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Vector Control of Induction Machine

Idriss Benlaloui, Saı̈d Drid, Senior Member, IEEE, Larbi Chrifi-Alaoui, and Mohammed Ouriagli

Abstract—In this paper, a novel rotor speed estimation method Ω Rotor speed (rd/s).

using model reference adaptive system (MRAS) is proposed to im- ωs Stator current frequency (rd/s).

prove the performance of a sensorless vector control in the very low ωr Induced rotor current frequency (rd/s).

and zero speed regions. In the classical MRAS method, the rotor

flux of the adaptive model is compared with that of the reference ωc Injected rotor current frequency (rd/s).

model. The rotor speed is estimated from the fluxes difference of Jin Inertia.

the two models using adequate adaptive mechanism. However, the f Coefficient of viscous.

performance of this technique at low speed remains uncertain and Γ Unknown torque.

the MRAS loses its efficiency, but in the new MRAS method, two Γe ,Γm ax Electromagnetic torque and maximal torque.

differences are used at the same time. The first is between rotor

fluxes and the second between electromagnetic torques. The adap- Symbol indicating measured value.

tive mechanism used in this new structure contains two parallel Symbol indicating the estimated value.

loops having Proportional-integral controller and low-pass filter. ∗ Symbol indicating the command value.

The first and the second loops are used to adjust the rotor flux and IM Induction motor.

electromagnetic torque. To ensure good performance, a robust vec- MRAS Model reference adaptive system.

tor control using sliding mode control is proposed. The controllers

are designed using the Lyapunov approach. Simulation and ex-

perimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed speed I. INTRODUCTION

estimation method at low and zero speed regions, and good robust-

PEED INFORMATION is mandatory for the operation of

ness with respect to parameter variations, measurement errors,

and noise is obtained. S vector-controlled induction motor (IM) drive. The rotor

speed can be measured through a sensor or may be estimated us-

Index Terms—Induction motor, Lyapunov function, model refer- ing voltage, current signals, and machine parameters. The use of

ence adaptive system (MRAS), sensorless control, speed estimation,

vector control. speed sensor is associated with problems, such as, reduction of

mechanical robustness of the drive, need of shaft extension, re-

liability reduction, and cost increase. Therefore, a speed sensor-

NOMENCLATURE less drive has a clear edge over the traditional vector-controlled

s, r Rotor and stator indices. drive.

d, q Direct and quadrate indices for orthogonal compo- Several speed estimators for sensorless vector control of in-

nents. duction motor have been proposed as summarized recently in

x̄ Variable complex such as: x̄ = e [x̄] + j.m [x̄] [1]. They can be divided into two groups, the model-based es-

with j 2 = −1. timators and signal injection-based estimators. Among the first

x̄ It can be a voltage as ū, a current as ī or a flux as ϕ̄. group, the MRAS, the adaptive Luenberger observers and the

x̄∗ Complex conjugate. extended Kalman-filter. The main drawback of these model-

R s , Rr Stator and rotor resistances. based estimators is their insufficient performance at low speeds

Ls , Lr Stator and rotor inductances. and parameters machine sensitivity. In order to overcome these

Ts ,Tr Stator and rotor time-constants (Tsr = Ls,r /Rs,r ). problems, signal injection-based methods [2], [3] were devel-

σ Leakage flux total coefficient (σ = 1 − M 2 /Lr Ls ). oped. Although these methods perform well at low and zero

M Mutual inductance. speed regions, they suffers from, computational complexity, the

P Number of pole pairs. need of external hardware for signal injection and the adverse ef-

ω Mechanical rotor frequency (rd/s). fect of injecting signal on the machine performance. Therefore,

due to their simplicity, model-based methods and especially

MRAS-based methods are, until now, the most widely used.

Numerous MRAS-based on rotor flux, back electromotive

Manuscript received May 6, 2014; revised September 29, 2014 and July 16,

2014; accepted October 21, 2014. Paper no. TEC-00310-2014. force, reactive power, and outer product of stator voltage–

I. Benlaloui and S. Drid are with the Laboratory of Induction and Propulsion current (v̄s∗ ⊗ ī∗s )[4]–[10] have been proposed. However, rotor

Systems, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Batna, Batna 05000, flux MRAS first introduced by Schauder [11], [5], remain the

Algeria (e-mail: idrissb88@yahoo.fr; s_drid@yahoo.fr).

L. Chrifi-Alaoui is with of the University of Picardie Jules Verne, 02880 most popular MRAS strategy, and a lot of effort has been fo-

Cuffies, France (e-mail: larbi.alaoui@u-picardie.fr). cused on improving its performance [1]. Indeed, the drawbacks

M. Ouriagli is with the Laboratoire d’Informatique Mathématiques Automa- of this technique are parameter sensitivity, especially to stator

tique et Optoélectronique, Faculté Polydisciplinaire de Taza Maroc, B.P. 1223

Taza, Morocco (e-mail: omenstz@yahoo.fr). resistance, and pure integration problems [6], [12]–[14], which

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2014.2366473 limit its performance at low and zero speed regions of operation.

1556-6013 © 2014 EU

This article has been accepted for inclusion in a future issue of this journal. Content is final as presented, with the exception of pagination.

Many solutions have been proposed to improve the perfor- B. Robust Control Law Design

mance at and around zero speed, among them, online adaptation Separating the real and the imaginary part of (1), we can write

of the stator resistance [15], simultaneous MRAS estimation of ⎧ dI

speed, and stator resistance [16]. Also, to overcome pure in- ⎪

⎪ dt = h1 + γ1 usd

sd

⎨

dI s q

cutoff frequency and a programmable cascaded LPF [19] were dt = h2 + γ1 usq

(7)

⎪

⎪

used. ⎪

⎩ dΩ

This paper proposes a field-oriented control (FOC) induction dt = h3 + γ2 uT

motor drive based on a new MRAS method. First, the modeling where h1 , h2 , and h3 are done as follows:

of the induction machine is described. Then, a sliding-mode ⎧

controller is designed to ensure good and robust performance ⎪ M dφr d M

⎪

⎪ h1 = γ1 −Rs Isd − + σLs ωs Isq + ω s φr q

with respect to parameters variations, and a new MRAS rotor ⎪

⎪ Lr dt Lr

⎪

⎨

speed observer is proposed. Finally, experimental results are M dφ̄r M

h2 = γ1 −Rs Isq − + σLs ωs Isd − ω s φr d

discussed. ⎪

⎪ Lr dt Lr

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎩ h3 = − 1 Γ + P M φr q Isd

II. THE IM MODEL Jin L

The Induction machine dynamic model expressed in the syn- (8)

∗

chronous reference frame is given by voltage equations with γ1 = σ L1 s , γ2 = k cJφi nr d and the virtual control uT = Isq .

⎧ The functions h1 , h2 , and h3 involved in the model of in-

⎪ ¯

⎪

⎪ ū = R ¯s + σLs dIs + M dφ̄r + jσLs ωs I¯s

I

duction motor (IM) are strongly affected by the temperature,

⎪

⎪

s s

dt Lr dt the saturation, and the skin effect in addition of the different

⎨ M

+ j ωs φ̄r . (1) nonlinearities related to harmonic pollution due to supplying

⎪

⎪ Lr converters and to noise measurements. In this section, our ob-

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎩ 0 = 1 φ̄r − M I¯s + dφ̄r + jωr φ̄r jective is to design a robust control law, which can take into

Tr Tr dt account all these effects and guarantee a good performance. In

The motion equation is general, we can write

⎧

dΩ ⎪

⎪ h = ĥ1 + Δh1

Γe − Γl = Jin + f Ω. (2) ⎨ 1

dt (9)

h2 = ĥ2 + Δh2

where the electromagnetic torque is ⎪

⎪

⎩

h3 = ĥ3 + Δh3

PM

Γe = (Isq φr d − Isd φr q ). (3)

Lr where ĥ1,2,3 : nominal functions, h1,2,3 : actual functions,

If we assume that the torque load and the viscous coefficient Δh1,2,3 : variations around nominal functions.

are unknown, we can write In this case, the load torque Γ is unknown but limited i.e.,

|Γ| ≤ Γm ax and magnetizing flux φr d is nonzero (remanence

dΩ flux).

Γe − Γ = Jin , (4)

dt We assume that all Δh1,2,3 are bounded as follows:

where Γ = Γl + f Ω. ⎧

⎪ |Δh1 | < ζ1

⎨

III. VECTOR CONTROL STRATEGY |Δh2 | < ζ2 . (10)

⎪

⎩

A. Rotor Flux Orientation |Δh3 | < ζ3

The objective of flux rotor orientation or vector control is Replacing (9) in (7), we obtain

to decouple the stator current into flux and torque producing ⎧

components, regulated separately, to obtain a good performance ⎪

⎪ dIsd

⎪

⎪ = ĥ1 + Δh1 + γ1 usd

IM drive [20], [21]. Then ⎪

⎪ dt

⎨

dIsq

φr q = 0 = ĥ2 + Δh2 + γ1 usq . (11)

. (5) ⎪

⎪ dt

φr d = ϕr ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ dΩ

⎩ = ĥ3 + Δh3 + γ2 uT

Using (5), the developed torque given by (3) can be rewritten dt

as follows: We can formulate the Lyapunov function as follows [22]–

Γe = kc φr Isq (6) [24]:

1 2 1 2 1 2

where kc = PM L r , and Isq appears as the input command of the V = e + e + e >0 (12)

active power or simply of the developed torque, while Isd ap- 2 d 2 q 2 ω

∗ ∗

pears as the input command of the reactive power. where ed = (Isd − Isd ), eq = (Isq − Isq ), and eω = (Ω − Ω∗ ).

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BENLALOUI et al.: IMPLEMENTATION OF A NEW MRAS SPEED SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINE 3

V̇ = ėd ed + ėq eq + ėω eω . (13)

Substituting (7) in (13), it results

∗

V̇ = (ĥ1 + Δh1 + γ1 usd − I˙sd )ed

∗

+ (ĥ2 + Δh2 + γ1 usq − I˙sq )eq

+ (ĥ3 + Δh3 + γ2 u∗T − Ω̇∗ )eω . (14) Fig. 1. Classical rotor flux MRAS speed observer.

∗

usd = −α1 ĥ1 + α1 I˙sd − α1 K1 ed − α1 K11 sgn(ed ) (rotor speed in our case). The adaptive mechanism should be

usq ∗

= −α1 ĥ2 + α1 I˙sq − α1 K2 eq − α1 K22 sgn(eq ) designed to ensure the stability of the controlled system. Fig. 1

illustrates the basic structure of MRAS [20], [25], [21].

uT = −α2 Ω̇ − α2 K3 eω − α2 K33 sgn(eω ) (15) The induction motor model can be represented in the stator

1 1 reference frame as follows:

where α1 = , α2 = .

γ1 γ2 ⎧ d φ̄

Hence, (15) replaced in (14) gives ⎨ ūs = Rs īs + σLs ddtī s + LMr dtr

. (21)

V̇ = −K1 e2d − K2 e2q − K3 e2ω ⎩ 0 = T1 φ̄r − TM īs + ddt φ̄ r

− jP Ωφ̄r

r r

+ (Δh2 − K22 sgn(ed ))eq A. Classical MRAS Speed Observer

The MRAS speed observer analyzed two independent equa-

+ (ĥ3 + Δh3 − K33 sgn(eω ))eω . (16) tions for the derivative time of rotor flux vector, obtained from

Hence, the Δh1,2,3 variations can be absorbed if we take (1) in the stationary reference frame (α, β). They are usually

referred to as the “voltage model” and “current model,” and they

K11 > |Δh1 | are given, respectively, by

K22 > |Δh2 |

(17) σLs Lr Lr

φ̄r = īs + (ūs − Rs īs )dt (22)

M M

K33 > ĥ3 + Δh3 .

and

The latter inequalities are satisfied since K1,2,3 > 0 and

M 1

φ̄r = īs − − jP.Ω φ̄r dt. (23)

|Δh1 | < ζ1 < K11 Tr Tr

|Δh2 | < ζ2 < K22 (18) For the same input īs , (23) can be written in an estimated

form

ĥ3 + Δh3 < | Γ| + |ζ3 | < K33 .

ˆ = M 1 ˆ dt.

φ̄r īs − − jP.Ω̂ φ̄ r (24)

Finally, we can write Tr Tr

V̇ < 0. (19) ˆ )

The dynamic equation of the estimation error ēφ = (φ̄r − φ̄r

Hence, using the Lyapunov theorem [22]–[24], we conclude is obtained by subtracting (23) and (24)

that

⎧ 1 ˆ .

˙ēφ = − − jP.Ω ēφ + jP (Ω − Ω̂)φ̄ (25)

⎪

⎪ lim ed = 0 Tr r

⎪ t→+∞

⎨

lim eq = 0 . (20) It is important to ensure that the system (25) is stable, which

⎪

⎪ t→+∞

⎪

⎩ lim eω = 0

naturally requires the error (eφ ) to be close to zero. As noted

t→+∞ in [11], the stability of this algorithm is studied, using the hy-

perstability Popov criterion. Indeed, the derivation of the error

IV. MRAS SPEED OBSERVER is composed of two terms. The first is linear and the second is

The MRAS approach uses two models. The model that does nonlinear.

not involve the quantity to be estimated (the rotor speed) is con- In matrix form, this differential equation is written as

sidered as the reference model. The model that has the quantity ē˙ φ = Aēφ − W (26)

to be estimated involved is considered as the adaptive model (or

adjustable model). The outputs obtained with the two models are where

compared, and the difference is used to derive a suitable adap- 1 ˆ = J.P ΔΩφ̄

ˆ

tive mechanism whose output is the quantity to be estimated A= − I + J.P Ω; W = J.P (Ω − Ω̂)φ̄ r r

Tr

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φr α − φ̂r α 1 0 0 −1

ēφ = ; and I = ; J= .

φr β − φ̂r β 0 1 1 0

function of the linear part ē˙ φ = Aēφ , we get

V = ēTφ ēφ > 0. (27)

The derivative of the Lyapunov function becomes

T 2 T

V̇ = ē˙ φ ēφ + ēTφ ē˙ φ = ēTφ (AT + A)ēφ = − ē ēφ . (28) Fig. 2. Block diagram of the new MRAS observer.

Tr φ

The function given in (28) is globally negative definite.Thus,

V̇ < 0 ∀Ω.

We can obtain the adaptive mechanism by Lyapunov, but it is

simpler to be extracted from Popov’s criterion

t

t

eTφ W dτ = (P ΔΩ[ eφα ˆ )dτ ≥ −δ 2 .

eφβ ]J φ̄ (29)

r o

0 0

Assuming the speed changes very slowly with the same the-

orem of parameter analysis mentioned above, we can write

Fig. 3. Block diagram of sensorless field-oriented control system.

Ω̂ = δ0 P [ eφα eφβ ]J φ̄ ˆ dt

r

= δ0 P (eφβ φ̂r α − eφα φ̂r β )dt. (30) Based on the same principle, a variation in the estimated

torque results in a variation of the estimated speed until the

The adaptation law has open-loop integration (offset prob- estimated torque becomes equal to the electromagnetic torque.

lem). To improve the estimation response, an LPF was proposed Then, by using the mechanical equation (2) and by replacing

by many authors [26] and [27]. Then, (30) becomes the electromagnetic torque and the speed by their estimated

values, we can write

ˆ ˆ )dt

Ω̂ = kp (φ̄r ⊗ φ̄r ) + ki (φ̄r ⊗ φ̄ (31)

r dΩ̂

Γ̂e − Γl = Jin

+ f Ω̂. (34)

dt

where kp and ki are positive gains.

By subtracting (34) from (2), we obtain the following equa-

However, the main problem of the classical MRAS observer

tion:

is its poor estimation at low speeds [1]. That is why we present

a new MRAS speed observer in the following paragraph. d(Ω − Ω̂)

eΓ = Γe − Γ̂e = Jin + f (Ω − Ω̂). (35)

dt

B. New MRAS Speed Observer Then, for good speed estimation, we must take into account

In the new MRAS method, two differences are used on the the two following conditions:

⎧

same time. The first is between rotor fluxes, and the second is ⎨ ē˙ φ = − 1 − jP Ω ēφ + jP (Ω − Ω̂)φ̄ ˆ

r

Tr

between electromagnetic torques. . (36)

⎩ d(Ω−Ω̂)

Indeed, the electromagnetic torque can be expressed as eΓ = Γe − Γ̂e = Jin dt + f (Ω − Ω̂)

M With the same way that we determinate the adaptation law

Γe = P (īs ⊗ φ̄r ) (32)

Lr previously and with taking into account the error of torque the

adaptation becomes

where φ̄r is given by (23).

The estimated electromagnetic torque can be expressed as Ki ˆ )+K eΓ

Ω̂ = Kp + (φ̄r ⊗ φ̄ r Γ (37)

p τp + 1

M ˆ )

Γ̂e = P (īs ⊗ φ̄r (33) where τ is chosen to be close to the mechanical time constant.

Lr

In this scheme, the electromagnetic torque error eΓ = (Γe −

where φ̄ ˆ is given by (24). Γ̂e ), is filtered by the LPF and added to the classical adaptation

r

It is well established that the motion equation (2) governs the law loop. The new MRAS observer block diagram is given in

mechanical dynamics part of the machine, then a variation of the Fig. 2.

load results in a variation of the speed until the electromagnetic Fig. 3 illustrates a general block diagram of the suggested IM

torque becomes equal to the load torque. control scheme.

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BENLALOUI et al.: IMPLEMENTATION OF A NEW MRAS SPEED SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINE 5

TABLE I

GAINS OF CONTROLLERS

Controller Gains

Is d -Controller K 1 = 300; K 11 = 25

Is q -Controller K 2 = 750; K 22 = 50

Speed-Controller K 3 = 500; K 33 = 10

PI-Observer k p = 1000; k i = 10000

New-MRAS Filter K Γ = 333, τ = 1.63

V. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL IMPLEMENTATION

In this section, the performance of the proposed observer

structure is presented via simulation and experimental results.

First, the performances of the proposed observer are analyzed

and compared with the classical MRAS observer by simulation.

Second, to validate the simulation results, extensive experimen-

tations are conducted by using dSPACE DS1104. The rating and

parameters of the induction motor are given in the appendix, the

values of all controllers gains are given in Table I.

A. Simulation Results

A sensorless FOC induction motor drive, shown in Fig. 3, Fig. 9. Load torque and Rs variations.

is used where the actual speed feedback signal is replaced by

the estimated one. Fig. 5 shows reference, actual, and estimated

speed. We can see in Figs. 6 and 7 that the speed estimation error and control. Also, in order to confirm the field orientation, d-

(error between actual and estimated speed) and tracking speed and q-axis flux are separately shown in Fig. 8. We can see that

error (error between reference and estimated speed) are small the q-axis flux is maintained at zero value.

even at zero speed regions and converge quickly to zero. To test The sensitivity to stator resistance mismatch and load torque

the robustness toward load torque variation at a constant speed variation of the proposed new MRAS method and the classical

reference, a step load variation of 10 Nm (see Fig. 4) is applied MRAS is shown in Figs. 9–11 for +20% Rs variations and 10-

between t = 5 s and t = 7 s. As we can see, after small varia- Nm load variation at low speeds. As can be observed, while the

tions, the estimation and tracking speed errors converge to zero. tracking performance of the two methods seems to be satisfac-

All these results confirm the efficiency of our speed observer tory (see Fig. 10), the accuracy of the new MRAS observer is

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Fig. 10. Classical MRAS observer: Reference, actual, and estimated speed Fig. 13. Speed of induction motor.

for load torque and Rs variations.

Fig. 11. Classical MRAS observer: Zoom of Reference, actual, and estimated

speed for load torque and Rs variations.

much better than this of the classical one especially at low speed

(see Fig. 11).

Fig. 16. Speed tracking error.

B. Description of the Laboratory Setup

C. Experimental Results

The basic structure of the laboratory setup is depicted in

Fig. 12. The DC machine is used as a load. The IM stator is fed Fig. 13 shows the reference, measured (actual), and estimated

by a SEMIKRON converter (4 kW, IGBT modules) controlled speed and also the speed reference of the proposed sensorless

directly by the DS1104 board. The dSPACE DS1104 PPC is control. We can see that the measured and estimated speed are

plugged in the host PC. The encoder is used to measure the close to each other and converge to the speed reference. In Figs.

mechanical speed. The sensors are used for the currents and 14–16, we show that the measured and tracking speed errors

voltages measures are, respectively, LA-55NP and LV-25P. The are small and converge quickly to zero even at zero speed.

Interface is used to provide galvanic isolation to all signals These experimental results prove the efficiency of our proposed

connected to the DS1104 PPC controller. observer and control and confirm the simulation results. In order

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BENLALOUI et al.: IMPLEMENTATION OF A NEW MRAS SPEED SENSORLESS VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINE 7

Fig. 17. Isd and Isq stator currents. Fig. 20. Classical MRAS: Speed estimation error.

Fig. 19. Classical MRAS: Reference, actual, and estimated speed.

this case, 10-Nm load charge was applied between 5 and 12 s).

to experimentally test the robustness of our proposed control Our control strategy has been successfully tested

scheme, a torque load variations of 10 Nm is applied between on dSPACE1104, which contains the Texas Instrument

5 and 7 s. We can see the effect of variation load on the Isq TMS320F240 DSP. This constructor has developed a number of

current in Fig. 17. The results show that no significant changes DSP for industrial applications. Then, it will be easy to apply

have affected either the speed or direct current Isd of the machine our control strategy in industry by generating C code or rewrite

[see Fig. 17]. All these tests show the robustness of the proposed our algorithm in assembly language.

observer controller scheme. Also, in Fig. 18, we can see that

the d- and q-axis fluxes are decoupled and the q-axis flux is

maintained at zero value. VI. CONCLUSION

To show the advantage of the proposed observer compared In this paper, a new MRAS rotor speed observer was pro-

to the classic one, the systems responses in the first and second posed to improve the performance of sensorless vector con-

cases were performed. Figs. 15 and 20 show clearly that the troller of induction machine. The control robustness is achieved

estimated error is smallest for our proposed observer than this by a sliding-mode controller and its stability is proved using

obtained for the classical one (Fig. 19). a Lyapunov approach. Simulation and experimental results for

To confirm the efficiency of our proposed observer at low different speed profiles had shown, on the one hand, that the

speed regions, different speed trajectories are applied. Fig. 21 proposed new MRAS observer was able to estimate accurately

shows the reference, measured, and estimated. It is clear from the actual speed at low and zero speed when the conventional

this figure that the estimated and measured speeds converge to MRAS observer is limited. On the other hand, the robustness

the speed reference at the same time. In Fig. 22, we can see of the proposed observer regarding load torque and stator re-

that the estimation error is small, which proves the efficiency sistance variations, especially at low and zero speed, is much

of the proposed MRAS even at low and zero speed regions. All better than the classical observer.

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APPENDIX [20] S. Huang, Y. Wang, J. Gao, J. Lu, and S. Qiu “The vector control based

on MRAS speed sensorless induction motor drive,” in Proc. World Congr.

Machine Parameters Intell. Control Automat., 2004, vol. 5, pp. 4550–4553.

[21] M. Montanari, S. Peresada, A. Tilli, A. Tonielli, “Speed sensorless control

Rs = 5.72 Ω, Rr = 4.2 Ω, Ls = 462 mH, Lr = 462 mH, of induction motor based on indirect field-orientation,” in Proc. Ind. Appl.

M = 440.2 mH, J = 0.0049 kg·m2 , f = 0.003 mN·s/rd. Conf., 2000, vol. 3, pp. 1858–1865.

[22] H. Khalil, Nonlinear Systems, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA:

Prentice-Hall, 1996.

Rate values [23] S. Drid, M. Tadjine, and M.S. Nait-Said, “Robust backstepping vector

control for the doubly fed induction motor,” IET Control Theory Appl.,

P = 1.5 kW; Ω = 1430 r/min; I = 3.5 A; cosϕ = 0.82; pole vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 861–868, 2007.

[24] D. Khamari, A. Makouf, S. Drid, and L. Chrifi-Alaoui, “High performance

pairs number p = 2; 50 Hz; load torque = 10 Nm. of self-scheduled linear parameter varying control with flux observer of

induction motor,” J. Elect. Eng. Technol., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1202–1211,

2013.

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[2] J.-I. Ha and S.-K. Sul, “Sensorless field-orientation control of an induction [26] J. Holtz, “Sensorless position control of induction motors—An emerging

machine by high-frequency signal injection,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., technology” in Proc. Int. Conf. Ind. Electron., Control, Instrum., Aachen,

vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 45–51, Jan./Feb. 1999. Germany, Aug. 31–Sep. 4, 1993, pp. 11–112.

[3] C. Caruana, G.M. Asher, and M. Sumner, “Performance of high frequency [27] C. Ilas, A. Bettini, L. Ferraris, G. Griva, and F. Profumo, “Comparision of

signal injection techniques for zero-low-frequency vector control induc- different schemes without shaft sensors for field oriented control drives,”

tion machines under sensorless conditions,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., in Proc. Int. Conf. Ind. Electron., Control, Instrum., 1994, pp. 1579–1588.

vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 225–238, Feb. 2006.

[4] F. Peng and T. Fukao, “Robust speed identification for speed-sensorless Idriss Benlaloui was born in Batna, Algeria, in 1988.

vector control of induction motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in electrical

no. 5, pp. 1234–1240, Sep./Oct. 1994. engineering from the University of Batna, Batna, in

[5] C. Schauder, “Adaptive speed identification for vector control of induction 2009 and 2011, respectively. He is currently working

motors without rotational transducers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28, toward the Ph.D. degree at the Electrical Engineering

no. 5, pp. 1054–1061, Sep./Oct. 1992. Institute, University of Batna.

[6] P. Vas, Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control. New York, NY, USA: Mr. Benlaloui is a Member of the Research Lab-

Oxford Univ. Press, 1998. oratory of Electromagnetic Induction and Propulsion

[7] S. Maiti, C. Chakraborty, Y. Hori, and M. C. Ta, “Model reference adap- Systems, University of Batna.

tive controller-based rotor resistance and speed estimation techniques for

vector controlled induction motor drive utilizing reactive power,” IEEE

Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 594–601, Feb. 2008. Saı̈d Drid (SM’13) was born in Batna, Algeria, in

[8] M. Comanescu and L. Xu, “Sliding mode MRAS speed estimators for sen- 1969. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. de-

sorless vector control of induction machine,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., grees in electrical engineering from the University of

vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 146–153, Feb. 2006. Batna, Batna, in 1994, 2000, and 2005, respectively.

[9] A. V. Ravi Teja, C. Chakraborty, S. Maiti, and Y. Hori, “A new model He is currently a full Professor at the Electrical

reference adaptive controller for four quadrant vector controlled induction Engineering Institute, University of Batna. He is the

motor drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 101, pp. 3757–3767, Head of the Energy Saving and Renewable Energy

Apr. 2012. Team, Research Laboratory of Electromagnetic In-

[10] V. Verma, C. Chakraborty, S. Maiti, and Y. Hori, “Speed sensorless vector duction and Propulsion Systems, University of Batna.

controlled induction motor drive using single current sensor,” IEEE Trans. His research interests include electric machines and

Energy Convers., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 938–950, Nov. 2013. drives, and renewable energy. He is also a reviewer

[11] C. Schauder, “Adaptive speed identification for vector control of induction for some international journals.

motors without rotational transducers,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Rec. Ind. Appl. Dr. Drid is a Member of the IEEE Power and Energy Society (PES). He is

Soc. Annu., Meeting, 1989, pp. 493–499. currently the Vice Chair of the PES chapter, IEEE Algeria section.

[12] J. Holtz and J. Quan, “Drift and parameter compensated flux estimator

for persistent zero stator frequency operation of sensorless controlled

induction motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1052–1060, Larbi Chrifi-Alaoui received the Ph.D. degree in

Jul./Aug. 2003. automatic control from the Ecole Centrale de Lyon,

[13] Y. A. Kwon and D. W. Jin, “A novel MRAS based speed sensorless control Écully, France, in 1994.

of induction motor,” in Proc. IEEE 25th Annu. Conf. Ind. Electron. Soc., Since 1999, he has held a teaching position in

1999, pp. 933–938. automatic control at the Aisne University Institute

[14] Q. Gao, C. S. Staines, G. M. Asher, and M. Sumner, “Sensorless speed of Technology, Université de Picardie Jules Verne,

operation of cage induction motor using zero drift feedback integration Cuffies-Soissons, France, where, from 2004 to 2010,

with MRAS observer,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Power Electron. Appl., 2005, he was the Head of the Department of Electrical En-

pp. 1–9. gineering and Industrial Informatics. His research in-

[15] M. S. Zaky, M. M. Khater, S. S. Shokralla, and H. A. Yasin, “Wide terests include linear and nonlinear control theory,

speed-range estimation with online parameter identification schemes of including sliding mode control, adaptive control, and

sensorless induction motor drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, robust control, with applications to electric drive and mechatronics systems.

no. 5, pp. 1699–1707, May 2009.

[16] V. Vasic and S. Vukosavic, “Robust MRAS-based algorithm for stator

resistance and rotor speed identification,” IEEE Power Eng. Rev., vol. 21, Mohammed Ouriagli received the Ph.D. degree in

no. 11, pp. 39–41, Nov. 2001. electrical engineering from the Institut National Poly-

[17] L. Ben-Brahim, S. Tadakuma, and A. Akdag, “Speed control of induction technique de Lorraine, Lorraine, France, in 1995.

motor without rotational transducers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, Since 2003, he has held a teaching position in auto-

no. 4, pp. 844–850, Jul./Aug. 1999. matic control in the Polydisciplinary Faculty of Taza,

[18] M. Hinkkanen and J. Luomi, “Modified integrator for voltage model Université Sidi Mohamed Ben-Abdellah (USMBA),

flux estimation of induction motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, Taza, Morroco. His research interests mainly include

no. 4, pp. 818–820, Aug. 2003. linear and nonlinear control theory, including sliding

[19] B. Karanayil, M. F. Rahman, and C. Grantham, “An implementation of mode control, adaptive control, robust control, elec-

a programmable cascaded low-pass filter for a rotor flux synthesizer for tric drive applications, and mechatronics systems.

an induction motor drive,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 2,

pp. 257–263, Mar. 2004.

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