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FEATURE

Problems of food protection


by polymer packages
Following a book [Vergnaud, J. M.; Rosca, I. D. Assessing Food Safety of Polymer Packagings; Smithers
Rapra Ltd.: Shawbury, Shropshire, UK, 2006] written on this subject, problems arising in food protection by
polymer packages are examined in this survey, from both a theoretical and a practical point of view. The
process of release of the polymer additives into the packaged food is established: the transfer is controlled
either by transient diffusion through the thickness of the package or by convection at the package–food
interface and through the food as well. As recycling of old polymer packages in new polymer packages is now
common, the time of protection of the food is evaluated when the new package consists of two layers, the
virgin polymer layer being in contact with the food. Active packages able to deliver an antimicrobial agent in
the food are also briefly examined. Finally, an attempt is made to define the operational conditions of a
standardised test as well as the best way to calculate the diffusivity and convection coefficient.

By Iosif-Daniel Rosca, micro-organisms. Plastics are also able true that poly-olefins produce
Jean-Maurice Vergnaud to reduce the loss of components such energy in burning, but it does not
as water or flavour in the packed mate- work well for PVC.
rial to a great extent. Resulting from (ii) The other way consists of reusing
INTRODUCTION this protection, plastic packages them as new packages. However, it
enable the consumer to use foodstuffs should not be ignored that very
Before 1950, food was sold mainly in nearly perfect hygienic conditions, often the old cans or bottles made
from bulk containers, the packaging and to store them without loss in qual- of plastics are commonly used to
done by the retailer after selling. For ity over an extended period of time. keep other liquids such as chemi-
example, milk was taken from a large But it is also true that plastics contain cals potentially dangerous for
milk can by a soup-ladle to be dropped low-molecular weight compounds such health. And in the same manner
in the milk-jug of the consumer. Pre- as oligomers and sometimes mono- as the additives initially in the vir-
packaging was developed in the mid mers, and additives such as plasticizers, gin polymer may migrate into the
1900s with the production of sealable lubricants, stabilizers and antioxidants, food, these chemicals may deeply
glass bottles and airtight metal cans. which are absolutely necessary either diffuse into the old polymeric
Later on, flexible materials, such as for the processing or the stability of the package, and washing even with
cellophane, were introduced instead final polymeric materials. The draw- boiling water is not able to extract
of grease-proof paper. Today, since back that results is the possible migra- them. Thus, we have to deal with a
they exhibit outstanding food protec- tion of these additives from the package potentially polluted material. And
tion properties such as air-tightness into the packaged material, leading to a finally, the only way to resolve the
and durability, plastics are used prefer- potential ingestion problem of major problem is to build new packages
entially for packaging foodstuffs. concern. For this reason, a list of non- consisting of two layers, the one
It is true that plastic packages are authorised additives has been drawn made of the recycled polymer,
capable of retarding and sometimes under the guidance of the European while the other made of virgin
preventing detrimental changes in Community (EEC) and the United polymer that will be put in contact
the packed material due to external States Food and Drug Administration with the food.
influences such as oxygen, light, and (FDA, Washington, DC, USA).
Moreover, as the use of plastic
packages is now widely spread over And following this way, as these
Iosif-Daniel Rosca is affiliated with all countries, a large amount of old multi-layer packages are obtained by
Department of Polymer Chemistry, packages is disseminated in the gar- co-extrusion or co-moulding for bot-
Polytechnic University, Bucharest, bage heaps. Thus the problem appears tles, at a temperature at which the
Romania. with the question: what to do with polymers are melted, an additional
these old plastics of various kinds? A transfer (by diffusion or perhaps by
Jean-Maurice Vergnaud is affiliated few ways are already explored, waiting convection) takes place between the
with University of St-Etienne, Route to be widely used: recycled and the virgin polymer layers.
de Chavanne, 42400 Saint-Chamond, At that time of the studies, heat transfer
France (Tel.: 4 77 31 86 73; has to be looked upon, and the effect of
fax: 4 77 31 86 73; e-mail: vergnaud. (i) One way consists of burning them the temperature-dependency of the
jean-maurice@wanadoo.fr). in the same way as crude oil; it is diffusivity estimated.1

14 ß Division of Chemical Health and Safety of the American Chemical Society 1871-5532/$32.00
Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jchas.2006.08.006
The process of material transfer from of the parameters of interest, especially where the concentration of the diffus-
the package into the food can be gen- the diffusivity and the coefficient of ing substance C depends on the time, t
erally described by either transient convection on this rate of transfer, as and distance, x.1,13
Fickian diffusion through the package well as the ratio of the volumes of At the packaging–liquid interface,
or convection in the liquid food as well liquid and packaging, is evaluated. the rate at which the substance is trans-
as at the solid–liquid (that is, package– Some results are given in the case of ferred into the liquid is constantly
food) interface; the process of transfer is a single layer package by studying the equal to the rate at which this sub-
controlled only by diffusion through the effect of the thickness of the package as stance is brought to the surface by
solid food. Various attempts have pre- well as that of the rate of stirring of the internal diffusion through the polymer
viously been made by assuming that the liquid, which acts upon the coefficient packaging, leading to the relation:
rate of convection at the solid–liquid of convective transfer. In all cases, the @C
interface is infinite, leading to the fact results are expressed in terms of pro- D ¼ hðC L;t  C eq Þ (2)
@x
that the concentration of the material files of concentration of the diffusing
on the solid surface falls instanta- substance developed through the where h is the coefficient of transfer by
neously to the value at equilibrium as thickness of the package and of the convection in the liquid next to the
soon as it is in contact with the liquid, kinetics of transfer of this substance surface, CL,t the concentration of the
e.g., 0 when this liquid is initially pure.2 in the liquid.5,6 Dimensionless num- diffusing substance on the surface of
Other attempts have been made by con- bers are used, as often as it was possible the solid at time t, and Ceq is the con-
sidering the thickness of the package as so as to build general curves called centration of the diffusing substance
semi-infinite,3 essentially because this master curves, which can be used in on this surface required to maintain
assumption leads to a very simple equa- various different cases. equilibrium with the concentration of
tion. The values of the diffusivity found The problem of a bi-layer system this substance in the liquid, at time t.
in the literature collected from experi- where the package consists of the layer The value of the coefficient of con-
ments made by various authors whose made of the recycled polymer bound to vection, h, largely depends on the type
operational conditions were either dif- the virgin polymer layer is also exam- of convection; being rather low in
ferent or not clearly defined, are lying ined. This virgin layer being placed in motionless liquid, it increases notably
within a very large range.4 Thus the contact with the food plays the role of a with the rate of stirring of the liquid up
values of the diffusivity obtained for functional barrier. The effect of the to a very large value when the liquid is
the additives in Low Density Polyethy- various parameters is determined, strongly stirred.
lene (LDPE), differ from one to another without forgetting the effect of the Finally, both the Eq. (1) expressing
by not less than 100. As the time neces- mass transfer taking place between the variation of the concentrations
sary for a given transport is inversely these two layers during the stage of with time and space in the polymer
proportional to the diffusivity, it means co-extrusion.1,7–9 and the Eq. (2) defining the so-called
that the time for contamination should The function of the active packages boundary condition, are the funda-
also vary by 100 times, e.g., from 10 days is shortly considered, when the pack- mental equations of diffusion through
to 3 years. age is able to release an antibacterial a sheet of an isotropic material. There
Fortunately, at the present time, the agent,10,11 and an example of kinetics are the basic equations for calculation
theoretical treatment of the process of is given.12 of the kinetics of the transfer of a pol-
mass transfer controlled by diffusion– Finally, an attempt is made in order lutant from the polymer in the liquid,
convection with liquid food or even by to describe the operational conditions as well as of the profiles of concentra-
diffusion–diffusion when the food is necessary for predicting a standardised tion of this pollutant developed
solid is precisely described.1 Emphasis test and apparatus, which should be through the thickness of the package.
has been placed on the fact that an used by everybody working in the field Eq. (1) is a partial derivative equation,
infinite rate of convection cannot exist of food pollution. On the other hand, since the concentration C depends on
at the package–liquid interface, and the best equation leading to the safer the two parameters of time and space.
consequently we have to deal with results is drawn so that the results of
more complex equations. The question these experiments could be expressed Finite Coefficient of Convection h at the
of the volume of the package as a in valuable data.1 Solid–Liquid Interfaces and Infinite
Volume of Liquid
fraction of the volume of the liquid is
also considered. In fact, the problems The initial condition given by a uni-
of diffusion are not simple to resolve, THEORETICAL
form concentration of the diffusing
either by considering the experiments substance through the polymer thick-
or by making calculation. When the diffusivity D is constant, ness is expressed by the Eq. (3):
The purpose of this paper is to being independent of the concentra- t ¼ 0; L < x < þ L; C ¼ C in
describe precisely the process of trans- tion, the equation of transient diffusion sheet (3)
fer of the diffusing substance from the is written as follows:
polymer packaging into the liquid The solution of this problem with the
@C @2 C
food, and to present the various equa- ¼D 2 (1) above initial and boundary conditions
tions, which are widely used. The effect @t @x is given for the profiles of concentra-

Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, March/April 2007 15


tion developed through the thickness the package, the kinetics of transfer is with respect to the plane at the abscissa
of the sheet as follows1,13: expressed by1,6,13: 0, the thickness L, which represents
half the thickness of a sheet in contact
C 1  C x;t X 1
2R cosðbn ðx=LÞÞ Mt X1
2að1 þ aÞ
¼ 2
¼1 with the liquid on both sides, is also the
C 1  C in 2
n¼1 ðbn þ R þ RÞcosbn
M1 n¼1
1 þ a þ a2 q2n total thickness of the package in con-
   
Dt q2 Dt tact with the liquid on one side only.
 exp  b2n 2 (4)  exp  n 2 (10)
L L Thus the term L in Eqs. (4) and (7) for a
finite value of the coefficient of con-
where the bns are the positive roots of where the qns are the non-zero positive vection h, and in the Eq. (10) for the
b tan b ¼ R (5) roots of: infinite value of h, represents the total
tan qn ¼ aqn (11) thickness of the packaging, as well as
and the dimensionless number R is in the Eq. (12) when the volume of
given by: and the ratio of the volumes of liquid liquid and the coefficient of convection
hL and polymer sheet is a. are both infinite.
R¼ (6)
D The Coefficient of Convection and the
Volume of Liquid are Both Infinite Active Packaging when an
The kinetics of transfer of diffusing Antimicrobial Agent is Released into
substance by using the dimensionless When the volume of liquid is infinite,
the Food
number Mt/M1 is expressed in terms a = 1, the roots of the Eq. (11) relative
The diffusing substance is an antimi-
of the dimensionless number Dt/L2 by to the value of qn, are in the form:
crobial agent able to kill the bacteria.
the following equation1,6,13: qn = (n + 0.5)p, and thus the Eq. (10)
The kinetics of transfer of this agent
reduces to the Eq. (12):
M1  M t X 1
2R2 into the liquid is described by the
M1
¼ 2 2 2 Mt 8 X1
1 Eqs. (5)–(7). Moreover, when a reac-
n¼1 bn ðbn þ R þ RÞ ¼1 2
  M1 p n¼0 ð2n þ 1Þ2 tion takes place in the liquid food, the
Dt   amount of the agent located in the food
 exp  b2n 2 (7) ð2n þ 1Þ2 p2
L  exp  Dt (12) is given by the relationship:
4L2
Of course, the total amount of sub- dY dM
In the same way, with the hypothetical ¼  KY t (13)
stance enters or leaves the sheet, dt dt
depending on the relative values of case of the infinite value of the coeffi-
where dM/dt is the rate of release of
the concentrations C1 and Cin, as cient of convection, the dimensionless
the agent by the package in the liquid
shown previously1 in Eqs. (8) and (80 ): number R becomes infinite, and the bns
at time t, Y the amount of the agent
values are given by: bn = (n + 0.5)p, so
C 1 > C in ; remaining free in the food, at time t and
that the Eq. (7) also reduces to the
absorption of diffusing substance by K is the rate constant of the 1st order
Eq. (12).
reaction of consumption of this
the sheet (8)
The Coefficient of Convection and the agent.14
Volume of Liquid are Both Finite The mathematical treatment is not
C 1 < C in ; possible, but the problem has been
In this case, the mathematical treat-
release of diffusing substance from ment is not possible and no analytical resolved by using a numerical method
the sheet (80 ) solution exists.1,13 The problem should taking all the facts into account, e.g.,
be resolved by using a numerical the release of the agent by diffusion
method taking into account all the through the thickness of the package
Infinite Value of the Coefficient of facts, e.g., the diffusivity of the sub- and convection at the solid–liquid
Convection h at the Solid–Liquid stance through the polymer, the finite interface, followed by the 1st order
Interfaces and Finite Volume of Liquid coefficient of convection at the solid– reaction of consumption1,12 of this
The boundary condition expressing the liquid interface, and the increase in agent in the liquid.
fact that the rate at which the diffusing concentration of the substance in the
substance enters the liquid is con- liquid (this last fact means that Ceq in
stantly equal to the rate at which it is Eq. (2) varies with time). Thus, the RESULTS
brought to the surface of the sheet by thickness of the package is divided into
internal diffusion, with an infinite coef- finite increments of space and finite Evaluation of the Parameters of
increments of time Dt are considered.1 Diffusion
ficient of convection, is written:
For each time, calculation is made As shown in the various equations, the
@C @C following parameters intervene in the
t > 0; x ¼ L; A ¼ D (9) through the thickness of the sheet
@t @x and thus the time is increased1,6 by process of mass transfer from the poly-
where A is the volume of the liquid. the increment Dt. An iterative calcula- mer packaging into the liquid food.
With a constant diffusivity and the tion is followed in this way. The diffusivity D comes first as it
initial condition of the uniform con- Remark on the thickness of the appears in all the equations, followed
centration of the diffusing substance in packaging: Because of the symmetry by the coefficient of convection h

16 Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, March/April 2007


shown in the Eqs. (2), and (4)–(7). The
ratio of the volumes of the liquid and
packaging a also appears in the
Eq. (10). Of course, the thickness of
the packaging L plays an important
role in all the equations as proved by
the dimensionless number Dt/L2
expressing that the time of a given
transfer t is proportional to L2.
On the whole, two types of experi-
ments exist to determine the value of the
parameters of diffusion D and h when
the polymer sheet is put in contact with
the liquid: the one consists of measuring
at intervals the profiles of concentration
of the diffusing substance developed Figure 1. Profiles of concentration of olive oil developed through the thickness of
through the thickness of the package, the 0.2 cm thick sheet at various times of contact (1–112 days), calculated with the
and the other in measuring the amount parameters: L = 0.1 cm; D = 7  1011 cm2/s; h = 108 cm/s. One quarter of the
of diffusing substance transferred into sheet is shown.
the liquid, enabling to determine the
kinetics of transfer. that of the evaporation of the Method based on the kinetics of
vapour out of the surface of a transfer of the diffusing substance
Method based on the profiles of polymer, which initially contains The results are expressed in Figure 3
concentration a liquid absorbed; in this case of where the kinetics of transfer of the
The profiles of concentration of olive evaporation, an infinite rate of diffusing substance in the liquid is
oil developed through the thickness of evaporation is attained only for drawn.1 From these values, it clearly
a 0.2 cm thick sheet of polypropylene a permanent gas.6 appears that it would be highly diffi-
(PP) after various times of contact are (v) By plotting the concentration of cult, if not impossible, to evaluate the
shown in Figure 1, as they are obtained olive oil on the surface of the PP amount of liquid absorbed at equili-
by using a typical technique.5 The oil sheet as a function of time, the brium by extrapolating the values mea-
concentration has been determined at values at longer times nearly reach sured up to 112 days. A few
various times by FTIR-microscopy the concentration, which would be conclusions are worth pointing out:
measurements through the thickness attained at equilibrium. Thus it is
of the samples. possible to evaluate by extrapola- (i) This method seems to be easier
Some interesting conclusions can be tion this concentration at equili- than the previous one, as only
drawn from these profiles of concen- brium C1 with a great accuracy, measurements of the concentra-
trations: and therefore the amount of olive tion of the diffusing substance
oil absorbed at equilibrium M1. should be made in the liquid at
(i) The concentration of oil on the This fact is clearly shown in intervals. But, as shown in
polymer surface increases slowly, Figure 2. Figure 3, the experiments are
resulting from the presence of a
finite coefficient of convection h
at the liquid–solid interface.
(ii) The following values for the para-
meters of diffusion are obtained
by calculation:

D ¼ 7  1011 cm2 =s and h


¼ 108 cm=s; which leads to R
¼ 14:3:
(iii) The finite value of the coefficient of
convection h and of the dimen-
sionless number R is proved,
demonstrating the interest of using
the equations system (2)–(7).
(iv) Let us remark that, as already Figure 2. Kinetics of increase in the concentration of olive oil on the surface of the
said,1 there is a similarity between 0.2 cm thick sheet, calculated at the same times as those as in Figure 1 and with
the process in this problem and the same parameters.

Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, March/April 2007 17


(i) The three kinetics of release of the
diffusing substance are nearly simi-
lar whatever the values of a ran-
ging from 20 to infinity. It is
necessary to expand the scale of
the co-ordinates so as to distin-
guish a slight difference between
the curves.
(ii) In fact, it should be said that the
interest of these kinetics lies
essentially at the beginning of
the process, as only a small part
of the additive initially in the poly-
mer will be released.
(iii) Let us remark that for a packaging
in cubic shape with a thickness
Figure 3. Kinetics of absorption of olive oil by the 0.2 cm thick PP sheet, calculated L = 100 mm.
at the same times and with the same parameters as in Figure 1.
a ¼ 166 for 1 L; a ¼ 50 for 27 cm3 ;
highly time-consuming, because it the liquid–polymer system after a a ¼ 16:6 for 1 cm3 :
is necessary that the amount trans- long time considered as infinite.
On the other hand, the effect of the
ferred at time t, Mt approaches as
coefficient of convection on the
much as possible its corresponding Effect of the Parameters a and R on the
kinetics can be observed in Figure 5
value at equilibrium M1, which Kinetics
where the kinetics are drawn for var-
would be attained at infinite time, The main parameters, which are con-
ious values of the dimensionless num-
theoretically speaking at least. sidered in the literature are: the ratio
ber R and the value of a = 166, leading
(ii) In fact, it is difficult, if not impos- a of the volumes of liquid and of
to a few interesting conclusions:
sible, to extrapolate the value of polymer, and the dimensionless num-
M1 in the case at hand. However, ber R defined by the Eq. (6), which
an assumption can be made when characterises the importance of the (i) These kinetics largely depend on
there is no partition factor, mean- convection at the solid–liquid inter- the value of the number R, with
ing that the solubility of the dif- face. the following statement: the larger
fusing substance in the liquid is The effect of the ratio of the volumes a R, the faster the rate of release of
of the same order of magnitude on the kinetics of release of the diffusing the substance in the liquid.
as in the polymer. And thus the substance in the liquid, is shown in (ii) Let us remark that for the infinite
value M1 at equilibrium can be Figure 4 for the value of R = 5 and the value of R, the kinetics of release
obtained by considering that the other various values: a = 20 (curve 2), is expressed by a straight line,
amount of the diffusing substance a = 50 (curve 3) and a infinite (curve 1). according to the Eq. (12).
Min initially in the polymer would The following conclusions can be (iii) Finally, it clearly appears that the
be uniformly distributed through drawn from these curves: effect of the coefficient of convec-
tion with the number R is far
much important than the value
of the ratio a of the volumes of
liquid and polymer.

Example of the Food Protection by


a Bi-Layer System
Because of the potential interest in the
recycling of old polymer packages into
new packages, the consumer’s safety
has to be considered, and the bi-layer
packages must be tested before use.
The bi-layer package consists of a
recycled polymer layer co-extruded
(or co-moulded for a bottle) with a
virgin polymer layer, and the virgin
polymer layer is in contact with the
Figure 4. Kinetics of release of the diffusing substance in the liquid for R = 5 and food. A pollutant is assumed to be
different values of a: infinite (Curve 1); 20 (Curve 2); 50 (Curve 3). initially in the recycled polymer while

18 Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, March/April 2007


important, this rate of release
increasing notably with the value
of R.
(iii) The shape of the kinetic curves is
quite different from that shown in
the case of a mono-layer package
(Figures 3–5) where the pollutant
is already in the layer in contact
with the liquid food. As shown in
Figure 6, the concentration in the
liquid increases slowly with time
by following a S-shape.

Survey over the Process with Active


Packagings
Beyond the well-known fact of red
Figure 5. Kinetics or release of the diffusing substance in the liquid for a = 166 wines and some aged cheeses, which
(1 L) and the various values of R noted in the Figure. get better as they get older, virtually all
foods deteriorate over time because of
the virgin polymer is free from any The kinetics of release in the food of bacteria. As a result, packaging
pollutant. As it takes some time for this the pollutant initially in the recycled researchers are developing technology
pollutant potentially located in the polymer layer are drawn in Figure 6 to show the deterioration by using
recycled polymer layer to diffuse for various values of the dimensionless active packages. While the passive
through these two layers, and espe- number R, which characterises the con- package simply provides a barrier able
cially through the virgin polymer layer, vection at the polymer–liquid interface. to protect the product, the active pack-
this virgin polymer layer plays the role This calculation is done with a package age plays an active role in maintaining
of a functional barrier. The main pro- made of two layers of equal thickness, or even improving the quality of the
blem, which stands, is the evaluation of with a liquid of 1 L stored in a 0.01 cm enclosed food. An example is given
the time of protection of the food thick package, leading to a value of with the antimicrobial package, which
offered by this functional barrier. This a = 166. Some conclusions are worth delivers into the food an active agent
problem differs from the case encoun- noting: able to kill bacteria,1,10,11 by following
tered with the single layer package, as a first-order reaction.14
no analytical solution exists, so that a (i) A time of full protection of the The kinetics of release of the agent
numerical model taking all the facts food exists, which is the same in the food and the kinetics of the
into account, e.g., the diffusion whatever the value of R. agent remaining free can be obtained
through the two layers and the con- (ii) Nevertheless the effect of the coef- by using a numerical model.1,12
vection at the solid–liquid interface ficient of convection on the rate of Depending on the value of the dimen-
and into the liquid, was built.1 pollution of the food looks very sionless number R, two cases have
been considered: for R larger than
50–100, the process is controlled
mainly by diffusion, and for R lower
than 5–10, the process is controlled by
convection.1 Moreover, two new
dimensionless numbers have been
introduced, the number of Savoie in
the first case and the number of Moû-
tiers in the second case.12 A problem
appears with the various qualifica-
tions of the specialists necessitated
by the work. There should be the spe-
cialists in polymers and polymer addi-
tives, the people responsible for the
food, the experts in packaging, but
also the bacteriologists as well as the
analysts. These two new dimension-
less numbers allow those people to
Figure 6. Kinetics of transfer in the liquid of the pollutant initially in the recycled work independently, but nevertheless
layer when the package is made of two layers with the same thickness, for various keeping in mind the same common
values of the dimensionless number R. objective.

Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, March/April 2007 19


Theoretically, it can be said that the
transfer of the pollutant through the bi-
layer package during the co-extrusion
or co-moulding is rather low. But
another consideration remains with
the psychology of the consumer. About
the future of the active packages, some
researchers are confident, and it has
been shown that the theory of the
release-consumption process of the
agent is already well established.1
In all cases, dimensionless numbers
are used, leading to master curves able
to be useful by any workers whatever
their data. A wide table for the bn is
Figure 7. Kinetics of the agent remaining free in the liquid food when the process is shown elsewhere.1
controlled by convection with R = 1, for various values of K (with the Moûtiers
number (KL/h)).
REFERENCES
1. Vergnaud, J. M.; Rosca, I. D. Assessing
Food Safety of Polymer Packagings;
Figure 7 represents the kinetics of The process of release of a potential Smithers Rapra Ltd.; Shawbury, Shrop-
the agent remaining free in the food pollutant into the liquid food is con- shire, UK, 2006.
after its consumption by the bacteria, trolled by diffusion through the thick- 2. Brandsch, J.; Mercea, P.; Rüter, M.;
when the process is controlled essen- ness of the package and by convection Tosa, V.; Piringer, O. Food Addit.
tially by convection for various values at the solid–liquid interface. The equa- Contam. 2002, 19(Supplement), 29.
of K and of the Moûtiers number: tion derived from this process can be 3. Frantz, R.; Huber, M.; Piringer, O.
K = 0 (1); K = 108 (2); K = 107 (3); applied whatever the value of the Food Addit. Contam. 1997, 14, 627.
K = 106 (4); K = 105 (5); K = 104 volume of the liquid, provided that a 4. Brandsch, J.; Mercea, P.; Piringer, O. in
(6); K = 103 (7); K (/s) L = 0.1 cm; is larger than 10–20, when the liquid Food Packaging; Risch, S.J., Ed.; ACS
Symposium Series No. 753, 1999,
D = 108 cm2/s; h = 107 cm/s; 1 L of could be located in a thimble. In spite
chapter 4, pp. 27–36.
liquid. of the fact that the Eq. (7) was obtained 5. Riquet, A. M.; Wolff, N.; Laoubi, S.;
A few obvious conclusions are for an infinite volume of liquid, the Vergnaud, J. M.; Feigenbaum, A. Food
drawn from these curves: kinetics can be determined by measur- Addit. Contam. 1998, 6, 690.
ing the increase in the concentration of 6. Vergnaud, J. M. Drying of Polymeric
(i) Nearly all the antibacterial agent the pollutant in the liquid. Of course, and Solid Materials; Springer-Verlag;
is consumed when the action of measuring the profiles of concentra- London, 1992.
the bacteria is strong (curves 5, 6), tion of the pollutant through the pack- 7. Perou, A. J.; Laoubi, S.; Vergnaud, J. M.
and it remains free in the food age is shorter in time, but it necessitates Comput. Theor. Polym. Sci. 1998, 8, 331.
a complex apparatus. 8. Perou, A. L.; Laoubi, S.; Vergnaud, J.
when the consumption is low
M. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1999, 73(10),
(curves 1, 2). In order to reduce the discrepant
1939.
(ii) In this case, the process of release values obtained by the various experi- 9. Rosca, I. D.; Vergnaud, J. M. Polym.
of the agent is essentially con- mentalists, it is necessary to establish Polym. Compos. 1999, 28(2), 74.
trolled by convection, with a mod- standardised tests in the same way as it 10. Wilkinson, S. L. Chem. Eng. News,
erate high rate of transfer of the was done for the dosage forms in phar- 1998, 76, 24.
agent at the beginning of the pro- macy.15 The volume of the liquid with a 11. Appendini, P.; Hotchkiss, J. H. Rev.
cess. around 100 should enable a controlled Antimicr. Food Packag. (private paper).
(iii) Because of the consumption pro- rate of stirring. The samples are placed 12. El Kouali, M.; Saloui, M.; Labidi, F.; El
cess, the concentration of the in such a way that the convection would Brouzi, M.; Vergnaud, J. M. Polym.
be similar. The time could be reduced by Polym. Compos. 2003, 11, 301.
agent passes through a maximum,
13. Crank, J. The Mathematics of Diffusion;
which depends on the rate of con- using a thin thickness but without alter-
Clarendon Press; Oxford, UK, 1975.
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than usually done in order to be able to Bioavailability with Drug Delivery
The following conclusions are worth define precisely the coefficient of con- Systems; CRC Press, Taylor and Fran-
noting. vection. cis; Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2005.

20 Journal of Chemical Health & Safety, March/April 2007