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Fuses in Parallel

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Fuse Selection

Upper Lower
Limit Limit

Safety regulation
I2t of UL may require the
downstream fuse to open within a
certain time under
IC certain conditions Steady-State Transient
Conditions State

Maximum Maximum Duration of


Maximum Maximum Waveform/shape
Operating Operating Pulse/in-rush
Voltage Peak Current of pulse current
Current Temperature Current

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Steady-State
Step 1: Operating Step 2: Operating Step 3: Operating
Current Temperature Voltage
Operating current 75% or Temperature de-rating Fuse voltage rating ≥
less of fuse current rating Chart operating voltage

Temperature De-Rating Curve for SolidMatrix Fuse


105 Example: Fuse current rating for
100
95 a steady state operating current of
90
85
80
2A operating at ambient
temperature up to 85̊C.
% De-rating

75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
0.75
35
30
25
2
0.75 ⁄0.85
20
15
10
5
0
‐55 ‐35 ‐15 5 25 45 65 85 105 125 145 3.13
Maximum Operating Temperature (̊C)

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Transient State

Step 2: Calculate I2t of


pulse waveform Step 3: Pulse cycle de-
Step 1: Determine pulse rating
The energy contained in the
waveform pulse is given by: Stress induced by current
pulse is mechanical in nature

Step 4: 30% safety


Step 5: Compare with I2t margin
of fuse Rule of thumb 30% head
room to account for variants
introduced by other
components in the circuit

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Transient State Example
Step 1: Determine Waveform

Example:
Transient pulse of
capacitor discharge
100,000 cycles

Step 2: Calculate I2t of pulse

16
0.0004


4 →
2
16 0.0004
2
0.0512

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Transient State Example cont’d
AEM SolidMatrix® Chip Fuse Pluse Derating Curve

Step 3: Pulse Cycle and 100%


Temperature de-rating
0.0512
0.4

Derating Percentage
0.128
0.15
0.85

10%
100 1000 10000 100000
Pulse Cycle

Step 4: 30% margin


0.15 Step 5: Compare with I2t of fuse
0.7 → 0.215 sec @ 0.4
0.215 sec @ 0.4

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Fuses in Parallel

Concept

• Consider a parallel resistor network (Fig.1)

• ix can be determined through equation 1

• RT can be determined through equation 2

• Current divider

Figure 1

: 2: . . . →

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Fuses in Parallel
Example: Two 25A fuse in parallel (Fig. 2)

F1 = 25A rated
+ -
DCR 30%
F2= 25A rated

Steady-State
→ → 0.7 1.3 + -

0.7
1.3
Figure 2
0.7
→ → 1.53
1.3

20 13
13 → 17.42
1.53 1.53 0.75
17.42
→ 20.5
0.85

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Fuses in Parallel
Example: Two 25A fuse in parallel subjected
to a 100,000 cycle square pulse with peak
current of 100A for 5ms (Fig. 3)
Square pulse therefore,

100
65.35 →
1.53 1.53 Figure 3

65.35 0.005 21 1000000

21 100000
100,000 → 52.5
0.4
10000
52.5

I2t (A2s)
→ 61.7
0.85
1000

61.7
30% → 88.3 100
0.7
10
5 → 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Time (s)

Figure 4

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Conclusion

• Upper Limit:
– UL or internal safety requirements
• Lower Limit:
– Steady-state requirement (20.5A)
– Transient state (88A2sec)

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