treat-

release of diffusing substance from ment is not possible and no analytical resolved by using a numerical method

the sheet (80 ) solution exists.1,13 The problem should taking all the facts into account, e.g.,

be resolved by using a numerical the release of the agent by diffusion

method taking into account all the through the thickness of the package

Infinite Value of the Coefficient of facts, e.g., the diffusivity of the sub- and convection at the solid–liquid

Convection h at the Solid–Liquid stance through the polymer, the finite interface, followed by the 1st order

Interfaces and Finite Volume of Liquid coefficient of convection at the solid– reaction of consumption1,12 of this

The boundary condition expressing the liquid interface, and the increase in agent in the liquid.

fact that the rate at which the diffusing concentration of the substance in the

substance enters the liquid is con- liquid (this last fact means that Ceq in

stantly equal to the rate at which it is Eq. (2) varies with time). Thus, the RESULTS

brought to the surface of the sheet by thickness of the package is divided into

internal diffusion, with an infinite coef- finite increments of space and finite Evaluation of the Parameters of

increments of time Dt are considered.1 Diffusion

ficient of convection, is written:

For each time, calculation is made As shown in the various equations, the

@C @C following parameters intervene in the

t > 0; x ¼ L; A ¼ D (9) through the thickness of the sheet

@t @x and thus the time is increased1,6 by process of mass transfer from the poly-

where A is the volume of the liquid. the increment Dt. An iterative calcula- mer packaging into the liquid food.

With a constant diffusivity and the tion is followed in this way. The diffusivity D comes first as it

initial condition of the uniform con- Remark on the thickness of the appears in all the equations, followed

centration of the diffusing substance in packaging: Because of the symmetry by the coefficient of convection h

shown in the Eqs. (2), and (4)–(7). The

ratio of the volumes of the liquid and

packaging a also appears in the

Eq. (10). Of course, the thickness of

the packaging L plays an important

role in all the equations as proved by

the dimensionless number Dt/L2

expressing that the time of a given

transfer t is proportional to L2.

On the whole, two types of experi-

ments exist to determine the value of the

parameters of diffusion D and h when

the polymer sheet is put in contact with

the liquid: the one consists of measuring

at intervals the profiles of concentration

of the diffusing substance developed Figure 1. Profiles of concentration of olive oil developed through the thickness of

through the thickness of the package, the 0.2 cm thick sheet at various times of contact (1–112 days), calculated with the

and the other in measuring the amount parameters: L = 0.1 cm; D = 7 1011 cm2/s; h = 108 cm/s. One quarter of the

of diffusing substance transferred into sheet is shown.

the liquid, enabling to determine the

kinetics of transfer. that of the evaporation of the Method based on the kinetics of

vapour out of the surface of a transfer of the diffusing substance

Method based on the profiles of polymer, which initially contains The results are expressed in Figure 3

concentration a liquid absorbed; in this case of where the kinetics of transfer of the

The profiles of concentration of olive evaporation, an infinite rate of diffusing substance in the liquid is

oil developed through the thickness of evaporation is attained only for drawn.1 From these values, it clearly

a 0.2 cm thick sheet of polypropylene a permanent gas.6 appears that it would be highly diffi-

(PP) after various times of contact are (v) By plotting the concentration of cult, if not impossible, to evaluate the

shown in Figure 1, as they are obtained olive oil on the surface of the PP amount of liquid absorbed at equili-

by using a typical technique.5 The oil sheet as a function of time, the brium by extrapolating the values mea-

concentration has been determined at values at longer times nearly reach sured up to 112 days. A few

various times by FTIR-microscopy the concentration, which would be conclusions are worth pointing out:

measurements through the thickness attained at equilibrium. Thus it is

of the samples. possible to evaluate by extrapola- (i) This method seems to be easier

Some interesting conclusions can be tion this concentration at equili- than the previous one, as only

drawn from these profiles of concen- brium C1 with a great accuracy, measurements of the concentra-

trations: and therefore the amount of olive tion of the diffusing substance

oil absorbed at equilibrium M1. should be made in the liquid at

(i) The concentration of oil on the This fact is clearly shown in intervals. But, as shown in

polymer surface increases slowly, Figure 2. Figure 3, the experiments are

resulting from the presence of a

finite coefficient of convection h

at the liquid–solid interface.

(ii) The following values for the para-

meters of diffusion are obtained

by calculation:

¼ 108 cm=s; which leads to R

¼ 14:3:

(iii) The finite value of the coefficient of

convection h and of the dimen-

sionless number R is proved,

demonstrating the interest of using

the equations system (2)–(7).

(iv) Let us remark that, as already Figure 2. Kinetics of increase in the concentration of olive oil on the surface of the

said,1 there is a similarity between 0.2 cm thick sheet, calculated at the same times as those as in Figure 1 and with

the process in this problem and the same parameters.

(i) The three kinetics of release of the

diffusing substance are nearly simi-

lar whatever the values of a ran-

ging from 20 to infinity. It is

necessary to expand the scale of

the co-ordinates so as to distin-

guish a slight difference between

the curves.

(ii) In fact, it should be said that the

interest of these kinetics lies

essentially at the beginning of

the process, as only a small part

of the additive initially in the poly-

mer will be released.

(iii) Let us remark that for a packaging

in cubic shape with a thickness

Figure 3. Kinetics of absorption of olive oil by the 0.2 cm thick PP sheet, calculated L = 100 mm.

at the same times and with the same parameters as in Figure 1.

a ¼ 166 for 1 L; a ¼ 50 for 27 cm3 ;

highly time-consuming, because it the liquid–polymer system after a a ¼ 16:6 for 1 cm3 :

is necessary that the amount trans- long time considered as infinite.

On the other hand, the effect of the

ferred at time t, Mt approaches as

coefficient of convection on the

much as possible its corresponding Effect of the Parameters a and R on the

kinetics can be observed in Figure 5

value at equilibrium M1, which Kinetics

where the kinetics are drawn for var-

would be attained at infinite time, The main parameters, which are con-

ious values of the dimensionless num-

theoretically speaking at least. sidered in the literature are: the ratio

ber R and the value of a = 166, leading

(ii) In fact, it is difficult, if not impos- a of the volumes of liquid and of

to a few interesting conclusions:

sible, to extrapolate the value of polymer, and the dimensionless num-

M1 in the case at hand. However, ber R defined by the Eq. (6), which

an assumption can be made when characterises the importance of the (i) These kinetics largely depend on

there is no partition factor, mean- convection at the solid–liquid inter- the value of the number R, with

ing that the solubility of the dif- face. the following statement: the larger

fusing substance in the liquid is The effect of the ratio of the volumes a R, the faster the rate of release of

of the same order of magnitude on the kinetics of release of the diffusing the substance in the liquid.

as in the polymer. And thus the substance in the liquid, is shown in (ii) Let us remark that for the infinite

value M1 at equilibrium can be Figure 4 for the value of R = 5 and the value of R, the kinetics of release

obtained by considering that the other various values: a = 20 (curve 2), is expressed by a straight line,

amount of the diffusing substance a = 50 (curve 3) and a infinite (curve 1). according to the Eq. (12).

Min initially in the polymer would The following conclusions can be (iii) Finally, it clearly appears that the

be uniformly distributed through drawn from these curves: effect of the coefficient of convec-

tion with the number R is far

much important than the value

of the ratio a of the volumes of

liquid and polymer.

a Bi-Layer System

Because of the potential interest in the

recycling of old polymer packages into

new packages, the consumer’s safety

has to be considered, and the bi-layer

packages must be tested before use.

The bi-layer package consists of a

recycled polymer layer co-extruded

(or co-moulded for a bottle) with a

virgin polymer layer, and the virgin

polymer layer is in contact with the

Figure 4. Kinetics of release of the diffusing substance in the liquid for R = 5 and food. A pollutant is assumed to be

different values of a: infinite (Curve 1); 20 (Curve 2); 50 (Curve 3). initially in the recycled polymer while

important, this rate of release

increasing notably with the value

of R.

(iii) The shape of the kinetic curves is

quite different from that shown in

the case of a mono-layer package

(Figures 3–5) where the pollutant

is already in the layer in contact

with the liquid food. As shown in

Figure 6, the concentration in the

liquid increases slowly with time

by following a S-shape.

Packagings

Beyond the well-known fact of red

Figure 5. Kinetics or release of the diffusing substance in the liquid for a = 166 wines and some aged cheeses, which

(1 L) and the various values of R noted in the Figure. get better as they get older, virtually all

foods deteriorate over time because of

the virgin polymer is free from any The kinetics of release in the food of bacteria. As a result, packaging

pollutant. As it takes some time for this the pollutant initially in the recycled researchers are developing technology

pollutant potentially located in the polymer layer are drawn in Figure 6 to show the deterioration by using

recycled polymer layer to diffuse for various values of the dimensionless active packages. While the passive

through these two layers, and espe- number R, which characterises the con- package simply provides a barrier able

cially through the virgin polymer layer, vection at the polymer–liquid interface. to protect the product, the active pack-

this virgin polymer layer plays the role This calculation is done with a package age plays an active role in maintaining

of a functional barrier. The main pro- made of two layers of equal thickness, or even improving the quality of the

blem, which stands, is the evaluation of with a liquid of 1 L stored in a 0.01 cm enclosed food. An example is given

the time of protection of the food thick package, leading to a value of with the antimicrobial package, which

offered by this functional barrier. This a = 166. Some conclusions are worth delivers into the food an active agent

problem differs from the case encoun- noting: able to kill bacteria,1,10,11 by following

tered with the single layer package, as a first-order reaction.14

no analytical solution exists, so that a (i) A time of full protection of the The kinetics of release of the agent

numerical model taking all the facts food exists, which is the same in the food and the kinetics of the

into account, e.g., the diffusion whatever the value of R. agent remaining free can be obtained

through the two layers and the con- (ii) Nevertheless the effect of the coef- by using a numerical model.1,12

vection at the solid–liquid interface ficient of convection on the rate of Depending on the value of the dimen-

and into the liquid, was built.1 pollution of the food looks very sionless number R, two cases have

been considered: for R larger than

50–100, the process is controlled

mainly by diffusion, and for R lower

than 5–10, the process is controlled by

convection.1 Moreover, two new

dimensionless numbers have been

introduced, the number of Savoie in

the first case and the number of Moû-

tiers in the second case.12 A problem

appears with the various qualifica-

tions of the specialists necessitated

by the work. There should be the spe-

cialists in polymers and polymer addi-

tives, the people responsible for the

food, the experts in packaging, but

also the bacteriologists as well as the

analysts. These two new dimension-

less numbers allow those people to

Figure 6. Kinetics of transfer in the liquid of the pollutant initially in the recycled work independently, but nevertheless

layer when the package is made of two layers with the same thickness, for various keeping in mind the same common

values of the dimensionless number R. objective.

Theoretically, it can be said that the

transfer of the pollutant through the bi-

layer package during the co-extrusion

or co-moulding is rather low. But

another consideration remains with

the psychology of the consumer. About

the future of the active packages, some

researchers are confident, and it has

been shown that the theory of the

release-consumption process of the

agent is already well established.1

In all cases, dimensionless numbers

are used, leading to master curves able

to be useful by any workers whatever

their data. A wide table for the bn is

Figure 7. Kinetics of the agent remaining free in the liquid food when the process is shown elsewhere.1

controlled by convection with R = 1, for various values of K (with the Moûtiers

number (KL/h)).

REFERENCES

1. Vergnaud, J. M.; Rosca, I. D. Assessing

Food Safety of Polymer Packagings;

Figure 7 represents the kinetics of The process of release of a potential Smithers Rapra Ltd.; Shawbury, Shrop-

the agent remaining free in the food pollutant into the liquid food is con- shire, UK, 2006.

after its consumption by the bacteria, trolled by diffusion through the thick- 2. Brandsch, J.; Mercea, P.; Rüter, M.;

when the process is controlled essen- ness of the package and by convection Tosa, V.; Piringer, O. Food Addit.

tially by convection for various values at the solid–liquid interface. The equa- Contam. 2002, 19(Supplement), 29.

of K and of the Moûtiers number: tion derived from this process can be 3. Frantz, R.; Huber, M.; Piringer, O.

K = 0 (1); K = 108 (2); K = 107 (3); applied whatever the value of the Food Addit. Contam. 1997, 14, 627.

K = 106 (4); K = 105 (5); K = 104 volume of the liquid, provided that a 4. Brandsch, J.; Mercea, P.; Piringer, O. in

(6); K = 103 (7); K (/s) L = 0.1 cm; is larger than 10–20, when the liquid Food Packaging; Risch, S.J., Ed.; ACS

Symposium Series No. 753, 1999,

D = 108 cm2/s; h = 107 cm/s; 1 L of could be located in a thimble. In spite

chapter 4, pp. 27–36.

liquid. of the fact that the Eq. (7) was obtained 5. Riquet, A. M.; Wolff, N.; Laoubi, S.;

A few obvious conclusions are for an infinite volume of liquid, the Vergnaud, J. M.; Feigenbaum, A. Food

drawn from these curves: kinetics can be determined by measur- Addit. Contam. 1998, 6, 690.

ing the increase in the concentration of 6. Vergnaud, J. M. Drying of Polymeric

(i) Nearly all the antibacterial agent the pollutant in the liquid. Of course, and Solid Materials; Springer-Verlag;

is consumed when the action of measuring the profiles of concentra- London, 1992.

the bacteria is strong (curves 5, 6), tion of the pollutant through the pack- 7. Perou, A. J.; Laoubi, S.; Vergnaud, J. M.

and it remains free in the food age is shorter in time, but it necessitates Comput. Theor. Polym. Sci. 1998, 8, 331.

a complex apparatus. 8. Perou, A. L.; Laoubi, S.; Vergnaud, J.

when the consumption is low

M. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1999, 73(10),

(curves 1, 2). In order to reduce the discrepant

1939.

(ii) In this case, the process of release values obtained by the various experi- 9. Rosca, I. D.; Vergnaud, J. M. Polym.

of the agent is essentially con- mentalists, it is necessary to establish Polym. Compos. 1999, 28(2), 74.

trolled by convection, with a mod- standardised tests in the same way as it 10. Wilkinson, S. L. Chem. Eng. News,

erate high rate of transfer of the was done for the dosage forms in phar- 1998, 76, 24.

agent at the beginning of the pro- macy.15 The volume of the liquid with a 11. Appendini, P.; Hotchkiss, J. H. Rev.

cess. around 100 should enable a controlled Antimicr. Food Packag. (private paper).

(iii) Because of the consumption pro- rate of stirring. The samples are placed 12. El Kouali, M.; Saloui, M.; Labidi, F.; El

cess, the concentration of the in such a way that the convection would Brouzi, M.; Vergnaud, J. M. Polym.

be similar. The time could be reduced by Polym. Compos. 2003, 11, 301.

agent passes through a maximum,

13. Crank, J. The Mathematics of Diffusion;

which depends on the rate of con- using a thin thickness but without alter-

Clarendon Press; Oxford, UK, 1975.

sumption. ing the shape of the film and the area of 14. Rosca, I. D.; Vergnaud, J. M. Pharm.

contact with the liquid; moreover, a few Sci. 1995, 1, 391.

CONCLUSIONS analyses should be made at lower times 15. Vergnaud, J. M.; Rosca, I. D. Assessing

than usually done in order to be able to Bioavailability with Drug Delivery

The following conclusions are worth define precisely the coefficient of con- Systems; CRC Press, Taylor and Fran-

noting. vection. cis; Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2005.

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