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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

English is an international language that very important to study

because it is used in the world communication. People know it as a

foreign language. Usually, students in Indonesia begin know English

since kindergarten until university.

Teaching English as proficiency involves four skills they are

listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Those skills support each

other and cannot be separated with each other in this case. These

four language skills are developed from basic language components

such as, structure, vocabulary, pronunciation, and spelling.

In teaching vocabulary, English teacher have a very important

role in an English instruction since they are one of the factors that

determine whether the teaching is successful or unsuccessful. The

teachers have to be able to apply various’method in teaching English

because the students prepare to learn simply and usefully.

In reality the teachers just look for the students mistake without

see another aspects, like uniqueness of students at the class.

Human is the unique creature who very different between one and

another. The differences can appear from physical, cultural, social,


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language, study ability and so on. According to prof. dr. soedjanto

(2009) that no one who have same study ability. It caused by some

factor such as biological, physical, or psychological. According to

prof, ken and rita (2009) they said that every people have unique

study of stile and have individual power.

In the school situation of SMPN 6 Majene the vocabulary mastery

is still less too. It’s proved with the applied of observation that is done

by researcher with simply interview toward some person that have

authority in the school. There are some factor that influence it, such

as international factors (individual of students) and teacher factor in

delivering lesson.

From these reasons, the English teacher must leave the ancient

method and changed into new method in teaching vocabulary like

using mind mapping method. By using a new method, students will

be more interested in English learning and also they will more easy

to improve their vocabulary mastery.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher will conduct

research entitle “Improving Students Vocabulary of The Seventh

Grade Students of SMPN 6 MajeneBy Using Mind Mapping.


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1.2 Problem statement

Based on the background above, the researcher formulated a

problem statement as follows: “Can the use of Mind Mapping to

improve the vocabulary mastery of the seventh grade students of

SMPN 6 Majene”?

1.3 The objective of the research

In relation to the problem statement above, the objective of this

research is to find out whether or not the using of mind mapping can

improve the vocabulary of the seventh grade students of SMPN 6

Majene.

1.4 Significance of the research

1.4.1 Theoretical significance

This research will be done expected to be able to give

contribution in improving the knowledge. Especially in

implementation of the learning method.

1.4.2 Practical significance

Practically, the research will be done expected to be able

to give contribution in improving of the learning process


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especially in improving the students’ vocabulary mastery.

Moreover, it is expected too in this research can develop the

ability to apply the learning method for teacher.

1.5 Scope of the research

The scope of the research, the researcher restricted to the

discipline, this study is under linguistics, the teaching subject in terms

of vocabulary by using mind mapping. By activity, the researcher to

use mind mapping procedures in teaching vocabulary, while by

contents, this research covered word classes namely noun related to

the themes.
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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL

FRAMEWORK

2.1 Previous Related Research Findings

In this research, the researcher takes some of the previous

findings are listed briefly below:

PattaDaeng (2002) conducted a research on “Teaching

vocabulary to the first year students of SMAN 1 Makassar through

semantic maps. He concluded that the students who are taught

vocabulary in individual items through the use of semantic maps

make progresses more intensively than the students who are taught

through verbal explanations do.

Kasim K (2001) conducted a research on “Teaching English

Vocabulary for young students by using classroom simulation

games”. He concluded that using classroom simulation games is

more effective than using verbal explanation in teaching English and

also simulation games can enlarge pupils’ English vocabulary.

Tjanrajani in alibalharis (2004) conducted a research on “Using

Authentic Materials to increase Vocabulary of the first year students

of SMAN 4 Parepare”. She found that there was significant

development for pretest and posttest in vocabulary mastery of the


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students. It means that using authentic reading is effective in

creasing the students’ vocabulary.

Khalik in AlibalHaris (2004) conducted a research on increasing

English vocabulary of the second year students of SMAN 1

WatangPuluh through translation method. He found that there was a

significant difference between the vocabulary mastery of the students

before and after taught through translation method.

From some findings of the research above, most of them used a

quasi experimental method involving two group of the students,

experimental and control class, while in this research will use

classroom action research. In this research, the researcher focused

on the vocabulary as one of the English language components “ the

importance of vocabulary in teaching a foreign language is clearly

stated by Allen (1997) as follow vocabulary is an important factor in

teaching words, sound system, structure , and other essential area of

language learning, so the researcher concludes that vocabulary as

one of the elements of language which is important to study, without

having vocabulary mastery well, students’ more easy to accept the

teacher explanation and the ability to communicate and convey our

needs could not be established to each four skills.

2.2 Vocabulary

2.2.1 Definition of Vocabulary


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Several scholars have given their opinions about what

vocabulary is. They are as follows:

Carter (1987) said that vocabulary is the words having

meaning when heard or seen even though not produced by

the individual himself to communicate with other.

Good (1959) wrote that vocabulary is the content and

function words of language which one learned so thoroughly

that become of a part of child understanding, speaking and

later reading and writing.

Richards (2000: 4) states that vocabulary is one of the

most obvious components of language and one of the first

things applied linguistics turned their attention to.

Richard (2002) states in his book “Longman dictionary of

language teaching and applied linguistics” that vocabulary is a

set of lexemes, including single words, compound words and

idioms.

Grolier (1981) that vocabulary is a list of words and often

phrases usually arranged alphabetically and defined or

translated a lexicon or glossary.

Webster (1981) vocabulary is the stock of word used by

people or particular uses or person, or a list of collection of the

word of a language, book, author and branch of science or the

like, in alphabetically order and defined.


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Alibalharis (2010) vocabulary is the main key to learn

English. It is to be master by students to communicate with

others, such as expressing ideas, emotion, desires.

Based on the definition above, the important point of

thesedefinitions is the vocabulary or word Influence people to

make up the language. They are sometimes arranged

alphabetically with their meaning, recognized, and understood

by particular person in speaking, listening, reading, and

writing.

2.2.2 Types of Vocabulary

Similarly Legged et.al (1982) pointed out that in a sense,

everyone has two types of vocabulary:

a. Passive or recognition vocabularies, which are made up of

the words. One recognizes in the context or reading

material, but he does not actually use himself.

b. Active vocabulary, which consists of working words. One

uses daily in writing and speaking.

Schell (1967) stated that there are three kinds of

vocabulary, they are:

a. Active vocabulary, the words we customarily use in

speaking
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b. Reserve vocabularies, the words we know but we rarely use

them in ordinary speech. However, we use them in

writing letters.

c. Passive vocabulary, the words we recognize vaguely, but

we are not sure of the meaning; we never use them in

either speech or writing, and we just know them because

vocabulary we have seen them before.

For meaning that is more specific, Penny Ur (1996) divided

vocabulary into four kinds as follows:

a. Oral vocabulary consists of words actively used in speech.

They are the words that comes reality to the tongue of the

one’s conversation. The more often a person utters a

word, the more readily it will come to his tongue.

b. Writing is the words that come readily to one’s finger

vocabulary.

c. Listening vocabulary is the stock of words to which one

responds with meaning and understands in speaking to

others.

d. Reading vocabulary consists of words which one responds

in the writing of others

Based on the definition above, the researcher concludes

that vocabulary affects all four skills: listening, speaking,

writing, and reading.


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2.2.3 The Importance of Vocabulary

Vocabulary is a main basic to construct the ability in

speaking, writing, listening, and reading. Without mastering

the vocabulary the people cannot communicate their ideas,

emotions, and desires because vocabulary is important for

understanding of knowing names of thing, action and

concepts, acquiring, and adequate. Having a wide range of

knowledge of structure or competence of every English skill

is not enough if our vocabulary is supposed a crucial

requirement in studying English.

2.2.4 The Principles of teaching and learning vocabulary

There are nine principles of teaching and learning

vocabulary indicated by Wallace (1989), they are as follows:

a. Aim

In teaching vocabulary we have to be clear about

what aims, how many of vocabulary listed and we

expect the students to be able to do? If it is not clear at

this point, it will be difficult to access how successful the

vocabulary learning has been attained.

b. Quantity

Having decided on what is involved in vocabulary

learning that our students can learn, we may decide on


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quantity of vocabulary to be taught, the number of new

words that we expect the words that will be taught

become part of students’ active vocabulary, then put the

numbers of words as low as round five to seven new

words. Clearly, the actual number will depend on a

number of factors varying from class and learner. When

there are too many new words, the students may

become confused, discouraged, and frustrated.

c. Need

In most cases, the choice of vocabulary taught to

the students, the teacher uses course book or syllabus.

In any cases, the teacher choose the vocabulary that is

going to be taught related to the aim of the course and

the objectives of individual lesson. It is also possible for

the teachers, in a sense, to put the responsibility of

choosing the vocabulary to be taught to the students. In

other words, the students are put in the situation where

they have to communicate the words they need, as they

need them using the words as the information.

d. Frequent Exposure and repetition

In teaching and learning vocabulary, there has to

be a certain amount of repetition until there is evidence

that the students have learnt the target words. The


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simplest way of checking that the learning has been

done is by seeing whether the students can recognize

the target words and identify their meaning. If the words

have to be a part of the students’ productive

vocabulary, they must be given an opportunity to use

them, as often as necessary for them to recall the

words at all with the correct spelling and pronunciation

and identify their meaning.

e. Meaningful presentation

In the presentation of the vocabulary lesson, the

student must have a clear and specific understanding of

what denotes or refers to. This requires that the words

presented in as much a way their denotation and

references are perfect and unambiguous.

f. Presenting in context

Words very seldom occur in isolation, so it is

important for the students to know the usual collocation

that words occurs in. So from the very beginning the

word must appear in its natural environment as it were

aiming the words naturally collocate with collocation are

words that are community associated.


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g. Situation presentation

The words presented should be appropriate to

the students’ situation, with a favorable condition,

enough time consuming, and convenient method. The

students will automatically success in learning

vocabulary.

h. Learning vocabulary in the mother tongue and in the

target language

There are five steps to learn or to achieve vocabulary in

the mother tongue and in the target language as follow:

a. There is a felt need

b. The mother tongue learner mostly controls his own

rate of learning

c. The mother tongue is exposed to an enormous

quantity of his own language. In addition, has

tremendous scope for repetition of what he learns.

d. The language is nearly always encountered in

appropriate situation and in the appropriate context.

e. Since the words are learner as they arise out a felt

need in a particular Situation, they usually have a

clear denotation.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

concludes that there are several general the principle of


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teaching and learning vocabulary, which the valid for any

method, namely: aim, need, frequent exposure and

repetition, and meaningful presentation.

2.2.5 What do the students need to know

Harmer (1991) states there are four what the students

need to know relates to vocabulary item than just one

meaning, namely :

a. Meaning

The first thing to realize about vocabulary items is that

they frequently have more than one meaning. As far as

meaning goes, then, students need to know about

meaning in context and they need to know about sense

relation

b. Word use

What word uses means can be changed, stretched or

limited by know it is used and this is something students

need to know about.

c. Word formation

Word can change their shape and their grammatical

value, too. Students need to know facts about word

formation and how to twist words to fit different

grammatical context. Word formation means knowing


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words are written and spoken and knowing how they

can change their form.

d. Word grammar

Just word change according to their grammatical

meaning, so the use of certain words can trigger the

use of certain grammatical patterns.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

concludes that there are four what the students need to

know related to vocabulary item, namely, firstly, the

students must know the meaning of the word we use.

Secondly, the students must know when the word can

be used. Third, the students must know how to arrange

the words into sentence and can become a good

grammar.

2.3 Mind Mapping

2.3.1 The Definition of mind mapping

Silberman (1996) Mind mapping is a creative way for

individual students to generate ideas, record learning, or

plan a new project.

Buzan (2009) Mind mapping is an expression of radiant

thinking and uses line, symbol, words, and pictures ; based

on the set of simple rules and natural toward the human


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mind. By using mind map, the list of information that are so

long and boring can changed into colorful diagram and

make easy to remember

Mind map is an expression of radiant thinking and is

therefore a natural function of the human mind (

http://www.mind-mapping.co.uk/mind-

mapping.definition.htm). It is a powerful graphic technique

which provides a universal key to unlocking the potential of

the brain. The mind map can be applied to every aspect of

life where improved learning and clearer thinking will

enhance human performance.

Buzan (http://www.usingmindmaps.com/what-is-a-mind-

map.html) states that a mind mapping is a powerful graphic

technique which provides a universal key to unlock the

potential of the brain. It is visual map of ideas, laid out in a

radial format around a central thought and it involves a

unique combination of imagery, color and visual-spatial

arrangement which is proven to significantly improve recall

when compared to conventional methods of note-taking and

learning by rote. It needs imagination and association to

activate our brain in remembering something.

Based on DePotter and Hernacki as translated into

English (in Abdurrahman, 2008:153), “Mind mapping is the


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use of whole brains technique by using the visualization and

other graphic infrastructure to make an impression”.

Besides, mind mapping is one of techniques which can

make the students more enjoyable and interesting in

studying vocabulary.

According to Martin as translated into English (in

Trianto, 2009:158) mind mapping is a concrete graphic

illustration which indicates how a single concept related to

other concept in the same categories. Mind mapping is a

pattern which at least consists of picture, symbol and color

that will not just help the students to understand the

vocabulary knowledge but also make the students feel

good, enjoyable and attract their brain which at last leads

them to have interest in mastery vocabulary knowledge.

Based on the definition above, the researcher

concludes that mind mapping method will help the students

to construct and organize their ideas, because mind

mapping as the way to develop the students vocabulary.

2.3.2 The function of mind mapping

According to Michael Michalko in Buzans’ book (2009),

there are some functions of mind map, these are :

a. To make active all parts of brain


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b. To make people (learners) be focus in the main topic

c. To help show the relation among parts of information

that mutual separated

d. To give a certain illustration in the whole and detail

e. To help grouped the concept and compare it

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

concludes that before we (the teacher) teach our students

in the classroom. We must know what the function of mind

mapping that will be though.

2.3.3 The characteristic of mind mapping

The mind map has four essential characteristics, they are :

a. The subject of attention is crystallized in a central image

b. The main themes of the subject radiate from the central

image on branches

c. Branches hold a key image/word printed on the

associated line-details radiate out

d. The branches form a connected nodal structure

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

concludes that there are four of the characteristics of mind

mapping, which we must be known before we (as the

teacher) teach our students in the classroom.


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2.3.4 The part of mind mapping

There are some parts of mind mapping (Windura,

2008:77-86) namely; (1) central image, (2) key word, (3)

basic ordering ideas, (4) branches, (4) color and (5) picture.

a. Central Image

A central image has to describe the main idea of a

mind mapping and put it on the centre of the paper. It is

for activate the students’ right brain, strengthen the

students’ memory and make the learning activity

enjoyable.

b. Key Word

A key word is a word that can lead a sentence or

event. Identifying a familiar word in one’s own language

or another language that sounds like the new word and

using only one key word per line. It is as an urge to

remember a lot of words for the students. It is strong

noun or verb that creates image to trigger recall the

memory.

c. Basic Ordering Ideas

Basic ordering ideas are the branches that collect

sort information and it connected to the central topic that

radiate out from the centre. Making basic ordering ideas

which can direct our mind to make mind mapping and it


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need creativity that encourage the students to

understand to the material. It is thick and thinner at the

ends. It can be seen as headings for your topic and

spread anywhere but do not become steep.

d. Branches

The branches should be curvy and in the same

length as the words or pictures above it. These branches

can be seen as sub headings. It is thinner branches and

containing details.

e. Color

Color is a very good memory sign and it involves

the right brain in learning for long term memory. Colors

encourage creativity and help in memorization. Adding

plenty of colors via branches, map background and

images will add life to your mind map. It makes easier to

comprehend and remember.

f. Picture

In mind mapping, pictures which can change or

strengthen a key word that has been written before.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

concludes that before we (as the teacher) teach our

students in the classroom. We must explanation to the

students about part of mind mapping, namely central


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image, key word, basic ordering ideas, branches, color

and picture

2.3.5 The procedures of mind mapping

The procedure in making a mind map consists of seven

steps :

a. Star from the centre of paper that put horizontally

b. Use image for the central ideas

c. Use color. By coloring, it can improve the energy toward

creative thinking

d. Connect the branches to the central image, connect the

second and third branches to the first and the second

branches and so on

e. Make a curve line as connected line among branches. It

will be more interesting. Use a key word in each line. It

useful to give the mind map more energy and flexibility

f. Use image is like on central image (Buzan, 2009 )

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

concludes that there are six of the procedures in making a

mind map, which we must be known before we (as the

teacher) teach our students in the classroom


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2.3.6 The steps to read a mind map

The steps to read a mind map, as follows :

a. Start in the centre that is the focus of the mind map

b. Word/images closest to the central image show the main

themes of the mind map. This is the start of the radiant

hierarchical structure

c. Select one main theme and read out from the centre

along the branch. This provides greater levels of

associated detail

d. Notice links between the branches

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

concludes that before we (as the teacher) teach our

student in the classroom, we must be know about the steps

to read a mind map.

2.4 Hypothesis

In this research, the hypothesis that is taken by researcher

is “The use of mind mapping can improve the vocabulary

mastery of the seventh grade students’ of SMPN 6 Majene”


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2.5 Conceptual Framework

THE FIRST
CONDITION
OF STUDENTS

The learning Cycle I


process 1. Planning
ACTION without using
2. Action
mind mapping
3. Observation
4. Reflection

Cycle II
The learning 1. Planning
ACTION process with 2. Action
using mind
3. Observation
mapping
4. Reflection

The Cycle III


improving of 1. Planning
students’ 2. Action
ACTION
vocabulary 3. Observation
mastery 4. Reflection

g
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CHAPTER III
METHOD OF THE RESEARCH

3.1 Research location

The location of the research will SMPN 6 Majene at Rangas and

east banggae distric, regency of majene, province of west Sulawesi.

3.2 Operational definition

3.3 Population and Sample

3.3.1 Population

The population of this research is the seventh grade

students of SMPN.6 Majene in the school year 2012/2013.

There are three classes namely:

Table I
The population of the seventh grade students of
SMPN 6 Majene

No CLASS TOTAL

1. VII A 20

2. VII B 21

3. VII C 22
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4 VIID 21

TOTAL 84

3.3.2 Sample

Based on the population above, the researcher chose is

VII D consist of 21 students.

3.4 Instrument of the Research

The instrument of the research consist of two, they are.

3.4.1 Observation

The researcher will observe the learning process. The

kind of observation is participant observation. That is an inside

observation process that is done by observer with join to take

portion in people life that will be observed

(S.Margono,2007;161).

The researcher will observe the students ability in

vocabulary and identifying the problems, than looking for the

problem solving to overcome the problems in the next cycles.

3.4.2 Test

Test is a number measuring a person ability, knowledge,

or performance in giving domain (Brown;2003). Test will give to

students at the end meeting of the each cycle to know the

students in undernstanding the lesson.


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3.5 The procedures of collection data

The procedures of collection data consist of three cycles, each

cycle as follows:

Plan
Reflective
Action/observation

Reflective
Planning/Action/observation

Reflective
Planning/Action/observation

Result

(in Muslich : 2012)

3.3.1 Planning

The planning steps, there are:

a. Preparing material/lesson plan

b. To make action plan and designing the steps doing the

action

c. To prepare list of students and scoring

d. To prepare teaching aids

e. To prepare test
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3.3.2 Action

The action steps, there are:

a. To implement the steps with suitable planning

b. To teach vocabulary by using mind mapping

c. To give opportunity to the students to ask about

difficulties

d. To give test

3.3.3 Observation

The observation steps, there are:

a. To discuss the problem that is faced at the learning

process and giving feed back

b. To write the change happened

3.3.4 Reflection

Reflection activity will be done after finishing the action,

the result of the reflection is used to prepare the next cycles.

The reflection steps, there are:

a. To analyze the finding when do the observation

b. To the reflection toward the applying of the method

c. To the reflection toward the creativity of the students.

d. To the reflection toward the result of the students.

3.6 The technique of data analysis

The technique of data analysis, the researcher employed the

formula as follow:
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Table I

The score of students

No Scores Criteria
1 91 – 100 Very good
2 76 – 90 Good
3 61 – 75 Fair
4 51 – 60 Poor
5 Less than 50 Very poor

(DEPDIKNAS : 2005)

P
CAR = x100 %
N

CAR = mastery level percentage

P = the students gained total score

N = maximum score

(Arikunto : 2012)

In this research that will become indicators of success as follow:

1. If there are 85% of students scoring at least 65 of the ideal score, it

is feasible to use the method but

2. If there are 85% of students scoring at least 65%, then be

completed in the classical class.


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