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1. Plain or Ordinary Concrete.

It is one of the most commonly used types of concrete. In this type of concrete, the
essential constituents are cement, sand and coarse aggregates designed and mixed
with a specified quantity of water.
The ratio of essential constituents may be varied within wide limits. A very commonly
used mix design, commonly known as Nominal Mix Design is 1:2:4.
Plain concrete is mostly used in the construction of pavements and in buildings, where
very high tensile strength is not required. It is also used in the construction of Dams.
Among the most important properties of ordinary concrete, the following may be
mentioned.

 Density: 2200 – 2500 Kg/meter.cube.


 Compressive Strength: 200 – 500 Kg/centimeter.square.
 Tensile Strength: 50 – 100 Kg/centimeter.square.
 Durability: Very Satisfactory.
2. Lightweight Concrete:
Any types of concrete having a density less than 1920 Kg/m3 is classed as lightweight
concrete.
Various types of aggregates that are used in the manufacturing of lightweight concrete
include natural materials like pumice and scoria, artificial materials like expanded
shales and clays and processed materials like perlite and vermiculite.
The single important property of lightweight concrete is its very low thermal conductivity.

For example: Thermal conductivity – the k value, for plain concrete may be as high as
10-12. But the thermal conductivity of Lightweight concrete is about 0.3.
Lightweight Concretes are used, depending upon their composition, for thermal
insulation, for protecting steel structures, they are also used in long span bridge decks,
and even as building blocks.

Aerated Concrete is a variety of extremely lightweight concrete ( density 480-800


Kg/m3 ). This is obtained by using cement, sand and powdered fuel ash as constituents.
3. High Density Concrete:
This type of concrete is also called heavy weight concrete. In this concrete type, the
density varies between 3000-4000 Kg/m3.
These types of concrete are prepared by using high density crushed rocks as coarse
aggregates. Among such materials, Barytes is the most commonly used material,
which has a specific gravity of 4.5.
They are mostly used in atomic power plants and other similar structures. Because it
provides good protection from all type of radiations.

4. Reinforced Concrete:
It is also called RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete). In this concrete type steel in
various forms is used as reinforcement to give very high tensile strength.
In fact, it is because of the combined action of plain concrete (having high compressive
strength) and steel (having high tensile strength).
The steel reinforcement is cast in the form of rods, bars, meshes and all conceivable
shapes.

Every care is taken to ensure the maximum bond between the reinforcement and
the concrete during the setting and hardening process.
Thus, the resulting material (RCC) is capable of bearing all types of stress in any type of
construction. The RCC is the most important concrete type.

5. Precast Concrete:
This term refers to numerous types of concrete shapes that are cast into molds either in
a factory or at the site.

However, they are not used in construction until they completely set and hardened in a
controlled condition.

Some of the examples of Precast Concrete are; precast poles, fence posts, concrete
lintels, staircase units, concrete blocks, and cast stones, etc.
These structural and decorative members are prepared in a well-equipped place where
all arrangements are made for;

1. Perfect proportioning of the ingredients of concrete.


2. Thorough mixing of the cement, aggregates, and water to obtain the mix of the
desired design and consistency.
3. Careful handling during transport and placement in the perfect design molds.
4. Perfect curing, under the controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Even
steam curing is used to obtain precast products having high strength in much less time.
5. The latest trend in the construction industry is to shift more and more to prefabricated
concrete units in building construction.
6. Prestressed Concrete:
It is a special type of reinforced concrete in which the reinforcement bars are tensioned
before being embedded in the concrete.

Such tensioned wires are held firm at each end while the concrete mix is placed. The
result is that when concrete sets and hardens, the whole concrete members, so the cast
is put into compression.

This sort of arrangement makes the lower section of the reinforced concrete also
stronger against tension, which is the principal cause of the development of tension
cracks in un-tensioned reinforced concrete.

Since pre-stressing involves the use of jacks and tensioning equipment, the pre-
stressed concrete is also cast in the factories.
Some of its advantages are the following.
1. The potential compressive strength of concrete gets considerably increased.
2. The risk of development of tension cracks in the lower sections of beams is
considerably reduced.
3. The resistance to shear is greatly reduced. This eliminates the necessity of stirrups to
a great extent.
4. Lighter members can be used than the un-tensioned (normal) reinforced-concrete.
5. The prestressed concrete is greatly favored in the construction of;
 Bridges.
 Long span Roofs.
 Most structures with the heavy dead load.
7. Air Entrained Concrete:
It is a specially prepared plain concrete in which air is entrained in the form of
thousands of uniformly distributed particles.

The Volume of air thus, entrained may range between 3-6 percent of the concrete.

The air entrainment is achieved by adding a small quantity of foaming or gas-forming


agents at the mixing stage.

Fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and resins are some common air entraining agents.

Air entrained concrete is more resistant to;

 Scaling.
 Deterioration due to freezing and thawing.
 Abrasion.
8. Glass Concrete.
When the recycled glass is used as an aggregate in the concrete, this types of concrete
is known as Glass Concrete.

They provide better thermal insulation and also have a great appealing look as
compared to other types.

9. Rapid Hardening Concrete.


This type of concrete is mostly used in under water construction and in repairing of
roads. Because its hardening time is very less. It can be hardened in just a few hours.

They are also used in building construction, where the work should be done fast.

10. Asphalt Concrete.


Asphalt concrete is a combination of aggregates and asphalt. It is also known
as Asphalt. They are vastly used in the highways, airports, as well as in the
embankments.
They can be hardened in just an hour. That is the reason for its vast usage in roads.

11. Lime Concrete.


In this type of concrete, lime is used as a binding material with the aggregates. Before
the invention of cement, the mostly used concrete was lime concrete.

In today’s age, Lime concrete is also used in floors, domes, etc.

12. Roller Compacted Concrete.


This concrete is mostly used as a filling material. They don’t have a better strength
value. They are lean concrete and are compacted with the help of heavy means, like
rollers.

Very less amount of cement is used in this type of concrete.

13. Stamped Concrete.


They are ordinary concrete with some little differences and are mostly used for
architectural purposes.

A stamp of different shape and design placed on the concrete structures when they are
in their plastic state to acquire an appealing look design.

Pigments are used for color purposes of different types to give it more realistic and
appealing look.

14. Pumped Concrete.


Pumped concrete are used for high rise buildings. Where concrete conveyance other
than the pump is not an easy task almost an impossible task.

They are made workable enough for an easy conveyance. Fines material are used for
better supply. The more, the finer material the easy will be the discharge.

The pump used for conveyance purposes are made from rigid or flexible materials to
discharge the concrete easily.

15. Vacuum Concrete.


In this types, more quantity of water is added to the concrete mix, and then the mixture
is poured into the form work.
The excess water is then removed from the concrete with the help of a vacuum pump.
That is why it is called the vacuum concrete.

This technique is used to attain the strength of concrete early. It will attain the
compressive strength within the period of 10 days as compared to 28 days of ordinary
concrete.

16. Permeable Concrete.


Permeable concrete is prepared in such a manner that the water can be passed in it.
They have about 15 to 20 % voids so that the water can pass in it.

They are used in those areas where storm water issues persist.

17. Shotcrete.
Shotcrete is a concrete prepared in the same manner as ordinary, but the difference is
that they are placed differently.

They are placed with the help of higher air pressure through nozzles. The benefit of this
technique is that the compaction and placing of concrete will be done simultaneously.

18. Ready Mix Concrete.


This concrete type is prepared in concrete plants and or transported by the help of truck
mounted transit mixtures.

Once they are reached at the site then, there is no further treatment necessary.

The plant location will be at an adjustable location so that the concrete can be supplied
before the setting time ca be started.
19. Self Consolidated Concrete.
These types of concrete are compacted by its own weight, mean by the process of
consolidation. There is no need of using a vibrator or doing manual compaction.

The workability of concrete is always high in this type. That is the reason it is also
known as flowing concrete.