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In its simplest form, a raster consists of a matrix of cells (or pixels) organized into rows and

columns (or a grid) where each cell contains a value representing information, such as
temperature. Rasters are digital aerial photographs, imagery from satellites, digital pictures, or
even scanned maps.
Vector data is used to represent real world features in a GIS. A vector feature can have a
geometry type of point, line or a polygon. Each vector feature has attributedata that describes
it.
In GIS, vector and raster are two different ways of representing spatial data.
vector data model: [data models] A representation of the world using points, lines, and
polygons. Vector models are useful for storing data that has discrete boundaries, such as
country borders, land parcels, and streets.
raster data model: [data models] A representation of the world as a surface divided into a
regular grid of cells. Raster models are useful for storing data that varies continuously, as in
an aerial photograph, a satellite image, a surface of chemical concentrations, or an
elevation surface.
All I have understood from the above is that both vector and raster data constitute of
"latitudes and longitudes", only. The difference is in the way they are displayed.

Latitudes and Longitudes in Vector data are displayed in the form of lines, points, etc.

Latitudes and Longitudes in Raster data are displayed in the form of closed shapes where
each pixel has a particular latitude and longitude associated with it.

Spatial data, also known as geospatial data, is information about a physical object that can be
represented by numerical values in a geographic coordinate system.
Also known as geospatial data or geographic information it is the data or information that
identifies the geographic location of features and boundaries on Earth, such as natural or
constructed features, oceans, and more. Spatial data is usually stored as coordinates and
topology, and is data that can be mapped.

Without geography you are nowhere


its ability to generate a new data layer as a product
of existing layers
As illustrated below, map overlay can be implemented in either vector or raster systems. In the
vector case, often referred to as polygon overlay, the intersection of two or more data layers
produces new features (polygons). Attributes (symbolized as colors in the illustration) of intersecting
polygons are combined. The raster implementation (known as grid overlay) combines attributes
within grid cells that align exactly.
In a GIS, an overlay is the process of taking two or more
different thematic maps of the same area and placing them
on top of one another to form a new map
patial data are used to provide the visual representation of a geographic space and is stored
as raster and vector types. Hence, this data is a combination of location data and a value data to
render a map
(Figure 7.4 "A Map Overlay Combining Information from Point, Line, and Polygon Vector Layers, as
Well as Raster Layers"). Inherent in this process, the overlay function combines not only the spatial
features of the dataset but also the attribute information as well.