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Suresh Sharma(M. TECH. in Manufacturing & Iindustrial Engineering )

(Suresh gyanvihar university, jagatpura, jaipur)

Cryogenics originated from two Greek words “kyros” which means cold or freezing and “genes” which means born or
produced. Cryogenics is the study of very low temperatures or the production of the same. Liquefied gases like liquid nitrogen
and liquid oxygen are used in many cryogenic applications. Liquid nitrogen is the most commonly used element in cryogenics
and is legally purchasable around the world .The use of liquid fuel for rocket engines was considered as early as the beginning of
20th century. The Russian K.E. Ziolkowsky, the American H. Goddard and the German-Romanian H. Oberth worked
independently on the problems of spaceflight and soon discovered that in order to succeed, rockets with high mass-flow were

Keywords: Cryogenic engine, Cryogenic fuel, hypergolic fuels

INTRODUCTION: We know that Engine decades earlier. Historians of early rocketry

are basic component in every industry as a form experiments, among them Max Valier and
of machinery and also to produce the power. Willy Ley, have given differing amounts of
Cryogenic engines are the highest performing credence to Paulet's report. Paulet described
rocket motors. The space shuttles’ main engines laboratory tests of liquid rocket engines, but
used for liftoff are cryogenic engines. The
did not claim to have flown a liquid rocket.
shuttles’ smallest thrusters for orbital
maneuvering use non- cryogenic hypergolic CRYOGENIC ENGINE
fuels which are compact and stored at warm INTRODUCTION:
temperature. Only Russia, China, United states.,
France, Japan have mastered cryogenic rocket Already then the combustion of liquid fuels
technique. seemed the most promising method of
generating thrust .However it was not later until
HISTORY: these pioneers made their attempts, the first big
liquid powered rocket the German A-4 became
The only known claim to liquid propellant
reality in the mid-forties. This rocket became
rocket engine experiment in the nineteenth successful as the V-2 weapon. Liquid oxygen
century was made by a Peruvian scientist was used as the oxidizer and ethyl alcohol as the
named Pedro Paulet. He did not immediately fuel which gave the rocket more than 300KN of
publish his work. In 1927 he published his thrust. It`s range was 300km. As the
achievements in newspaper Lima. claiming development of rocket engines continued, higher
he had experimented with a liquid rocket thrust levels were achieved when liquid oxygen
engine while he was a student in Paris three and liquid hydrocarbon were used as fuel.
This alllowed the construction of o the firstt
intercontinnental rocket with a range of more thann
10,000 km. Undeer normal atmosphericc
conditionss, at temperaature 300k annd pressure 1
bar, thesee substances are in gaseouus state. Onee
cannot rem medy the loww density by increasing
i thee
pressure because the required tannk structuress
would ennd being too heavy. Thee answer is too
liquefy thhe fuels by co
ooling them down.
d This iss
why the fuels
fu are also called
c cryogeenic fuels.

Combustiion in thrusst chamber

F All current spacecraft use chemical roockets
NE: (biprropellant or solid-fuel) for
fo launch, thhough
somee have used air-breathingg engines onn their
• The thrrust chamber or
o combustionn chamber first stage. Mostt satellites havve simple reeliable
• Pyrotecchnic igniter chemmical thrusteers. Soviet blocb satellitess have
• Fuel injjector usedd electric proppulsion for decades,
d and newer
• Fuel turrbo-pumps Wesstern geo-orbiting spacecrraft are startiing to
• Gas turrbine use them for north-south station keeeping.
• Cryo vaalves Interrplanetary veehicles mosttly use cheemical
• Regulattors rockkets as well, although a fewf have useed ion
• The fueel tanks thrussters to great success.
• Rocket engine
• Nozzle
Among thhem, the comb bustion cham
mber & the
nozzle aree the main com
mponents of the
t rocket


Spacecrafft propulsionn is any metthod used too

acceleratee spacecraft and artificcial satellites.
There are many differeent methods. Each methodd
has drawwbacks and ad dvantages, annd spacecraftft
propulsionn is an acctive area of research.
However,, most spacecrraft today aree propelled byy
forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle att
very highh speed throuugh a supersoonic de Lavall
nozzle. This
T sort of engine
e is callled a rockett
Another use of cryogenics is cryogenic fuels.
Cryogenic fuels, mainly liquid hydrogen, have
been used as rocket fuels. Liquid oxygen is used
as an oxidizer of hydrogen, but oxygen is not,
strictly speaking, a fuel. For example, NASA's
workhorse space shuttle uses cryogenic
hydrogen fuel as its primary means of getting
into orbit, as did all of the rockets built for the
Soviet space program by Sergei Korolev. (This
was a bone of contention between him and rival
engine designer Valentin Glushko, who felt that
cryogenic fuels were impractical for large-scale
rockets such as the ill-fated N-1 rocket
spacecraft.)Russian aircraft manufacturer
Tupolev developed a version of its popular
design Tu-154 with a cryogenic fuel system,
known as the Tu-155. The plane uses a fuel
referred to as liquefied natural gas or LNG, and
made its first flight in 1989


The area of cryogenics in cryogenic rocket

engines is a vast one. There is also a high a
opportunity of jobs because of there
developments in the field of rocket. Cryo
propelled rocket engines are having a great
demand in the field of space explorations.
Due to high specific impulse obtained
during the ignition of fuels they are of much

Reference: http://seminarprojects.com/T