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Seismic Simulation of Bridges Considering Bending

and Torsion Interaction

Yang Yang, PhD, PE, Assistant Professor, University of Hartford


Ruili He, PhD, PE, Project Engineer, Garver, LLC

ACI 2019 Spring Convention


Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, March of 2019

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Outline

✓ INTRODUCTION
✓ MODELING OF SINGLE BRIDGE COLUMN
✓ COLUMN MODEL VALIDATIONS
✓ BRIDGE CASE STUDIES
✓ CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Outline

✓ INTRODUCTION
✓ MODELING OF SINGLE BRIDGE COLUMN
✓ COLUMN MODEL VALIDATIONS
✓ BRIDGE CASE STUDIES
✓ CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Combined Loading Including Torsion

(Priestley, 1996)

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Beam-column Element Modeling
Structural
Component
Models (SCM) in
Sap2000,
OpenSees or
ANSYS

▪ Unidirectional material models;


▪ Interaction between axial and flexure;
▪ Linear or nonlinear shear/torsion behavior; Not
▪ Not able to consider interaction between flexure Accurate
and torsion.

(Abdelnaby et al. 2014)

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3D Solid Element Modeling
▪ Materials models including 3D
failure criteria where input
parameters may not be available
in most cases;
▪ Uneconomical computation effort
(typical 96 hrs of computation
time with 12 processors for
several cycles of loading);
▪ Difficult implementation to bridge
system.
Neither
Efficient
Nor
Practical

(Alemdar et al. 2011)

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Truss Modeling

3D truss (Hurtado 2009),


2D truss (Park and Eom 2007), not able to accurately predict
applicable to rectangular or square strength
sections

▪ Efficient computation;
3D truss (Lu and ▪ Easy implementation into bridge system;
Panagiotou 2014), ▪ Need to improve accuracy in predicting cyclic
applicable to section behavior under combined loading including
composed of torsion;
rectangles or ▪ Need to apply to oval sections and spiral
squares reinforcement;

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Outline

✓ INTRODUCTION
✓ MODELING OF SINGLE BRIDGE COLUMN
✓ COLUMN MODEL VALIDATIONS
✓ BRIDGE CASE STUDIES
✓ CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Modeling Scheme
Loading
Longitudinal Frame
Transvers Truss Element, Truss Element,
TYP TYP
Node, TYP

Segment
in (b)

st, TYP
Diagonal
α Truss
bd, TYP
Element, TYP
(a) (b) (c)

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Material Models - OpenSees

Confined and unconfined Reinforcing Steel - Steel02 Pinching4 –Diagonal Element


concrete - Concrete02

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Outline

✓ INTRODUCTION
✓ MODELING OF SINGLE BRIDGE COLUMN
✓ COLUMN MODEL VALIDATIONS
✓ BRIDGE CASE STUDIES
✓ CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Experimental Specimens (adopted from [20])

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Experimental data
Validation Results Truss modeling

Lateral
Behavior

Torsional
Behavior

T/M=0 T/M=0.1 T/M=0.2 T/M=0.4 T/M=∞

The Concrete Convention


and Exposition
Outline

✓ INTRODUCTION
✓ MODELING OF SINGLE BRIDGE COLUMN
✓ COLUMN MODEL VALIDATIONS
✓ BRIDGE CASE STUDIES
✓ CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Bridge Model
Abutment

Pier #4

Rigid link, TYP


Pier #3

L/R=2.5 Mass node, TYP

Elastic Beam-column Pier #2


element, TYP
Abutment

Pier #1

Column truss
models, TYP

(a) (b)

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Bridge Results

H/D=4.62 H/D=9.24 H/D=13.86

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Outline

✓ INTRODUCTION
✓ MODELING OF SINGLE BRIDGE COLUMN
✓ COLUMN MODEL VALIDATIONS
✓ BRIDGE CASE STUDIES
✓ CONCLUDING REMARKS

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Concluding Remarks
• The truss modeling technique was efficient and accurate to reproduce the hysteresis response of
circular columns in terms of base shear v.s. top drift and torsional moment v.s. twist angle with a
selection of α=34 degrees and td as 3 in. (1/8 of the column diameter).
• The application of the developed technique for columns with a different shape like rectangular or
oblong ones need to be validated against experimental data.
• The truss modeling technique was successful in capturing the interaction between bending and torsion
for columns in curved bridges under earthquakes and showed its promise in seismic simulation of
bridges with irregular shapes including horizontal curves.
• The case studies in this study neglected the spring models for abutments, piles, foundations, and soils.
To more accurately predict the bridge response, the inclusion of these springs will be considered in
future work.
• The accuracy of the modeling technique in typical curved bridges can be improved with validation
against shake take tests of bridges.

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Thank you!
Any Questions?

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