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# Science

## Force - push or pull that causes motion or change in an object

- produce changes in motion
- acts in a particular direction
Net force - capable of changing the state of motion of an object
Acceleration - rate of change in velocity of a moving object per unit time
Balanced force - equal forces acting in opposite directions; thus they have zero net force
- forces that cancel each other are called Balanced force
Unbalanced force - nonzero net force; thus it produces acceleration
Velocity - description of the motion of an object in terms of both speed and direction
Inertia - property of an object to resist change in its state of motion
Mass - measure of inertia
- amount of matter in an object
- expressed in kilograms (kg)
Volume - measure of the space occupied by the object
- expressed in cubic meter or liter

Fundamental forces:
1. Gravitational force - attraction between objects by virtues of their masses
2. Electromagnetic force - attractive or repulsive force between charged bodies
3. Strong nuclear force - holds constituents of the nucleus of an atom
4. Weak nuclear force - plays role in radioactive decay

## Contact forces: Non-contact forces:

Friction Gravitational
Air resistance Electromagnetic
Normal force Weak nuclear force
Tension Strong nuclear force

## 1st law of motion: Law of Inertia

- tendency to remain in a fixed position or condition. Tends to resist change in its state of
motion.
- mass is a measure of inertia
- an object at rest will remain at rest or uniform motion unless acted by an external force
Examples of 1st law of motion:
- If you slide a hockey puck on ice, eventually it will stop, because of friction on ice. It will
also stop if it hits something like a player’s stick or goalpost.
- If you kicked a ball in space, it would keep going in one direction if it hits something like a
meteorite or reaches the gravity field of another planet.

## Force causes motion to - change the position of an object

- change the direction
- change the speed
- change the size
(1 newton = 1kg m/s )
2

## 2nd law of motion: Law of Acceleration

- states that the rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the
unbalanced force in the direction of force
- the acceleration of an object, produced by a net force is directly proportional to the
magnitude of a net force, in the same direction as the inversely proportional to the mass of
one body
- dependent on 2 variables: net force acting upon an object & mass of an object

## Relationship between force and acceleration

- for a constant mass, acceleration is directly proportional to the applied force
𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡
- simply expressed as: 𝑎 =
𝑚
- Newton’s second law of motion describes the relationship between force and acceleration
as directly proportional. If you increase the force applied to an object, the acceleration of
that object increases by the same factor. In short, 𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑎

## Relationship between mass and acceleration

- with a constant force and acceleration is inversely proportional to mass

Acceleration
- an unbalanced force acting on a body that produces acceleration
- an object with a larger mass needs a stronger force to be moved along at the same
acceleration as an object with a small mass

## Examples of 2nd law of motion:

- If you use the same force to push a truck and push a car, the car will have more
acceleration than the truck, because the car has less mass
- It is easier to push an empty shopping cart than a full one, because the full shopping cart
has more mass than the empty one. This means that more force is required to push the full
shopping cart.

## 3rd law of motion: Law of Interaction

- for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction

## Properties of action and reaction:

- equal in magnitude but oppositely directed
- acting in two different bodies and will never cancel out
- always come in pairs
- same line of action

## Examples of 3rd law of motion:

- when you jump off a small rowing boat into water, you will push yourself forward towards
the water. The same force you used to push forward will make the boat move backwards.
- when you dive off of a diving board, you will push down on the springboard. The board
springs back and forces you into the air.

## Friction - the resistance to motion between two materials in contact

3 types of friction
Static Friction - Sufficient to prevent relative motion
between surfaces in contact
- (no contact)
Kinetic Friction - relative between surfaces in contact
- (sliding)
Rolling Friction - one surface rotates as it moves over
another without sliding nor slipping at
the point or area of contact
Prevents us from slipping Slows down or stops the movement of
objects
Stops moving vehicles Causes the surface of an object to wear out
Keeps the position of an object on a surface Produces unnecessary heat
Produces fire Makes moving heavy pieces of furniture
difficult
Holds/grips things Causes wear and tear of machines
Sharpens a knife
Prevents vehicles from skidding
Holds screws and nails in place

## Reduce Friction: Increase Friction:

Polishing Makes surface rough
Ball-bearing Press two surfaces harder
Lubricants
Streamline

## Contact forces - require physical contact between objects

Non-contact forces - does not require physical contact

Contact Forces:
1. Applied force - force which is applied to an object by another object or by a person
- the direction depends on how the force is applied
2. Frictional Force - exerted by a surface as an object moves across it or makes an effort to
move across it
3. Air resistance force - acts upon objects as they travel through air
4. Tension force - transmitted through a string, rope, or wire when it is pulled tight by force
acting on each end
5. Spring force - exerted by a compressed or string upon an object which is attached to it
6. Normal force - support force exerted upon an object which is in contact with another
stable object
Non-contact Forces:
1. Gravitational force - attraction between objects by virtues of their masses
2. Electric force - exists between all charged particles
- responsible for diverse phenomena
3. Magnetic force - attraction or repulsion that arises between electrically charged particles

Problem Solving
Equation: Unit:
𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝑚 × 𝑎 N

𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 kg
𝑚=
𝑎
𝐹𝑛𝑒𝑡 m/s2
𝑎=
𝑚
𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣𝑖 m/s2
𝑎=
𝑡
𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣𝑖 s (seconds) or m (minutes)
𝑡=
𝑎
𝑎 𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 = 𝑣𝑓 − 𝑣𝑖 m/s2
𝑚𝑣 2 N
𝐹𝑐 =
𝑟
𝑣2 m/s2
𝑎𝑐 =
𝑟
𝑚𝑣 2 m
𝑟=
𝐹𝑐
2𝜋𝑟 m/s
𝑣=
𝑟
𝑣 = 𝑎c𝑟 m/s
m/s
𝐹𝑐𝑟
𝑣=√
𝑚

Fc = centripetal force
m = mass of the body
v = speed of the body
r = distance of the body from the center of rotation
Problem Solving
Equation: Unit:
𝑤 = (𝑚𝑔)𝑑 J
𝑤 =𝑓×𝑑 J
𝑤 W
𝑃=
𝑡
𝑃𝐸 = (𝑚𝑔)ℎ J
𝑃𝐸 m
ℎ=
𝑚𝑔
𝑃𝐸 kg
𝑚=
𝑔ℎ
1 J
𝐾𝐸 = 𝑚𝑣 2
2

g = 9.8 m/s2