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PHYSICS 3 REVIEWER

CHAPTER REVIEW: Units, Physical Quantities, and Vectors

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM (SI or Systeme International) – It is the most widely


used system of units.

There are three Fundamental Quantities of Physics:

1. Length – measured in meters


2. Time – measured in seconds
3. Kilograms – measured in kilograms

DIMENSIONALLY CONSISITENT – An equation where all the terms to be added or


to be equated must always have the same units.

TWO KINDS OF QUANTITIES

1. SCALAR QUANTITY – only includes the magnitude


2. VECTOR QUANTITY – includes both magnitude and direction

The uncertainty of a quantity is indicated by the number of its significant figures.

DRAWING VECTORS

To draw a vector, draw it as a line with an arrowhead at the end.

 The length of the line shows the vector’s magnitude.


 The direction of the line shows the vector’s direction.

VECTOR OPERATIONS

Two vectors can be added graphically using either the parallelogram method or
the head-to-tail method.

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
ADDING VECTORS

Head-to-Tail Method

Parallelogram Method

COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR

Any vector can be represented by an x-component Ax and a y-component Ay

We can use trigonometry to find the components of a vector:

 Ax = Acosθ
 Ay = Asinθ

We can use the components of a vector to find:

 MAGNITUDE:

A = √ (Ax2 + Ay2)

 DIRECTION:

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
tan θ = Ay / Ax

We can also use the components of a set of vectors to find the components of
their sum:

R x = Ax + B x + C x …

R y = Ay + B y + C y …

CHAPTER REVIEW: Motion Along a Straight Line

KINEMATICS – The study of motion.

Displacement, Time, and Average Velocity

A particle moving along the x-axis has a coordinate x.

The formula for the change in the particle’s coordinate:

X = x2 – x1

The formula for the average x-velocity is:

V av-x = x / t

INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY – The velocity at a specific instant of time along the


path.

The formula for instantaneous velocity is:

vx = dx/dt

ACCELERATION – The rate of change of velocity with time.

The formula for the average x-acceleration:

Aav-x = Vx / t

The formula for instantaneous acceleration:

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
Ax = dvx/dt

For a particle with constant acceleration, the velocity changes at the same rate
throughout the motion.

There are four equations of motion with constant acceleration:

 Eq. 1: vx = v0x + axt


 Eq. 2: x = x0 + v0xt + 1/2axt2
 Eq. 3: vx2 = v0x2 + 2ax (x – x0)
 Eq. 4: x-x0 = ( (v0x + yx) / 2 ) t

FREE FALL – The motion of an object under the influence of only gravity.

If there is no air resistance, the downward acceleration of any free-falling object


is:

g = 9.8 m/s2

The vertical velocity, but not the acceleration, is zero at the highest point.

CHAPTER REVIEW: Motion in Two or Three Dimensions

The position vector from the origin to point P has components x, y, z.

AVERAGE VELOCITY BETWEEN TWO POINTS – The displacement divided by the


time interval between the two points and has the same direction as the
displacement.

INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY – The instantaneous rate of change of position vector


with respect to time.

COMPONENTS OF THE INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY

vx = dx/dt

vy = dy/dt

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
vz = dz/dt

The instantaneous velocity of a particle is always tangent to its path.

AVERAGE ACCELERATION – The velocity change during t divided by t.

INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION – The instantaneous rate of change of the


velocity with respect to time.

COMPONENTS OF THE INSTANTANEOUS ACCELERATION

Ax = dvx/dt

Ay = dvy/dt

Az = dvz/dt

PROJECTILE – Any body given an initial velocity then follows a path determined by
the effects of gravity and air resistance.

EQUATIONS OF PROJECTILE MOTION

If we set x0 = y0 = 0, the equations below describe projectile motion

 Eq.1: x = (v0cosα0)t
 Eq. 2: y = (v0sinα0)t – ½ gt2
 Eq. 3: vx= v0cosα0
 Eq. 4: vy = v0sinα0 - gt

RELATIVE VELOCITY – The velocity of a moving body seen by an observer.

FRAME OF REFERENCE – A coordinate system plus a time scale.

CHAPTER REVIEW: Newton’s Laws of Motion

FORCE

- A push or pull
REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
- An interaction between two objects or between an object and its
environment
- A vector quantity, with magnitude and direction

COMMON TYPES OF FORCES

- NORMAL FORCE – When an object pushes on a surface, the surface pushes


back on the object perpendicular to the surface. This is a contact force.
- FRICTION FORCE – This force occurs when a surface resists sliding on an
object and is parallel to the surface. It is also a contact force.
- TENSION FORCE – A pulling force exerted on an object by a rope or cord. It
is also a contact force.
- WEIGHT – The pull of gravity on an object. It is a long-range force.

NET FORCES – The vector sum of all the forces on an object is called the resultant
of the forces or net force. The formula for finding the net force is:

Rx = F1x + f2x + f3x…. + Fnx

Ry = F1y + f2y + f3y…. + Fnx

NEWTONS THREE LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON’S FIRST LAW OF MOTION

- An object at rest tends to stay at rest, an object in motion tends to stay in


uniform motion.
- A body acted on by zero net force moves with constant velocity and zero
acceleration.

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

- The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting


on it, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

NEWTON’S THIRD LAW OF MOTION


REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
- A force and its reaction force have the same magnitude but opposite
directions. These forces act on different bodies.

WEIGHT – The gravitational force that the earth exerts on it.

The formula for finding the weight (W) of an object of mass (m) is:

W = mg

NOTE: g will have an entirely different value than on earth.

FREE-BODY DIAGRAM – A sketch showing all the forces acting on an object.

CHAPTER REVIEW: Applying Newton’s Laws

A body is in EQUILIBRIUM when it is at rest or moving with constant velocity in an


inertial frame of reference.

FRICTION – The friction between two surfaces arises from the interaction
between the molecules on the surfaces.

KINETIC FRICTION – Acts when a body slides over a surface. The formula for the
kinetic friction force is:

fk = µkn

STATIC FRICTION – Acts when there is no relative motion between the bodies.
The static friction force can vary between 0 and fs <= µsn.

FLUID RESISTANCE – depends on the speed of the body

TERMINAL SPEED – A falling body reaches this speed when the resisting force
equals the weight of the body.

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
CIRCULAR MOTION

If a particle is in UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION, both its acceleration and the net
force on it are directed toward the center of the circle. The net force on the
particle is:

Fnet = mv2 / R

CHAPTER REVIEW: Work and Kinetic Energy

A force on a body does WORK if the body undergoes a displacement.

Formula for the work done by a constant force acting at an angle θ to the
displacement is:

W = Fs cos θ

The formula for finding the kinetic energy of a particle is:

K = ½ mv2

NOTE: The net work on a body changes its speed, and therefore its kinetic energy.

WORK-ENERGY THEOREM – The work done by the net force on a particle equals
the change in the particle’s kinetic energy.

It is expressed as:

Wtot = K2 – K1

STRETCHING A SPIRNG

The force required to stretch a spring a distance x is proportional to k:

Fx = kx

Where k is the spring constant

The formula for finding the work doe on the spring to stretch it a distance X is:

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
W = ½ kx2

POWER – The rate at which work is done.

The formula for AVERAGE POWER is:

Pav = W/ t

The formula for INSTANTANEOUS POWER is:

P = dW/dt

The SI unit of power is the WATT (1 W = 1 J/s).

CHAPTER REVIEW: Potential Energy and Energy Conservation

POTENTIAL ENERGY – Energy associated with position.

The formula for Gravitational Potential Energy is:

Ugrav = mgh

The Conservation of Mechanical Energy

TOTAL MECHANICAL ENERGY – the sum of a system’s kinetic energy and


potential energy

CONSERVED QUANTITY – Quantity that always has the same value.

ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY – Energy stored in an elastic body such as a spring.

A body is elastic if it returns to its original shape after being deformed.

The formula for finding the elastic potential energy is

Uel = ½ kx2

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
TOTAL POTENTIAL ENERGY – The sum of the gravitational potential energy and
the elastic potential energy.

U = Ugrav + Uel

CONSERVATIVE FORCE – Allows conversion between kinetic and potential energy.

DISSIPATIVE FORCE – A force that is not conservative.

NONCONSERVATIVE FORCE – Forces that do not store potential energy, but they
do change the internal energy of a system.

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY – Energy is never created or destroyed; it


only changes form.

CHAPTER REVIEW: Momentum, Impulse, and Collisions

MOMENTUM – The product of a particle’s mass and its velocity. Represented by:

p = mv

Newton’s Second Law can be written in terms of momentum:

F = dp/dt

IMPULSE – The product of the force and the time interval in which it acts.

IMPULSE-MOMENTUM THEOREM – The change in momentum of a particle


during a time interval is equal to the impulse of the net force acting on the
particle during that interval.

TOTAL MOMENTUM – The vector sum of the momenta of the individual particles.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM – If the vector sum of the external forces on a


system is zero, the total momentum of the system is constant.

ELASTIC COLLISION – The total kinetic energy of the system is the same after the
collision as before.

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
INELASTIC COLLISION – The total kinetic energy after the collision is less than
before the collision.

COMPLETELY INELASTIC COLLISION – A collision in which the bodies stick


together completely.

NOTE: In any collision in which the external forces can be neglected, the total
momentum is conserved.

CHAPTER REVIEW: Fluid Mechanics

DENSITY – It is an intrinsic property of the substance, and it does not depend on


the size or shape of the object.

The formula for getting the density is:

Density = mass/volume

PRESSURE – It comes from the molecules striking the surface.

The formula for pressure is:

Pressure = force/area

BUOYANCY FORCE (B) comes from the net effect that the pressure is pushing
from the bottom of the object is greater the pressure pushing down on an object
from the top.

To solve for the buoyancy force, this formula should be used:

B = ρfluid Vd g

Where Vd = volume of fluid displaced

NOTE: An object floats when B = w

ρfluid Vd g = ρobject Vd g

ρobject / ρfluid = Vd / Vo

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
FLOW RATE – Mass of fluid crossing an area / time

The formula for flow rate is:

Flow rate = ρAv

CONSERVATION OF MASS – Flow rate remain the same at different part of the
pipe.

ρ1A1v1 = ρ2A2V2

NOTE: If we approximate liquids as incompressible (p1 = p2) , then:

A1v1 = A2v2

NOTE: The conservation of mass equation is also called the continuity equation.

BERNOULLI’s PRINCIPLE – It states that an increase in the speed of the fluid


occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure, or a decrease in the fluid’s
potential energy.

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.
REFERENCE MATERIAL:

Young, H. D., & Freedman, R. A. (2011). University Physics, Thirteenth Edition. Pearson Education.