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ALGEBRA

for IIT-JEE

VOL. 1

Mathematics

ALGEBRA

for IIT-JEE

VOL. 1

Reader and HOD of Maths (Retd.)

Rajah R. S. R. K. R. R. College, Bobbili, Andra Pradesh, India

Professor of Mathematics (Retd.), Andhra University, India

Mathematics

ALGEBRA

for IIT-JEE

VOL. 1

Copyright © 2010 by Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., 4435-36/7, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by

any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or scanning without the written permission of the

publisher.

Limits of Liability: While the publisher and the author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, Wiley and the

author make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book,

and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. There are no

warranties which extend beyond the descriptions contained in this paragraph. No warranty may be created or extended

by sales representatives or written sales materials.

Disclaimer: The contents of this book have been checked for accuracy. Since deviations cannot be precluded entirely,

Wiley or its author cannot guarantee full agreement. As the book is intended for educational purpose, Wiley or its author

shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions or damages arising out of the use of the information contained in the

book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter

covered. It is sold on the understanding that the Publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services.

Other Wiley Editorial Offices:

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Pappellaee 3, D-69469 Weinheim, Germany

John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd, 42 McDougall Street, Milton, Queensland 4064, Australia

John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2 Clementi Loop #02-01, Jin Xing Distripark, Singapore 129809

John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, M9W 1L1

First Edition: 2010

ISBN: 978-81-265-2182-1

ISBN: 978-81-265-8125-2 (ebk)

www.wileyindia.com

Printed at: Sanat Printers, New Delhi

Dedication

Dedicated to

my mother

Smt. Ganti Balamma

for her untiring efforts to bring up the family to a respectable stage in the

society after our father's premature demise.

Dr. G. S. N. Murti

Acknowledgments

1. Mr. U. V. Chalapati Rao, M. Sc. of erstwhile Gangadhar Tutorials, a pioneer

in IIT-JEE coaching, for giving him the opportunity to teach for IIT

coaching in 1985.

2. Dr. P. Narayana, Chairman, Narayana Group of Educational Institutions.

3. Dr. U.M. Swamy, research advisor and co-author of this book, for

immediately accepting his request.

4. Last but not least, his wife Smt. Balamba for her cooperation and advise.

1. His wife Mrs. U. Lakshmi and daughters Sowmya and Mythri for their

excellent support in completing this project.

2. The co-author Dr. G. S. N. Murti for his collaboration in this work.

Features and Benefits

at a Glance

Feature Benefit to student

Chapter Opener Peaks the student’s interest with the chapter opening vignette, definitions

of the topic, and contents of the chapter.

Clear, Concise, and Inviting Students are able to Read this book, which reduces math anxiety and

Writing Style, Tone and Layout encourages student success.

Theory and Applications Unlike other books that provide very less or no theory, here theory is

well matched with solved examples.

Theorems Relevant theorems are provided along with proofs to emphasize

conceptual understanding.

Solved Examples Topics are followed by solved examples for students to practice and

understand the concept learned.

Examples Wherever required, examples are provided to aid understanding of

definitions and theorems.

Quick Look Formulae/concepts that do not require extensive thought but can be

looked at the last moment.

Try It Out Practice problems for students in between the chapter.

Worked Out Problems Based on IIT-JEE pattern problems are presented in the form of

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions

Matrix-Match Type Questions

Comprehension-Type Questions

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions

Integer Answer Type Questions

In-depth solutions are provided to all problems for students to

understand the logic behind.

Summary Key formulae, ideas and theorems are presented in this section in

each chapter.

Exercises Offer self-assessment. The questions are divided into subsections as per

requirements of IIT-JEE.

Answers Answers are provided for all exercise questions for student’s to validate

their solution.

Note to the Students

The IIT-JEE is one of the hardest exams to crack for students, for a very simple

reason – concepts cannot be learned by rote, they have to be absorbed, and IIT

believes in strong concepts. Each question in the IIT-JEE entrance exam is meant

to push the analytical ability of the student to its limit. That is why the questions

are called brainteasers!

Students find Mathematics the most difficult part of IIT-JEE. We understand that

it is difficult to get students to love mathematics, but one can get students to love

succeeding at mathematics. In order to accomplish this goal, the book has been

written in clear, concise, and inviting writing style. It can be used as a self-study

text as theory is well supplemented with examples and solved examples. Wher-

ever required, figures have been provided for clear understanding.

If you take full advantage of the unique features and elements of this textbook,

we believe that your experience will be fulfilling and enjoyable. Let’s walk

through some of the special book features that will help you in your efforts to

crack IIT-JEE.

To crack mathematics paper for IIT-JEE the five things to remember are:

1. Understanding the concepts

2. Proper applications of concepts

3. Practice

4. Speed

5. Accuracy

The Mandelbrot set is a mathematical set of points in the complex plane,

the boundary of which forms a fractal. It is the set of complex values of c

for which the orbit of 0 under iteration of the complex quadratic polynomial

zn+1 = zn2 + c remains bounded. The Mandelbrot set is named after Benoît

Mandelbrot, who studied and popularized it.

A. PEDAGOGY

CHAPTER OPENER

Quadratic Equations

4 Each chapter starts with an opening vignette, defini-

tion of the topic, and contents of the chapter that give

you an overview of the chapter to help you see the

big picture.

Contents

4.1 Quadratic Expressions

and Equations

Worked-Out Problems

Summary

Exercises

Answers

A polynomial equation of

the second degree having

the general form

Quadratic Equations

<0 ax2 + bx + c = 0

=0 is called a quadratic equation.

Here x represents a variable,

and a, b, and c, constants,

with a ¹ 0. The constants a, b,

and c are called, respectively,

the quadratic coefficient, the

linear coefficient and the

constant term or the free

term.

The term “quadratic” comes

from quadratus, which is the

>0 Latin word for “square”.

Quadratic equations can be

solved by factoring,completing

the square, graphing, Newton’s

method, and using the

quadratic formula (explained

in the chapter).

Special attention has been paid to present 4.1 | Quadratic Expressions and Equations

an engaging, clear, precise narrative in the In this section, we discuss quadratic expressions and equations and their roots. Also, we derive various properties

of the roots of quadratic equations and their relationships with the coefficients.

layout that is easy to use and designed to

DE F I NI T I O N 4. 1 A polynomial of the form ax2 + bx + c, where a, b and c are real or complex numbers and

reduce math anxiety students may have. a ¹ 0, is called a quadratic expression in the variable x. In other words, a polynomial f (x)

of degree two over the set of complex numbers is called a quadratic expression. We often

write f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c to denote a quadratic expression and this is known as the standard

form. In this case, a and b are called the coefficients of x2 and x, respectively, and c is called

the constant term. The term ax2 is called the quadratic term and bx is called the linear term.

f (a) for aa 2 + ba + c. If f (a) = 0, then a is called a zero of the quadratic expression f (x).

DEFINITIONS Examples

(1) Let f (x) º x2 - 5x - 6. Then f (x) is a quadratic expres- (3) Let f ( x) º 2 x2 - ix + 1 be a quadratic expression. In

Every new topic or concept starts with de- sion and 6 and –1 are zeros of f (x). this case i and −i/2 are zeros of f (x).

(2) Let f (x) º x2 + 1. Then f (x) is a quadratic expression (4) The expression x2 + x is a quadratic expression and

fining the concept for students. Related ex- and i and –i are zeros of f (x). 0 and –1 are zeros of x2 + x.

amples to aid the understanding follow the DE F I NI T I O N 4. 3 If f (x) is a quadratic expression, then f (x) = 0 is called a quadratic equation. If a is a zero

of f (x), then a is called a root or a solution of the quadratic equation f (x) = 0. In other

definition. words, if f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c, a ¹ 0, then a complex number a is said to be a root or a solution

of f (x) = 0, if aa 2 + ba + c = 0. The zeros of the quadratic expression f (x) are same as the roots

or solutions of the quadratic equation f (x) = 0. Note that a is a zero of f (x) if and only if x − a

is a factor of f (x).

Examples

(1) 0 and –i are the roots of x2 + ix = 0. (3) i and –i are the roots of x2 + 1 = 0.

(2) 2 is the only root of x2 - 4 x + 4 = 0. (4) i is the only root of x2 - 2ix - 1 = 0.

Example 4.1 EXAMPLES

Find the quadratic equation whose roots are 2 and –i. ( x - 2)[ x - (-i)] = ( x - 2)( x + i) = x2 + (i - 2) x - 2i

Hence the equation is x2 + (i - 2) x - 2i = 0. Examples pose a specific problem

Solution: The required quadratic expression is

Find the quadratic equation whose roots are 1 + i and 3 [ x - (1 + i)]( x - (1 - i)) = 3 [( x - 1) - i)][( x - 1) + i] and then work through the solution.

1 – i and in which the coefficient of x2 is 3.

= 3 [( x - 1)2 + 1]

These serve to enhance the students'

Solution: The required quadratic expression is = 3 x2 - 6 x + 6

Hence the equation is 3x - 6x + 6 = 0.

2 understanding of the subject matter.

Example 4.3

c = 0 and z is any complex number, then find the quadratic

= x2 - (za + zb ) x + za ´ zb

equation whose roots are za and zb .

= x2 + z[-(a + b )]x + z2ab

Solution: We have

æ bö c

-b c = x2 + z ç ÷ x + z2

a+b= and ab = è aø a

a a

that is,

The equation whose roots are za and zb is

ax2 + zbx + z2 c = 0

Example 4.4

If a and b are the roots of a quadratic equation Therefore, the required equation is

ax2 + bx + c = 0, then find the quadratic equation whose

0 = a[ x - (a + z)] ´ [ x - (b + z)]

roots are a + z and b + z, where z is any given complex

number. = ax2 + a[-(a + z) - (b + z)]x + a(a + z)(b + z)

æb ö æc b ö

Solution: We have = ax2 + a ç - 2z÷ x + a ç - z + z2 ÷

èa ø èa a ø

THEOREMS THEOREM 4.5 If a, b and c are real numbers and a ¹ 0, then (4ac - b2 )/ 4a is the maximum or minimum value of

quadratic equation of f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c according as a < 0 or a > 0, respectively.

PROOF We have

Relevant theorems are provided along

æ b cö

f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c º a ç x2 + x + ÷

with proofs to emphasize conceptual un- è a aø

º a êç x + ÷ +

4ac - b2 ù

2

æ bö

ú º aç x + ÷ +

2

4ac - b2

êëè 2a ø 4a2 úû è 2a ø 4a

If a < 0, then

4ac - b2 æ -b ö

f ( x) £ =fç ÷ for all x Î

4a è 2a ø

2

If a > 0, then

æ -b ö 4ac - b

2

fç ÷= £ f ( x) for all x Î

è 2a ø 4a

Hence (4ac - b )/ 4a is the minimum value of f ( x).

2

■

Let f ( x) º ax + bx + c = 0 be a quadratic equation and

2

3. f (- x) = 0 is an equation whose roots are -a and -b.

a and b be its roots. Then the following hold good. 4. If ab ¹ 0 and c ¹ 0, f(1/x) = 0 is an equation whose

1. f (x - z) = 0 is an equation whose roots are a + z and roots are 1/a and 1/b .

Some important formulae and con-

b + z, for any given complex number z. 5. For any complex numbers z1 and z2 with z1 ¹ 0, cepts that do not require exhaustive

2. f ( x / z) = 0 is an equation whose roots are za and zb f [( x - z2 )/z1 ] = 0 is an equation whose roots are

for any non-zero complex number z. z1a + z2 and z1 b + z2. explanation, but their mention is im-

portant, are presented in this section.

These are marked with a magnifying

glass.

TRY IT OUT Try it out Verify the following properties:

1. ((a, b) + (c, d)) + (s, t) = (a, b) + ((c, d) + (s, t))

Within each chapter the stu- 2. (a, b) + (c, d) = (c, d) + (a, b)

dents would find problems 3. (a, b) + (0, 0) = (a, b)

4. (a, b) + (-a, -b) = (0, 0)

to reinforce and check their 5. (a, b) + (c, d) = (s, t) Û (a, b) = (s, t) - (c, d)

understanding. This would Û (c, d) = (s, t) - (a, b)

help build confidence as one

DEF I NI TI O N 3 . 2 For any complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d), let us define

progresses in the chapter.

(a, b) × (c, d) = (ac - bd, ad + bc)

These are marked with a

This is called the product of (a, b) and (c, d) and the process of taking products is called

pointed finger. multiplication.

Try it out Verify the following properties for any complex numbers (a, b), (c, d) and (s, t).

1. [(a, b) × (c, d)] × ( s, t ) = (a, b) × [(c, d) × ( s, t )]

2. (a, b) × (c, d) = (c, d) × (a, b)

3. (a, b) × [(c, d) + ( s, t )] = (a, b) × (c, d) + (a, b) × ( s, t )

4. (a, b) × (1, 0) = (a, b)

5. (a, 0) × (c, d) = (ac, ad)

6. (a, 0) × (c, 0) = (ac, 0)

7. (a, 0) + (c, 0) = (a + c, 0)

SUMMARY SUMMARY

4.1 Quadratic expressions and equations: If a, b, c a At the end of every

ax2 + bx + c = (a ¢x2 + b¢ x + c ¢)

are real numbers and a ≠ 0, the expression of the a¢

form ax2 + bx + c is called quadratic expression and chapter, a summary is

4.8 Cube roots of unity: Roots of the equation x - 1 = 0

3

ax2 + bx + c = 0 is called quadratic equation. presented that organ-

are called cube roots of unity and they are

4.2 Let f (x) º ax2 + bx + c be a quadratic expression izes the key formulae

and a be a real (complex) number. Then we write -1 3

1, ±i and theorems in an

f (a) for aa2 + ba + c. If f(a) = 0, the a is called a zero 2 2

of f(x) or a root of the equation f(x) = 0. -1/ 2 ± i 3 / 2 are called non-real cube roots of unity. easy to use layout. The

Further each of them is the square of the other and related topics are indi-

4.3 Roots: The roots of the quadratic equation ax2 +

the sum of the two non-real cube roots of unity is

bx + c = 0 are cated so that one can

equal to -1. If w ≠ 1 is a cube root of unity and n is

- b + b2 - 4ac - b - b2 - 4ac any positive integer, then 1 + wn + w2n is equal to 3 quickly summarize a

and or 0 according as n is a multiple of 3 or not.

2a 2a chapter.

4.9 Maximum and minimum values: If f(x) º ax2 +

4.4 Discriminant: b2 - 4ac is called the discriminant of

bx + c and a ≠ 0, then

the quadratic expression (equation) ax2 + bx + c = 0.

æ - b ö 4ac - b

2

è 2a ø 4a

the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, then

is the maximum or minimum value of f according

-b c as a < 0 or a > 0.

a+b= and a b =

2a a

4.10 Theorems (change of sign of ax + bx + c): Let f(x) º

2

2

ax + bx + c where a, b, c are real and a ≠ 0. If

2

Δ = b2 - 4ac be its discriminant. Then the following a and b are real roots of f(x) = 0 and a < b, then

hold good. (1) (i) f(x) and a (the coefficient of x ) have the

2

(1) Roots are equal Û Δ = 0 (i.e., b2 = 4ac). same sign for all x < a or x > b.

(2) Roots are real and distinct Û Δ > 0. (ii) f(x) and a will have opposite signs for all x

(3) Roots are non-real complex (i.e., imaginary) Û such that a < x < b.

Δ > 0. (2) If f (x) = 0 has imaginary roots, then f(x) and a

will have the same sign for all real values of x.

4.7 Theorem: Two quadratic equations ax + bx + c = 0

2

and a ¢x2 + b¢ x + c ¢ = 0 have same roots if and only 4.11 If f(x) is a quadratic expression and f (p)f (q) < 0

if the triples (a, b, c) and (a¢, b¢, c¢ ) are proportional for some real numbers p and q, then the quadratic

and in this case equation f (x) = 0 has a root in between p and q.

B. WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS AND ASSESSMENT – AS PER IIT-JEE PATTERN

Mere theory is not enough. It is also important to practice and test what has been

proved theoretically. The worked-out problems and exercise at the end of each

chapter are in resonance with the IIT-JEE paper pattern. Keeping the IIT-JEE

pattern in mind, the worked-out problems and exercises have been divided into:

1. Single Correct Choice Type Questions

2. Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions

3. Matrix-Match Type Questions

4. Comprehension-Type Questions

5. Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions

6. Integer Answer Type Questions

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

In-depth solutions are provided to all worked-out problems for students to understand the logic behind and

formula used.

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

SINGLE CORRECT

Single Correct Choice Type Questions CHOICE TYPE

1. If the equations m < 0 and 3m2 + 4 m - 4 > 0

Þ m < 0 and (3m - 2)(m + 2) > 0

QUESTIONS

x2 + ax + 1 = 0 and x2 - x - a = 0

have a real common root, then the value of a is This gives m < -2 and so

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) −1 (D) 2 x2 - 5 x + 6 < 0 Þ ( x - 2)( x - 3) < 0 Þ x Î (2, 3) These are the regular mul-

Answer: (C)

Solution: Let a be a real common root. Then tiple choice questions with

a 2 + aa + 1 = 0 4. If p is prime number and both the roots of the equation

x2 + px - (444) p = 0 are integers, then p is equal to four choices provided. Only

a -a -a=0

2

(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 31 (D) 37

Therefore one among the four choices

Solution: Suppose the roots of x2 + px - (444) p = 0 are

a (a + 1) + (a + 1) = 0 integers. Then the discriminant will be the correct answer.

(a + 1)(a + 1) = 0 p2 + 4(444) p = p{ p + 4 ´ (444)}

If a = - 1, then the equations are same and also cannot must be a perfect square. Therefore p divides p + 4 ´

have a real root. Therefore a + 1 ¹ 0 and hence a = - 1, (444). This implies

so that a = 2.

p divides 4 ´ (444) = 24 ´ 3 ´ 37

Answer: (D)

Th f

CORRECT CHOICE 1. Suppose a and b are integers and b ¹ -1. If the quadratic

equation x2 + ax + b + 1 = 0 has a positive integer root,

Solution:

Case 1: Suppose b is even, that is, b = 2 m. Then b2 - 4ac =

TYPE QUESTIONS then 4(m2 - ac) = 4k.

Case 2: Suppose b is odd, that is, b = 2 m - 1. Then

(A) the other root is also a positive integer

(B) the other root is an integer

b2 - 4ac = (2 m - 1)2 - 4ac

Multiple correct choice type (C) a2 + b2 is a prime number

(D) a2 + b2 has a factor other than 1 and itself = 4 m2 + 4 m + 1 - 4ac

questions have four choices Solution: Let a and b be the roots and a be a positive = 4(m2 + m - ac) + 1

provided, but one or more of integer. Then

= 4k + 1

the choices provided may be a + b = -a and ab = b + 1 Answers: (A), (B)

b = -a - a implies b is an integer and

correct. 3. If a and b are roots of the equation x2 + ax + b = 0,

a2 + b2 = (a + b )2 + (ab - 1)2 then

= a2 + b2 + a2 b2 + 1 (A) a = 0, b = 1 (B) a = 0 = b

= (a 2 + 1)(b 2 + 1) (C) a = 1, b = - 1 (D) a = 1, b = - 2

Solution: If a + b = -a and ab = b, then a = 0 = b or a = 1,

Since a 2 + 1 > 1 and b 2 + 1 > 1, it follows that a 2 + 1 is a

b = -2.

factor of a2 + b2 other than 1 and itself.

Answers: (B), (D)

Answers: (B), (D)

MATRIX-MATCH TYPE QUESTIONS

These questions are the

regular “Match the Follow- Matrix-Match Type Questions

ing” variety. Two columns 1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3 = z2 - 2z + 3

Column I Column II

4(z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) = 4

sions or first column with (A) If z = x + iy, z1/ 3 = a - ib and (p) 10

x y Answer: (D) Æ (s)

four subdivisions and sec- - = l (a2 - b2 ), then l is

a b (q) 14

2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

ond column with more sub- (B) If | z - i | < 1, then the value of In the following, w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity.

divisions are given and the | z + 12 - 6i | is less than (r) 1

(C) If | z1 | = 1 and | z2 | = 2, then Column I Column II

student should match ele- | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 is equal to

(s) 4

(A) The value of the determinant (p) 3w (1 - w )

ments of column I to that (D) If z = 1 + i, then (t) 5

4 (z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) is equal to 1 1 1

of column II. There can be

1 - 1 - w2 w2 is

one or more matches. Solution: 1 w2 w4 (q) 3w(w - 1)

(A) x + iy = z = (a - ib)3 = a3 - 3a2 bi + 3a(ib)2 - i3 b3

(B) The value of 4 + 5w 2002

+ 3w2009

(r) -i 3

Comparing the real parts we get (C) The value of the determinant

x = a3 - 3ab2 = a(a2 - 3b2 ) 1 1 + i + w2 w2

x 1- i -1 w2 - 1 is (s) i 3

= a2 - 3b2

a -i -i + w 2 + 1 -1

Comparing the imaginary parts we get (D) w2 n + wn + 1 (n is a positive integer (t) 0

d l i l f 3) i

COMPREHENSION-TYPE QUESTIONS

Comprehension-type questions consist

Comprehension-Type Questions

of a small passage, followed by three

1. Passage: 4 Indians, 3 Americans and 2 Britishers are (ii) The number of ways in which all the four prizes can

to be arranged around a round table. Answer the be given to any one of the 6 students = 6. Therefore multiple choice questions. The ques-

following questions. the required number of ways is 6 4 - 6 = 1290.

(i) The number of ways of arranging them is Answer: (B) tions are of single correct answer type.

1 1 (iii) Give a set of two prizes to the particular student.

(A) 9! (B) 9! (C) 8! (D) 8!

2 2 Then the remaining 2 can be distributed among

5 students in 52 ways. There are 4 C 2 sets, each

(ii) The number of ways arranging them so that the

containing 2 prizes. Therefore the required number

two Britishers should never come together is

of ways of distributing the prizes is

(A) 7 ! ´ 2 ! (B) 6 ! ´ 2 ! (C) 7! (D) 6 ! 6 P2

(iii) The number of ways of arranging them so that 52 ´ 4C 2 = 25 ´ 6 = 150

the three Americans should sit together is Answer: (C)

(A) 7 ! ´ 3! (B) 6 ! ´ 3! (C) 6 ! 6 P3 (D) 6 ! 7 P3

3. Passage: A security of 12 persons is to form from a

Solution: group of 20 persons. Answer the following questions.

(i) n distinct objects can be arranged around a circular (i) The number of times that two particular persons

table in (n - 1)! ways. Therefore the number of ways are together on duty is

of arranging 4 + 3 + 2 people = 8!.

20 ! 18 ! 20 ! 20 !

Answer: (C) (A) (B) (C) (D)

12 ! 8 ! 10 ! 8 ! 10 ! 8 ! 10 ! 10 !

(ii) First arrange 4 Indians and 3 Americans around a

round table in 6! ways. Among the six gaps, arrange (ii) The number of times that three particular

the two Britishers in 6 P2 ways. Therefore the total persons are together on duty is

number of arrangements in which Britishers are 17 ! 17 ! 20 ! 20 !

(A) (B) (C) (D)

separated is 6 ! ´ 6 P2 . 8! 9! 8! 8! 17 ! 3! 9! 8!

Answer: (D) (iii) The number of ways of selecting 12 guards such

(iii) Treating the 3 Americans as a single object, 7 (= 4 + that two particular guards are out of duty and

1 + 2) objects can be arranged cyclically in 6! ways. three particular guards are together on duty is

In each of these, Americans can be arranged among (20)! (18)! (15)! (15)!

themselves in 3! ways. Therefore, the number of (A) (B) (C) (D)

(15)! 5! 9 ! 3! 9! 6! 5! (10)!

required arrangements is 6 ! ´ 3!.

ASSERTION–REASONING TYPE QUESTIONS

These questions check the

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions

analytical and reasoning

2. Statement I: If P( x) = ax + bx + c and Q( x) = - ax +

2 2

In the following set of questions, a Statement I is given

skills of the students. Two and a corresponding Statement II is given just below it. dx + c , where ac ¹ 0, then the equation P ( x) Q ( x) = 0

Mark the correct answer as: has at least two real roots.

statements are provided –

(A) Both I and II are true and II is a correct reason for I Statement II: A quadratic equation with real coeffi-

Statement I and Statement ( B ) Both I and II are true and II is not a correct reason cients has real roots if and only if the discriminant is

for I greater than or equal to zero.

II. The student is expected ( C ) I is true, but II is false Solution: Let px2 + qx + r = 0 be a quadratic equation.

( D) I is false, but II is true

to verify if (a) both state- The roots are

ments are true and if both 1. Statement I: Let a, b and c be real numbers and - q ± q2 - 4 pr

a ¹ 0. If 4a + 3b + 2c and a have same sign, then not 2p

are true, verify if statement both the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 belong

to the open interval (1, 2). These are real Û q2 - 4 pr ³ 0. Therefore Statement II

I follows from statement is true.

Statement II: A quadratic equation f ( x) = 0 will have In Statement I, ac ¹ 0. Therefore ac > 0 or ac < 0. If

II; (b) both statements are a root in the interval (a, b) if f (a) f (b) < 0 . ac < 0, then b2 - 4ac > 0, so that P(x) = 0 has two real roots.

If ac > 0, then d2 + 4ac > 0 so that Q(x) = 0 has two real

true and if both are true, Solution: Let f ( x) = px2 + qx + r . If f (a) and f (b) are

roots. Further, the roots of P(x) = 0 and Q(x) = 0 are also

of opposite sign, the curve (parabola) y = f ( x) must

verify if statement II is not the roots of P(x)Q(x) = 0. Therefore, Statement I is true

intersect x-axis at some point. This implies that f (x) has a

and Statement II is a correct reason for Statement I.

the correct reasoning for root in (a, b). Therefore, the Statement II is true.

Let a and b be roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 . Then, Answer: (A)

statement I; (c), (d) which -b c 3. Statement I: If a, b and c are real, then the roots of the

a+b= and ab = equation (x - a)(x - b) + (x - b)(x - c) + (x - c)(x - a) = 0

of the statements is untrue. a a

are imaginary.

By hypothesis,

Statement II: If p, q and r are real and p ¹ 0 , then

4a + 3b + 2c the roots of the equation px2 + qx + r = 0 are real or

>0 imaginary according as q2 - 4 pr ³ 0 or q2 - 4 pr < 0.

a

INTEGER-TYPE QUESTIONS

Integer Answer Type Questions The questions in this section are nu-

The answer to each of the questions in this section is 2. The number of negative integer solutions of x2 ´ 2x + 1 + merical problems for which no choices

a non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below 2| x - 3|+2 = x2 ´ 2| x - 3|+ 4 + 2x - 1 is .

the respective question numbers have to be darkened. are provided. The students re required

3. If (a + 5i)/ 2 is a root of the equation 2 x - 6 x + k = 0,

2

For example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer

to the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under then the value of k is . to find the exact answers to numerical

Y labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.

X Y Z W

4. If the equation x - 4 x + log1/ 2 a = 0 does not have

2

problems and enter the same in OMR

distinct real roots, then the minimum value of 1/a

0 0 0 0 is . sheets. Answers can be one-digit or

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 5. If a is the greatest negative integer satisfying two-digit numerals.

3 3 3 3 x2 - 4 x - 77 < 0 and x2 > 4

4 4 4

simultaneously, then the value of | a | is .

5 5 5 5

6 6 6 6. The number of values of k for which the quad-

7 7 7 7 ratic equations (2k - 5)x2 - 4x - 15 = 0 and (3k - 8)

8 8 8 8 x2 - 5x - 21 = 0 have a common root is .

9 9 9 9

7. The number of real roots of the equation 2 x2 - 6 x -

5 x2 - 3 x - 6 = 0 is .

1. The integer value of k for which

EXERCISES EXERCISES

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. The roots of the equation For self-assessment, each chapter has

(C) ln = m2 + c / a (D) mn = l2 + bc / a

17

(10)2 /x

+ (25) = (50)1/x

1 /x

adequate number of exercise prob-

4 3. If x is real, then the least value of

are 6 x2 - 22 x + 21

lems where the questions have been

(A) 2, 1/2 (B) -2, 1/2 (C) 2, -1/2 (D) 1/2, -1/2 5 x2 - 18 x + 17 subdivided into the same categories as

2. If a ¹ 0 and a(l + m) + 2blm + c = 0 and a(l + n) + is

2 2

asked in IIT-JEE pattern.

(A) mn = l2 + c / a (B) lm = n2 + c / a

2

+ log2 x - ( 5 / 4 )

1. The equation x

( 3 / 4 )(log2 x )

= 2 has (A) a + b (B) a − b

(A) atleast one real solution (C) ( a + b )2 (D) ( a - b )2

(B) exactly three solutions

(C) exactly one irrational solution 8. If the product of the roots of the equation

(D) complex roots x2 - 4 mx + 3e2 log m - 4 = 0

is 8, then the roots are

2. If S is the set of all real values of x such that

(A) real (B) non-real

2x - 1 (C) rational (D) irrational

>0

2 x + 3 x2 + x

3

- log1/ 9 [ x2 - ( 10 / 3) x + 1]

9. If 3 £ 1, then x belongs to

then S is a superset of (A) [0, 1/3) (B) (1/3, 1)

(A) (-¥, - 3 / 2) (B) (-3/2, -1/4) (C) (2, 3) (D) (3, 10/3]

(C) (-1/ 4, 1/ 2) (D) (1/2, 3)

10. If every pair of the equations x2 + ax + bc = 0, x2 + bx +

Matrix-Match Type Questions

In each of the following questions, statements are given

in two columns, which have to be matched. The state- Column I Column II

ments in Column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and

(D), while those in Column II are labeled as (p), (q), (A) The equation (p) cx2 + bx + a = 0

(r), (s) and (t). Any given statement in Column I can whose roots are

have correct matching with one or more statements in a + b and ab is

(B) The equation (q) a2 x2 + (2ac - b2 ) x + c2 = 0

Column II. The appropriate bubbles corresponding to

the answers to these questions have to be darkened as whose roots are a 2

illustrated in the following example. and b 2 is (r) a2 x2 + a(b - c) x - bc = 0

(C) The equation

Example: If the correct matches are (A) ® (p), (s); whose roots are

(B) ® (q), (s), (t); (C) ® (r); (D) ® (r), (t); that is if the (s) ax2 + (2ac + b) x + ac2 +

1/a and 1/b is

matches are (A) ® (p) and (s); (B) ® (q), (s) and (t); bc + c = 0

(D) The equation

(C) ® (r); and (D) ® (r), (t), then the correct darkening

whose roots are

of bubbles willComprehension-Type

look as follows: Questions a - c and b - c is (t) cx2 - bx + a = 0

1. Passage: Let A be a square matrix. Then (A) idempotent matrix

(A) A is called idempotent matrix, if A2 = A. (B) involutory

(B) A is called nilpotent matrix of index k, if Ak = O (C) nilpotent matrix of index 2

and Ak-1 ¹ O. (D) AAT = I.

(C) A is called involutory matrix if A2 = I.

2. Passage: Let A be 3 ´ 3 matrix and B is adj A. Answer

(D) A is called periodic matrix with least periodic k, if the following questions:

Ak + 1 = A and Ak ¹ A.

é0 1 1ù

(i) If A = êê 1 2 0 úú , then A-1 is equal to

Answer the following questions:

0 - 1ù êë 3 - 1 4 úû

(i) The matrix éê ú is

ë-1 0 û

é 8 -5 -2ù é- 8 5 2ù

1 ê

- 4 - 3 1 úú

1 ê

(A) idempotent (B) involutory (A) (B) 4 3 - 1úú

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions 11 ê 11 ê

In each of the following, two statements, I and II, are given Statement II: If f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c > 0 for all x > 5,

and one of the following four alternatives has to be chosen. then the equation f ( x) = 0 may not have real roots or

(A) Both I and II are correct and II is a correct reasoning will have real roots less than or equal to 5.

for I.

(B) Both I and II are correct but II is not a correct 2. Statement I: If a, b and c are positive integers and

reasoning for I. ax2 - bx + c = 0 has two distinct roots in the integer

(0, 1), then log5 (abc) ³ 2.

(C) I is true, but II is not true.

(D) I is not true, but II is true. Statement II: If a quadratic equation f ( x) = 0 has

roots in an interval (h, k), then f (h), f (k ) > 0

1. Statement I: If f ( x) º ax + bx + c is positive for all x

2

greater than 5, then a > 0, but b may be negative or 3. Statement I: There are only two values for sin x satis-

2 2

may not be negative. fying the equation 2sin x

+ 5 ´ 2cos x

= 7.

The answer to each of the questions in this section is 2. The number of negative integer solutions of x2 ´ 2x + 1 +

a non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below 2| x - 3|+2 = x2 ´ 2| x - 3|+ 4 + 2x - 1 is .

the respective question numbers have to be darkened.

3. If (a + 5i)/ 2 is a root of the equation 2 x - 6 x + k = 0,

2

For example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer

to the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under then the value of k is .

Y labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.

4. If the equation x2 - 4 x + log1/ 2 a = 0 does not have

X Y Z W distinct real roots, then the minimum value of 1/a

0 0 0 0 is .

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 5. If a is the greatest negative integer satisfying

3 3 3 3 x2 - 4 x - 77 < 0 and x2 > 4

4 4 4

simultaneously, then the value of | a | is .

5 5 5 5

ANSWERS

The Answer key at the end of each chapter contains answers to all exercise problems.

ANSWERS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. (D) 14. (B)

2. (B) 15. (C)

3. (C) 16. (A)

4. (C) 17. (A)

5. (A) 18. (B)

6. (D) 19. (B)

7. (D) 20. (D)

8. (A) 21. (C)

9. (D) 22. (D)

10. (D) 23. (A)

11. (C) 24. (A)

12. (B) 25. (C)

13. (A)

1. (B), (C) 9. (A), (B), (C), (D)

2. (B), (D) 10. (B), (D)

3. (B), (C) 11. (A), (B), (C)

4. (A), (B) 12. (A), (B), (C), (D)

5. (B), (D) 13. (A), (B)

6. (A), (B), (C) 14. (A), (B), (C), (D)

7. (A), (B), (C), (D) 15. (A), (D)

8. (A), (B), (C), (D)

1. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (r), (D) ® (r) 4. (A) ® (r), (B) ® (r), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (p)

2. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (q), (C) ® (p), (D) ® (q) 5. (A) ® (q), (r) , (s) (B) ® (s), (C) ® (p), (D) ® (q),(s)

3. (A) ® (q), (B) ® (s), (C) ® (p), (D) ® (r)

Comprehension-Type Question

1. (i) (B); (ii) (A); (iii) (C) 3. (i) (A); (ii) (B); (iii) (A)

2. (i) (B); (ii) (A); (iii) (C) 4. (i) (D); (ii) (C); (iii) (D)

1. (A) 4. (C)

2. (A) 5. (A)

3. (D)

1. 2 4. 16

2. 3 5. 0

3. 6

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Contents

1 Sets, Relations and Functions 1

1.1 Sets: Deﬁnition and Examples ........................................................................................................................ 2

1.2 Set Operations ............................................................................................................................................... 5

1.3 Venn Diagrams ............................................................................................................................................. 13

1.4 Relations ....................................................................................................................................................... 25

1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions ............................................................................................................ 33

1.6 Functions ...................................................................................................................................................... 38

1.7 Graph of a Function ...................................................................................................................................... 49

1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions ............................................................................................................. 53

Worked-Out Problems .................................................................................................................................. 58

Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 68

Exercises ....................................................................................................................................................... 73

Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 83

2.1 Exponential Function .....................................................................................................................................86

2.2 Logarithmic Function .................................................................................................................................... 88

2.3 Exponential Equations .................................................................................................................................. 89

2.4 Logarithmic Equations .................................................................................................................................. 90

2.5 Systems of Exponential and Logarithmic Equations .................................................................................... 91

2.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Inequalities .................................................................................................... 92

Worked-Out Problems .................................................................................................................................. 93

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 100

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 100

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 104

3.1 Ordered Pairs of Real Numbers .................................................................................................................. 106

3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib ................................................................................................................................. 108

3.3 Geometric Interpretation ............................................................................................................................ 112

3.4 The Trigonometric Form ............................................................................................................................. 128

3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem ................................................................................................................................. 131

3.6 Algebraic Equations ................................................................................................................................... 136

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 140

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 157

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 161

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 166

xxii Contents

4.1 Quadratic Expressions and Equations ........................................................................................................ 170

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 180

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 197

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 197

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 204

5.1 Sequences and Series ................................................................................................................................ 208

5.2 Arithmetic Progressions .............................................................................................................................. 211

5.3 Geometric Progressions ............................................................................................................................. 217

5.4 Harmonic Progressions and Series .............................................................................................................. 221

5.5 Some Useful Formulae ............................................................................................................................... 225

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 227

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 264

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 266

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 274

6.1 Factorial Notation ....................................................................................................................................... 278

6.2 Permutations .............................................................................................................................................. 278

6.3 Combinations ............................................................................................................................................. 286

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 297

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 312

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 314

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 319

7.1 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Index ............................................................................................ 322

7.2 Binomial Theorem for Rational Index ......................................................................................................... 329

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 333

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 352

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 353

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 357

8.1 Matrices ...................................................................................................................................................... 360

8.2 Determinants .............................................................................................................................................. 395

8.3 Solutions of Linear Equations ..................................................................................................................... 412

Contents xxiii

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 443

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 449

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 456

9.1 Rational Fractions ....................................................................................................................................... 460

9.2 Partial Fractions .......................................................................................................................................... 462

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 466

Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 470

Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 471

Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 473

Index 475

Sets, Relations and

Functions 1

Contents

1.1 Sets: Definition and

Examples

1.2 Set Operations

1.3 Venn Diagrams

1.4 Relations

Sets, Relations and Functions

and Partitions

AÇBÇC 1.6 Functions

AÇC BÇC 1.7 Graph of a Function

1.8 Even Functions and

Odd Functions

C

Worked-Out Problems

Summary

Exercises

Answers

defined objects.

function name input what to output

Relations: For any two sets A

and B, any subset of A ´ B is

called a relation from A to B.

Input Relationship Output Functions: A relation f from

a set A to a set B is called a

f, g, h, ...

x, t,q, ... f(x), g(q),... function from A to B if for

each a ÎA, there exists unique

Domain Range Image

b ÎB such that (a, b) Îf.

Domain Elements Range Elements

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Argument Value of Function

2 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Mankind has been using the number concept as an abstraction without expressely formulating what, in precise terms,

a number is. The first precise formulation was made by the Swiss mathematician George Cantor during the years

1874 –1897 while working on number aggregates. To start with one has to realize that the abstraction that is the number

“five”‚ say, is the commonality that exists between all sets which can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the

set of fingers on a normal human hand. In olden days a shepherd would carry a bag of pebbles just to say that he has

that many sheep with him or, equivalently, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the pebbles in the bag and

the sheep he possesses. The concept of set and the concept of one-to-one correspondence of sets were introduced

by George Cantor for the first time into the world of mathematics. For a number like five or for any finite number,

Cantor’s approach through one-to-one correspondence of sets may appear to be a triviality. But if we turn to infinite

sets, we feel the difference. First of all, what is a set? The precise mathematical definition of a set had to wait for

more than three decades after Cantor’s proposal: It is a collection of objects and several paradoxes that followed the

Cantor’s viewpoint.

For our present discussion we can be content with what most introductory mathematics texts are content with: the

intuitive concept of a set. A set is just a well-defined collection of objects, well-defined in the sense that given any object

in the world, one can say this much: Either the object belongs to the set or it does not. It cannot happen both ways. Let

us consider a counterexample first and an example of a set later.

Counter Example

Let X be the collection of all sets A such that A is not an If X does not belong to X, then X belongs to X. Either

object in A or, A does not belong to A. We shall argue way, we get a contradiction. Therefore, we cannot decide

that X is not a set. Suppose, on the contrary, that X is a set. whether X is an object in X. Thus, X is not a well-defined

If X belongs to X, then X does not belong to X. collection of objects and hence X is not a set.

Example

A positive integer greater than one is called a prime whether it is a prime number or not. For example, consider

number if it has exactly two positive divisors, namely 1 the number 2009. We may not be able to answer whether

and itself. Let P be the collection of all prime numbers. it is a prime number or not. But this much is certain that

This is a well-defined collection of objects. For, given any either 2009 is a prime or it is not. It can never be both.

object in the world, the question whether it belongs to This is the property of being a well-defined collection.

this set or not has a unique answer. First recognize that if

the given object is other than a positive integer, one can

answer the question in the negative without any think-

ing. If the object is a positive integer, the question arises

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 2 Element Let X be any set. The objects belonging to X are called elements of X, or members

of X. If x is an element X, then we say that x belongs to X and denote this by x Î X. If x does

not belong to X, then we write x Ï X.

The sets are usually denoted by capital letters of English alphabet while the elements are denoted in general by small

letters. A set is represented by listing all its elements between the brackets { } and by separating them from each

other by commas, if there are more than one element. Here are some examples of sets and the usual notations used

to denote them.

1.1 Sets: Deﬁnition and Examples 3

QUICK LOOK 1

1. The set of all natural numbers (i.e., the set of all 5. The set of all real numbers is denoted by .

positive integers) is denoted by or +. That is, 6. The set of all positive real numbers is denoted by +.

= {1, 2, 3, 4, ¼}.

7. The set of all positive rational numbers is denoted

2. The set of all non-negative integers is denoted by W; by +.

that is W = {0, 1, 2, 3, ¼}.

8. denotes the set of all complex numbers.

3. denotes the set of all integers.

4. denotes the set of all rational numbers.

Example 1.1

Verify whether the following are sets: Note that the collections given in (1) and (4) are not

(1) The collection of all intelligent persons in Visakha- sets because, if we select a person in Visakhapatnam,

patnam. we cannot say with certainty whether he/she belongs to

the collection or not, as there is no stand and scale for the

(2) The collection of all prime ministers of India.

evaluation of intelligence or for being tall. However, the

(3) The collection of all negative integers. collections given in (2) and (3) are sets.

(4) The collection of all tall persons in India.

A set may be represented with the help of certain property or properties possessed by all the elements of that set.

Such a property is a statement which is either true or false. Any object which does not possess this property will not be

an element of that set. In order to represent a set by this method we write between the brackets { } a variable x which

stands for each element of the set. Then we write the property (or properties) possessed by each element x of the set.

We denote this property by p(x) and seperate x and p(x) by a symbol: or |, read as “such that”. Thus, we write

{ x | p(x)} or { x : p(x)}

to represent the set of all objects x such that the statement p(x) is true. This representation of a set is called “set builder

form” representation.

Examples

(1) Let P be the collection of all prime numbers. Then it (3) Let X be the set given above in (2) and

can be represented in the set builder form as

ì 1 ü

P = { x | x is a prime number} Y = í y| y = 0 or Î X ý

î y þ

(2) Let X be the set of all even positive integers which

are less than 15. Then Then

X = { x | x is even integer and 0 < x < 15} ì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ü

Y = í0, , , , , , , ý

= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14} î 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 þ

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 3 Empty Set The set having no elements belonging to it is called the empty set or null set and

is denoted by the symbol f.

Examples

(1) Let X = {x | x is an integer and 0 < x < 1} . Then X is a (2) Let X = { a | a is a rational number and a2 = 2}. Then X

set and there are no elements in X, since there is no is the empty set, since there is no rational number a for

integer x such that 0 < x < 1. Therefore, X is the which a2 = 2 .

empty set.

4 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Notation: The symbol Þ is read as “implies”. Thus a Þ b is read as “a implies b”. The symbol Û is read as “implies

and is implied by” or as “if and only if”. Thus a Û b is read as “a implies and implied by b” or “a if and only if b”.

Examples

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 4 Equal Sets Two sets A and B are defined to be equal if they contain the same elements, in the

sense that,

x Î A Û x ÎB

In this case, we write A = B. If A and B are not equal, then we denote it by A ¹ B.

Examples

(1) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {4, 2, 3, 1}. Then A = B. and Z = { n | n Î + and 1 £ n2 £ 16}

(2) Let Then Y = Z and X ¹ Y, since -1 ÎX and -1 ÏY. Note that

X = {-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4}.

X = {n | n Î and 1 £ n2 £ 16}

Y = { n | n Î and 1 £ n £ 4}

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 5 Finite and Infinite Sets A set having a definite number of elements is called a finite set. A set

which is not finite is called an infinite set.

Examples

(1) The set + of positive integers is an infinite set. (3) The set of real numbers is an infinite set.

(2) {a, b, c, d} is a finite set, since it has exactly four (4) { x | x Î and 0 < x £ 100} is a finite set.

elements. (5) { x | x Î and 0 < x < 1} is an infinite set.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 6 Family of Sets A set whose members are sets is called a family of sets or class of sets.

Note that a family of sets is also a set. Usually families of sets are denoted by script letters Ꮽ, Ꮾ, Ꮿ, Ᏸ, etc.

Examples

(1) For any integer n, let An = { x | x is an integer and Xh = The set of persons belonging to the house h

x ³ n}. Then { An | n is an integer} is a family of sets.

Then {Xh | h is a house in Visakhapatnam} is a family of

(2) For any house h, let sets.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 7 Indexed Family of Sets A family Ꮿ of sets is called an indexed family if there exists a set I

such that for each element i Î I, there exists a unique member Ai in Ꮿ associated with i and

Ꮿ = {Ai : i Î I}. In this case, the set I is called the index set.

For example, the family of sets + of positive integers is an indexed family of sets, the index set being , the set of

integers. In the example Xh = The set of persons belonging to the house h where {Xh | h is a house in Visakhapatnam}

also we have an indexed family of sets, where the index set is the set of houses in Visakhapatnam. If Ꮽ is an indexed

family of sets with the index set I, then we usually write

Ꮽ = {Ai}i ÎI or {Ai | i Î I }

1.2 Set Operations 5

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 8 Intervals in For any real numbers a and b, we define the intervals as the sets given below:

1. (a, b) = { x | x Î and a < x < b}

2. (a, b] = { x | x Î and a < x £ b}

3. [a, b) = { x | x Î and a £ x < b}

4. [a, b] = { x | x Î and a £ x £ b}

Examples

Note that, for any two real numbers a and b, the intervals [a, b] or [a, b) or (a, b] is empty if and only if a ³ b. Also

(a, b) is empty if and only if a > b. Further [a, b] has exactly one element if and only if a = b. Thus these intervals

become non-trivial only if a < b. Usually (a, b) is called an open interval, (a, b] is called left open and right closed inter-

val, [a, b) is called the left closed and right open interval and [a, b] is called a closed interval.

We define certain operations between sets. These are closely related to the logical connectives “and”, “or” and “not”.

To begin with, we have the following.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 9 Subset For any two sets A and B, we say that A is a subset of B or A is contained in B if every

element of A is an element of B; in this case we denote it by A Í B. A is not a subset of B is

denoted by A Í/ B .

If A Í B we also say that B is a super set of A or B contains A or B is larger than A or A is smaller than B. Sometimes,

we write B Ê A instead of A Í B. If A is a subset of B and A ¹ B, then we say that A is a proper subset of B and denote

this by A Ì B. Note that, for any sets A and B, A = B if and only if A Í B and B Í A.

QUICK LOOK 2

1. The set + of positive integers is a proper subset of 4. is a proper subset of the set of complex numbers.

the set of integers. 5. The set of Indians is a subset of the set of human beings.

2. is a proper subset of the set of rational numbers. 6. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and B = { x | x Î and x2 − 5x +

3. is a proper subset of the set of real numbers. 6 = 0}, then B Ì A.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 10 Power Set For any set X, the collection of all subsets of X is also a set and is called the

power set of X. It is denoted by P(X ).

Note that the empty set f and the set X are always elements in the power set P(X ). Also, X = f if and only if P(X ) has

only one element. Infact, X has exactly n elements if and only if P(X ) has exactly 2n elements, as proved in Theorem 1.1.

First, let us consider certain examples.

Examples

(1) If X = {a}, then P( X ) = {f, X } (4) If X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, then P(X ) has 32 (= 25 ) elements

(2) If X = {a, b}, then P( X ) = {f, {a}, {b}, X } (5) If X is a set such that P(X ) has 128 elements then X

(3) If X = {1, 2, 3}, then has 7 elements, since 27 = 128

P( X ) = {f, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {2, 3}, {3, 1}, X }

6 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 11 Cardinality If X is a finite set, then the number of elements in X is denoted by | X | or n(X )

and this number is called the cardinality of X.

T H E O R E M 1 .1 Let X be any set. Then X is a finite set with n elements if and only if the power set P(X ) is a finite

set with 2n elements.

PROOF Suppose that X is a finite set with n elements. We apply induction on n. If n = 0, then X = f and

P(X ) = {f} which is a set with 1 (= 20) element. Now, let n > 0 and assume that the result is true

for all sets with n - 1 elements; that is, if Y is a set with n - 1 elements, then P(Y ) has exactly 2n-1

elements.

Since n > 0, X is a non-empty set and hence we can choose an element a in X. Let Y be the set of

all elements in X other than a. Then | Y | = n - 1 and therefore | P(Y )| = 2n - 1. Clearly P(Y ) Í P( X ).

Also, if A Î P(X ) and A Ï P(Y ), then A Í X and A Ë Y and hence a Î A. Therefore, the number of

subsets of X which are not subsets of Y is equal to the number of subsets of X containing a which

in turn coincides with |P(Y)|. Hence,

| P( X )| = | P(Y )| + | P(Y )| = 2n - 1 + 2n - 1 = 2n

Converse is clear; since each element x Î X produces an element { x } Î P(X ), therefore X must

be finite if P(X ) is finite. Also, note that, for non-negative integers n and m, 2n = 2m if and only if

n = m. ■

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 12 Intersection of Sets For any two sets A and B, we define the intersection of A and B to be

the set of all elements belonging to both A and B. It is denoted by A Ç B. That is,

A Ç B = { x | x Î A and x Î B}

Example 1.2

Let A = { x | x is an odd prime and x < 20} and B = { x | x is A = {3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19} and B = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, ...}

an integer and x > 6}. Find A Ç B.

Therefore

Solution: By hypothesis A Ç B = {7, 11, 13, 17, 19}

Example 1.3

Let X = The set of all circles in the plane whose radii is Solution: X Ç Y = f, the empty set, since no circle of

5 cm and Y = The set of all line segments of length 5 cm positive radius can be a line segment.

in the plane. Find X Ç Y.

Example 1.4

Let F = The set of all boys in a school who can play Solution: F Ç C = The set of all boys in the school who

football and C = The set of all boys in the school who can can play both football and cricket.

play cricket. Find F Ç C.

Example 1.5

Let A = The set of all non-negative integers and B = The Solution: A Ç B = {x | x is an integer, x ≥ 0 and x ≤ 0} = {0}.

set of all non-positive integers. Find A Ç B.

1.2 Set Operations 7

Try it out

T H E O R E M 1 .2 The following hold for any sets, A, B and C.

1. A Í B Û A = A Ç B

2. A Ç A = A

3. A Ç B = B Ç A

4. (A Ç B) Ç C = A Ç (B Ç C)

5. A Ç f = f, where f is the empty set.

6. For any set X, X Í A Ç B if and only if X Í A and X Í B.

In view of (4) above, we write simply A Ç B Ç C for (A Ç B) Ç C or A Ç (B Ç C). In general, if A1, A2, ¼, An are sets,

we write

n

∩A

i =1

i for A1 Ç A2 Ç Ç An

More generally, for any indexed family {Ai}i ÎI of sets, we write ∩A i for the set of all elements common to all Ai’s,

i Î I and express this by i ÎI

∩ A = { x | x Î A for all i Î I }

i ÎI

i i

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 13 Disjoint Sets Two sets A and B are called disjoint if A Ç B is the empty set. In this case we

say that A is disjoint with B or B is disjoint with A.

Examples

(1) Let E be the set of even integers and O the set of all æ

1ö

∩

¥

odd integers. Then E and O are disjoint sets. (4) ÷ =f

çè 0,

n=1

nø

(2) Let A = { p | p is a prime number}. Then A Ç = f, since, for any given a > 0, we can find an integer n

where is the set of rational numbers, since it is such that 0 < 1/n < a and hence a Ï(0, 1/n).

known that p is an irrational number for any prime p.

é 1ù

∩

¥

(3) n=1 êë0, n úû = {0}

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 14 Union of Sets For any two sets A and B, we define the union of A and B as the set of all

elements belonging to A or B and denote this by A È B; that is,

A È B = {x | x Î A or x Î B}

Note that the statement “x Î A or x Î B” does not exclude the case “x Î A and x Î B”.

Therefore

A È B = {x | x Î A or x Î B or both}

Example

Let E be the set of even integers and O the set of all odd E and O are disjoint and hence we do not come across

integers. Then E È O = , the set of integers. In this case, the case “x Î E and x ÎO ”.

8 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.6

Let A be the interval [0, 1] and B the interval [1/2, 2]. = {x | x Î and 0 £ x £ 2}

Then find A È B and A Ç B.

= [0, 2]

Solution: We have Also,

A È B = {x | x Î A or x Î B} é1 ù

A Ç B = ê , 1ú

ì 1 ü ë2 û

= í x | x Î and ‘0 £ x £ 1 or £ x £ 2 ’ý

î 2 þ

Example 1.7

= [0, 2) Ç

Solution: A È B = { x | x Î A or x Î B}

= { x | x Î and ‘x Î[0, 1] or x Î(1, 2)’}

Example 1.8

Let A be the set of all even primes and B the interval = {x | x Î and 2 £ x < 3}

(2, 3). Find A È B.

= [2, 3)

Solution: A È B = {x | x is an even prime or x Î(2, 3)}

= {x | x = 2 or x Î such that 2 < x < 3}

Try it out

T H E O R E M 1 .3 For any sets A, B and C the following hold.

1. A Ç B Í A È B

2. For any set X, A È B Í X if and only if A Í X and B Í X

3. A È A = A

4. A È B = B È A

5. (A È B) È C = A È (B È C)

6. A Í B Û A È B = B

7. A È f = A

8. A = A Ç B Û A Í B Û A È B = B

9. A Ç (A È B) = A

10. A È (A Ç B) = A

DISTRIBUTIVE 1. A Ç (B È C) = (A Ç B) È (A Ç C)

LAWS

2. A È (B Ç C) = (A È B) Ç (A È C)

These are called the distributive laws for intersection Ç and union È.

1.2 Set Operations 9

PROOF 1. x Î A Ç (B È C) Þ x Î A and x ÎB È C

Þ x Î A and ( x Î B or x ÎC )

Þ ( x Î A and x Î B) or ( x Î A and x ÎC )

Þ x Î A Ç B or x ÎA Ç C

Þ x Î( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C )

Therefore

A Ç ( B È C ) Í ( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C ) (1.1)

On the other hand, we have

x Î( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C ) Þ x Î A Ç B or x Î A ÇC

Þ ( x Î A and x Î B) or ( x Î A and x ÎC )

Þ x Î A and (x Î B or x ÎC )

Þ x Î A and x Î B ÈC

Þ x Î A Ç (B È C )

Therefore

( A Ç B) È ( A È C ) Í A Ç ( B È C ) (1.2)

From Eqs. (1.1) and (1.2), we have A Ç ( B È C ) = ( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C ).

2. It can be proved similarly and is left as an exercise for the reader. ■

Try it out A È (B Ç C) = (A È B) Ç (A È C)

PROOF Suppose that A Ç B = A Ç C and A È B = A È C . Consider

B = B Ç ( A È B) [by part (9) of Theorem 1.3]

= B Ç (A ÈC) (since A È B = A È C)

= ( B Ç A) È ( B Ç C ) (by the distributive laws)

= (C Ç A) È (C Ç B) (since A Ç B = A Ç C)

= C Ç ( A È B) (by the distributive laws)

= C Ç (A ÈC) (since A È B = A È C)

=C [by part (9) of Theorem 1.3]

Therefore B = C.

Since (A È B) È C = A È (B È C) for any sets A, B and C, we simply write A È B È C without

bothering about the brackets. In general, if A1, A2, …, An are any sets, then we write

n

∪A

i =1

i for A1 È A2 È È An

Ai for the set of all elements belonging to at

least one Ai and express this by

∪ A = { x | x Î A for some i Î I }

i i

i ÎI ■

10 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Examples

(1) For any positive integer n, let (3) For any positive real number a, let

An = (- n, n) = {x | x Î and - n < x < n} Aa = The set of human beings on the Earth whose

height is less than or equal to a cm

Then

Then

¥

∪A

n=1

n

+

= {x | x Î and -n < x < n for some n Î } = ∪ A = The set of all human beings on the Earth

a

aÎ+

since, for any real number x, there exists a positive (4) For any positive integer n, let

integer n such that | x | < n and hence -n < x < n, so

that x Î An. æ 1 1ö ì 1 1ü

Xn = ç - , ÷ = í x | x Î and - < x < ý

è n nø î n nþ

(2) For any positive integer n, let

Pn = { p | p is a prime number and p < n} Then

¥ ¥

Note that P1 = f = P2, P3 = {2} and P4 = {2, 3}. Now

¥ ∩ X = {0}

n and ∪X n = (-1, 1)

∪ P = The set of all prime numbers

n=1 n=1

n

n=1

since Xn Í X1 for all n Î +.

since, for any prime p, we have p Î Ap +1 .

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 15 For any two sets A and B, the difference of A and B is defined as the set

A - B = { x | x Î A and x Ï B}

Example 1.9

(1) A = (0, 1) = {x | x Î and 0 < x < 1} and A - B = {x | x Î A and x Ï B}

ì 1 ü

B = í x | x Î + and Î ý ì 1 ü

î x þ = í x | x Î , 0 < x < 1 and Ï ý

(2) - where the symbols have there usual meaning. î x þ

(3) A = The set of all students in a school and B = The ¥

æ 1 1ö

set of all girls = ∪ç , ÷

n=1 è n + 1 n ø

(4) - + where the symbols have the usual meaning.

(2) - = {x | x Î and x Ï }

Solution: = {x | x is a real number and not an integer}

(1) By hypothesis

A = (0, 1) = {x | x Î and 0 < x < 1} and B = {x | x Î+

= ∪ (n, n + 1)

n Î

and 1/x Î}. We have

= È (-2, - 1) È (-1, 0) È (0, 1) È (1, 2) È

ì 1 1 1 ü (3) A - B = The set of all boys in the school

B = í1, , , , ý

î 2 3 4 þ (4) - + = The set of all non-positive integers

= {x | x Î and x £ 0}

DE MORGAN'S 1. A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C)

LAWS

2. A - (B Ç C) = (A - B) È (A - C)

PROOF 1. x Î A - ( B È C ) Þ x Î A and x ÏB È C

Þ x Î A and ( x Ï B and x ÏC )

1.2 Set Operations 11

Þ x Î A - B and x ÎA - C

Þ x Î( A - B) Ç ( A - C )

and therefore, A - (B È C) Í (A - B) Ç (A - C). Also,

x Î( A - B) Ç ( A - C ) Þ x Î A - B and x ÎA - C

Þ ( x Î A and x Ï B) and ( x Î A and x ÏC )

Þ x Î A and ( x Ï B and x ÏC )

Þ x Î A and x ÏB È C

Þ x Î A - (B È C )

A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C)

2. It can be similarly proved and is left as an exercise for the reader. ■

Try it out

T H E O R E M 1 .7 The following hold for any sets A, B and C.

1. B Í C Þ A - C Í A - B

2. A Í B Þ A - C Í B - C

3. (A È B) - C = (A - C) È (B - C)

4. (A Ç B) - C = (A - C) Ç (B - C)

5. (A - B) - C = A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C)

6. A - (B - C) = (A - B) È (A Ç C)

T H E O R E M 1 .8 Let { Ai }i ÎI be any family of sets and B and C any sets. Then the following hold:

GENERALIZED

æ ö

DE MORGAN'S 1. B - ç ∪ Ai ÷ = ∩ ( B - Ai )

LAWS è iÎI ø iÎI

æ ö

2. B - ç ∩ Ai ÷ = ∪ ( B - Ai )

è iÎI ø iÎI

æ ö

3. ç ∪ Ai ÷ - B = ∪ ( Ai - B)

è iÎI ø iÎI

æ ö

4. ç ∩ Ai ÷ - B = ∩ ( Ai - B)

è i ÎI ø i ÎI

x Î ∪ Ai Û x Î Ai for some i Î I

i ÎI

x Î ∩ Ai Û x Î Ai for all i Î I

i ÎI

x Ï∪ Ai Û x Ï Ai for all i Î I

i ÎI

i ÎI ■

12 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Examples

æ ö

(1) - = - ç ∪ {n}÷ (3) For any integer n,

è nÎ ø

- (n, n + 1) = (-¥, n] È [n + 1, ¥)

= ∩ ( - {n})

n Î

Here (-¥, n) stands for the set of real numbers x

such that x £ n and [n + 1, ¥) for the set of real num-

æ ö

(2) - = ç ∪ [n, n + 1]÷ - bers x such that n + 1 £ x .

è nÎ ø

(4) Let

= ∪ ([n, n + 1] - )

n Î

A = {x Î + | x < 10} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

and B = The set of all prime numbers

= ∪ (n, n + 1)

n Î

Then

Note that, here we have used the fact that, for any A - B = {1, 4, 6, 8, 9}

integer n, there is no integer m such that n < m < n + 1.

It is convenient to write B ¢ for the set of all elements not belonging to B and to write A - B as A Ç B ¢. But the

problem here is that B ¢ may not be a set at all. However, if X is a superset of B, then certainly X - B is a set, which can

be imagined as B ¢. For any two sets A and B, we can take X = A È B and then

A - B = A Ç ( X - B) = A Ç B ¢

When we are dealing with a family { Ai }i ÎI of sets (or set of sets), we can assume that each Ai is a subset of some set X;

for example, we can take X = ∪ i ÎI Ai . This common superset is called a universal set. Therefore, when we discuss about

difference set A - B, we can treat A and B as subsets of a universal set X and treat A - B as A Ç B ¢, where

B ¢ = {x | x Î X and x Ï B}

B ¢ is certainly a set, since X and B are sets and so is X - B . This B ¢ is called the complement of B in X or, simply, the comple-

ment of B, when there is no ambiguity about X. Note that A - B = A - ( A Ç B) and A Ç B is a subset of A. Therefore, we

can call A - B is the complement of B in A. With this understanding, the properties proved above can be restated as follows:

A - B = A Ç B¢

A - B = A - ( A Ç B)

( B È C )¢ = B ¢ Ç C ¢ [Part (1), Theorem 1.6]

( B Ç C )¢ = B ¢ È C ¢ [Part (2), Theorem 1.6]

B Í C Þ C ¢ Í B¢ [Part (1), Theorem 1.7]

æ ö¢

çè ∪ Ai ÷ø = ∩ Ai¢ [Part (1), Theorem 1.8]

iÎI iÎI

æ ö¢

çè ∩ Ai ÷ø = ∪ Ai¢ [Part (2), Theorem 1.8]

iÎI iÎI

A - ( A - B) = A Ç B

B Í A Þ A - ( A - B) = B or ( B ¢)¢ = B

A Ç A¢ = f

A È A¢ = X, the universal set

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 16 Symmetric Difference For any sets A and B, the symmetric difference of A and B is defined

as the set

A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A) = ( A Ç B ¢) È ( B Ç A¢)

That is, A D B is the set all elements belonging to exactly one of A and B.

1.3 Venn Diagrams 13

Example 1.10

(1) A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {4, 5, 6} A D B = {1, 2, 3} È {5, 6} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6}

(2) A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B = {b, c, f, g}

(2) From the given sets we have

Solution: A – B = {a, d, e} and B – A = { f, g}

(1) We have A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {4, 5, 6}. Then

Therefore

A - B = {1, 2, 3} and B - A = {5, 6} A D B = {a, d, e} È { f, g} = {a, d, e, f, g}

1. A D B = B D A

2. ( A D B) D C = A D ( B D C )

3. A D f = A

4. A D A = f

PROOF 1. A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A)

= ( B - A) È ( A - B)

= BD A

2. ( A D B) D C = [( A D B) Ç C ¢] È [C Ç ( A D B)¢ ]

= [( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢)] È [C Ç ( A¢ È B) Ç ( B¢ È A)]

= ( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢) È [C Ç {( A¢ Ç B¢) È ( A¢ Ç A) È ( B Ç B¢) È ( B Ç A)}]

= ( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢) È [{C Ç ( A¢ Ç B¢) È ( A Ç B)}]

= ( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢) È (C Ç A¢ Ç B¢) È (C Ç A Ç B)

Therefore, we have

( A D B) D C = ( A Ç B ¢ Ç C ¢) È ( A¢ Ç B Ç C ¢) È ( A¢ Ç B ¢ Ç C ) È ( A Ç B Ç C )

This is symmetric in A, B and C; that is, if we take B, C and A for A, B and C, respectively, the

resultant is same. Therefore,

( A D B) D C = ( B D C ) D A = A D ( B D C )

3. A D f = ( A - f ) È (f - A) = A È f = A

4. A D A = ( A - A) È ( A - A) = f È f = f ■

A set is represented by a closed curve, usually a circle, and its elements by points within it. This facilitates better

understanding and a good insight. A statement involving sets can be easily understood with pictorial representation of

the sets. The diagram showing these sets is called the Venn diagram of that statement, named after the British logician

John Venn (1834 –1883).

Usually the universal set is represented by a rectangle and the given sets are represented by circles or closed

geometrical figures inside the rectangle representing the universal set. An element of set A is represented by a point

within the circle representing A.

14 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

In Figure 1.1, the rectangle represents the universal set S, A and B represent two disjoint sets contained in S and

a and b represent arbitrary elements in A and B, respectively.

a b

A B

In Figure 1.2, two intersecting sets A and B are represented by the intersecting circles, indicating that the common

area of the circles represents the intersection A Ç B . Figure 1.3 represents the statement “A is a subset of B”.

The shaded parts in Figures 1.4 –1.6 represent the union of two sets A and B, namely A È B in the cases

A Ç B = f , A Ç B ¹ f and A Í B , respectively. Figures 1.7–1.9 represent the intersection A Ç B in these cases.

A B

S

B

A B

1.3 Venn Diagrams 15

A B

S

B

A B

A B

16 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

A

B

S

B

A B

A B

The shaded parts in Figures 1.10 –1.13 represent the difference A - B in various cases. The symmetric differences

A D B [= (A - B) È (B - A)] are represented by the shaded parts in the Figures 1.14 –1.17 in these cases.

A

B

1.3 Venn Diagrams 17

B

A

A B

A B

Figure 1.18 represents the complement of a set A in a universal set S. Figures 1.19 –1.21 illustrate the cases A D B,

(A D B) - C and C - (A D B), respectively. (A D B) D C is represented by Figure 1.22. From this one can easily see that

(A D B) D C = (A D B) D C.

A A

18 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

S

A B

S

A B

S

A B

S

A B

A - ( B È C ) = ( A - B) Ç ( A - C )

1.3 Venn Diagrams 19

S

A B

S

A B

In the following, we derive certain formulas for the number of elements in the intersection, union, difference and

symmetric difference of two given finite sets. First, recall that, for any finite set A, n(A) or |A| denotes the number of

elements in A.

Examples

(1) Let A = {a, b, c, d}, then n(A) = 4. (4) If X = {m | m Î Z and m2 = 1}, then n(X) = 2, since

(2) If A = {2, 3, 5, 7}, then n(A) = 4. X = {1, -1}.

(3) If X is a finite set and n(X ) = m, then n[ P( X )] = 2m,

where P(X) is the set of all subsets of X.

n( A È B) = n( A) + n( B)

PROOF Any element of A È B is in exactly one of A and B and therefore n( A È B) = n( A) + n( B)

In Figure 1.25, the shaded part represents A È B when A and B are disjoint sets.

A B

20 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

n ( A1 È A2 È È An ) = n ( A1 ) + n ( A2 ) + + n ( An )

n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B) - n ( A Ç B)

and, by Theorem 1.10,

n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B) = n ( A) + n ( B) - n ( A Ç B) ■

Suppose that A Ç B ¹ f . Then A - B, B - A and A Ç B are pairwise disjoint sets (Figure 1.26) and hence we have

n ( A È B) = n [( A - B) È ( B - A) È ( A Ç B)] = n ( A - B) + n ( B - A) + n ( A Ç B)

= n ( A) + n ( B) - n( A Ç B)

We have earlier proved that n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B), if A and B are disjoint sets. The converse of this is also true.

A B

C O R O L L A RY 1.3 If A and B are finite sets such that n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B), then A and B are disjoint.

n ( A - B) = n ( A) - n ( A Ç B)

n ( B) = n ( A) + n ( B - A)

n ( A È B È C ) = n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B) - n( B Ç C ) - n(C Ç A) + n ( A Ç B Ç C )

PROOF Let A, B and C be any finite sets. Then

n( A È B È C ) = n( A È B) + n(C ) - n[( A È B) Ç C ]

= n( A) + n( B) - n( A Ç B) + n(C ) - n[( A Ç C ) È ( B Ç C )]

1.3 Venn Diagrams 21

= n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B) - [n( A Ç C ) + n( B Ç C ) - n( A Ç C Ç B Ç C )]

= n( A) + n( B)) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B) - n( B Ç C ) - n(C Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )

S

A B

T H E O R E M 1 .13 Let A, B and C be finite sets. Then the number of the elements belonging to exactly two of the sets

A, B and C is

n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C )

PROOF The required number is

n[( A Ç B) - C ] + n[( B Ç C ) - A] + n[(C Ç A) - B] = [n( A Ç B) - n( A Ç B Ç C )]

+ [n( B Ç C ) - n( B Ç C Ç A)] + [n(C Ç A) - n(C Ç A Ç B)]

= n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C ) ■

T H E O R E M 1 .14 Let A, B and C be any finite sets. Then the number of elements belonging to exactly one of the

sets A, B and C is

n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2 n( B Ç C ) - 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C )

PROOF The number of elements belonging only to A is

n[ A - ( B È C )] = n( A) - n[ A Ç ( B È C )]

= n( A) - n[( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C )]

= n( A) - [n( A Ç B) + n( A Ç C ) - n( A Ç B Ç A Ç C )]

= n( A) - n( A Ç B) - n( A Ç C ) + n( A Ç B Ç C )

Similarly, the number of elements belonging only to B is

n( B) - n( B Ç C ) - n( B Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )

Also, the number of the elements belonging only to C is

n(C ) - n(C Ç A) - n(C Ç B) + n( A Ç B Ç C )

Thus the number of elements belonging to exactly one of the sets A, B and C is

[n( A) - n( A Ç B) - n( A Ç C ) + n( A Ç B Ç C )] + [n( B) - n( B Ç C ) - n( B Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )]

+ [n(C ) - n(C Ç A) - n(C Ç B) + n( A Ç B Ç C )]

= n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2n( B Ç C ) - 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C ) ■

22 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

QUICK LOOK 3

Let A, B and C be given finite sets and S a universal A, B and C is

finite set containing A, B and C. Then the following

n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2 n( B Ç C )

hold:

- 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C )

1. n(A È B) + n(A Ç B) = n(A) + n(B)

2. n(A È B) = n(A - B) + n(B - A) + n(A Ç B) 7. The number of elements belonging to exactly two of

3. n(A È B) = n(A) + n(B) Û A Ç B = f A, B and C is

4. n(A) = n(A - B) + n(A Ç B) n(A Ç B) + n(B Ç C) + n(C Ç A) - 3n(A Ç B Ç C)

5. The number of the elements belonging to exactly 8. n(A¢ È B¢) = n(S) - n(A Ç B)

one of A and B is

9. n(A¢ Ç B¢) = n(S) - n(A È B)

n( A D B) = n( A - B) + n( B - A)

= n( A) + n( B) - 2 n( A Ç B)

= n( A È B) - n( A Ç B)

Example 1.11

If A and B are sets such that n(A) = 9, n(B) = 16 and Therefore, substituting the values we get

n(A È B) = 25, find A Ç B.

25 = 9 + 16 - n( A Ç B)

Solution: We have = 25 - n( A Ç B)

0 = n( A Ç B)

n( A È B) = n( A) + n( B) - n( A Ç B)

Hence A Ç B = f.

Example 1.12

and n( A Ç B) = 8, then find n( B) .

n( B) = n( A È B) + n( A Ç B) - n( A)

= 26 + 8 - 14 = 20

Example 1.13

If A, B, C are sets such that n(A) = 12, n(B) = 16, n(C) = 18, n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2 n( B Ç C )

n(A Ç B) = 6, n(B Ç C) = 8, n(C Ç A) = 10 and n(A Ç B Ç - 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C )

C) = 4, then find the number of elements belonging to exa-

ctly one of A, B and C. = 12 + 16 + 18 - 2 ´ 6 - 2 ´ 8 - 2 ´ 10 + 3 ´ 4

= 10

Solution: The number of elements belonging to exactly

one of A, B and C is

Example 1.14

In Example 1.13, find the number of elements belonging Solution: The number is

to exactly two of A, B and C.

n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C )

= 6 + 8 + 10 - 3 ´ 4 = 12

1.3 Venn Diagrams 23

Example 1.15

16}, B = { x | x Î and -3 < x < 8} and C = { x | x is a prime

A Ç B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

number}, then find the number of elements belonging to

exactly two of A, B and C, even though C is an infinite set. B Ç C = {2, 3, 5, 7}

C Ç A = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13}

Solution: We have

and A Ç B Ç C = {2, 3, 5, 7}

n( A) = 16, n( B) = 10 and n(C ) = ¥

Therefore, the required number is

n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C )

=7+4+6-3´4=5

Example 1.16

In a group of 80 students, 50 play football, 45 play cricket n(F Ç C ) = n(F ) + n(C ) - n(F È C )

and each student plays either football or cricket. Find the

number of students who play both the games. = 50 + 45 - 80 = 15

football and C be the set of students who play cricket.

Then n(F) = 50 and n(C) = 45. FÇC

Since each of the 80 students play at least one of the

two games, we have n(F È C) = 80. Therefore,

F C

Example 1.17

mangoes, then find out the percentage of people who like

both apples and mangoes and the percentage of people = 65 + 78 - 100 = 43

who like only mangoes. Hence 43% of people like both apples and mangoes.

Also,

Solution: Let the total number of people in the village be

100. Let A be the set of people who like apples and M the n(M ) - n( A Ç M ) = 78 - 43 = 35

set of people who like mangoes. Then n(A) = 65, n(M) = 78 Therefore, 35% of people like only mangoes.

and n(A È M) = 100. Therefore

Example 1.18

The total number of students in a school is 600. If 150 n(A Ç P) = 100. Then

students drink apple juice, 250 students drink pineapple

n( A È P ) = n( A) + n( P ) - n( A Ç P )

juice and 100 students drink both apple juice and

pineapple juice, then find the number of students who = 150 + 250 - 100 = 300

drink neither apple juice nor pineapple juice.

Let S be the set of all students in the school, then S is

the universal set containing A and P. We are given that

Solution: Let

n(S) = 600. Now,

A = The set of students who drink apple juice

and P = The set of students who drink pineapple juice n [S - ( A È P )] = n(S) - n( A È P )

= 600 - 300 = 300

We are given that n(A) = 150, n(P) = 250 and

Therefore 300 students drink neither apple juice nor

pineapple juice.

24 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.19

showing the number of students studying one or more of

the subjects mentioned: n[M - ( P È C )] = n(M ) - n[M Ç ( P È C )]

= n(M ) - n[(M Ç P ) È (M Ç C )]

= n(M ) - [n(M Ç P ) + n(M Ç C )

Mathematics 250

- n(M Ç P Ç M Ç C )]

Physics 150

= n(M ) - n(M Ç P ) - n(M Ç C )

Chemistry 100

+ n(M Ç P Ç C )

Mathematics and Physics 100

= 250 - 100 - 60 + 30

Mathematics and Chemistry 60

= 120

Physics and Chemistry 40

Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry 30 Therefore 120 students study only Mathematics. Also

Only Mathematics n[ P - (M È C )] = n( P ) - n[ P Ç (M È C )]

Only Physics = 150 - n[( P Ç M ) È ( P Ç C )]

Only Chemistry

= 150 - n( P Ç M ) - n( P Ç C )

None of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry

+ n( P Ç M Ç C )

Fill in the empty places in the above table. = 150 - 100 - 40 + 30

= 40

Solution: Let M, P and C stand for the set of students

studying Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Let S be the Therefore 40 students study only Physics. Similarly,

set of all students in the class. The Venn diagram is as follows:

n[C - (M È P )] = n(C ) - n[C Ç (M È P )]

S = 100 - n(C Ç M ) - n(C Ç P )

P C

+ n(C Ç M Ç P )

= 100 - 60 - 40 + 30

= 30

Therefore 30 students study only Chemistry. Again

n(M È P È C ) = n(M ) + n( P ) + n(C ) - n(M Ç P )

M

- n( P Ç C ) - n(C Ç M ) + n(M Ç P Ç C )

= 250 + 150 + 100 - 100 - 40 - 60 + 30

We are given that = 330

n(S) = 400, n(M ) = 250, n( P ) = 150, n(C ) = 100 n[S - (M È P È C )] = n(S) - n(M È P È C )

Also, from the table, = 400 - 330 = 70

n(M Ç P) = 100, n(M Ç C) = 60, n(P Ç C) = 40, Therefore 70 students study none of Mathematics, Physics

n(M Ç P Ç C) = 30 and Chemistry.

Example 1.20

Let X1 , X2 , …, X30 be 30 sets each with five elements and Suppose that each element of S belongs to exactly 10 of

Y1 , Y2 , …, Ym be m sets each with 3 elements. Let Xi’s and exactly 9 of Yj’s. Then find m.

30 m

∪ Xi = ∪ Yj = S

i =1 j =1

1.4 Relations 25

Solution: Let n(S) = s. Since each element of S belongs Therefore, 10 s = 150 and hence s = 15. Similarly

to exactly 10 of Xi’s, so m

30

3m = å n(Yj ) = 9 ´ s = 9 ´ 15 = 135

å n( X ) = 10 s

i =1

i

j =1

Therefore, m = 45.

Since each Xi contains 5 elements, therefore

30

å n( X ) = 30 ´ 5 = 150

i =1

i

1.4 | Relations

Let A be the set of all straight lines in the plane and B the set of all points in the plane. For any L Î A and x Î B, let

us write L R x if the line L passes through the point x. This is a relation defined between elements of A and elements

of B. Here L R x can be read as “L is related to x” and R denotes the relation “is passing through”. Therefore L R x

means “L is passing through x” . We can also express this statement by saying that the pair of L and x is in relation R

or that the ordered pair (L, x) Î R. This pair is ordered in the sense that L and x cannot be interchanged because the

first coordinate L represents a straight line and the second coordinate represents a point and because the statement

“x passes through L” has no sense. Therefore, we can think of R as a set of ordered pairs (L, x) satisfying the property

that L passes through x. We formalize this in the following.

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 17 Ordered Pairs A pair of elements written in a particular order is called an ordered pair. It

is written by listing its two elements in a particular order, separated by a comma and enclos-

ing the pair in brackets. In the ordered pair (L, x), L is called the first component or the first

coordinate and x is called the second component or the second coordinate.

The ordered pairs (3, 4) and (4, 3) are different even though they consist of same pair of elements; for example these

represent different points in the Euclidean plane.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 18 The Cartesian Product Let A and B be any sets. The set of all ordered pairs (a, b) with

a Î A and b Î B is called the Cartesian product of A and B and is denoted by A ´ B; that is,

A ´ B = {(a, b)| a Î A and b Î B}

Examples

(1) Let A = {a, b, c} and B = {1, 2}. Then (2) If A = {x, y, z} and B = {a}, then

A ´ B = {(a, 1), (a, 2), (b, 1), (b, 2), (c, 1), (c, 2)} A ´ B = {( x, a), ( y, a), (z, a)}

and B ´ A = {(1, a), (2, a), (1, b), (2, b), (1, c), (2, c)} and B ´ A = {(a, x), (a, y), (a, z)}

QUICK LOOK 4

A ´ B = f Û A = f or B = f A´ B= B´ AÛ A= B

2. If one of A and B is an infinite set and the other is a

non-empty set, then the Cartesian product A ´ B is

an infinite set.

26 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 19 If A1, A2, ¼, An are sets, then their Cartesian product is defined as the set of n-tuples (a1, a2,

n n

¼, an) such that ai Î Ai for 1 £ i £ n. This is denoted by A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ An or X Ai or

i =1

ÕA .

i =1

i

That is,

A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ An = {(a1 , a2 , …, an )| ai Î Ai for 1 £ i £ n}

that is,

A1 = A, A2 = A ´ A = {(a, b)| a, b Î A}

A3 = A ´ A ´ A = {(a, b, c)| a, b, c Î A}

Examples

A = {(a, a), (a, b), (a, c), (b, a), (b, b),

2

A3 = {(1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 2), (1, 2, 1), (1, 2, 2),

(b, c), (c, a), (c, b), (c, c)} (2, 1, 1), (2, 1, 2), (2, 2, 1), (2, 2, 2)}

n( A ´ B) = n( A) × n( B)

PROOF Let A and B be finite sets such that n(A) = m and n(B) = n. Then A = {a1, a2, ¼, am} and B = {b1, b2, ¼,

bn} where ai’s are distinct elements of A and bj’s are distinct elements of B. In such case

m

A ´ B = ∪ ({ai } ´ B)

i =1

Since {ai } ´ B = {(ai , bj )| 1 £ j £ n} , we get that n({ai } ´ B) = n( B) = n. Also, for any i ¹ k, ai ¹ ak and

hence

({ai } ´ B) Ç ({ak } ´ B) = f

Therefore,

æm ö

n( A ´ B) = n ç ∪ ({ai } ´ B)÷

è i =1 ø

m

= å n({ai } ´ B)

i =1

m

= å n( B)

i =1

m

= ån

i =1

= m × n = n( A)× n( B) ■

n( A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ Am ) = n( A1 ) ´ n( A2 ) ´ ´ n( Am )

1.4 Relations 27

n( Am ) = [n( A)]m

In particular, n( A2 ) = n( A)2 .

QUICK LOOK 5

1. (A È B) ´ C = (A ´ C) È (B ´ C) = ( A ´ D) Ç ( B ´ C )

2. A ´ (B È C) = (A ´ B) È (A ´ C) 7. ( A - B) ´ C = ( A ´ C ) - ( B ´ C )

3. A ´ (B Ç C) = (A ´ B) Ç (A ´ C) 8. A ´ ( B - C ) = ( A ´ B) - ( A ´ C )

4. (A Ç B) ´ C = (A ´ C) Ç (B ´ C)

5. ( A È B) ´ (C È D) =

( A ´ C ) È ( A ´ D) È ( B ´ C ) È ( B ´ D)

Examples

n( A ´ B) = n( A) ´ n( B) = 4 ´ 3 = 12 S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6)} È {(2, 2),

(2) If A = {a, b, c, d}, then (2, 4), (2, 6)} È {(3, 3), (3, 6), (4, 4), (5, 5), (6, 6)}

2

n(A2) = n(A)2 = 42 = 16 (6) If A is a finite set and n(A) = m, then n[P(A ´ A)] = 2m

2

then the number of subsets of

A ´ A is 23 = 29 , since A ´ A has 9 elements.

(3) For any sets A and B, we have

(8) If A has only one element, then An also has one

A´B= ∪ ({a} ´ B) = ∪ ( A ´ {b}) element and P( An ) has two elements for any posi-

aÎA bÎB tive integer n.

+

(4) Let S = {(a, b)| a, b Î and a + 2b = 7} . Then (9) For any non-empty finite sets A and B,

n( A) = and n( B) =

n( B) n( A)

(5) Let

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and S = {(a, b) | a, b ÎA and a

divides b}

Example 1.21

If A and B are sets such that n(A ´ B) = 6 and A ´ B Since (1, 2), (2, 1) and (3, 2) Î A ´ B, 1, 2, 3 Î A and

contains (1, 2), (2, 1) and (3, 2), then find the sets A, B hence n(A) ³ 3. Also, 2, 1 ÎB and hence n(B) ³ 2. Thus

and A ´ B. n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2. Therefore, A = {1, 2, 3} and B =

{1, 2}, so that

Solution: Since n(A) × n(B) = n(A ´ B) = 6, n(A) and

A ´ B = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 1), (3, 2)}

n(B) are divisors of 6. Hence n(A) = 1 or 2 or 3 or 6.

28 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

(d, 5)

5

(a, 4)

4

(c, 3)

3

(e, 2)

2

(b, 1)

1

0

a b c d e X

FIGURE 1.27 Graphical representation of Cartesian product.

Let A and B be non-empty sets. The Cartesian product A ´ B can be represented graphically by drawing two

perpendicular lines OX and OY. We represent elements of A by points on OX and those of B by points on OY.

Now draw a line parallel to OY through the point representing a on OX and a line parallel to OX through the point

representing 4 on OY. The point of intersection of these lines represents the ordered pair (a, 4) in A ´ B. Figure 1.27

represents graphically the Cartesian product A ´ B where A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}.

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 20 For any sets A and B, any subset of A ´ B is called a relation from A to B.

Examples

(1) {(a, 2), (b, 1), (a, 4), (c, 3)} is a relation from A to B, (2) For any sets A and B, the empty set f and A ´ B are

where A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4}. also relations from A to B.

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 21 Let R be a relation from a set A into a set B. That is, R Í A ´ B. If (a, b) Î R, then we say that

“a is R related to b” or “a is related to b with respect to R” or “a and b have relation R”. It is

usually denoted by a R b.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 22 Domain Let R be a relation from A to B. Then the domain of R is defined as the set

of all first components of the ordered pairs belonging to R and is denoted by Dom (R).

Mathematically,

Dom(R) = {a | (a, b) Î R for some b Î B}

Note that Dom(R) is a subset of A and that Dom(R) is non-empty if and only if R is non-empty.

D E F I N I T I O N 1 . 2 3 Range Let R be a relation from A to B. Then the range of R is defined as the set of all

second components of the ordered pairs belonging to R and is denoted by Range(R).

Mathematically,

Range(R) = {b | (a, b) Î R for some a Î A}

Note that Range(R) is a subset of B and that it is non-empty if and only if R is non-empty.

1.4 Relations 29

Examples

(1) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c, d, e}, and R = {(1, a), (3) Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | 2a = b}. Then R is a relation

(2, c), (3, a), (2, a)}. Then from + to + and is given by

Dom(R) = {1, 2, 3} and Range(R) = {a, c} R = {(a, 2a) | a is a positive integer}

(2) Let A = {2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} and R = {(a, b) Î Then

A ´ B | a divides b}. Then

Dom(R) = +

R = {(2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (3, 3), (3, 6), (4, 4), (4, 8)} and Range(R) = The set of all positive even integers

Dom(R) = {2, 3, 4} and Range(R) = {2, 4, 6, 8, 3}

T H E O R E M 1 .16 Let A and B be non-empty finite sets with n(A) = m and n(B) = n. Then the number of relations

from A to B is 2mn.

PROOF It is known that the number of subsets of an n-element set is 2n. Since the relations from A to B

are precisely the subsets of A ´ B and since n(A ´ B) = n(A) × n(B) = mn, it follows that there are

exactly 2mn relations from A to B. ■

Examples

(1) Let A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {a, b}. Then n(A) = 3, n(B) = 2 (2) Let A and B be two finite sets and K be the number

and n(A ´ B) = n(A) × n(B) = 3 × 2 = 6. Therefore there of relations from A to B. Then K is not divisible by

are exactly 64 (=26) relations from A to B. any odd prime number, since K = 2n ( A)× n ( B) and 2 is

the only prime dividing 2m for any positive integer m.

Representations of a Relation

A relation can be expressed in many forms such as:

1. Roster form: In this form, a relation R is represented by the set of all ordered pairs belonging to R. For example,

R = {(1, a), (2, b), (3, a), (4, c)} is a relation from the set {1, 2, 3, 4} to the set {a, b, c}.

2. Set-builder form: Let A = {2, 3, 4, 5} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}. Let R = {(a, b) ÎA ´ B | a divides b}. Then R is a relation

from A to B. This is known as the set-builder form of a relation. Note that

R = {(2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (2, 10), (3, 6), (4, 4), (4, 8), (5, 10)}

3. Arrow-diagram form: In this form, we draw an arrow corresponding to each ordered pair (a, b) in R from the first

component a to the second component b. For example, consider the relation R given in (2) above. Then R can be

represented as shown in Figure 1.28. There are nine arrows corresponding to nine ordered pairs belonging to the

relation R.

2

2

4

3 6

4 8

5 10

A B

FIGURE 1.28 Representation of arrow-diagram form.

30 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

4. Tabular form: To represent a given relation R, sometimes it is convenient to look at it in a tabular form. Suppose

R is a relation from a finite set A to a finite set B. Let

A = {a1, a2, …, an} and B = {b1, b2, …, bm}

Write the elements b1, b2, ..., bm (in this order) in the top row of the table and the elements a1, a2, …, an (in this order)

in the leftmost column. For any 1 ≤ i ≤ n and 1 ≤ j ≤ m, let us define

ìï 1 if (ai , bj ) Î R

rij = í

ïî0 if (ai , aj ) Ï R

Write rij in the box present in the ith row written against ai and in the jth column written against bj. This is called the

tabular form representation of the relation R.

Examples

Tabular Form R 2 4 6 8 10

Let us consider sets A = {2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, and 2 1 1 1 1 1

relation R given by 3 0 0 1 0 0

R = {(a, b) Î A ´ B | a divides b} 4 0 1 0 1 0

5 0 0 0 0 1

That is

R = {(2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (2, 10), (3, 6), (4, 4), Instead of writing 1 and 0, we can write T and F

(4, 8), (5, 10) signifying whether ai Rbj is true or false.

This relation R is represented in the following tabular form.

Among all four representations of a relation, the set-builder form is most popular and convenient. The roster form,

the arrow-diagram form and the tabular form can represent a relation R from A to B only when both the sets A and B

are finite. The set-builder form is more general and can represent a relation even when A or B or both are infinite sets.

Examples

Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ +| a divides b}. Then R is a relation form or set-builder form or tabular form. Note that

from + to + . This cannot be represented by the roster

Dom(R) = + = Range(R)

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 24 Binary Relation Any relation from a set A to itself is called a binary relation on A or

simply a relation on A.

For example, the relation R given in the above example is a relation on +.

2 2

Remark: For any n-element set A, there are 2n relations on A. For example, if A = {a, b, c}, then there are 512 (= 23 )

relations on A.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 25 Composition of Relations Let A, B and C be sets, R a relation from A to B and S a relation

from B to C. Define

S R = {(a, c) Î A ´ C | there exists b Î B such that (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S}

Then S R is a relation from A to C. In other words for any a Î A and c ÎC,

a(S R)c Û aRb and bSc for some b Î B

S R is called the composition of R with S.

Note that, for any relations R with S, R S may not be defined at all even when S R is defined. Also even when both

R S and S R are defined, they may not be equal.

1.4 Relations 31

Examples

(1) Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | b = 2a} and S = {(a, b) Î Note that (3, 8) ÏR S and (3, 10) ÏS R. Therefore

+ ´ + | b = a + 2}. Then both R and S are relations S R Ë R S and R S Ë S R.

from + to + and hence both R S and S R are (2) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c, d}, and C = {x, y, z}. Let

defined. For any positive integers a and c, we have

R = {(1, c), (2, d), (2, a), (3, d)}

a(R S)c Û aSb and bRc for some b Î +

and S = {(a, y), (b, x), (b, y), (a, z)}

Û b = a + 2 and c = 2b for some b Î +

Then R is a relation from A to B and S is a relation

Û c = 2(a + 2) = 2a + 4 from B to C.

and Dom(R) = {1, 2, 3} and Range(R) = {a, c, d}

a(S R)c Û aRb and bSc for some b Î + Dom(S) = {a, b} and Range(S) = {x, y, z}

Since (2, a) ÎR and (a, y) ÎS, we have (2, y) ÎS R

For example, (3, 10) ÎR S since (3, 5) ÎS and (5, 10)

Since (2, a) ÎR and (a, z) ÎS, we have (2, z) ÎS R

ÎR. Also, (3, 8) ÎS R since (3, 6) ÎR and (6, 8) ÎS.

T H E O R E M 1 .17 Let A, B and C be sets, R a relation from A to B and S a relation from B to C. Then the following

hold:

1. S R ¹ f if and only if Range(R) Ç Dom(S) ¹ f

2. Dom(S R) Í Dom(R)

3. Range(S R) Í Range(S)

PROOF 1. Suppose that S R ¹ f. Choose(a, c) Î S R. Then there exists b Î B such that (a, c) Î R and

(b, c) Î S and hence b Î Range(R) and b Î Dom(S). Therefore b Î Range(R) Ç Dom(S). Thus

Range(R) Ç Dom(S) is not empty.

Conversely, suppose that Range(R) Ç Dom(S) ¹ f. Choose b Î Range(R) Ç Dom(S). Then

there exist a Î A and c Î C such that (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S and hence (a, c) Î S R. Thus S R

is not empty.

2. a Î Dom(S R) Þ (a, c) Î S R for some c Î C

Þ (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S for some b Î B

Þ a Î Dom(R)

Therefore Dom(S R) Í Dom(R).

3. c Î Range(S R) Þ (a, c) Î S R for some a Î A

Þ (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S for some b Î B

Þ c Î Range(S)

Therefore Range (S R) Í Range(S). ■

Example 1.22

Find S R, Dom(S R), Range(S R) for the following: (2) The sets are the same as above. The relations are

(1) A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c} and C = {x, y, z}. The rela- R = {(1, a), (2, b), (2, c), (4, a)}

tions are R = {(2, a), (3, b), (2, b), (3, c)} and S = {(a,

y), (b, x), (b, y)}. and S = {(b, x), (b, y), (d, z)}

32 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

(1) From the given data, we have S R = {(2, x), (2, y)}

Dom(R) = {2, 3} and Range(R) = {a, b, c} Dom(S R) = {2} Ì {1, 2, 4} = Dom(R)

Dom(S) = {a, b} and Range(S) = {x, y} Range(S R) = {x, y} Ì {x, y, z} = Range(S)

(a) S R = {(2, y), (3, x), (3, y), (2, x)}

(b) Dom(S R) = {2, 3} = Dom(R)

(c) Range(S R) = {x, y} = Range(S)

(T S) R = T (S R)

PROOF For any a Î A and d Î D,

(a, d) Î (T S) R Þ (a, b) Î R and (b, d) Î T S for some b Î B

Þ (a, b) Î R, (b, c) Î S and (c, d) Î T for some b Î B and c Î C

Þ (a, c) Î S R and (c, d) Î T, c Î C

Þ (a, d) Î T (S R)

Therefore,

(T S) R Í T (S R)

Similarly

T (S R) Í (T S) R

Thus,

(T S) R = T (S R) ■

DEFIN IT ION 1 . 26 Inverse of a Relation Let A and B be non-empty sets and R a relation from A to B. Then

the inverse of R is defined as the set

{(b, a) Î B ´ A| (a, b) Î R}

and is denoted by R-1.

Note that, if R is a relation from A to B, then R-1 is a relation from B to A and that R R-1 is a relation on B and R-1 R

is a relation on A.

Examples

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {a, b, c, d, e}. R R-1 = {(a, a), (b, b),(b, c),(a, e), (d, d),

Let R = {(1, a), (2, b), (3, a), (4, d), (2, c), (3, e)}. Then (c, b), (c, c), (e, a), (e, e)}

R-1 = {(a, 1), (b, 2), (a, 3), (d, 4), (c, 2), (e, 3)} and R-1 R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)} = DA

(the diagonal of A).

T H E O R E M 1 .19 Let A, B and C be non-empty sets and R a relation from A to B and S a relation from B to C. Then

the following hold.

1. (S R)-1 = R-1 S-1

2. (R-1)-1 = R

1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions 33

PROOF 1. S R is relation from A to C and therefore (S R)-1 is relation from C to A. Now consider

(c, a) Î (S R)-1 Û (a, c) Î S R

Û (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S for some b Î B

Û (c, b) Î S-1 and (b, a) Î R-1 for some b Î B

Û (c, a) Î R-1 S-1

Therefore (S R)-1 = R-1 S-1.

2. It is trivial and left as an exercise for the reader. ■

A partitioning of a set is dividing the set into disjoint subsets as shown in the Venn diagram in Figure 1.29. In this

section we discuss a special type of relations on a set which induces a partition of the set and prove that any such

partition is induced by that special type of relation. Let us begin with the following.

1. R is said to be reflexive on X if (x, x) Î R for all x Î X.

2. R is said to be symmetric if (x, y) Î R Þ (y, x) Î R

3. R is said to be transitive if (x, y) Î R and (y, z) Î R Þ (x, z) Î R.

4. R is said to be an equivalence relation on X if it is a reflexive, symmetric and transitive

relation on X.

Examples

(1) Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4} and R = {(1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1), (2, 2)}. (4) For any set X, let

Then R is a relation on X. R is not reflexive on X,

DX = {(x, x)| x ÎX}

since 3 ÎX and (3, 3) ÏR. However R is symmetric

and transitive. You can easily see that R is reflexive Then DX is reflexive, symmetric and transitive rela-

on a smaller set, namely {1, 2}. Therefore R is an equ- tion on X and hence an equivalence relation on X.

ivalence relation on {1, 2}. DX is called the diagonal on X.

(2) Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | a divides b}. Then R is a (5) For any positive integer n, let

reflexive and transitive relation on the set + of posi-

Rn = {(a, b) Î ´ | n divides a - b}

tive integers. However, R is not symmetric, since

(2, 6) ÎR and (6, 2) ÏR. Note that a relation R on a For any a Î , n divides 0 = a - a and hence (a, a) Î Rn.

set S is symmetric Û R = R-1. Therefore Rn is reflexive on . For any a, b Î ,

(3) Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4} and R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (a, b) ÎRn Þ n divides (a - b)

(2, 3), (3, 2), (3, 4), (4, 3)}. Then R is a reflexive and

Þ n divides - (a - b)

symmetric relation on X. But R is not transitive, since

(2, 3) ÎR and (3, 4) ÎR, but (2, 4) ÏR. Þ n divides (b - a)

Þ (b, d) ÎRn

34 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Therefore Rn is symmetric. Also, for any a, b and Therefore Rn is transitive also. Thus Rn is an equiva-

c Î , lence relation on and is called the congruence relation

modulo n.

(a, b) ÎRn and (b, c) ÎRn Þ n divides (a - b) and (b - c)

(6) Let A and B be subsets of a set X such that A Ç B = f

Þ n divides (a - b) + (b - c) and A È B = X. Define

Þ n divides (a - c) R = {(x, y) ÎX ´ X | either x, y ÎA or x, y ÎB}

Þ (a, c) ÎRn Then R is an equivalence relation on X.

T H E O R E M 1 .20 Let R be a symmetric and transitive relation on a set X. Then the following are equivalent to each

other.

1. R is reflexive on X.

2. Dom(R) = X.

3. Range(R) = X.

4. R is equivalence relation on X.

PROOF Since R is already symmetric and transitive, (1) Û (4) is clear.

Also, since (a, b) Î R if and only if (b, a) Î R, it follows that (2) Û (3).

If R is reflexive on X, then (x, x) Î R for all x Î X and hence Dom(R) = X. Therefore (1) Û (2)

is clear.

Finally, we shall prove (2) Þ (1). Suppose that Dom(R) = X. Then,

x Î X Þ x Î Dom(R)

Þ (x, y) Î R for some y Î X

Þ (x, y) Î R and (y, x) Î R (since R is symmetric)

Þ (x, x) Î R (since R is transitive)

Therefore (x, x) Î R for all x Î X. Thus R is reflexive on X. ■

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 28 Partition Let X be a non-empty set. A class of non-empty subsets of X is called a partition

of X if the members of the class are pairwise disjoint and their union is X. In other words, a

class of sets {Ai}iÎI is called a partition of X if the following are satisfied:

1. For each i Î I, Ai is a non-empty subset of X

2. Ai Ç Aj = f for all i ¹ j Î I

3. ∪A = X

i ÎI

i

Examples

(1) For any set X, the class {{x}}x ÎX is a partition of X; (3) For any non-empty proper subset A of a set X, the

that is, the class of all singleton subsets of X is a class {A, X - A} is a partition of X. Note that X - A

partition of X. is not empty since A is a proper subset of X.

(2) Let E = the set of all even integers and O = the set of

all odd integers. Then the class {E, O} is a partition of .

R(x) = {y Î x | (x, y) Î R}

R(x) is a subset of X and is called the equivalence class of x with respect to R or the

R-equivalence class of x or simply the R-class of x.

1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions 35

Examples

(1) Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4} and R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), Rn(a) = {y ÎX | (a, y) ÎRn}

(2, 3), (3, 2)}. Then R is an equivalence relation on X

= {y ÎX | n divides a - y}

and the R-classes are as follows:

= {y ÎX | a - y = nx for some x Î }

R(1) = {x ÎX | (1, x) ÎR} = {1}

= {a + nx | x Î }

R(2) = {x ÎX | (2, x) ÎR} = {2, 3}

We can prove that Rn(0), Rn(1), …, Rn(n - 1) are all

R(3) = {x ÎX | (3, x) ÎR} = {2, 3}

the distinct Rn-classes in . If a ³ n or a < 0, we can

R(4) = {x ÎX | (4, x) ÎR} = {4} write by the division algorithm that

(2) Let n be a positive integer and a = qn + r

Rn = {(a, b) Î ´ | n divides a - b} where q, r Î and 0 £ r < n. Hence Rn(a) = Rn(r),

0 £ r < n.

Then Rn is an equivalence relation on the set of

integers. For any a Î , the Rn-class of “a” denoted

by Rn (a) is given by

T H E O R E M 1 .21 Let R be an equivalence relation on a set X and a, b Î X. Then the following are equivalent to each other:

1. (a, b) Î R

2. R(a) = R(b)

3. R(a) Ç R(b) ¹ f

PROOF (1) Þ (2): Suppose that (a, b) Î R. Then (b, a) Î R (since R is symmetric) and

x Î R(a) Þ (a, x) Î R

Þ (b, a) Î R and (a, x) Î R

Þ (b, x) Î R (since R is transitive)

Þ x Î R(b)

Therefore R(a) Í R(b). Similarly R(b) Í R(a). Thus R(a) = R(b).

(2) Þ (3) is trivial, since a Î R(a) and if R(a) = R(b), then a Î R(a) Ç R(b).

(3) Þ (1): Suppose that R(a) Ç R(b) ¹ f. Choose an element c Î R(a) Ç R(b). Then (a, c) Î R and

(b, c) Î R and hence (a, c) Î R and (c, b) Î R. Since R is transitive, we get that (a, b) Î R. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .22 Let R be an equivalence relation on a set X. Then the class of all distinct R-classes forms a partition

of X; that is,

1. R(a) is a non-empty subset of X for each a Î X.

2. Any two distinct R-classes are disjoint.

3. The union of all R-classes is the whole set X.

PROOF 1. By definition of the R-class R(a), we have

R(a) = { x Î X | (a, x) Î R}

Therefore R(a) is a subset of X. Since (a, a) Î R we have a Î R(a). Thus R(a) is a non-empty

subset of X for each a Î X.

2. This is a consequence of (2) Û (3) of Theorem 1.21.

3. Since a Î R(a) for all a Î X, we have

∪ R(a) = X

a ÎX ■

36 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Examples

Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} and R = {(x, y) Î X ´ X | both and R(2) = {2, 4, 6, 8} = R(4) = R(6) = R(8)

x and y are either even or odd}. Then

Therefore, there are only two distinct R-classes, namely

R(1) = {1, 3, 5, 7} = R(3) = R(5) = R(7) R(1) = {1, 3, 5, 7} and R(2) = {2, 4, 6, 8} and these two form

a partition of X.

In Theorem 1.22, we have obtained a partition from a given equivalence relation on set a X. Infact, for any given

partition of X, we can define an equivalence relation on X which induces the given partition. This is proved in the

following.

R = {(x, y) Î X ´ X | both x and y belong to same Ai , i Î I }

Then R is an equivalence relation whose R-classes are precisely Ai ’s .

PROOF We are given that {Ai}iÎI is a partition of X, that is,

1. Each Ai is a non-empty subset of X.

2. Ai Ç Aj = f for all i ¹ j Î I .

3. ∪ A = X.

i ÎI

i

For any x Î X, there exists only one i Î I such that x Î Ai and hence (x, x) Î R. This means that R

is reflexive on X; clearly R is symmetric. Also, (x, y) Î R and (y, z) Î R Þ x, y Î Ai and y, z Î Aj for

some i, j Î I. This implies

Ai Ç Aj ¹ f and hence i = j and Ai = Aj

Þ x, z Î Ai , i Î I

Þ (x, z) Î R

Thus R is transitive also. Therefore R is an equivalence relation on X. For any i Î I and x Î Ai, we

have

y Î Ai Û (x, y) Î R Û y Î R(x)

and have Ai = R(x). This shows that Ai ’s are all the R-classes in X. ■

Theorems 1.22 and 1.23 imply that we can get a partition of X from an equivalence relation on X and conversely

we can get an equivalence relation from a partition of X and that these processes are inverses to each other.

Examples

Ai = {a Î + | on dividing a with 3, the remainder is i} or a, b Î A2 }

That is, = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | The remainders are same

when a and b are divided by 3}

A0 = {3, 6, 9, 12, …} = {3n | n Î + }

= {(a, b) Î + ´ + | 3 divides a - b}

+

A1 = {1, 4, 7, 10, …} = {3n + 1| 0 £ n Î }

In this case, R(1) = A1, R(2) = A2 and R(3) = A0 and these

A2 = {2, 5, 8, 11, …} = {3n + 2 | 0 £ n Î + } three are the only R-classes in +.

relation corresponding to this partition is

1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions 37

T H E O R E M 1 .24 Let R and S be two equivalence relations on a non-empty set X. Then R Ç S is also an equivalence

relation on X and, for any x Î X,

(R Ç S)(x) = R(x) Ç S(x)

PROOF For any x Î X, (x, x) Î R and (x, x) Î S (since R and S are reflexive on X ). Hence (x, x) Î R Ç S.

Therefore R Ç S is reflexive on X. Also,

(x, y) Î R Ç S Þ (x, y) Î R and (x, y) Î S

Þ (y, x) Î R and (y, x) Î S

Þ (y, x) Î R Ç S

Therefore R Ç S is symmetric. Further

(x, y), (y, z) Î R Ç S Þ (x, y), (y, z) Î R and (x, y), (y, z) Î S

Þ (x, z) Î R and (x, z) Î S

Þ (x, z) Î R Ç S

Therefore R Ç S is an equivalence relation. For any x Î X, we have

(R Ç S)(x) = { y Î X | ( x, y) Î R Ç S}

= { y Î X | ( x, y) Î R} Ç { y Î X | ( x, y) Î S}

= R(x) Ç S(x) ■

We have proved in Theorem 1.24 that the intersection of equivalence relations on a given set X is again an

equivalence relation. This result cannot be extended to the composition of equivalence relations. In this direction, we

have the following theorem that gives us several equivalent conditions for the composition of equivalence relations to

again become an equivalence relation.

T H E O R E M 1 .25 Let R and S be equivalence relations on a set X. Then the following are equivalent to each other.

1. R S is an equivalence relation on X.

2. R S is symmetric.

3. R S is transitive.

4. R S = S R.

PROOF (1) Þ (2) is clear.

(2) Þ (3): Suppose that R S is symmetric. Then

R S = (R S)–1 = S–1 R–1 = S R

and (R S) (R S) = R (S R) S

= R (R S) S

= (R R) (S S)

= (R S)

Since R and S are reflexive, we get that R DX = R = DX R and S DX = S = DX S. Also,

since R and S are transitive, R R Í R = R DX Í R R-1 so that R R = R. Similarly, S S = S.

Therefore, R S is transitive.

(3) Þ (4): Suppose that R S is transitive. Then (R S) (R S) = R S. Now, consider

S R = (DX S) (R DX ) Í (R S) (R S) = R S

and R S = R-1 S-1 = (S R)-1 Í (R S)-1 = S-1 R-1 = S R

38 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Therefore

RS = SR

(4) Þ (1): Suppose that R S = S R. Then

(R S)-1 = S-1 R-1 = S R = R S

Hence R S is symmetric and transitive also. Further DX = DX DX Í R S and therefore R S is

reflexive on X. Thus, R S is an equivalence relation on X. ■

1.6 | Functions

Functions are a special kind of relations from one set to another set. The concept of a function is an important tool

in any area of logical thinking, not only in science and technology but also in social sciences. The word “function”

is derived from a Latin word meaning operation. For example, when we multiply a given real number x by 2, we

are performing an operation on the number x to get another number 2x. A function may be viewed as a rule which

provides new element from some given element. Function is also called a map or a mapping. In this section, we discuss

various types of functions and their properties. The following is a formal definition of a function.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 30 Function A relation R from a set A to a set B is called a function (or a mapping or a map)

from A into B if the following condition is satisfied:

For each element a in A there exists one and only one element b in B such that (a, b) Î R.

That is, R Í A ´ B is called a function from A into B if the following hold:

1. For each a Î A, there exists b Î B such that (a, b) Î R.

2. If (a, b) Î R and (a, c) Î R, then b = c.

ALTERNATE DEFINITION A relation R from A to B is a function from A into B if Dom(R) = A and whenever

the first components of two ordered pairs in R are equal, then the second components

are also equal.

Examples

(1) Let R = {(x, 2x) | x Î }. Then R is a function from (4) Let A and B be as in (3) above and R = {(1, a), (2, b),

into . (3, c), (3, a), (4, a)}. Then R is not a function from A

(2) Let R = {(x, | x |) | x Î }. Then R is a function from into B, since we have two ordered pairs (3, c) and (3, a)

the real number system into itself. in R whose first components are equal and the

second components are different. Also, if S = {(1, a),

(3) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {a, b, c}. Let R = {(1, a),

(2, b), (4, c)}, then S is not a function of A into B,

(2, a), (3, b), (4, b)}. Then R is a function from A into B.

since Dom(S) ¹ A.

Notation

1. If R is a function from A into B and a Î A, then the unique element b in B such that (a, b) Î R is denoted by R(a).

2. Usually functions will be denoted by lower case letters f, g, h, ….

3. If f is a function from A into B, then we denote this by f : A ® B.

4. If f : A ® B is a function and a Î A, then there exists a unique element b in A such that (a, b) Î f. This unique

element is denoted by f (a). We write f (a) = b to say that (a, b) Î f or a f b. Some authors also write (a)f = b or simply

bb

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 31 Let f : A ® B be a function. Then A is called the domain of f and is denoted by Dom( f ). B is

called the co-domain of f and is denoted by codom( f ). The range of f is also called the image

of f or the image of A under f and is denoted by Im( f ). That is,

Im( f ) = { f (a) | a Î A}

1.6 Functions 39

Note that Im( f ) is a subset of B and may not be equal to B. If f (a) = b, then b is called the image of a under f and a is

called a pre-image of b. Note that for any a Î A, the image of a under f is unique. But, for b Î B, there may be several

pre-images of b or there may not be any pre-image of b at all. To describe a function f : A ® B it is enough if we pre-

scribe the image f (a) of each a Î A under f.

Examples

(1) Define a function f : ® by f (x) = x2 for all x Î. (2) Define f : ® by f (x) = x / 2 for all x Î. Then the

That is, f = {(x, x2) | x Î }. Here x2 is the image of domain of f is and the co-domain of f is . Also

any x Î. Note that x2 is always non-negative for

any x Î and hence a negative real number has no ìx ü

Im( f ) = { f ( x) | x Î } = í | x Î ý

pre-image under f. For example, there is no x Î such î2 þ

that f (x) = -1. Here both the domain and co-domain

of the function are and the image of f (or range Here note that every integer n has a pre-image, namely

of f ) is equal to the set of non-negative real numbers. 2n, since f (2n) = n. The real number 1/3 has no pre-image.

Quite often a function is given by an equation of type f (x) = y without specifically mentioning the domain and co-

domain. We can identify the domain and co-domain by looking at the validity of the equation. The following examples

illustrate these.

Example 1.23

Let f be the function defined by The expression of the right-hand side has meaning for

all real numbers except when x = 6 or x = 2. Therefore,

x2 + 2 x + 1 the domain of f is the set at all real number other than 6

f ( x) =

x2 - 8 x + 12 and 2, that is,

Find out the domain of f. Dom ( f ) = - {2, 6}

x2 + 2 x + 1

f ( x) =

x2 - 8 x + 12

Example 1.24

x2

ïìæ x2 ö üï y = f ( x) =

f = íç x, 2÷

x Î ý 1 + x2

ïîè 1 + x ø ïþ Then

Then f is a function from into . Find the range of f. y + yx 2 = x 2 or x 2 (1 - y) = y

Therefore

Solution: We have

y y

x2 x2 = or x=±

f ( x) = for all x Î 1- y 1- y

1 + x2

provided y /(1 - y) ³ 0; that is, 0 £ y < 1. Thus the range

of f is [0, 1).

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 32 Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions. Then the composition of f with g is defined as the

function g f : A ® C given by

(g f )(a) = g( f (a)) for all a Î A

40 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Note that g f is defined only when the range of f is contained in the domain of g. If f : A ® B is a function and g : D ® C is

another function such that Range( f ) Í D = Dom(g), then g f can be defined as a function from A into C. When we regard

functions as relations, then the composition of functions is same as that of the relations as given in Definition 1.25. That is,

(a, c) Î g f Û (a, b) Î f and (b, c) Î g for some b Î B

Û f (a) = b and g(b) = c

Û g( f (a)) = c

Û (g f )(a) = c

Example 1.25

=

x+2 [( x + 2)/ 3]2 + 1

f ( x) = for all x Î

3

( x + 2)2 - 9

=

x -1

2

( x + 2)2 + 9

and g( x) = for all x Î

x2 + 1

x2 + 4 x - 5

Find (g f )(x). =

x2 + 4 x + 13

Solution: We have

æ x + 2ö

( g f )( x) = g( f ( x)) = g ç

è 3 ÷ø

Example 1.26

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c} and C = {x, y, z}. Let Solution: We have f : A ® B and g : B ® C are func-

tions. Then g f : A ® C is given by

f = {(1, a), (2, c), (3, b), (4, a)}

g f = {(1, y), (2, x), (3, z), (4, y)}

and g = {(a, y), (b, z), (c, x)}

Find g f.

Try it out

T H E O R E M 1 .26 Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions. Then Dom(g f ) = Dom( f ) and codom(g f ) =

codom(g).

Two functions f and g are said to be equal if their domains are equal and f(x) = g(x) for all elements x in Dom ( f ).

For any functions f and g, even when both g f and f g are defined, g f may be different from f g, as seen in the

following example.

Example 1.27

f (x) = x 2

and g(x) = x + 2 for all x Î = f ( x + 2) = ( x + 2)2

Show that g f ¹ f g. = x2 + 4 x + 4

Solution: We have Therefore g f ¹ f g.

( g f )( x) = g( f ( x)) = g( x ) = x + 2

2 2

1.6 Functions 41

Try it out

T H E O R E M 1 . 27 Let f : A ® B, g : B ® C and h : C ® D be functions. Then

h ( g f ) = (h g ) f

In the following we discuss certain special types of functions. If f : A ® B is a function, a1 and a2 are elements of A

and b1 and b2 are elements of B such that f (a1) = b1 and f (a2) = b2 and if a1 = a2, then necessarily b1 = b2. In other words,

two elements of B are equal if their pre-images are equal. It is quite possible that two distinct elements of A may have

equal images under f. A function f : A ® B is called an injection if distinct elements of A have distinct images under f.

The following is a formal definition.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 32 Injection A function f : A ® B is called an injection or “one-one function” if f (a1) ¹ f (a2)

for any a1 ¹ a2 in A; in other words,

f (a1) = f (a2) Þ a1 = a2

for any a1, a2 Î A.

Examples

(1) Let f : ® be defined by Then f is not an injection, since two distinct elements

f (x) = x + 2 for all x Î have the same image; for example, 1 ¹ -1 but f(1) = 12

= (–1)2 = f(–1).

Then f is an injection, since, for any x, y, Î ,

f ( x) = f ( y) Þ x + 2 = y + 2 Þ x = y

(2) Let f : ® be defined by

f (x) = x2 for all x Î

1. If f and g are injections, then so is g f.

2. If g f is an injection, then f is an injection.

PROOF 1. Suppose that both f and g are injections. For any a1, a2 Î A, we have

( g f )(a1 ) = ( g f )(a2 )

Þ g( f (a1 )) = g( f (a2 ))

Þ f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) (since g is an injection)

Þ a1 = a2 (since f is an injection)

Therefore, g f is an injection.

2. Suppose that g f is an injection. Then, for any a1, a2 Î A, we have

f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) Þ g( f (a1 )) = g( f (a2 )) (∵ g is a function)

Þ ( g f )(a1 ) = ( g f )(a2 )

Þ a1 = a2 (since g f is an injection)

Therefore f is an injection. ■

Note that g f can be an injection without g being an injection. An example of this case is given in the following.

42 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example

f : + ® by f(x) = x + 2 for all x Î+ Þx+2=y+2 (since x and y are positive)

and g : ® by g(x) = x2 for all x Î Þx=y

+

Then g f : ® is given by Therefore g f is an injection. However, g is not an injec-

tion, since

(g f )(x) = g( f(x)) = g(x + 2) = (x + 2)2 for all x Î+

g(2) = 22 = (–2)2 = g(–2)

Now, for any x, y Î+,

(g f )(x) = (g f )(y)

Next we discuss functions under which every element in the codomain is the image of some element in the domain.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 33 Surjection A function f : A ® B is called a surjection or “onto function” if the range of f is

equal to the co-domain B; that is, for each b Î B, b = f(a) for some a Î A.

Examples

f(x) = 2x + 1 for all x Î (3) Define f : ® by f (x) = x + 1 for all x Î. Then

2

Then, for any element y in the co-domain , we have

injection, since

(y - 1)/2 is in the domain and

f (–1) = (-1)2 + 1 = 2 = 12 + 1= f (1) and –1 ¹ 1

æ y - 1ö 2( y - 1)

fç = + 1= y

è 2 ÷ø 2 f is not a surjection, since we cannot find an element

x in such that x2 + 1 = 0; that is f (x) = 0.

Therefore f is a surjection. Note that f is an injection (4) Define f : ® by f(x) = x + 2 for all x Î . Then

also, since f is an injection and it is not a surjection, since we

f ( x) = f ( y) Þ 2 x + 1 = 2 y + 1 Þ x = y cannot find an integer x such that f(x) = 1/2. Note that

f (x) = x + 2 is always an integer for any integer x.

(2) Let be the set of all non-negative integers. Define

f : ® by f (x) = | x | for all x Î. Then f is a

surjection, since f (x) = x for all x Î and Í .

However, f is not an injection since

1. If f and g are surjections, then so is g f.

2. If g f is a surjection, then g is a surjection.

PROOF 1. Suppose that f and g are surjections. Also g f is a function from A into C. The domain of g f is

A and the co-domain of g f is C. Now,

c ÎC Þ c = g(b) for some b Î B (since g is a surjection)

Þ f (a) = b and g(b) = c fo

or some a Î A and b Î B (since f is a surjection)

Þ a Î A and ( g f )(a) = g( f (a)) = g(b) = c

Þ ( g f )(a) = c for some a Î A

Thus g f is a surjection.

1.6 Functions 43

is a surjection, there exists a Î A such that (g f )(a) = c. Then f(a) Î B and

g( f (a)) = (g f )(a) = c

Thus g is a surjection. ■

Note that g f can be a surjection without f being a surjection. This is substantiated in the following.

Example

Define f : ® by f(x) = [2x] for x Î and g : ® by In this case g f is a surjection, since, for any n Î, n/2 Î

g(x) = [x] for all x Î, where [x] is the integral part of x and

(i.e., [x] is the largest integer £ x). Then g f : ® is

given by æ nö é n ù

( g f ) ç ÷ = ê 2 × ú = [n] = n

è 2ø ë 2 û

( g f )( x) = g( f ( x)) = [[2 x]] = [2 x]

However f is not a surjection, since f(x) is always an

integer and we cannot find x Î such that f (x) = 1/2.

It is a convention that, when f : A ® B is a surjection, we often denote this by saying “f is a function of A onto B”

or f is a surjection of A onto B. We use the word onto only in the case of surjections. Whenever we want to mention that

f : A ® B is a surjection, we say that f is a surjection (or surjective function or onto function) of A onto B.

DEFIN IT ION 1 . 34 Bijection A function f : A ® B is said to be a bijection or a one-one and onto function or a

one-to-one function if f is both injective and surjective.

Examples

(1) For any set X, define I : X ® X by I(x) = x for all Also, f is surjective, since, for any y Î,

x ÎX. Then clearly I is an injection and a surjection, y-b æ y - bö æ y - bö

Î and fç = aç +b= y

è a ÷ø è a ÷ø

and hence a bijection. This is called the identity

a

function on X or identity map on X. To specify the set

X also, we denote the identity function I on X by IX. Thus, f is a bijection of onto itself.

(2) Define f : ® by f (x) = x + 3 for all x Î. Then f is (4) Let E be the set of all even integers and the set of

a bijection of onto (the term “onto” is used, since all integers. Define f : E ® by

any bijection is necessarily a surjection).

ìï2 y if x = 4 y

(3) For any real numbers a and b with a ¹ 0, define f ( x) = í

f : ® by îï y if x = 2 y and y is odd

f (x) = ax + b for all x Î Then f is a bijection. One can verify that

Then f is an injection, since f (0) = 0 f (- 2) = - 1

f ( x) = f ( y) Þ ax + b = ay + b Þ ax = ay f ( 2) = 1 f (- 4) = - 2

Þ x = y (since a ¹ 0) f ( 4) = 2

f (6) = 3 f (- n) = - f (n)

f (8) = 4

Try it out

T H E O R E M 1 .30 Let f : A® B be any function. Then

IB f = f = f IA

44 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

PROOF This is an immediate consequence of Theorems 1.28 [part (1)] and 1.29 [part (1)], since a bijection

is both an injection as well as a surjection. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .32 Let f : A ® B be a mapping. Then f is a bijection if and only if there exists a function g : B ® A

such that

g f = IA and f g = IB

that is, g( f (a)) = a for all a Î A and f (g(b)) = b for all b Î B.

PROOF If there is a function g : B ® A such that

g f = IA and f g = IB

then, by Theorem 1.28 [part (2)], f is an injection (since g f = IA which is an injection. Also, by

Theorem 1.29 [part (2)], f is a surjection (since f g = IB which is a surjection). Thus f is a bijection.

Conversely suppose that f is a bijection. Define g : B ® A as follows:

g(b) = The pre-image of b under f

That is, if f (a) = b, then g(b) is defined as a. First observe that every element b Î B has a

pre-image a Î A under f (since f is a surjection). Also, this pre-image is unique (since f is an injection).

Therefore g is properly defined as a function from B into A. Now, for any a Î A and b Î B, we have

( g f )(a) = g( f (a)) = a

since a is the pre-image of f(a) and

( f g )(b) = f ( g(b)) = b

since g(b) = a if f(a) = b. Thus g f = IA and f g = IB . ■

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 35 Inverse of a Bijection Let f : A ® B and g : B ® A be functions such that g f = IA and

f g = IB. Then both f and g are bijections (by the above theorem). Also, g is unique such that

g f = IA and f g = IB, since, for any a Î A and b Î B, we have

f (a) = b Û g( f(a)) = g(b) Û a = g(b)

The function g is called the inverse function of f and f is called the inverse function of g. Both

f and g are interrelated by the property

f (a) = b Û a = g(b)

for all a Î A and b Î B. The inverse function of f is denoted by f -1. When we look at f as a

relation, then f -1 is precisely the inverse relation as defined in Definition 1.26.

To confirm that f is a bijection, the existence of g satisfying both the properties g f = IA and f g = IB are necessary.

Just g f = IA may not imply that f is a bijection. In this context, we have the following two results.

T H E O R E M 1 .33 Let f : A ® B be a function. Then f is an injection if and only if there exists a function g : B ® A

such that g f = IA.

PROOF If g : B ® A is a function such that g f = IA, then by Theorem 1.28 [part (2)], f is an injection, Conversely

suppose that f is an injection. Choose an arbitrary element a0 Î A and define g : B ® A as follows:

ìïa if b = f (a) for some a Î A

g(b) = í

îïa0 if b Î

/ Range ( f )

1.6 Functions 45

Recall that Range( f ) = { f(a) | a Î A} Í B. Since f is an injection, there can be at most one a Î A for

any b Î B such that f (a) = b. Therefore, g is a well-defined function from B into A. Also, for any a Î A,

( g f )(a) = g( f (a)) = a

and hence g f = IA. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .34 Let f : A ® B be a function. Then f is a surjection if and only if there exists a function g : B ® A

such that f g = IB.

PROOF If there is a function g : B ® A such that f g = IB, then, by Theorem 1.29 [part (2)], f is a surjection.

Conversely, suppose that f is a surjection. Then each element b in B has a pre-image a in A [i.e.,

a is an element in A such that f (a) = b]. Now, for each b Î B, choose one element ab in A such that

f (ab) = b. Define g : B ® A by

g(b) = ab for each b Î B

( f g )(b) = f ( g(b)) = f (ab ) = b

Therefore f g = IB. ■

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 36 Real-Valued Function If f : A ® B is a function and a Î A then the image f(a) is also called

a value of f at a. If the value of f at each a Î A is a real number, then f is called a real-valued

function on A; that is, any function from a set A into a subset of the real number system is

called a real-valued function on A.

If f : A ® B is a function and B Í C, then f can be treated as a function from A into C as well. Therefore, a real-valued

function on A is just a function from A into .

QUICK LOOK 6

Let f and g be real valued functions on a set A. Then we 4. ( f × g)(a) = f (a)f (b)

define the real-valued functions f + g, - f, f - g and f × g

on A as follows: Note that the operation symbols are those in the real

number system . Also, if g(a) ¹ 0 for all a ÎA, then

1. ( f + g)(a) = f (a) + g(a) the function f /g is defined as follows:

2. ( -f )(a) = - f (a)

5. ( f /g)(a) = f (a)/g(a) for all a ÎA

3. ( f - g)(a) = f (a) - g(a)

Examples

f = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn (3) Define f : [0, 2p ] ® by

f (a) = sin a for all a Î

where a0, a1, a2, ¼, an are all real numbers. For any

a Î, let us define Then f is a real-valued function defined on [0, 2p]

and is denoted by sin.

f (a) = a0 + a1a + a2 a + + an a

2 n

(4) Define f : + ® by

Then f : ® is a real-valued function on and is

called a polynomial function. f (a) = a for all a Î +

(2) Define f : ® by This is a real-valued function defined on +. Here a

f (a) = ea for all a Î stands for the positive square root of a.

46 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

We have earlier made use of the notation [x] to denote the largest integer ≤ x and called it the integral part of x.

Now, we shall formally define this concept before going on to prove certain important properties.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 37 For any real number x, the largest integer less than or equal to x is called the integral part of x

and in denoted by [x]. The real number x - [ x] is called the fractional part of x and is denoted

by { x }.

Note that, for any real number x, [x] is an integer and { x } is a real number such that

x = [ x] + {x} and 0 £ {x} < 1

Also, this expression of x is unique in the sense that, if n is an integer and a is a real number such that x = n + a

and 0 £ a < 1 , then n = [x] and a = {x}.

Examples

é5ù ì5ü 5 é - 11 ù ì - 11 ü 9

(1) ê ú = 0 and í ý = (4) ê ú = - 2 and í ý=

ë6û î6 þ 6 ë 10 û î 10 þ 10

(2) For any 0 £ a < 1, [a] = 0 and {a} = a

é 1ù ì -1 ü 3

(3) ê - ú = - 1 and í ý =

ë 4û î4þ 4

1. [x] £ x < [x] + 1

2. x - 1 < [x] £ x

3. 0 £ { x } = x - [x] < 1

4. [ x] = å 1£ i £ x i, if x > 0

5. [ x] = x Û x Î Û {x} = 0

6. {x} = x if and only if [ x] = 0

ìï 0 if x is an integer

7. [ x] + [- x] = í

îï- 1 if x is not an integer

PROOF (1) through (6) are all straight-forward verifications using the definition that [x] is the largest

integer n such that n £ x and that x - [ x] = {x}.

To prove (7), let [ x] = n. Then n £ x < n + 1 and therefore

-n - 1 < -x £ -n

also not an integer and therefore

-n - 1 < -x -n

So [-x] = -n - 1 and hence [ x] + [-x] = n + (-n - 1) = -1. ■

Examples

é 9ù é9ù é 6 ù é -6 ù

(1) ê - ú + ê ú = - 2 + 1 = - 1 (3) ê ú + ê ú = 1 + (- 2) = - 1

ë 5û ë5û ë5û ë 5 û

(2) [- 3] + [3] = - 3 + 3 = 0 é -7 ù é 7 ù

(4) ê ú + ê ú = - 1 + 0 = - 1

ë 8 û ë8û

1.6 Functions 47

ìï[ x] + [ y] if {x} + { y} < 1

1. [ x + y] = í

îï[ x] + [ y] + 1 if {x} + {y} ³ 1

2. [ x + y] ³ [ x] + [ y] and equality holds if and only if {x} + { y} < 1

3. If x or y is an integer, then [ x + y] = [ x] + [ y]

PROOF 1. Let x = n + r and y = m + s, where n and m are integers, 0 £ r < 1 and 0 £ s < 1. Then [x] = n,

{ x } = r, [y] = m and {y} = s. Now,

x + y = [ x] + [ y] + ({x} + { y})

and 0 £ {x} + { y} < 2

Therefore

ìï[ x] + [ y] if {x} + { y} < 1

[ x + y] = í

ïî[ x] + [ y] + 1 if {x} + {y} ³ 1

2. This is a consequence of (1).

3. This is a consequence of (2) and the fact that x is an integer if and only if { x } = 0. ■

Examples

(1) ê ú + ê ú = 1 + 1 = 2

ë5û ë5û ì 7 ü ì 6 ü 3 1 19

í ý+ í ý = + = <1

é 8 9 ù é 17 ù é8ù é9ù î 4 þ î 5 þ 4 5 20

and êë 5 + 5 úû = êë 5 úû = 3 = êë 5 úû + êë 5 úû + 1

é8 ù é 23 ù é8ù

(3) ê + 5ú = ê ú = 7 = 2 + 5 = ê ú + [5]

Note that ë3 û ë3û ë3û

é 7 17 ù é 24 ù é 7 ù é 17 ù

ì8 ü ì9 ü 3 4 7 (4) ê + ú = ê ú = 4 = 1 + 2 + 1 = ê ú + ê ú + 1

í ý+ í ý = + = > 1 ë6 6 û ë 6 û ë6û ë 6 û

î5þ î5þ 5 5 5

Note that

é 7 6 ù é 51 ù é7ù é6ù

(2) ê + ú = ê ú = 2 = 1 + 1 = ê ú + ê ú ì 7 ü ì 17 ü 1 5

ë 4 5 û ë û

20 ë4û ë5û í ý+ í ý = + = 1

î6 þ î 6 þ 6 6

T H E O R E M 1 .37 The following hold for any real number x and any non-zero integer m:

é x ù é [ x] ù

1. ê ú = ê ú

ëmû ë m û

2. If n and k are positive integers and k > 1, then

é n ù é n + 1 ù é 2n ù

êë k úû + êë k úû £ êë k úû

PROOF 1. Let [x] = n. Then x = n + r, 0 £ r < 1 (where r = { x }). Let m > 0. By division algorithm, we have

n = qm + s, q, s Î and 0£s<m

Alternately

n s s

=q+ , 0£ <1

m m m

48 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Therefore,

é [ x] ù é n ù

êë m úû = êë m úû = q

Also,

x n+r n r s+r

= = + = q+ , 0 £ s+r < s+1£ m

m m m m m

and therefore

éxù é [ x] ù

êë m úû = q = êë m úû

2. Let n and k be positive integers and k > 1. Let

énù

êë k úû = m

Then

n

= m + r, 0 £ r < 1

k

Therefore

n+1 1 2n

= m+r + and = 2 m + 2r

k k k

Now,

é n ù é n + 1 ù ì2m if r + (1/ k ) < 1

êë k úû + êë k úû = í2 m + 1 if r + (1/ k ) ³ 1

î

é 2n ù ì2m if 2r < 1

and êë k úû = í2 m + 1 if 2r ³ 1

î

Note that, if r + (1/ k ) ³ 1, then 2r ³ 2 - (2/k ) ³ 1 (∵ k ³ 2). Thus

é n ù é n + 1 ù é 2n ù

êë k úû + êë k úû £ êë k úû

■

Examples

é 16 ù é 17 ù é 2 ´ 16 ù é 13 ù é 14 ù é 2 ´ 13 ù

(1) ê ú + ê ú = 0 + 0 = 0 < 1 = ê (3) ê ú + ê ú = 0 + 0 = 0 < 1 = ê

ë 25 û ë 25 û ë 25 úû ë 15 û ë 15 û ë 15 úû

é7ù é8ù é2 ´ 7ù é -21 ù é -21 + 1 ù é -21 ´ 2 ù

(2) ê ú + ê ú = 0 + 1 = 1 = ê (4) ê +ê = (-1) + (-1) = -2 = ê

ë8 û ë8û ë 8 úû ú

ë 29 û ë 29 û ú ë 29 úû

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 38 Let A be a subset of and f : A ® be a function. A positive real number p is called a period

of f if f (x) = f (x + p) whenever x and x + p Î A. A function with a period is called a periodic

function.

Note that, if p is a period of a function f : ® , then np is also a period of f for any positive integer n, since for any x Î,

f ( x) = f ( x + p) = f ( x + 2 p) =

1.7 Graph of a Function 49

Examples

(1) Define the function f : ® by (3) The function f : ® , defined by f (x) = c, for all

x Î, where c is a given constant, is a periodic func-

f ( x) = {x}, the fractional part of x tion. Infact, every positive real number is a period

Note that any real number x can be uniquely of this.

expressed as x = n + r, where n is an integer and (4) The function f : ® defined by

0 £ r < 1 and this r is the fractional part of x denoted

by {x} and this n is the integral part of x denoted by f (x) = [x] (the integral part of x)

[x]. If x = n + r, then x + 1 = (n + 1) + r and hence

is not a periodic function. Note that

f ( x) = {x} = {x + 1} = f ( x + 1)

[x + n] = [x] + n

for all x Î. Thus, 1 is a period of f and hence every

for all x Î and for all integers n.

positive integer n is a period of f. Therefore, f is a

periodic function.

(2) We will be learning later in Vol. II that functions like

sin x, cos x, cosec x, etc. are all periodic functions and

2p is a period of all these.

A function f from a set A into a set B is a relation from A to B; that is, f Í A ´ B and hence it can be represented as

a subset of the Cartesian product A ´ B graphically. In particular, when the function is a real-valued function defined

on the real number system or a subset of , we can plot the point (a, f (a)) on the coordinate plane by treating the

x-axis as the domain and the y-axis as the co-domain of the function. This type of representation facilitates a better

insight into understanding various properties of the function. First, let us have the formal definition of the graph in

the following.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 39 Graph of a Function Let f : A ® B be a function. Then the graph of f is defined as the set

of all ordered pairs whose first coordinate is an element a of A and the second coordinate is

the image of a under f. This is denoted by Graph ( f ). That is,

Note that the graph of a function f : A ® B is a subset of the Cartesian product A ´ B. For each a Î A, there is exactly

one ordered pair in Graph ( f ) with a as the first coordinate. In the following, we shall provide graphs of certain

important functions and draw diagrams of these.

Example 1.28

that f is called the identity function on and is denoted

by IR .) What is the graph of f ? Sketch the same.

b (b, b)

Solution: The graph of f is

(a, a)

This is known as the diagonal relation on . As shown in

Figure 1.30, it is a straight line passing through the origin, X=

contained in the first and third quadrants and bisecting O a b

the right angle XOY.

FIGURE 1.30 Example 1.28.

50 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.29

For any given real numbers m and c, let us define the Y=

function f : ® by

f (x) = mx + c for all x Î

Sketch the graph of the same.

Solution: The graph of f is

{(x, mx + c) | x Î} (0, c)

X=

slope is m and the intercept on the y-axis is c. If we take O

m = 1 and c = 0, we get the identity function given in

Example 1.28.

FIGURE 1.31 Example 1.29.

Example 1.30

f (x) = c for all x Î

This is called the constant function with image c. (0, c)

The graph of f is a straight line parallel to the x-axis

(Figure 1.32). X=

O

Example 1.31

Define f : ® by Y=

y=

x

y=

-x

X⬘ X=

ìï x if x ³ 0 O

f ( x) = í

îï- x if x < 0

The graph of f is

{( x, x)| x ³ 0} È {( x, - x)| x < 0}

FIGURE 1.33 Example 1.31.

This is the combination of two straight lines: one passing

and contained in the

through the origin, bisecting XOY

first quadrant and the second passing through the origin,

and contained in the second quadrant

bisecting X ¢OY

(Figure 1.33).

1.7 Graph of a Function 51

Example 1.32

[x] is the largest integer ≤ x. For example

æ 1ö

f ç 1 ÷ = 1, f (-2.5) = - 3, f (2.5) = 2

è 2ø

f (2) = 2, f (-4.2) = - 5, f (5.01) = 5

X =

O

f (3.9) = 3, f (-8.9) = - 9, f (-6.01) = - 7

Sketch the graph of f.

is given in Figure 1.34. This function is called the step

function. The graph of f restricted to an interval [n, n + 1), FIGURE 1.34 Example 1.32.

with n an integer, is a line segment parallel to the x-axis.

Example 1.33

Let f : ® be defined by This function is called the signum function. The graph

of this f is in three parts: one is the line y = 1 which is

ì 0 if x = 0 parallel to x-axis and contained in the first quadrant;

ï

f ( x) = í | x | the second is the origin (0, 0) and the third is the line

ï if x ¹ 0 y = –1 which is parallel to the x-axis and contained in the

îx third quadrant (Figure 1.35).

Sketch the graph of this function. Y=

Solution: We have

y =1

ì 0 if x = 0

ï

f ( x) = í | x |

ï if x ¹ 0 X=

îx O

y = -1

Then

ì-1 if x < 0

ï

f ( x) = í 0 if x = 0

ï

î 1 if x > 0 FIGURE 1.35 Example 1.33.

Example 1.34

Let f : ® be defined by Y =

ì1 - x if x < 0

ï

f ( x) = í 1 if x = 0

ï

î1 + x if x > 0 M L

P ( 0, 1 )

Sketch the graph for this function.

O X =

Solution: Note that f (x) = 1 + | x | for all x Î. The graph

of f is given by

FIGURE 1.36 Example 1.34.

{( x, 1 + x) x > 0} È {(0, 1)} È {( x, 1 - x)| x < 0}

52 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

This is in three parts: one is the straight line bisecting bisecting MPY and contained in the second quadrant

and contained in the first quadrant, the second

LPY (Figure 1.36).

is the point P = (0, 1) and the third is the straight line

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 40 Let A be a subset of and f : A ® be a function. Then we say that f is increasing if

f (x) £ f (y) whenever x £ y. f is said to be decreasing if f (x) ³ f (y) whenever x £ y.

Example 1.35

Sketch the graph of f.

The graph of f is a curve which goes upward when x y = a x, a > 1

increases [i.e., f (x) increases when x increases] and goes

downwards when x decreases [i.e., f (x) decreases when

x decreases]. Also, since a > 1, a is positive and hence

ax is positive for all x. This implies that the graph of (0, 1)

f (x) = ax is contained in the first and second quadrants

X =

(Figure 1.37). O

Example 1.36

Let 0 < a < 1 and define f : ® by f (x) = ax for all x Î. y = a x, 0 < a < 1 Y =

Sketch the graph of f. Here, f(x) decreases as x increases

(since 0 < a < 1) and hence f is a decreasing function. The

graph of f is the curve shown in Figure 1.38. The curve

cuts the y-axis at (0, 1). Also, since a > 0, ax > 0 for all

x Î. Therefore, the graph of f is contained in the first

and second quadrants only.

(0, 1)

X =

O

Example 1.37

What would the graph of this function look like?

x = 0 and x = p is similar to that between the lines x = p X=

and x = 2p. For example, consider the function f : ® -2 -1 0 1 2 3

defined by

f (x) = {x}, the fractional part of x

This is a periodic function with 1 as a period. The graph FIGURE 1.39 Example 1.37.

of this function is as shown in Figure 1.39. Note that

0 £ f (x) < 1 for all real numbers x.

1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions 53

If we consider the function f : ® defined by f (x) = x2, then we have f (x) = f (-x). Functions satisfying this property

are called even functions. If f is a real-valued function such that f (x) = -f (x) for all x, then f is called an odd function.

In this section we discuss certain elementary properties of even and odd functions. We shall begin with a formal defini-

tion in the following.

Even Functions

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 41 Symmetric Set A subset X of the real number system is said to be a symmetric set if

x Î X Û -x Î X

Examples

(1) The interval [–1, 1] is a symmetric set, since -1 £ x £ 1 (4) The sets {0}, {–1, 1}, {–1, 0, 1} are symmetric.

if and only if -1 £ -x £ 1. (5) [-2, -1] È [1, 2] is a symmetric set.

(2) The interval [0, 1] is not symmetric.

(3) The set of integers, the set of rational numbers

and the whole set are all symmetric sets.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 42 Even Function Let X be a symmetric set and f : X ® a function. Then f is said to be an

even function if

f (-x) = f (x) for all x Î X

Examples

(1) If f : ® is the function defined by f (x) = x 2 for all (3) Any constant function f : ® is even, that is, for

x Î, then f is an even function, since, for any x Î, any c Î, the function f : ® , defined by f (x) = c

for all x Î, is even.

f (-x) = (-x)2 = x2 = f (x)

(4) The function f : [-p, p] ® , defined by f (x) = cos x

(2) The function f : ® , defined by f (x) = | x | for all for all -p £ x £ p, is an even function, since cos(-x) =

x Î, is even, since cos x.

f (-x) = | -x | = | x | = f (x) for all x Î

The graph of an even function is symmetric about the y-axis, in the sense that, when y-axis is assumed as plane mirror, the

graph in the left part is the image of the right part. Equivalently, if the graph is rotated through 180o about the y-axis, we

get the appearance of the graph as original. Figure 1.40 shows the graphs of the even functions given in the example above.

Odd Functions

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 41 Odd Function Let X be a symmetric set. A function f : X ® is said to be an odd function if

f (-x) = - f (x) for all x Î X

54 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Y= Y=

O X= O X=

(a) (b)

Y= Y=

(0, 1)

X=

(0, 0)

(0, c)

(0, -1)

O X=

(c) (d)

FIGURE 1.40 Graphs of the functions: (a) f (x) = x ; (b) f (x) = | x |; (c) f (x) = c; (d) f (x) = cos x.

2

Examples

(1) The identity function f : ® , defined by f (x) = x (3) Define f : [-p, p] ® by f (x) = sin x for all -p £ x £

for all x Î, is an odd function, since f (-x) = -x = p. Then f is an odd function, since f (-x) = sin(-x) =

-f (x) for all x Î. -sin x = -f (x) for all x Î[-p, p].

(2) In general, for any integer n, the function f : ® , (4) Define f : (-p / 2, p / 2) ® by f (x) = tan x for all

defined by f (x) = x2n+1, is an odd function, since -p / 2 < x < p / 2. Then f is an odd function, since

f (-x) = (-x)2n+1 = -x2n+1 = -f (x) for all x Î. tan(-x) = -tan x for all x Î(-p / 2, p / 2).

Note: If f is an odd function defined on a symmetric set S containing 0, then necessarily f (0) = 0, for f (0) = f (-0) = -f (0).

Hence 2 f (0) = 0, so that f (0) = 0.

The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin. If the graph is rotated through 180o, either clockwise or

anticlockwise, about the origin, the resulting figure gives the same appearance as original. Figure 1.41 gives the graphs

of the odd functions given in the above example.

1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions 55

Y Y

X X

O O

(a) (b)

( p /2, 1)

X

p -p /2 0 p /2 p

( -p /2, 1)

(c)

X

-p /2 0 p /2

(d)

FIGURE 1.41 Graphs of the functions: (a) f ( x) = x; (b) f ( x) = x3 ; (c) f(x) = sin x; (d) f(x) = tan x.

56 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Remark: Unlike in integers, a function can be neither even nor odd. For example, consider the function f : ®

defined by f (x) = x2 + x + 1 for all x Î . Then f (-1) = 1 and f (1) = 3 and hence

f (–1) ¹ f (1) and f(–1) ¹ – f (1)

Therefore f is neither even nor odd. Next, note that a function f is both even and odd if and only if f ( x) = 0 for all x.

Examples

f (-x) = e-x + e-(-x) = ex + e-x = f (x) for all x Î and

therefore f is an even function. = - ( 4 1 - x3 - 4 1 + x3 )

(2) Define f : [-1, 1] ® by f ( x) = 4 1 - x3 - 4 1 + x3 for = - f ( x)

all -1 £ x £ 1. Then

for all x Î[-1, 1]. Therefore f is an odd function.

f (- x) = 1 - (- x) - 1 + (- x)

4 3 4 3

T H E O R E M 1 .38 Let X be a symmetric set and f and g functions of X into . Then, the product fg is an even function

if both f and g are even or both f and g are odd.

PROOF Suppose that both f and g are even functions. Then, for any x Î X, we have

( fg )( x) = f ( x)g( x) = f (- x)g(- x) = ( fg )(- x)

and hence fg is an even function. One the other hand, suppose that both f and g are odd functions.

Then, for any x Î X, we have

( fg)(- x) = f (- x)g(- x) = (- f ( x))(- g( x)) = f ( x)g( x) = ( fg)( x)

and therefore fg is an even function. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .39 For any real-valued functions f and g defined on a symmetric set X, the product fg is an odd

function if one of f and g is odd and the other is even.

PROOF Note that fg = gf, since rs = sr for any real numbers r and s. Without loss of generality, we can

suppose that f is even and g is odd. Then, for any x Î X, we have

( fg )(- x) = f (- x)g(- x) = f ( x)(- g( x)) = -( f ( x)g( x)) = -( fg )( x)

Therefore fg is an odd function. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .40 Let f be a real-valued function on a symmetric set X. Then the following hold:

1. f is even if and only if af is even for any 0 ¹ a Î .

2. f is odd if and only if af is odd for any 0 ¹ a Î .

3. f is even (odd) if and only if –f is even (odd).

PROOF 1. Let us recall that for any a Î the function af is defined by (af )(x) = af (x) for all x Î X. Suppose

that f is even. Then, for any a Î and x Î X,

(af )(-x) = af (-x) = af (x) = (af )(x)

and hence af is even. Conversely, suppose that 0 ¹ a Î such that af is even. Then, for any x Î X,

we have

af (- x) = (af )(- x) = (af )(x) = af (x)

Now, since a ¹ 0, f (-x) = f (x). Therefore, f is even.

1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions 57

3. It is a simple consequence of (1) and (2); take a = 1 in (1) and (2). ■

PROOF Suppose that f and g are even. Then, for any x Î X, we have

( f + g )(- x) = f (- x) + g(- x) = f ( x) + g( x) = ( f + g )( x)

Therefore f + g is even. This together with the above theorem implies that f - g is also even.

Similarly, we can prove that, if f and g odd, then so is f ± g. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .42 Any function can be expressed as a sum of an even function and an odd function.

f ( x) + f (- x) f ( x) - f (- x)

g( x) = and h( x) =

2 2

for all x Î X . Then

f (- x) + f (-(- x)) f ( x) + f (- x)

g(- x) = = = g( x)

2 2

f (- x) = f (-(- x)) f (- x) - f ( x)

and h(- x) = = = - h( x)

2 2

for all x Î X . Therefore, g is an even function and h is an odd function. Also, for any x Î X,

f ( x) + f (- x) f ( x) - f (- x)

g( x) + h( x) = + = f ( x)

2 2

and hence f = g + h. ■

Note: The above representation of f is unique in the sense that if g + h = f = a + b, where g and a are even and h and

b are odd, then g = a and h = b; for, in this case g - a = b - h, which is both even and odd. Therefore, g - a = 0 = b - h

or g = a and h = b.

The unique functions g and h given in the proof of Theorem 1.42 are called the even extension of f and odd

extension of f, respectively.

Examples

f ( x) = x2 + 2 x + 1 = ( x + 1)2 f ( x) + f (- x) f ( x) - f (- x)

= g( x) and = h( x)

2 2

Note that f is neither even nor odd, since

(2) Consider the function f : ® defined by

f (-1) = (-1)2 + 2(-1) + 1 = 0

f (x) = ex for all x Î

and f (1) = (1)2 + 2(1) + 1 = 4

Then f = g + h, where

Therefore f (-1) ¹ f (1) and f (-1) ¹ -f (1). However,

consider the functions g and h defined by ex + e- x ex - e- x

g( x) = and h( x) =

2 2

g(x) = x2 + 1 and h(x) = 2x

Note that g is even and h is odd.

58 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.38

Determine the even and odd extensions of the function and the odd extension of f is given by

f : ® given by f (x) = e-x.

f ( x) - f (- x) e- x - ex

h( x) = =

Solution: The even extension of f is given by 2 2

f ( x) + f (- x) e- x + ex

g( x) = =

2 2

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. If A is the set of positive divisors of 20, B is the set of Therefore,

all prime numbers less than 15 and C is the set of all

A6 Ç A10 = A30

positive even integers less than 11, then (A Ç B) È C is

(A) {2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10} (B) {2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10} since LCM {6, 10} = 30.

(C) {2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10} (D) {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} Answer: (C)

Solution: It is given that 4. Let A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {a, b, c}. Then the number

A = {1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20} of sets X contained in A and not contained in B is

B = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13} (A) 8 (B) 6 (C) 16 (D) 12

C = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} Solution: If X Í A and X Í B, then necessarily d Î X

Í A and hence X = Y È { d }, where Y is any subset of

Therefore

B. The number of subsets of B is 23 and therefore the

A Ç B = {2, 5} and ( A Ç B) È C = {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} required number is 8.

Answer: (A)

Answer: (D)

5. Let A, B and C be three sets and X be the set of all

2. Which of the following sets is empty?

elements which belong to exactly two of the sets A, B

(A) { x Î | x2 = 9 and 2x = 6} and C. Then X is equal to

(B) { x Î | x2 = 9 and 2x = 4} (A) ( A Ç B) È ( B Ç C ) È (C Ç A)

(C) { x Î | x + 4 = 4} (B) A D ( B D C )

(D) { x Î | 2x + 1 = 3} (C) ( A È B) Ç ( B È C ) Ç (C È A)

Solution: We have x2 = 9 only if x = ±3. For this value (D) ( A È B È C ) - [ A D ( B D C )]

of x the equation 2x = 4 is not satisfied. Sets in (A), (B),

Solution: We have

and (D) are non-empty.

Answer: (B) x Î X Û x Î A Ç B and x ÏC

or x Î B Ç C and x ÏA

3. For each positive integer n, let

or x ÎC Ç A and x ÏB

An = The set of all positive multiples of n

Therefore

Then A6 Ç A10 is

X = [(A Ç B) - C] È [(B Ç C) - A] È [(C Ç A) - B]

(A) A10 (B) A20 (C) A30 (D) A60

= ( A È B È C ) - [ A D ( B D C )]

Solution: Given that An = {a Î + | n divides a}. Now

since

a Î An Ç Am Û Both n and m divide a

Û The LCM of {n, m} divides a A D ( B D C ) = ( Ac Ç Bc Ç C ) È ( A Ç Bc Ç C c ) È

Û a Î Ar , where r = LCM {n, m} ( Ac Ç B Ç C c ) È ( A Ç B Ç C )

Answer: (D)

Worked-Out Problems 59

6. Let Ã( x) denote the power set of X. If A = {a, b, c, d, e} 10. Let S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} and A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Then

and B = {a, c, d, x, y}, then Ã( A Ç B) = the number of subsets B of S such that A D B = {5} is

(A) {f , {a, c}, {c, d}, {a, c, d}, {a}, {c}, {d}} (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0

(B) {f , {a}, {c}, {a, c}, {c, d}, {a, d}, {a, c, d}} Solution: For any subsets X, Y and Z of S, we have

(C) Ã( A È B) X D X = f, X D f = X

(D) Ã( A) Ç Ã( B)

and X DY =Z ÛY = X D Z

Solution: We have X Í A Ç B Û X Í A and X Í B.

Now,

Answer: (D)

A D B = {5} Û B = A D {5} = {2, 3, 4, 6}

7. Let A and B be finite sets with n(A) = m and n(B) = n.

Answer: (A)

If the number of elements in Ã(A) is 56 more than

those in Ã(B), then

11. Let A, B and C be finite sets such that A Ç B Ç C = f

(A) m = 6, n = 4 and each one of the sets A D B, B D C and C D A has

(B) m = 6, n = 3 100 elements. The number of elements in A È B È C is

(C) m = 7, n = 4 (A) 250 (B) 200 (C) 150 (D) 300

(D) m = 5, n = 3 Solution: Let n(X ) denote the number of elements in X.

Solution: It is given that Then,

n( A È B È C ) = n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B)

n(Ã( A)) = 2m = 56 + n(Ã( B)) = 56 + 2n

- n( B Ç C ) - n(C Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )

Now 2m - 2n = 56 and m > n. Hence we get

= å n( A) - å n( A Ç B)

2n (2m - n - 1) = 56 = 8 ´ 7 = 23 (23 - 1)

(since A Ç B Ç C = f )

Therefore n = 3 and m - n = 3 and hence m = 6 and n = 3.

Answer: (B) Now,

A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A) = ( A È B) - ( A Ç B)

8. If A and B are two subsets of a universal set X, then

Ac - Bc = Therefore

(A) A - B (B) (A - B) c

n( A D B) = n( A È B) - n( A Ç B)

(C) B Ç Ac (D) (B - A)c = n( A) + n( B) - 2 n( A Ç B)

Solution: We have and

A - Bc = Ac Ç ( Bc )c = Ac Ç B = B Ç Ac

c

300 = å n( A D B) = å [n( A) + n( B) - 2 n( A Ç B)]

Answer: (C)

= 2 éë å n( A) - å n( A Ç B)ùû

9. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {1, 2, 5, 6}, C = {2, 7, 8, 9} and

D = {2, 4, 8, 9}, then (A D B) D (C D D) = Therefore

(A) {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} (B) {3, 4, 5, 7} n( A È B È C ) = å n( A) - å n( A Ç B) = 300/2 = 150

(C) {3, 5, 7, 8} (D) {3, 5, 6, 7}

Answer: (C)

Solution: We have Alternate Method

A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A) = {3, 4, 5, 6} Draw the Venn diagram as follows:

C D D = (C - D) È (D - C ) = {7, 4} A B

and ( A D B) D (C D D) = ( A D B) - (C D D) a x b

È [(C D D) - ( A D B)]

z y

= {3, 5, 6} È {7} = {3, 5, 6, 7}}

Answer: (D) c

C

60 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

The shaded part is A Ç B Ç C which is given to be empty. with n + 1 elements, n > 0. If A is a non-empty subset of

Let a, b, c denote n[A – (B È C )], n[B – (C È A)], n[C – æ n + 1ö

X with K-elements (such sets are ç in number),

(A È B)] respectively. Let x, y, z denote the number è K ÷ø

of elements in (A Ç B) - C, (B Ç C) - A, (C Ç A) - B then the number of partitions of the set X - A is P( n + 1) - K .

respectively. Then For each f ¹ A Í X and for each partition of X - A,

we get a partition of X. Conversely, any partition of X

n( A È B È C ) = a + b + c + x + y + z

corresponds to a non-empty subset A of X and a parti-

We are given that tion of X - A. Therefore

100 = n( A D B) = (a + z) + (b + y)

n+1

æ n + 1ö n

æ nö

P( n + 1) = å çè

K =1 K ÷

ø

P( n + 1) - K = å ç ÷ Pr

r =0 è r ø

100 = n( B D C ) = (b + x) + (c + z)

Answer: (C)

and 100 = n(C D A) = (c + y) + (a + x)

Note: If n is a positive integer and 0 £ r £ n is an integer,

Adding the above three, we get that æ nö

then ç ÷ denotes the number of selections of n distinct

è rø

300 = 2(a + b + c) + 2( x + y + z) = 2 n( A È B È C )

objects taken r at a time (see Chapter 6).

and hence n( A È B È C ) = 150.

14. The number of equivalence relations on a five element

Answer: (C)

set is

12. Let n be a positive integer and (A) 32 (B) 42 (C) 50 (D) 52

R = {(a, b) Î ´ | a - b = nm for some 0 ¹ m Î } Solution: Note that equivalence relations and partitions

are same in number. By Problem 13, we have

Then R is

(A) Reflexive on

4

æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö

P5 = å ç ÷ Pr = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 + ç ÷ P3 + ç ÷ P4

(B) Symmetric r=0 è rø è 0ø è 1ø è 2ø è 3ø è 4ø

(C) Transitive Now,

(D) Equivalence relation on æ 1ö æ 1ö

P0 = 1, P1 = 1, P2 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 = 1 + 1 = 2

Solution: R is not reflexive, since (2, 2) ÏR. R is sym- è 0ø è 1ø

metric, since

æ 2ö æ 2ö æ 2ö

(a, b) Î R Þ a - b = nm for some 0 ¹ m Î P3 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 = 1 + 2 × 1 + 1× 2 = 5

è 0ø è 1ø è 2ø

Þ b - a = n(- m) and 0 ¹ - m Î

æ 3ö æ 3ö æ 3ö æ 3ö

P4 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 + ç ÷ P3

Þ (b, a) Î R è ø

0 è ø

1 è ø

2 è 3ø

R is not transitive, since (2, n + 2) ÎR and (n + 2, 2) Î R, = 1× 1 + 3× 1 + 3× 2 + 1× 5 = 15

but (2, 2) ÏR.

æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö

Answer: (B) P5 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 + ç ÷ P3 + ç ÷ P4

è 0ø è 1øø è 2ø è 3ø è 4ø

13. Let P0 = 1 and Pn be the number of partitions on = 1× 1 + 4 × 1 + 6 × 2 + 4 × 5 + 1× 155 = 52

a finite set with n elements. For n ≥ 1, a recursion

formula for Pn is given by Answer: (D)

n-1

æ n - 1ö (A)

(B) Pn = å ç P

r =1 è r ÷ø r 1 a

n

æ nö 2 b

(C) Pn + 1 = å ç ÷ Pr

r =0 è r ø 3 c

(D) Pn + 1 = Pn + nPn - 1 4 d

Solution: We are given that P0 = 1. If X is a set with

only one element, then clearly P1 = 1. Now, let X be a set

Worked-Out Problems 61

1 a

ì x2 - 4 x + 3 if x < 2

f ( x) = í

2 b îx - 3 if x ³ 2

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

4 d

Solution: We have

x < 2 and f ( x) = 3 Þ x2 - 4 x + 3 = 3

(C)

Þ x ( x - 4) = 0

1 a

Þ x = 0 (since x < 2)

2 b

Also x ³ 2 and f ( x) = 3 Þ x - 3 = 3 Þ x = 6. Therefore,

3 c only x = 0 or 6 satisfy f ( x) = 3.

4 d

Answer: (B)

18. Let

(D) ax

f ( x) = for x ¹ -1

1 a x+1

x ¹ -1 is

3 c (A) -1 (B) 2 (C) - 2 (D) 1

4 d Solution: We have

æ ax ö a[ax /( x + 1)]

x = ( f f )( x) = f ç ÷ =

Solution: In (A), 3 ® b and 3 ® d. It does not represent è x + 1ø [ax /( x + 1)] + 1

a function, since one element in the domain cannot be

Therefore

sent to two elements in the codomain. Similarly (B) and

(C) do not represent functions. But (D) represents a func- a2 x

x= for all x ¹ - 1

tion f, where f (1) = a, f (2) = b, f (3) = b and f (4) = d. ax + x + 1

Answer: (D)

(a + 1) x2 + (1 - a2 ) x = 0 for all x ¹ -1

16. Let A be the set of all men living in a town. Which This is a quadratic equation which is satisfied by more

one of the following relations is a function from than two values of x (infact, for all x ¹ -1). Therefore, the

A to A? coefficients of x2 and x must be both zero. Hence

(A) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | b is the son of a} a + 1 = 0 and 1 - a2 = 0

(B) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | b is the father of a}

and so

(C) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | a and b are same}

a = -1

(D) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | a is the grandfather of b}

Answer: (A)

Solution: Here (B) is not a function, since for any a Î A,

there should be exactly one b such that b is the father 19. If f (x) is a polynomial function satisfying the relation

of a. Then again there should be c Î A such that c is the

æ 1ö æ 1ö

father of b and so on. This chain breaks at some stage, f ( x) + f ç ÷ = f ( x) f ç ÷ for all x ¹ 0

where there is man a whose father is not in that town. è xø è xø

Therefore, not every element in A has an image. In (A) and f (4) = 65, then f (2) =

and (D) an element can have more than one images and

(A) 7 (B) 4 (C) 9 (D) 6

hence they do not represent a function. However, (C) is a

function; in fact, it is the identity function on A. Solution: Since f (4) = 65, f (x) must be a non-zero poly-

Answer: (C) nomial. Let

f ( x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn, an ¹ 0

62 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Suppose that 9x 9

= +

æ 1ö æ 1ö 9 + 3 3(3 + 9x )

x

f ( x) + f ç ÷ = f ( x) f ç ÷ for all x ¹ 0

è xø è xø 3 × 9x + 9

= =1

Then 3(3 + 9x )

n n

ar æ n öæ n a ö Therefore,

åa x + å x

r

r

r

= ç å ar xr ÷ ç å rr ÷

è r=0 ø è r=0 x ø

r=0 r=0 2008

æ r ö é æ 1 ö æ 2008 ö ù

n

å f çè 2009 ÷ø = êë f çè 2009 ÷ø + f çè 2009 ÷ø úû + …

r =1

Multiplying throughout by x , we get that

æ n öæ n ö

1004

é æ r ö æ 2009 - r ö ù

å êë f çè 2009 ÷ø + çè

n n

=

å

r=0

ar xn + r + å ar xn - r = ç å ar xr ÷ ç å ar xn - r ÷

r=0 è r=0 ø è r=0 ø r =1

÷

2009 ø úû

æ r ö æ r ö

1004

That is, = å f çè 2009 ÷ø + f çè 1 - 2009 ÷ø

r =1

(a0 xn + a1 xn + 1 + + an x2 n ) + (a0 xn + a1 xn - 1 + + an - 1 x + an ) 1004

+ + an - 1 x + an )

= å 1 = 1004

r =1

we have

Note: If a is any positive integer and f ( x) = a2 x/(a2 x + a),

an = a0 an, an - 1 = a0 an - 1 + a1an

then

an - 2 = a2 an + a1an - 1 + an - 2 a0

f ( x) + f (1 - x) = 1

2a0 = a02 + an2

21. Let [x] and { x } denote the integral part and fractional

an = a0 an Þ a0 = 1 (since an ¹ 0) part of x, respectively. Then the number of solutions

an - 1 = a0 an - 1 + a1an Þ a1an = 0 Þ a1 = 0 of the equation 4{ x } = x + [x] is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) infinite

an - 2 = a2 an + a1an - 1 + an - 2 a0 Þ an - 2 = a2 an + an - 2 Þ a2 = 0

Solution: Let 4{ x } = x + [x] = 2[ x ] + { x }. Therefore 3{ x }

Continuing this process, we get that an- 1 = 0 and 2 = 1 + an2 . = 2[x]. Since 0 £ { x } < 1, we have 0 £ 3{ x } < 3 and there-

Hence an = ±1. Therefore fore 0 £ 2{ x } < 3. Since 2[x] is even integer,

f ( x) = 1 ± xn 2

[ x] = 0 or 1 and {x} = 0 or

Since we are given that f (4) = 65 we have 3

65 = 1 ± 4n Therefore

65 = 1 + 4n and hence n = 3. So f (x) = 1 + x3 and f (2) = 9. æ 2ö

x = 0 or 4 ç ÷ = x + 1

Answer: (C) è 3ø

5

20. Let f ( x) = 9 /(9 + 3 ) for all x Î. Then the value of

x x x = 0 or

3

å

2008

r =1

f (r / 2009) is Answer: (B)

(A) 1004 (B) 1005 (C) 1004.5 (D) 1005.5

22. If the function f : ® satisfies the relation f (x) +

Solution: Consider f (x + 4) = f (x + 2) + f (x + 6) for all x Î, then a period

of f is

9x 91- x

f ( x) + f (1 - x) = + 1- x (A) 3 (B) 7 (C) 5 (D) 8

9 +3 9 +3

x

9x 9

= +

9 + 3 9 + 3 × 9x

x f ( x) + f ( x + 4) = f ( x + 2) + f ( x + 6) (1.3)

Worked-Out Problems 63

[ f (x + 2a) - 1]2 = 2f (x + a) - [ f (x + a)]2

f ( x - 2) = f ( x + 6) for all x Î

or f ( x) = f ( x + 8) for all x Î = -[ f ( x + a) - 1]2 + 1

= -[2 f ( x) - { f ( x)}2 ] + 1 [by Eq. (1.5)]

Answer: (D)

= [ f ( x) - 1] 2

R = {(( x, y), (a, b)) Î A ´ A | either x < a f ( x + 2a) - 1 = f ( x) - 1 [since f ( x + a), f ( x) ³ 1]

or x = a and y > b} f ( x + 2a) = f ( x) for all x Î

Then which one of the following is true, if ((x, y), Thus 2a is a period of f.

(a, b)) Î R and ((a, b), ( p, q)) Î R? Answer: (A)

(A) (( x, y), ( p, q)) ÎR (B) (( x, y), (q, p)) ÎR

(C) (( x, y), ( y, q)) ÎR (D) (( y, x), ( p, q)) ÎR 25. The range of the function f defined by

Solution: Suppose that ((x, y), (a, b)), ((a, b), (p, q)) Î R. ex - e | x|

f ( x) =

Then ex + e | x|

either x < a or x = a and y > b is

and either a < p or a = p and b > q (A) [0, 1] (B) (–1, 0] (C) (0, 1) (D) [–1, 0]

If x < a and a < p, then x < p and hence ((x, y), (p, q)) Î R. Solution: Here f (x) is defined for all real x, since

Same is the case when x < a and a = p and also when x = a ex + e | x| ¹ 0 for all x Î . Also

and a < p. If x = a, y > b, a = p and b > q, then x = p and

ì0 for x ³ 0

y > b > q. Therefore ((x, y), (p, q)) Î R. ï x -x

f ( x) = í e - e e -1

2x

ï ex + e- x = e2 x + 1 for x < 0

Answer: (A)

î

24. Let a be a positive real number and f : ® a func- Therefore

tion such that

2

f ( x + a) = 1 + 2 f ( x) - f 2 ( x) for all x Î f ( x) = 1 - for all x < 0

e2 x + 1

Then a period of f is

For x < 0,

(A) 2a (B) 3a (C) 4a (D) 5a

2

Solution: Given f ( x + a) = 1 + 2 f ( x) - f 2( x) for all y = f ( x) Û 0 ³ y = 1 - > -1

e2 x + 1

x Î . Replacing x with x - a we get

From this it follows that the range of f is (–1, 0].

f ( x) = 1 + 2 f ( x - a) - ( f ( x - a)) and 1 £ f ( x) £ 2

2

Answer: (B)

1. Let A and B be two sets. If X is any set such that = ( B Ç A) È ( X Ç A)

A Ç X = B Ç X and A È X = B È X , then

= ( B Ç A) È ( X Ç B)

(A) B Í A (B) A Í B (C) A = B (D) A D B = f

= B Ç (A È X )

Solution: We have

= B Ç (B È X ) = B

A = (A È X ) Ç A Therefore A = B and hence all are correct answers.

= (B È X ) Ç A Answers: (A), (B), (C) and (D)

64 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

ents of which two elements are (-2, 1) and (1, 2). Then = +1

( x + 1)2

(A) (2, - 2) Î S ´ S (B) (-2, - 2) Î S ´ S

-[ f ( x) + x2 ]

(C) (-2, 2) Ï S ´ S (D) S = {-2, 1, 2} = +1

( x + 1)2

Solution: S ´ S has 9 = 32 elements and hence S must

have 3 elements. Since (-2, 1) and (1, 2) Î S ´ S, we have Therefore

-2, 1, 2 Î S and therefore S = {-2, 1, 2}. Therefore (2, æ 1 ö ( x + 1)2 - x2 - f ( x)

-2) Î S ´ S and (-2, -2) Î S ´ S. fç = (1.7)

è x + 1÷ø ( x + 1)2

Answers: (A), (B) and (D)

From Eqs. (1.6) and (1.7), we get

3. Let f : ® be a function satisfying the following:

f ( x) + 1 = ( x + 1)2 - x2 - f ( x) = 2 x + 1 - f ( x)

(a) f (- x) = - f ( x)

Therefore, 2 f ( x) = 2 x and hence f ( x) = x for all x Î .

(b) f ( x + 1) = f ( x) + 1

Answers: (A), (B), (C) and (D)

æ 1 ö f ( x)

(c) f ç ÷ = 2 for all x ¹ 0

è xø x 4. If a ¹ b Î and f : ® is a function such that

Then æ 1ö

af ( x) + bf ç ÷ = x - 1 for all 0 ¹ x Î

(A) f ( x) = x for all x Î è xø

(B) f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) for all x, y Î Then

(C) f (xy) = f (x)f (y) for all x, y Î 2a + b

(A) f (2) = (B) f (1) = 0

æ x ö f ( x) 2(a2 - b2 )

(D) f ç ÷ = for all x, y Î with y ¹ 0

è y ø f ( y) (C) f (-1) = -2/(a + b) (D) f (-1) = 2(a - b)

Solution: We shall prove that f (x) = x for all x Î and Solution: We are given that

hence (A), (B), (C) and (D) are all true. By (a), f is an odd

function and hence f (0) = 0. æ 1ö

a f ( x) + b f ç ÷ = x - 1 (1.8)

è xø

0 = f (0) = f (-1 + 1) = f (-1) + 1 [by (b)]

Replacing x with 1/x, we get

Therefore f (-1) = - 1. For any x ¹ 0 and -1, we have

æ 1ö 1

æ 1 ö f ( x + 1) f ( x) + 1 b f ( x) + a f ç ÷ = - 1 (1.9)

fç = = (1.6) è xø x

è x + 1÷ø ( x + 1)2 ( x + 1)2

From Eqs. (1.8) and (1.9), we have

Also, æ1 ö

(a2 - b2 ) f ( x) = a( x - 1) - b ç - 1÷

æ 1 ö æ -x ö èx ø

fç ÷ = fç + 1÷

è x + 1ø èx+1 ø Therefore

æ -x ö

=fç +1 a + b/ 2 2a + b

è x + 1÷ø f ( 2) = =

a -b

2 2

2(a2 - b2 )

æ x ö

= -f ç +1 f (1) = 0

è x + 1÷ø

-2a + 2b -2

æ 1 ö and f (-1) = =

= -f ç +1 a2 - b2 a+b

è ( x + 1) x ÷ø

Answers: (A), (B) and (C)

- f [( x + 1)/ x]

= +1

[( x + 1)/ x]2 5. Let P(x) be a polynomial function of degree n such that

- f [1 + (1/ x)]

= +1 k

[( x + 1)/ x] 2 P (k ) =

k+1

- x2 [ f (1/ x) + 1]

= +1

( x + 1) 2

Worked-Out Problems 65

(A) -1 if n is even (B) 1 if n is odd

1 é (-1)n + 1 x( x - 1)( x - 2) ( x - n) ù

n n P ( x) º ê x + ú

(C) if n is even (D) if n is odd x + 1ë (n + 1)! û

n+2 n +2

P(n + 1) = [(n + 1) + (-1)n + 1 ]

n+2

Q ( x) º P ( x)( x + 1) - x

Then Q(x) is a polynomial of degree n + 1 and 0, 1, 2, …, n ì 1 if n is odd

ï

are the roots of the equation Q(x) = 0. Therefore =í n

ï n + 2 if n is even

î

Q ( x) = Ax( x - 1)( x - 2) ( x - n)

where A is a non-zero constant. Substituting x = -1, we Answers: (B) and (C)

get that

1 = Q(-1) = A(-1)n + 1 (n + 1)!

+

1. If A = {1, 2, 4, 5}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5} and C = {4, 5, 6, 7}, then 3. Let P : [0, ¥) ® be defined as

match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

ì 13 if 0 £ x < 1

P ( x) = í +

î13 + 15n if n £ x < n + 1, n Î

Column I Column II

Then match the items in Column I with those in

(A) (A - B) È C (p) {1, 2, 3} Column II.

(B) (A - B) È (B - C) (q) {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

(C) (A È B) - C (r) {1, 4, 5, 6, 7}

Column I Column II

(D) (A D B) D C (s) {1, 2, 3, 4}

(A) P(3 × 01) (p) 68

Solution: This can be solved by simple checking. (B) P(4 × 9) (q) 63

Answer: (A)Æ(r), (B)Æ(p), (C)Æ(p), (D)Æ(q) (C) P(3 × 999) (r) 73

(D) P([4 × 99]) (s) 58

2. Let A, B and C be subsets of a finite universal set X. Let

n(P) denote the number of elements in a set P. Then Solution: Given that P(x) = 13 + 15[x] for all x ³ 0,

match the items in Column I with those in Column II. where [x] is the integral part of x. Then

P(3 × 01) = 13 + 15 ´ 3 = 58

Column I Column II

Remaining parts can be solved similarly.

(A) n(A - B) (p) n(X) - n(A Ç B) Answer: (A)Æ(s), (B)Æ(r), (C)Æ(s), (D)Æ(r)

(B) n(A D B) (q) n(C) - n(C Ç B)

Note: Functions of this type are called Postage-stamp

(C) n(Ac È Bc) (r) n(A) - n(A Ç B)

functions.

(D) n(C Ç Bc) (s) n(A) + n(B) - 2n(A Ç B)

Answer: (A)Æ(r), (B)Æ(s), (C)Æ(p), (D)Æ(q)

Comprehension-Type Questions

1. In a group of 25 students aged between 16 years and ball, 9 play both cricket and tennis, 4 play tennis and

18 years, it was found that 15 play cricket, 12 play football and 3 play all the three games. Based on this,

tennis, 11 play football, 5 play both cricket and foot answer the following questions.

66 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

(i) The number of students in the group who play (i) f (x) is equal to

only football is

1é 1 x - 1ù

(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 (A) êx + - ú

2ë 1- x x û

(ii) The number of students in the group who play

only cricket is 1é 1 x - 1ù

(B) êx - + ú

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 2ë 1- x x û

(iii) The number of students in the group who play

1é 1 x - 1ù

only tennis is (C) êx - - ú

2ë 1- x x û

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

(iv) The number of students who do not play any of 1é 1 x - 1ù

(D) êx + + ú

the three games is 2ë 1- x x û

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

(ii) f (-1) is equal to

Solution: Let C, T and F denote the sets of students in (A) 3/4 (B) -3/4 (C) 5/4 (D) -5/4

the group who play cricket, tennis and football, respec-

tively. Consider the Venn diagram. (iii) f (1/2) is equal to

C T (A) 5/4 (B) -7/4 (C) 7/4 (D) 9/4

Solution: Given that

x a y

æ x - 1ö

f ( x) + f ç =x (1.10)

3 è x ÷ø

c b

for all x ¹ 0, 1. Replacing x with ( x - 1)/ x both sides, we

z get that

F

æ x - 1ö æ [( x - 1)/ x] - 1ö x - 1

fç ÷ + fç =

We are given that

è x ø è ( x - 1)/ x ÷ø x

n(T ) = y + b + a + 3 = 12 æ x - 1ö æ 1 ö x-1

fç + fç = (1.11)

è x ÷ø è 1 - x ÷ø x

n(F ) = z + c + b + 3 = 11

Then Again replacing x with ( x - 1)/ x in this, we get

n (C Ç T ) = a + 3 = 9 æ 1 ö 1

fç ÷ + f ( x) = (1.12)

n (T Ç F ) = b + 3 = 4 è 1 - xø 1- x

n (C Ç F ) = c + 3 = 5 Then by taking Eq. (1.10) + Eq. (1.12) - Eq. (1.11), we get that

n (C Ç T Ç F ) = 3 1 x-1

2 f (x) = x + -

1- x x

and by solving these, we get a = 6, b = 1, c = 2, x = 4, y = 2

and z = 5. The number of students who do not play any of 1é 1 x - 1ù

these games is 25 - (a + b + c + x + y + z + 3) = 2. or f (x) = êx + - ú (1.13)

2ë 1- x x û

Answer: (i) Æ (D); (ii) Æ (D); (iii) Æ (B); (iv) Æ (B)

Substituting the values x = -1 and 1/2 in Eq. (1.13) we get

2. Let f : - {0, 1} ® be a function satisfying the relation the solution for (ii) and (iii).

æ x - 1ö Answer: (i) Æ (A); (ii) Æ (D); (iii) Æ (C)

f ( x) + f ç =x

è x ÷ø

wing questions.

Worked-Out Problems 67

In the following question, a Statement I is given and a Solution: Note that, for any sets A, B, C and D,

corresponding Statement II is given just below it. Mark

the correct answer as: ( A ´ B) Ç (C ´ D) = ( A Ç C ) ´ ( B Ç D)

(A) Both I and II are true and II is a correct reason for I and hence

(B) Both I and II are true and II is not a correct reason for I ( A ´ B) Ç ( B ´ A) = ( A Ç B) ´ ( B Ç A)

(C) I is true, but II is false

= ( A Ç B) ´ ( A Ç B)

(D) I is false, but II is true

Therefore

1. Statement I: If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {2, 3, 5, 6, 7},

then n((A ´ B) Ç (B ´ A)) = 4. n(( A ´ B) Ç ( B ´ A)) = [n( A Ç B)]2

common, then the sets A ´ B and B ´ A have n2 elements

in common.

1. Let f : ® be a function such that f (1) = f (0) = 0 Therefore, we have 1 = f (1) > f (2) > f (3) > and hence

and | f(x) - f( y)| < |x - y| for all x ¹ y in [0, 1]. If f (n) ¹ n for all n > 1. Thus 1 is the only positive integer n

2| f(x) - f( y)| < K for all x, y Î [0,1], then K can be such that f (n) = n.

. Answer: 1

Solution: Let 0 < x < y < 1. Then

3. Let f : ® be a function such that f (2 + x) = f (2 - x)

| f ( x) - f ( y)| £ | f ( x)| + | f ( y)| and f (7 + x) = f (7 - x) for all real numbers x. If f (0) = 0

and there are atleast m number of integer solutions

= | f ( x) - f (0)| + | f ( y) - f (1)|

for f (x) = 0 in the interval [–2010, 2010], then m can

< | x - 0 | + | y - 1| be .

Also, f (2 + x) = f (2 - x) = f [7 - (5 + x)]

By adding Eqs. (1.14) and (1.15), we have By replacing x with x – 2 we get that

Answer: 1 Now,

f (y) - xy - 1 for all x, y Î and f (1) = 1. Then the From Eqs. (1.16) and (1.17), we have f (4 + 10 n) = 0 for

number of positive integers n such that f (n) = n is all integers n. Also, since f (0) = 0, we have f (10 n) = 0

. for all integers n. There are 403 integers of the form

Solution: By taking x = 0 = y, we get that f (0) = 1. By 10n and 402 integers of the form 10 n + 4 in the interval

hypothesis, f (1) = 1. For any integer n > 1, [–2010, 2010]. Therefore, there are atleast 805 integers n

in [–2010, 2010] for which f (n) = 0.

f (n) = f [(n - 1) + 1] = f (n - 1) + f (1) - (n - 1)1 - 1 Answer: 805

= f (n - 1) - (n - 1) < f (n - 1)

68 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

SUMMARY

1.1 Set: Any collection of well-defined objects. 1.13 If | X | = n, then |P(X)| = 2n.

1.2 Elements: Objects belonging to a set. 1.14 Intersection of sets: For any two sets A and B, the

intersection of A and B is the set of all elements

1.3 Empty set: Set having no elements and is denoted Ø. belonging to both A and B and is denoted by

1.4 Equal sets: Two sets A and B are said to be equal, if A Ç B = {x | x Î A and x Î B}

they contain same elements or every element of A

1.15 Theorem: The following hold for any sets A, B and C.

belong to B and vice-versa.

(1) A Í B Û A = A Ç B

1.5 Finite set: A set having definite number of elements is (2) A Ç A = A

called finite set. A set which is not a finite set is called (3) A Ç B = B Ç A (Commutative law)

infinite set.

(4) (A Ç B) Ç C = A Ç (B Ç C) (Associative law)

1.6 Family or class of sets: A set whose numbers are (5) A Ç Ø = Ø, where Ø is the empty set.

family of sets or class of sets. Family of sets or class (6) For any set X, X Í A Ç B Û X Í A and X Í B.

of sets are denoted by script letters Ꮽ, Ꮾ, Ꮿ, Ᏸ, P etc. (7) In view of (4) we write A Ç B Ç C for A Ç (B Ç C).

∩

n

1.7 Indexed family of sets: A family C of sets is called (8) For any sets A1, A2, ¼, An we write Ai for

i=1

indexed family if there exists a set I such that for A1 Ç A2 Ç A3 Ç ¼ Ç An.

each element i Î I, there exists unique member

A Î C associated with i. In this case the set I is called 1.16 Disjoint sets: Two sets A and B are said to be

index set, C is called indexed family sets and we disjoint sets if A Ç B = Ø.

write C = {Ai : i Î I}.

1.17 Union of sets: For any two sets A and B, their union

1.8 Intervals: Let a, b be real numbers and a < b. Then is defined to be the set of all elements belonging to

(a, b) = {x Î | a < x < b} either A or to B and this set is denoted by A È B.

That is A È B = {x| x Î A or x Î B} .

[a, b) = {x Î | a £ x < b}

1.18 Theorem: For any sets A, B and C the following

(a, b] = {x Î | a < x £ b} hold.

[a, b] = {x Î | a £ x £ b} (1) A Ç B Í A È B

(3) A È A = A

1.9 Subset and superset: A set A is called a subset of a set (4) A È B = B È A (Commutative law)

B, if every element of A is also an element of B. In this

(5) (A È B) È C = A È (B È C) and we write A È B È C

case we write A Í B. If A is a subset of B, then B is for (A È B) È C

called superset of A. If A is not a subset of B, then we

(6) A Ç B = A Û A È B = B

write A Í B.

(7) A È Ø = A

1.10 Proper subset: Set A is called a proper subset of a (8) A Ç (A È B) = A

set B if A is a subset of B and is not equal to B. (9) A È (A Ç B) = A

1.11 Powerset: If X is a set, then the collection of all 1.19 Theorem (Distributive laws): If A, B and C are

subsets of X is called the powerset of X and is three sets, then

denoted by P(X).

(1) A Ç (B È C) = (A Ç B) È (A Ç C)

1.12 Cardinality of a set: If X is a finite set having n (2) A È (B Ç C) = (A È B) Ç (A È C)

elements, then n called cardinality of X and is

denoted by |X | or n(X ). 1.20 Theorem: For any sets A, B and C, A Ç B = A Ç C and

A È B = A È C Þ B = C.

Summary 69

∪ i ÎI Ai is

1.21 If {Ai}iÎI is an indexed family of sets then (3) A D Ø = A

the set of all elements x where x belongs to atleast (4) A D A = Ø

one Ai.

1.31 Theorem: If A and B are disjoint sets, then

1.22 Set difference: For any two sets A and B, A – B =

(1) n(A È B) = n(A) + n(B)

{ x Î A| x Ï B} = A – (A Ç B)

(2) If A1, A2, ¼, Am are pairwise disjoint sets, then

1.23 De Morgan’s laws: If A, B and C are any sets, then æm ö

n ç ∪ Ai ÷ = n( A1 ) + n( A2 ) + + n( Am )

(1) A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C) è i =1 ø

(2) A - (B Ç C) = (A - B) È (A - C)

Recall that for any finite set P, n(P) denotes the

number of elements in P.

1.24 Theorem: Let A, B and C be sets. Then

(1) B Í C Þ A - C Í A - B 1.32 Theorem: For any finite sets A and B, n(A È B) =

(2) A Í B Þ A - C Í B - C n(A) + n(B) - n(A Ç B).

(3) (A È B) - C = (A - C) È (B - C)

1.33 Theorem: For any finite sets A, B and C,

(4) (A Ç B) - C = (A - C) Ç (B - C)

(5) (A - B) - C = A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C) n(A È B È C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) - n(A Ç B)

-n(B Ç C) - n(C Ç A) + n(A Ç B Ç C)

(6) A - (B - C) = (A - B) È (A Ç C)

1.34 Theorem: If A, B and C are finite sets, then the

1.25 Universal set: If {Ai}iÎI is a class of sets, then the set

number of elements belonging to exactly two of the

X = ∪ i ÎI Ai is called universal set. In fact the set X

sets is

whose subsets are under our consideration is called

universal set. n(A Ç B) + n(B Ç C) + n(C Ç A) - 3n(A ÇB Ç C)

Caution: Do not be mistaken that universal set

1.35 Theorem:

means the set which contains all objects in the

universe. Do not be carried away with word universal. (1) If A, B and C are finite sets, then the number of

In fact, the fundamental axiom of set theory is: elements belonging to exactly one of the sets is

Given any set, there is always an element which does n(A) + n(B) + n(C) - 2n(A Ç B) - 2n(B Ç C)

not belong to the given set. - 2n(C Ç A) + n(A Ç B Ç C)

(2) If A and B are finite sets, then the number of

1.26 Complement of a set: If X is an universal set and

A Í X then the set X - A is called complement of elements belonging to exactly one of the sets

A and is denoted by A¢ or Ac. equals

n(A D B) = n(A) + n(B) - 2n(A Ç B)

1.27 Relative complement: If X is an universal set and

= n(A È B) - n(A Ç B)

A, B are subsets of X, then A - B = A Ç B¢ is called

relative complement of B in A.

Relations

1.28 De Morgan’s laws (General form): If A and B are

two sets, then 1.36 Ordered pair: A pair of elements written in a

particular order is called an ordered pair and is

(1) (A È B)¢ = A¢ Ç B ¢ written by listing its two elements in a particular

(2) (A Ç B)¢ = A¢ È B ¢ order, separated by a comma and enclosing the pair

in brackets. In the ordered pair (x, y), x is the first

1.29 Symmetric difference: For any two sets A and B, element called first component and y is the second

the set (A - B) È (B - A) is called symmetric differ- element called second component. Also x is called

ence of A and B and is denoted by A D B. Since A first coordinate and y is called second coordinate.

- B = A Ç B ¢ and B - A = B Ç A¢, A D B = (A Ç B ¢)

È (B Ç A¢). 1.37 Cartesian product: If A and B are sets, then the

set of all ordered pairs (a, b) with a Î A and b Î B

1.30 Theorem: The following hold for any sets A, B and C. is called the Cartesian product of A and B and is

(1) A D B = B D A (Commutative law)

denoted by A × B (read as A cross B). That is

(2) (A D B) D C = A D (B D C) (Associative law) A ´ B = {(a, b) | a Î A and b Î B}

70 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

1.38 Let A, B be any sets and Ø is the empty set. Then 1.45 Range: If R is a relation from a set A to a set B,

(1) A ´ B = Ø Û A = Ø or B = Ø. then the set of all second components of the

ordered pairs belonging to R is called range of R

(2) If one of A and B is an infinite set and the

and is denoted by Range(R).

other is a non-empty set, then A ´ B is an infi-

nite set.

1.46 Theorem: If A and B are finite non-empty sets

(3) A ´ B = B ´ A Û A = B. such that n(A) = m and n(B) = n, then the number

of relations from A to B is 2mn which include the

1.39 Cartesian product of n sets (n is a finite positive empty set and the whole set A ´ B.

integer greater than or equal to 2): Let A1, A2, A3,

¼, An be n sets. Then their Cartesian product is 1.47 Relation on a set: If A is a set, then any subset of

defined to be the set of all n-tuples (a1, a2, ¼, an) A ´ A is called a binary relation on A or simply a rela-

such that ai ÎAi for i = 1, 2, 3, ¼, n and is denoted by tion on A.

n n

A1 ´ A2 ´ A3 ´ ´ An or X Ai

i =1

or ÕA

i =1

i 1.48 Composition of relations: Let A, B and C be sets, R

is a relation from A to B and S is a relation from B

That is, to C. Then, the composition of R and S denoted by

S R defined to be

A1 ´ A2 ´ L ´ An = {(a1, a2, K, an )| ai Î Ai for 1 £ i £ n}

The Cartesian product of a set A with itself n times S R = {(a, c) Î A ´ C | there exist b Î B

is denoted by An.

such that (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S}

1.40 Theorem: If A and B are finite sets, then n(A ´ B) =

n(A) · n(B). In general, if A1, A2, ¼, Am are infinite 1.49 Theorem: Let A, B and C be sets, R a relation from

sets, then n(A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ Am) = n(A1) ´ n(A2) ´ A to B and S a relation from B to C. Then the

´ n(Am). In particular, n(Am) = (n(A))m where A following hold:

is a finite set. (1) S R ¹ Ø if and only if Range(R) Ç Dom(S) ¹ Ø

(2) Dom(S R) = Dom(R)

1.41 Theorem: Let A, B, C and D be any sets. Then

(3) Range(S R) Í Range(S)

(1) A ´ (B È C) = (A ´ B) È (A ´ C)

(2) (A È B) ´ C = (A ´ C) È (B ´ C) 1.50 Theorem: Let A, B, C and D be non-empty sets,

(3) A ´ (B Ç C) = (A ´ B) Ç (A ´ C) R Í A ´ B, S Í B ´ C and T Í C ´ D. Then

(4) (A Ç B) ´ C = (A ´ C) Ç (B ´ C) (T S) R = T (S R) (Associative law)

(5) (A È B) ´ (C È D) = (A ´ C) È (A ´ D) È (B ´

C) È (B ´ D) 1.51 Inverse relation: Let A and B be non-empty sets

(6) (A Ç B) ´ (C Ç D) = (A ´ C) Ç (B ´ D) = (A ´ D) and R a relation from A to B. Then the inverse of R

Ç (B ´ C) is defined as the set {(b, a) Î B ´ A | (a, b) Î R} and

is denoted by R–1.

(7) (A - B) ´ C = (A ´ C) - (B ´ C)

(8) A ´ (B - C) = (A ´ B) - (A ´ C) 1.52 Theorem: Let A, B and C be non-empty sets, R a

relation from A to B and S a relation from B to C.

1.42 Relation: For any two sets A and B, any subset of Then the following hold:

A ´ B is called a relation from A to B. -1 -1 -1

(1) (S R) = R S

1.43 Symbol aRb: Let R be a relation from a set A to a (2) (R-1)-1 = R

set B (R Í A ´ B). If (a, b) Î R, then a is said to be

R related to b or a is said to be related to b and we

write aRb.

Types of Relations

1.53 Reflexive relation: Let X be a non-empty set and R

1.44 Domain: Let R be a relation from a set A to a set B.

relation from X to X. Then R is said to be reflexive

Then the set of all first components of the ordered

on X if (x, x) Î R for all x Î X.

pairs belonging to R is called the domain of R and

is denoted by Dom(R).

1.54 Symmetric relation: A relation R on a non-empty

set X is called symmetric if (x, y) Î R Þ (y, x) Î R.

Summary 71

1.55 Transitive relation: A relation R on a non-empty set for each a Î A, there exists unique b Î B such that

X is called transitive if (x, y) Î R and (y, z) Î R Þ (a, b) Î f. That is f Í A ´ B is called a function from

(x, z) Î R. A to B, if

(1) Dom ( f ) = A

1.56 Equivalence relation: A relation R on a non-empty

(2) (a, b) Î f and (a, c) Î f Þ b = c

set X is called an equivalence relation if it is reflexive,

symmetric and transitive. If f is a function from A to B, then we write f : A ® B

is a function and for (a, b) Îf, we write b = f(a) and b

1.57 Partition of a set: Let X be a non-empty set. A is called f-image of a and a is called f-preimage of b.

class of subsets of X is called a partition of X if they

are pairwise disjoint and their union is X. 1.65 Domain, codomain and range: Let f : A ® B be a

function. Then A is called domain, B is called codo-

1.58 Equivalence class: Let X be a non-empty set and R main and Range of f denoted by f(A) = { f(a) | a ÎA}.

an equivalence relation on X. If x Î X, then the set f (A) is also called the image set of A under the

{ y Î X |( x, y) ÎR} is called the equivalence class of x function f.

with respect to R or the R-equivalence of x or simply

the R-class of x and is denoted by R(x). 1.66 Composition of functions: Let f : A ® B and g :

B ® C be functions. Then the composition of f with

1.59 Theorem: Let R be an equivalence relation on a set g denoted by g f is defined as g f : A ® C given by

X and a, b Î X. Then the following statements are (g f ) (a) = g(f (a)) for all a ÎA

equivalent:

(1) (a, b) Î R 1.67 Theorem: Let f : A ® B, g : B ® C and h : C ® D be

(2) R(a) = R(b) functions. Then

(3) R(a) Ç R(b) ¹ Ø (h g) f = h (g f)

1.60 Theorem: Let R be an equivalence relation on X. 1.68 One-one function or injection: A function f : A ® B

Then the class of all R-classes form a partition of X. is called “one-one function” if f (a1) ¹ f (a2) for any

a1 ¹ a2 in A.

1.61 Theorem: Let X be a non-empty and {Ai}i ÎI a parti-

tion of X. Then 1.69 Theorem: If f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions.

Then the following hold:

R = {( x, y) Î X ´ X | both x and y

(1) If f and g are injections, then so is g f .

belong to the same Ai, i Î I }

(2) If g f is an injection, then f is an injection.

is an equivalence relation on X, whose R-classes are

precisely Ai’s. 1.70 Onto function or surjection: A function f : A ® B

is called “onto function” if the range of f is equal to

1.62 Theorem: Let R and S be equivalence relations on the codomain B. That is, to each b Î B, there exists

a non-empty X. Then R Ç S is also an equivalence a Î A such that f (a) = b.

relation on X and for any x Î X, (R Ç S)(x) = R(x)

Ç S(x). 1.71 Theorem: Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions.

Then, the following hold:

1.63 Theorem: Let R and S be equivalence relations (1) If f and g are surjections, then so is g f.

on a set X. Then the following statements are

(2) If g f is a surjection, then g is a surjection.

equivalent.

(1) R S is an equivalence relation on X 1.72 Bijection or one-one and onto function: A function

(2) R S is symmetric f : A ® B is called “bijection” if f is both an injection

(3) R S is transitive and a surjection.

(4) R S = S R

1.73 Theorem: If f : A ® B and g : B ® C are bijections,

then g f : A ® C is a bijection.

Functions

1.74 Identity function: A function f : A ® A is called

1.64 Function: A relation f from a set A to a set B is an identity function if f (x) = x for all x Î A and is

called a function from A into B or simply A to B, if denoted by IA.

72 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

QUICK LOOK

1.81 Theorem: The following hold for any real numbers

x and y.

1.76 Theorem: Let f : A ® B be a function. Then, f is

ìï[ x] + [ y] if {x} + { y} < 1

a bijection if and only if there exists a function (1) [ x + y] = í

g : B ® A such that îï[ x] + [ y] + 1 if {x} + { y} ³ 1

g f = IA and f g = IB (2) [x + y] ≥ [x] + [y] and equality holds if and only

if { x } + {y} < 1.

That is

(3) If x or y is an integer, then [x + y] = [x] + [y].

g( f(a)) = a for all a Î A

(4) é x ù = é [ x] ù for any real number x and

and f (g(b)) = b for all b Î B êë m úû êë m úû

non-zero-integer m.

1.77 Inverse of a bijective function: Let f : A ® B and (5) If n and k are positive integers and k > 1, then

g : B ® A be functions such that g f = IA and f g =

IB. Then f and g are bijections. Also g is unique such é n ù é n + 1 ù é 2n ù

that g f = IA and f g = IB. g is called the inverse of f êë k úû + êë k úû £ êë k úû

and f is called the inverse of g. The inverse function

of f is denoted by f –1. 1.82 Periodic function: Let A be a subset of and

f : A ® a function. A positive real number p is

QUICK LOOK called a period of f if f (x + p) = f (x) whenever x and

x + p belong to A. A function with a period is called

If f : A ® B is a bijection, then f –1 : B ® A is also a periodic function. Among the periods of f, the least

bijection and f –1(b) = a Û f (a) = b for b Î B. one (if it exists) is called the least period.

1.78 Real-valued function: If the range of a function is f : ® be defined by f(x) = [x] for all x Î where

a subset of the real number set , then the function [x] is the largest integer less than or equal to x. This

is called a real-valued function. function f is called step function.

1.79 Operations among real-valued functions: Let f 1.84 Signum function: Let f : ® be defined by

and g be real-valued functions defined on a set A.

Then we define the real-valued functions f + g, -f, ì- 1 if x < 0

f - g and f × g on the set A as follows: ï

f ( x) = í 0 if x = 0

(1) ( f + g)(a) = f (a) + g(a) ï 1 if x > 0

î

(2) (-f )(a) = -f (a)

(3) ( f - g)(a) = f (a) - g(a) is called Signum function and is written as sign(x).

(4) ( f · g)(a) = f (a) g(a)

1.85 Increasing and decreasing functions: Let A be a

(5) If g(a) ¹ 0 for all a Î A, then

subset of and f : A ® a function. Then, we say

æfö f (a) that f is an increasing function if f(x) ≤ f(y) whenever

çè g ÷ø (a) = g(a) x ≤ y. f is said to be decreasing function if f(x) ≥ f(y)

whenever x ≤ y.

(6) If n is a positive integer, then f (a) = ( f (a)) .

n n

1.80 Integral part and fractional part: If x is a real set if x Î X Û -x Î X.

number, then the largest integer less than or equal

to x is called the integral part of x and is denoted by 1.87 Even function: Let X be a symmetric set and

[x]. x - [x] is called the fractional part of x and will f : X ® a function. Then f is said to be even func-

be denoted by { x }. tion if f(-x) = f(x) for all x Î X.

Exercises 73

1.88 Odd function: Let X be a symmetric set and 1.91 Theorem: If f and g are even (odd) functions then so

f : X ® a function. Then f is said to be odd is f ± g.

function if f (-x) = -f(x ) for all x Î X.

1.92 Theorem: Every real-valued function can be

QUICK LOOK uniquely expressed as a sum of an even function

and an odd function. The representation is

If f is an odd function on a symmetric set X and 0

1 1

belongs to X, then f(0) is necessarily 0. f ( x) = [ f ( x) + f (- x)] + [ f ( x) - f (- x)]

2 2

1.89 Theorem: Let X be a symmetric set and f, g be func-

Pn be the number of partions on a finite set with n

tions from X to . Then, the following hold:

elements. Then for n ≥ 1,

(1) f · g is even if either both f and g are even or both

are odd. n æ nö

Pn + 1 = å ç ÷ Pr

(2) f · g is odd if one of them is odd and the other r =1 è r ø

is even.

æ nö

1.90 Theorem: Let f be a real valued function defined where ç ÷ is the number of selections of r objects

on a symmetric set X. Then the following hold: èr ø

(0 ≤ r ≤ n) from n distinct objects and this number

(1) f is even if and only if af is even for any non-zero

is equal to

a Î .

(2) f is odd if and only if af is odd for any non-zero n!

a Î . r ! ( n - r )!

(3) f is even (odd) if and only if -f is even (odd).

EXERCISES

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, (C) X

6, 8} and C = {3, 4, 5, 6}. Then

(A) (B Ç C)c = {2, 4, 5, 6, 7}

(B) (A Ç C)c = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9}

(C) (B È C)c = {1, 7, 8, 9}

(D) (A Ç B)c = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} A B

which one of the following shaded diagrams represent

(D)

the complement of B - A in X? X

(A) X

A B

A B

(B) X Then, for any sets, A, B and C, which one of the following

is not correct?

(A) A D B = C Û A = B D C

(B) A D B = C D B Û A = C

(C) ( A D B) D ( B D A) = f

A B (D) A D B = f Û A Í B

74 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

10 elements. If the sets A D B, B D C and C D A have 1

100, 150 and 200 elements, respectively, then the

1

number of elements in A È B È C is

2

(A) 325 (B) 352 (C) 235 (D) 253

2

apples and 30 liked bananas. Then the least number of

students who liked both apples and bananas is

(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 8 (B)

1

6. In a class of 45 students, 25 play chess and 26 play 1

cricket. If each student plays chess or cricket, then 2

the number of students who play both is 2

3

(A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 4 3

4

7. The number of subsets of the empty set is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) 3

(C)

8. The number of non-empty subsets of the set {1, 2, 3,

4, 5} is 1

1

(A) 30 (B) 32 (C) 31 (D) 33 2

2

9. The number of subsets of a set A is of the form 10 3

n + 4, where n is a single-digit positive integer. Then 3

4

n is equal to

(A) 8 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6

(D)

10. If A and B are sets such that n(A È B) = 40, n(A) = 25

1

and n( B) = 20 , then n( A Ç B) = 1

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 5 (D) 4 2

2

3

11. Let be the set of all natural numbers and 3

4

R = {(a, b) Î ´ | g.c.d. of {a, b} = 1}

Then R is

(A) reflexive on 14. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {5, 6, 7} and c = {a, b, c, d, e}. If

(B) symmetric f = {(1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 6), (4, 7)} and g = {(5, a), (6, d),

(C) transitive (7, c)} are functions from A to B and from B to C,

(D) an equivalence relation respectively, then

(A) (g f ) (4) = d (B) ( g f )(3) = a

12. Let denote the set of non-zero rational numbers

*

(C) ( g f )(2) = c (D) ( g f )(1) = a

and

15. Which one of the following diagrams does not repre-

R = {(a, b) Î * ´ * | ab = 1}

sent a function?

Then R is (A)

(A) symmetric

1

(B) reflexive on * a

(C) an equivalence relation 2

(D) transitive b

3

c

13. Which one of the following diagrams represents a 4

function?

Exercises 75

(B) (C)

1

a

2

b

3

c O

4

(C)

1

a (D)

2

b

3

c

4

O

(D)

1

a

2

b 17. Let f : [1, ¥) ® [2, ¥) be the function defined by

3

c 1

4 f ( x) = x +

x

If g : [2, ¥) ® [1, ¥), is a function such that (g f )(x) = x

for all x ³ 1, then g(t ) =

16. Which one of the following graphs does not represent

1 1

a function from the real number set into ? (A) t + (B) t -

t t

(A)

(C ) t + t - 4 (D) t - t - 4

2 2

2 2

ì- 2 if x < 0

O ï

f ( x) = í 0 if x = 0 and g( x) = 1 + {x}

ï 2 if x > 0

î

where {x} is the fractional part of x. Then, for all x Î ,

f (g(x)) is equal to

(B)

(A) –2 (B) 0 (C) x (D) 2

(A) 16 (B) 8 (C) 14 (D) 6

O 20. If f (x) is a polynomial function satisfying the relation

æ 1ö æ 1ö

f ( x) + f ç ÷ = f ( x) f ç ÷

è xø è xø

for all 0 ¹ x Î and if f (2) = 9, then f (6) is

(A) 216 (B) 217 (C) 126 (D) 127

76 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

21. Let a be positive real number and n a positive 27. The number of solutions of the equation 2x + {x + 1} =

integer. If f ( x) = (a - xn )1/ n, then ( f f )(5) is 4[x + 1] – 6 is

(A) 5 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D)

2 2

28. Let [x] denote the integral part of x. If a is a positive real

x)}. Then which one of the following is correct? number and f : ® is defined by f (x) = x - [x - a],

then a period of f is

ì2 x(1 - x), 0 £ x £ 1/ 3

ïï (A) 1 (B) a (C) 2[a] (D) 2a

(A) f ( x) = í (1 - x)2 , 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3

ï 29. If f (x) = k (constant) for all x Î , then the least

ïî x2 , 2 / 3 < x £ 1

period of f is

ì (1 - x)2 , 0 £ x £ 1/ 3 (A) 1/3 ( B) 1/2

ïï (C ) 2/3 (D) does not exist

(B) f ( x) = í 2 x(1 - x), 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3

ï

ïî x2 , 2 / 3 < x £ 1 30. Let a > 0 and f : ® a function satisfying

ì x , 0 £ x £ 1/ 3

2 f ( x + a) = 1 + [2 - 3 f ( x) + 3 f ( x)2 - f ( x)3 ]1/ 3

ïï

(C) f ( x) = í 2 x(1 - x), 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3 for all x Î . Then a period of f ( x) is ka where k is

ï a positive integer whose value is

ïî (1 - x) , 2 / 3 < x £ 1

2

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

ì (1 - x)2 , 0 £ x £ 1/ 3

ïï 31. Let a < c < b such that c - a = b - c . If f : ® is a

(D) f ( x) = í x2 , 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3 function satisfying the relation

ï

ïî2 x(1 - x), 2 / 3 < x £ 1 f ( x + a) + f ( x + b) = f ( x + c) for all x Î

then a period of f is

23. Let [x] denote the greatest integer £ x. Then the

number of ordered pair (x, y), where x and y are (A) (b - a) ( B) 2(b - a)

positive integers less than 30 such that (C ) 3(b - a) (D) 4(b - a)

êë 2 úû + êë 3 úû + êë 4 úû + êë 5 úû = 6 + 20

æ 1 ö 2(1 - 2 x)

f ( x) + f ç = for all x ¹ 0, 1

is è 1 - x ÷ø x(1 - x)

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

then the value of f(2) is

24. Let P : [0, ¥) ® be defined by (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

P ( x) = í f (2 + x) = f (2 – x) and f (7 + x) = f (7 – x) for all x Î

î13 + 15n if n £ x < n + 1, n Î

then a period of f is

Then P is (A) 5 (B) 9 (C) 12 (D) 10

(A) an injection

( B) a surjection 34. If f : ® is defined by

(C ) a surjection but not an injection

é 1ù é 2ù

(D) neither an injection nor a surjection f ( x) = [ x] + ê x + ú + ê x + ú - 3 x + 5

ë 2û ë 3û

25. If [x] and {x} denote the integral part and the fractional where [x] is the integral part of x, then a period of f is

part of a real number x, then the number of negative (A) 1 (B) 2/3 (C) 1/2 (D) 1/3

real numbers x for which 2[ x] - {x} = x + {x} is

(A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) infinite 35. If a function f : ® satisfies the relation

26. The number of real numbers x ³ 0 which are solutions f ( x + 1) + f ( x - 1) = 3 f ( x) for all x Î

of [ x] + 3{x} = x + {x} is

then a period of f is

(A) 1 (B) infinite (C) 0 (D) 2

(A) 10 (B) 12 (C) 6 (D) 4

Exercises 77

(A) [0, 1) (B) (0, ¥) (C) (- ¥, 0) (D) (1, ¥) (A) é0, 1ù ( B) é - 1 , 0 ù

êë 3 úû êë 3 úû

37. The domain of the function defined by f (x) = min{1 + x,

1 - x} is (C ) é - 1 , 1ù (D) é - 1 , 2 ù

êë 3 úû êë 3 úû

(A) (1, ¥) (B) (-¥, ¥) (C) [1, ¥) (D) (- ¥, 1]

44. Let f : [0, 1] ® be defined by f (x) = 1 + 2x. If g :

38. The domain of definition of the function f ( x) = y ® is an even function such that g( x) = f ( x) for

given by the equation 2x + 2y = 2 is all x Î[0, 1], then, for any x Î, g( x) is equal to

(A) (- ¥, 1) (B) (- ¥, 1) (C) (- ¥, 0) (D) (0, 1) (A) 1 - 2 x ( B) 2 x - 1

(C ) 1 - 2 | x | (D) 1 + 2 | x |

39. The function f : [1, ¥) ® [2, ¥) is defined by f (x) = x +

(1/x). Then f -1 ( x) is equal to 45. Let be the set of natural numbers and the set of

x 1 real numbers. Let f : ® be a function satisfying

(A) ( B) ( x + x2 - 4 )

1 + x2 2 the following:

(i) f (1) = 1

(C ) 1 ( x - x2 - 4 ) (D) 1 + x2 - 4

2 n

(ii) å r f (r) = n(n + 1) f (n) for all n ³ 2

r =1

If f ( x) = f -1 ( x) for all x, then the value of a is

Then the integral part of f (2009) is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) –1 (D) –2

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3

41. If f (x) = k (constant) for all real numbers x, then the

46. A school awarded 22 medals in cricket, 16 medals in

least period of f is

football and 11 medals in kho-kho. If these medals

(A) 1/6 ( B) 1/4 (C ) 1/3 (D) does not exist went to a total of 40 students and only two students got

medals in all the three games, then how many received

42. Let f ( x) = ( x + 1) for all x ³ - 1. If g( x) is the

2

medals in exactly two of the three games.

function whose graph is the reflection of the graph

(A) 7 (B) 6 (C) 5 (D) 4

of f ( x) with respect to the line y = x , then g( x) is

equal to

47. Let P( x) be a polynomial of degree 98 such that

(A) x + 1 ( B) x - 1 P(K) = 1/K for K = 1, 2, 3, … , 99 . Then (50)P (100)

(C ) x + 1 (D) 1 equals

( x + 1)2 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

43. Let f : ® A is defined by

48. For any positive integer K, let f1 (K ) denote the

x-1

f ( x) = 2 square of the sum of the digits in K. For example

x - 3x + 3 f1 (12) = (1 + 2)2 = 9 . For n ³ 2, let fn (K ) = f1 ( fn - 1 (K )).

Then f2010 (11) is equal to

(A) 1005 (B) 256 (C) 169 (D) 201

1. Let Ã( X ) denote the power set of a set X. For any (C ) B = {a, b, x, y}

two sets A and B, if Ã( A) = Ã( B), then (D) A ´ B = {( x, a), ( x, b), ( y, a), ( y, b), (z, a), (z, c)}

(A) A È B = A D B ( B) A = B

(C ) A Ç B = f (D) A D B = f 3. Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {3, 4} and C = {1, 3, 5}. Then

(A) n( A ´ ( B È C )) = 12 ( B) n( A ´ ( B Ç C )) = 3

2. Let A and B be two sets such that the number of (C ) n( A ´ ( B - C )) = 3 (D) n ( B ´ ( A - C )) = 2

elements in A ´ B is 6. If three elements of A ´ B are

(x, a), (y, b) and (z, b) then 4. For any three sets A, B and C,

(A) A = {x, y, z} (A) A ´ ( B È C ) = ( A ´ B) È ( A ´ C )

( B) B = {a, b} ( B) A ´ ( B Ç C ) = ( A ´ B) Ç ( A ´ C )

78 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

(C ) A ´ ( B - C ) = ( A ´ B) - ( A ´ C ) Then R is

(D) A ´ ( B D C ) = ( A ´ B) D ( A ´ C ) (A) transitive

(B) an equivalence relation on ´

5. Let A be the set of all non-degenerate triangles in (C ) symmetric

the Euclidean plane and (D) reflexive on ´

R = {( x, y) Î A ´ A | x is congruent to y}

11. Let M2 be the set of square matrices of order 2 over

Then R is the real number system and

(A) reflexive on A R = {( A, B) Î M2 ´ M2 | A = PT BP for some

(B) transitive

(C ) symmetric non-singular P Î M }

(D) an equivalence relation on A Then R is

(A) symmetric

6. Let n be a positive integer and

(B) transitive

R = {(a, b) Î ´ | n divides a - b} (C ) reflexive on M2

(D) not an equivalence relation on M2

Then R is

(A) transitive 12. Let L be the set of all straight lines in the space and

(B) reflexive on

(C) symmetric R = {(l, m) Î L ´ L | l and m are coplanar}

(D) an equivalence relation on Then R is

(A) reflexive on L

7. Let A be the set of all human beings in a particular

( B) not an equivalence relation on L

city at a given time and

(C ) symmetric

R = {( x, y) Î A ´ A | x and y live in the same locality} (D) transitive

Then R is 13. Let * be the set of all non-zero rational numbers and

(A) symmetric

(B) reflexive on A R = {(a, b) Î * ´ * | ab = 1}

(C) transitive Then R is

(D) not an equivalence relation

(A) reflexive on * ( B) not reflexive on *

8. For any integer n, let In be the interval (n, n + 1).

(C ) symmetric (D) not symmetric

Define

14. Let be the set of all rational numbers, the set of

R = {( x, y) Î |both x, y Î In for some n Î } all integers and

Then R is R = {(a, b) Î ´ | a - b Î }

(A) reflexive on Then which of the following are true?

(B) symmetric

(A) ( x, 2 x) Î for all x Î

(C) transitive

( B) ´ Í R

(D) an equivalence relation

(C ) (3 × 5, 4 × 5) Î

(D) (6 × 3, 7 × 2) Î

9. Let be the set of all real numbers and S = {(a, b) Î

´ | a - b £ 0}. Then S is

15. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {5, 6, 7} and C = {a, b, c, d, e}.

(A) reflexive on Define mappings f : A ® B and g : B ® C by

(B) transitive

(C) symmetric f = {(1, 5), (2, 6), (3, 5), (4, 7)} and g = {(5, b),

(D) an equivalence relation on (6, c), (7, a)}

10. For any ordered pairs (a, b) and (c, d) of real numbers,

Then which of the following are true?

define a relation, denoted by R, as follows: (A) ( g f )(2) = c ( B) ( g f )(4) = b

(C ) ( g f )(3) = b (D) ( g f )(1) = a

(a, b) R (c, d) if a < c or (a = c and b ≤ d)

Exercises 79

be mappings defined by f (1) = 2, f (2) = 3, f (3) = 4, b are given real numbers and a ¹ 0, then

f (4) = 1; g (1) = 1, g (2) = 3, g (3) = 4 and g (4) = 2. (A) f is an injection ( B) f is a surjection

Then which of the following are true? (C ) f is not a bijection (D) f is a bijection

(A) f is a bijection ( B) g is an injection

(C ) g is a surjection (D) f is an injection 24. If f : [0, ¥) ® [0, ¥) is the function defined by

x

17. Let f : ® and g : ® be mappings defined by f ( x) =

f ( x) = x2 + 3 x + 2 and g( x) = 2 x - 3 . Then which of x+1

the following are true? then

(A) ( f g )(1) = 0 ( B) ( g f )(1) = 9 (A) f is an injection but not a surjection

(C ) ( f g )(3) = 20 (D) ( g f )(3) = 20 ( B) f is a bijection

(C ) Each 0 £ y < 1 has an inverse image under f

18. Let f : ® and g : ® be mappings defined by (D) f is a surjection

f ( x) = x2 and g (x) = 2x + 1. If ( f g )( x) = ( g f )( x),

then x is equal to 25. Let f be a real-valued function defined on the inte-

1 rval [–1, 1]. If the area of the equilateral triangle with

(A) -2 + ( B) –2 (0, 0) and (x, f (x)) as two vertices is 3/4, then f (x)

2

is equal to

1

(C ) -2 - (D) 0

2 (A) 1 - x2 ( B) 1 + x2

19. Let f : [–1, ¥) ® be defined by f (x) = (x + 1) – 1. If2

(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) –1 (D) –2

26. Consider the equation x + y = 1 . Then

2 2

20. Let f : ® be a function such that f (x + y) = f (x) + (A) y in terms of x is a function with domain [–1, 1]

f (y) for all x, y Î. Then which of the following hold? (B) y = + 1 - x2 is a function with domain [–1, 1]

(A) f (0) = 0

( B) f is an odd function (C) y = + 1 - x2 is an injection of [0,1] into [0, 1]

(C ) f (n) = nf (1) for n Î (D) y = + 1 - x2 is a bijection of [0,1] onto [0, 1]

(D) f is an even function

27. Let f ( x) = x for all x Î[- 2, 2]. Then f is

2

(A) an even function

f(x) + y for all x, y Î , then

( B) not an even function

(A) 1 is a period of f (C ) a bijection

( B) f (n) = 1 for all integers n (D) not an injection

(C ) f (n) = n for all integers n

(D) f (–1) = 0

and g(x) = cx + d, where a, b, c, d are given real

numbers and c ¹ 0. If ( f g )( x) = g( x), then

(A) a = 1 ( B) b = 0

(C ) ab = 1 (D) f (4) = 4

In each of the following questions, statements are given in matching with one or more statements in Column II. The

two columns, which have to be matched. The statements appropriate bubbles corresponding to the answers to

in Column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while these questions have to be darkened as illustrated in the

those in Column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and following example.

(t). Any given statement in Column I can have correct

80 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example: If the correct matches are (A) ® (p), (s); where [x] is the largest integer £x. Then match the items

(B) ® (q), (s), (t); (C) ® (r); (D) ® (r), (t) that is if the given in Column I with those in Column II.

matches are (A) ® (p) and (s); (B) ® (q), (s) and (t); (C)

® (r); and (D) ® (r), (t) then the correct darkening of

bubbles will look as follows: Column I Column II

(A) ( g f ) æç ö÷

p q r s t 1 (p) 3

A è 2ø

(q) 0

( B) ( f g ) æç ö÷

B 3

C è 2ø (r) –1

D

(C ) ( f g f ) æç ö÷

3

è 4ø (s) 1

1. Let X be the universal set and A and B be subsets of X.

(D) ( g f g ) æç ö÷

2

Then match the items in Column I with Column II. (t) 2

è 3ø

Column I Column II 5. Let S be the set of all square matrices of order 3 over

(A) A - B = A Û A Ç B = (p) f the real number system. For A Î S, | A | is the determi-

(q) A = B nant value of A. Define f : S ® by f ( A) = | A. for all

(B) ( A - B) Ç B = A Î S . Then match the items in Column I with those

(r) A – B

(C) ( A - B) È ( B - A) = in Column II.

(s) B Í A

(D) A D B = f Û (t) ( A È B) - ( A Ç B)

Column I Column II

2. Let A, B and C be sets. Then match the items in (A) If (p) 1

Column I with those in Column II.

éa b c ù

A = êêb c a úú

Column I Column II

êë c a búû

(A) A D B = C Û (p) A Ç B = f

with a + b + c = 0, then f (A) = (q) –1

(B) A - ( B È C ) = (q) ( A Ç B) - ( A Ç C )

(r) B D C = f (B) If w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity

(C) A Ç ( B - C ) =

(s) A = B D C é1 w w2 ù

(D) A D B = A È B Û (t) ( A - B) Ç ( A - C ) ê ú

and A= êw w2 1ú

êw2 1 w úû (r) 3abc - a3 -b3 - c3

3. Let A, B, C and D be sets. Then match the items in ë

Column I with those in Column II.

then f (A)=

(C) If

Column I Column II

é0 5 -7 ù

(A) A ´ ( B È C ) (p) ( A ´ B) Ç ( A ´ C )

A = ê -5 0 11 úú

ê (s) 2

( B) ( A È B) ´ (C È D) (q) ( A ´ C ) Ç ( B ´ D)

êë 7 -11 0 úû

(r) ( A ´ B) È ( A ´ C )

(C ) ( A Ç B) ´ (C Ç D)

(s) ( A ´ C ) È ( B ´ D) then f(A) =

(D) A ´ ( B Ç C ) (t) ( A ´ C ) È ( A ´ D) (D) If A Î S and AAT = I (the unit

È ( B ´ C ) È ( B ´ D) matrix) then f ( A) = (t) 0

Exercises 81

Column I Column II

æ k ö

1997

Column I Column II (p) 998.5

(A) å

k =1

f9 ç

è 1998 ÷ø

=

(A) If f is a function such (p) 4

1997

æ k ö (q) 994

that f (0) = 2, f (1) = 3 and

f ( x + 2) = 2 f ( x) - f ( x + 1), (B) å

k =1

f4 ç

è 1998 ÷ø

=

æ k ö

2009

(B) If

(q) 3

(C) å

k =1

f16 ç

è 2010 ÷ø

=

æ k ö

2008

f (x) = í

î x, for x < 0

(D) å

k =1

f25 ç

è 2009 ÷ø

=

(t) 1004.5

(r) 12

then f ( 13 ) =

(C) If f (x) + 2 f (1 - x) = x2 + 2 for 8. Consider the following graphs G1, G2, G3 and G4 and

all x Î, then f(5) is match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

(s) 11

x

4

(D) If f ( x) = for all Column I Column II

4 +2x

x Î , then å f æç k ö÷ =

6

(A) G1 (p) Does not represent a function

(t) 13

k =1

è 7ø (q) Represents an increasing function

(B) G2

(r) Represents an increasing injection

7. For any 0 < a Î , let (C) G3

(s) Represents a periodic function

ax (D) G4 (t) Represents a bijection

fa ( x) =

ax + a

for all x Î . Then match the items in Column I with

those in Column II.

Y Y

(0,1)

X

X O

O

Group G1 Group G2

Y

Y

X X

O p 2p 3p 4p O 1 2

Group G3 Group G4

82 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Comprehension-Type Questions

1. Passage: f is a real-valued function satisfying the (ii) The sum of all positive possible values of x such

functional relation: that f(x) = 1 is

(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 5

æ 2 x + 29 ö

2 f ( x) + 3 f ç = 100 x + 80 for all x ¹ 2 (iii) The number of values of x such that f ( x) = 3 is

è x - 2 ÷ø

(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 3 (D) 2

Answer the following questions:

4. Passage: Let f(x) = x + |x|. Answer the following ques-

(i) f (0) is equal to

tions.

(A) 754 (B) –754 (C) 854 (D) –854

(i) The range of f (x) is

(ii) f æç -29 ö÷ is equal to (A) [0, ¥) (B) (-¥, 0] (C) (0, ¥) (D)

è 2 ø (ii) The number of values of x such that f ( x) = x is

(A) 659 (B) –596 (C) 596 (D) –659 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite

(iii) f (–4) is equal to (iii) The number of values of x such that f ( x) = 0 is

(A) 34 (B) –34 (C) 43 (D) –43 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite

2. Passage: Let f : - {0} ® be a function satisfying 5. Passage: Let f : ® be a function satisfying the

functional relation

æ 1ö

f ( x) + 2 f ç ÷ = 3 x ( f ( x))y + ( f ( y))x = 2 f ( xy)

è xø

for all 0 ¹ x Î . Answer the following questions. for all x, y Î and it is given that f (1) = 1/ 2. Answer

the following questions.

(i) xf (x) =

(i) f ( x + y) =

(A) 2 - x2 (B) x2 - 2 (C) x2 - 1 (D) 1 - x2

(A) f ( x) + f ( y) ( B) f ( x) f ( y)

(ii) The number of solution of the equation f (x) =

f (-x) is

y x

(C ) f ( x y ) (D) f ( x)

(ii) f ( xy) = f ( y)

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0

(iii) The number of solutions of the equation f (-x) = (A) f ( x) f ( y) ( B) f ( x) + f ( y)

-f (x) is (C ) ( f ( x))y (D) ( f ( xy))xy

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) Infinite ¥

(iii) å f (k ) =

k =0

Answer the following questions. (A) 5/2 (B) 3/2 (C) 3 (D) 2

(i) The range of the function f is

(A) (-¥, - 1) (B) (-¥, 2)

(C) (-¥, 2] (D) (2, ¥)

Statement I and statement II are given in each of the drink both coffee and tea. Then the number of adults

questions in this section. Your answers should be as per who drink neither coffee nor tea is 380.

the following pattern:

Statement II: If A and B are two finite sets, then

(A) If both statements I and II are correct and II is a correct

reason for I n( A È B) + n( A Ç B) = n( A) + n( B)

( B) If both statements I and II are correct and II is not a 2. Statement I: In a class of 40 students, 22 drink Sprite,

correct reason for I 10 drink Sprite but not Pepsi. Then the number of

(C ) If statement I is correct and statement II is false students who drink both Sprite and Pepsi is 15.

(D) If statement I is false and statement II is correct Statement II: For any two finite sets A and B,

1. Statement I: In a survey of 1000 adults in a village, it n( A) = n( A - B) + n( A Ç B)

is found that 400 drink coffee, 300 drink tea and 80

Answers 83

for atleast one of History, Economics and Political

Science. 20 students have enrolled for exactly two of = n[ A - ( B È C )]

these subjects and 8 enrolled for all the three. Then + n[ B - (C È A)] + n[C - ( A È B)]

the number of students who have enrolled for exactly

one subject is 32. + n[( A Ç B) - C ] + n[( B Ç C ) - A]

Statement II: For any three finite sets A, B and C. + n[(C Ç A) - B] + n( A Ç B Ç C )

ANSWERS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. (D) 25. (A)

2. (B) 26. (B)

3. (D) 27. (B)

4. (C) 28. (A)

5. (A) 29. (D)

6. (B) 30. (B)

7. (A) 31. (C)

8. (C) 32. (C)

9. (D) 33. (D)

10. (C) 34. (A)

11. (B) 35. (B)

12. (A) 36. (C)

13. (C) 37. (D)

14. (D) 38. (A)

15. (A) 39. (B)

16. (B) 40. (C)

17. (C) 41. (D)

18. (D) 42. (B)

19. (C) 43. (C)

20. (B) 44. (D)

21. (A) 45. (A)

22. (B) 46. (C)

23. (D) 47. (A)

24. (D) 48. (C)

1. (B), (D) 15. (A), (C)

2. (A), (B), (D) 16. (A), (B), (C), (D)

3. (A), (B), (C), (D) 17. (A), (B), (C)

4. (A), (B), (C), (D) 18. (B), (D)

5. (A), (B), (C), (D) 19. (B), (C)

6. (A), (B), (C), (D) 20. (A), (B), (C)

7. (A), (B), (C) 21. (A), (B)

8. (B), (C) 22. (A), (B), (D)

9. (A), (B) 23. (A), (B), (D)

10. (A), (D) 24. (A), (C)

11. (A), (B), (C) 25. (A), (C)

12. (A), (B), (C) 26. (B), (C), (D)

13. (B), (C) 27. (A), (D)

14. (B), (C)

84 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

1. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (t), (D) ®(q) 6. (A) ® (t), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (q)

2. (A) ® (s), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (p) 7. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (t), (D) ® (s)

3. (A) ® (r), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (p) 8. (A) ®(q), (r), (t), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (s),

4. (A) ® (s), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (t), (D) ® (p) (D) ® (s)

5. (A) ® (r), (t), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (t),

(D) ® (p), (q)

Comprehension-Type Questions

1. (i) (D); (ii) (C); (iii) (B) 4. (i) (A); (ii) (B); (iii) (D)

2. (i) (A); (ii) (B); (iii) (D) 5. (i) (B); (ii) (C); (iii) (D)

3. (i) (C); (ii) (D); (iii) (B)

1. (A) 3. (A)

2. (D)

Exponentials and

Logarithms 2

Contents

2.1 Exponential Function

2.2 Logarithmic Function

2.3 Exponential Equations

2.4 Logarithmic Equations

2.5 Systems of Exponential

Exponentials and Logarithms

and Logarithmic

Equations

2.6 Exponential and

Logarithmic

Inequalities

log (8) = 3 Summary

2

3 Exercises

Answers

base

23 = 8

log (8) = 3 any positive real number a,

2

the function f(x) = ax for x Î

is called exponential function

with base a.

Logarithmic Function: Let

a > 0 and a ¹ 1. Consider the

function g : + ® defined

by g( y) = x Û y = ax for all

y Î + and x Î . The func-

tion g is the logarithmic

function denoted by loga.

86 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

In this chapter, we will discuss various properties of exponential and logarithmic functions which are often used in

solving equations, systems of equations, and inequalities containing these functions.

For any positive real number a, we can define ax for all real numbers x. This function is called an exponential function,

whose domain is the set of all real numbers and codomain is also the set of real numbers.

DEF IN IT ION 2 . 1 Let a be any positive real number. Then the function f : ® , defined by f(x) = ax for all real

numbers x, is called the exponential function with base a.

As usual, we simply say that ax is the exponential function with base a, with the idea that, as x varies over the set of

real numbers, we get a function mapping x onto ax. Note that a must be necessarily positive for ax to be defined for all

x Î. For example (-1)1 2 is not defined in ; for this reason, we take a to be positive.

Examples

(1) 2x is the exponential function with base 2. (4) The constant map which maps each x onto the real

(2) (0.02)x is the exponential function with base 0.02. number 1 is also an exponential function with base 1,

(3) (986)x is the exponential function with base 986. since 1x = 1 for all x Î.

The following theorems are simple verifications and give certain important elementary properties of exponential

function.

T H E O R E M 2.1 Let a be a positive real number. Then the following hold for all real numbers x and y:

1. ax ay = ax + y

2. ax > 0

3. ax / ay = ax - y

4. (ax )y = axy

1

5. a- x =

ax

6. a0 = 1

7. a1 = a

8. 1x = 1

2. If 0 < a < 1, then ax is a decreasing function; that is, x £ y Þ ax ³ ay.

3. If a > 0 and a ¹ 1, ax is an injection; that is, ax ¹ ay for all x ¹ y.

4. For any a > 0 and a ¹ 1, ax = 1 if and only if x = 0.

2.1 Exponential Function 87

Examples

(1) The function y = 2x is increasing and its graph is given in Figure 2.1.

(2) The function y = (1/ 2)x is decreasing and its graph is given in Figure 2.2.

Y=

y = 2x

(0,1)

X=

0

Y=

x

æ 1ö

y =ç ÷

è 2ø

(0,1)

X=

0

88 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

We have observed in the previous section that, when a > 0 and a ¹ 1, the exponential function with base a is an injection

of into and its range is + = (0, + ¥). Therefore the function f : ® (0, +¥), defined by f(x) = ax, is a bijection and

hence f has an inverse. This implies that there exists a function g : (0, +¥) ® such that

f ( x) = y Û x = g( y) or y = ax Û g( y) = x

for any x Î and 0 < y Î . This function g is called the logarithmic function with base a. Formally, we have the

following definition.

DEF IN IT ION 2 . 2 Let 0 < a Î and a ¹ 1. Then the function g : + ® , defined such that

g( y) = x Û y = ax

for all y Î + and x Î , is called the logarithmic function with base a and is denoted by log a.

It is a convention to write log a y instead of log a ( y). Note that log a y is defined only when a > 0, a ¹ 1 and y > 0

and that

loga y = x Û y = ax

for any y Î + and x Î .

The following are easy verifications and these are the working tools for solving exponential and logarithmic

equations and inequalities.

T H E O R E M 2 .3 Let 0 < a Î , a ¹ 1. Then the following hold for any y, y1, y2 Î + and x, x1, x2 Î :

1. aloga y = y

2. loga ax = x

3. loga y = x Û y = ax

4. log a ( y1 y2 ) = log a y1 + log a y2

5. log a (1/y) = - log a y

6. log a ( y1 /y2 ) = log a y1 - log a y2

7. log a ( yz ) = z log a y for all z Î

8. log a a = 1 and log a 1 = 0

TRANSITION TO

A NEW BASE

loga y

logb y = or loga y = loga b logb y

loga b

1

2. logaa ( y) = loga y for any a ¹ 0.

a

PROOF 1. Let loga y = x, logb y = t and log a b = z. Then ax = y, bt = y and az = b and hence

azt = (az )t = bt = y

2. For a ¹ 0, (aa )(1/ a )loga y = aloga y = y and therefore

1

logaa ( y) = loga y

a ■

2.3 Exponential Equations 89

2. If 0 < a < 1, then log a x is a decreasing function.

PROOF This is a consequence of Theorem 2.2 and the fact that, where two functions f and g are inverses to

each other and one function is increasing (decreasing), then so is the other. ■

T H E O R E M 2 .5 For any a > 0 and a ¹ 1, the function log a x is a bijection from the set + onto .

PROOF This follows from the fact that ax and loga x are functions which are inverses to each other. ■

It is known from the previous two sections that, for any a > 0, a ¹ 1, the equation ax = b possesses a solution for any

b > 0 and that the solution is unique. In general, the solution is written as x = loga b. If a = 1, then the equation 1x = b

has a solution for b = 1 only. Any real number x can serve as a solution for 1x = 1. Further, for any a > 0, a ¹ 1, the equa-

tion loga x = b has a solution for any b Î and the solution is unique and is written as x = a b. Since the exponential

function ax and the logarithmic function loga x are inverses to each other, the exponential function is often called the

antilogarithmic function.

We often make use of the two transformations, taking logarithms and taking antilogarithms for solving exponential

and logarithmic equations. Taking logarithms to the base a > 0, a ¹ 1 is a transition from the equality

x=y (2.1)

to the equality

loga x = loga y (2.2)

(x and y here can be numbers or the expressions containing the variables). If Eq. (2.1) is true and both sides are

positive, then Eq. (2.2) is also true. Taking antilogarithms to the base a > 0, a ¹ 1, is similar as transition from Eq. (2.2)

to Eq. (2.1). If Eq. (2.2) is true, then Eq. (2.1) is true as well.

Example 2.1

5x -1 + 5(0.2)x - 2 = 26 t + 25t- 1 = 26

t2 - 26t + 25 = 0

Solution: First observe that

(t - 1)(t - 25) = 0

2

0.2 = = 5- 1 t = 1 or 25

10

and hence Since 5x - 1 = t. We get 5x - 1 = 1 or 52.

(0.2)x - 2 = 5- ( x - 2 ) = 52 - x Solving we get x = 1 or 3.

Therefore, the given equation reduces to

5x - 1 + 53 - x = 26

Example 2.2

Solve the equation which has the same solutions as the original equation.

Since log2 3 = (1/ 2) log2 9, we get that

4 ´ 9x - 1 = 3 22 x + 1

3

Solution: First note that both sides of the given equa- x(log2 9 - 1) = (log2 9 - 1)

2

tion are positive. Taking logarithms with base 2, we get the

equation Since log2 9 ¹ 1, it follows that x = 3 / 2.

1

2 + ( x - 1) log2 9 = log2 3 + (2 x + 1)

2

90 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Example 2.3

5x ´ 2( 2 x - 1)/( x + 1) = 50 x=2

-1

Solution: The given equation is equivalent to or 1= log5 2

x+1

5x - 2 = 2[ 1-( 2 x - 1)/( x + 1)] 1

x + 1 = log5

5x - 2 = 2( 2 - x )/( x + 1) 2

1 1

By transforming this into logarithmic equation (taking x = log5 - log5 5 = log5

2 10

logarithms with base 5), we get

-( x - 2) Therefore the given equation has two solutions, namely,

x-2= log5 2 2 and log5(1/10).

x+1

Transforming a given logarithmic equation into an exponential equation, we can find solutions of the equations. For

any a > 0, a ¹ 1, the logarithmic equation

loga x = loga y

is equivalent to x = y, where x and y are positive real numbers or expressions containing the variable. We simply write

log x for log10 x or loge x. One has to take it depending on the context. Since

1

log10 x = (loge x)

loge 10

it is easy to pass from logarithms with base 10 to those with base e.

Example 2.4

Find the solution(s) of the equation Note that this is meaningful for all x ¹ 0, whereas the

given equation is valid only when x > 0. It follows that

2 log(2 x) = log( x2 + 75) (2.3)

4 x2 = x2 + 75

Solution: The equation is meaningful only when x > 0. x2 = 25

The given equation can be transformed into

Therefore x = 5 or -5. Equation (2.3) has only 5 as a solu-

log(4 x2 ) = log( x2 + 75) (2.4) tion, whereas Eq. (2.4) has two solutions, namely 5 and –5.

Example 2.5

Now we have

Solution: The equation is meaningful only when x > 1.

Transforming the sum of logarithms to the logarithm of a x-2=0Þx=2

product, we have x + 1 = 0 Þ x = -1

log2 [ x( x - 1)] = 1 = log2 2

Therefore this has two solutions, namely, 2 and –1.

Therefore However, for the given equation to be meaningful, we

x( x - 1) = 2 should have x > 1. Therefore, 2 is the only solution of

the given equation.

or x2 - x - 2 = 0

2.5 Systems of Exponential and Logarithmic Equations 91

Example 2.6

log3 (3 - 8) = 2 - x

x 3x = 9 or 3x = - 1

The equation 3x = -1 has no solution and the equation

Solution: Taking antilogarithms with the base 3 of the

3x = 9 has unique solution, namely 2. Thus, 2 is the only

given equation, we get

solution of the given equation.

3x - 8 = 32 - x

32x - 8 ´ 3x - 9 = 0

(3x - 9)(3x + 1) = 0

Example 2.7

log x = (- log 2 ± log2 2 + 4 log 5 )

2

xlog 2 x = 5

Since log 5 = 1 - log 2, we find that

Solution: By taking logarithms with base 10, we get an

equation log2 2 + 4 log 5 = (log 2 - 2)2

log 2 x ´ log x = log 5 and therefore,

log x(log 2 + log x) = log 5 1

This gives log x = [- log 2 ± (log 2 - 2)]

2

log2 x + log 2 ´ log x - log 5 = 0 Therefore, log x = -1 or 1 - log 2(= log 5). Thus 1/10 and

This is equivalent to the original equation and is mean- 5 are solutions of the given equation.

ingful only when x > 0. Also, the above equation is a

quadratic equation with respect to log x. Therefore

In this section we consider finding solutions simultaneously satisfying a given system of exponential and logarithmic

equations.

Example 2.8

logx y + logy x = 2.5 t = 2 Þ logx y = 2 Þ y = x2

xy = 27 t = 1/ 2 Þ logy x = 2 Þ x = y2

Solution: We have to find a common solution to both From the equation xy = 27, it follows that when y = x2

the above equations. Note that 0 < x ¹ 1 and 0 < y ¹ 1. By we get

taking logx y = t in the first equation we get that x3 = 27 Þ x = 3

1 5

t+ = Substituting this value of x we get y = (3)2 = 9. Therefore

t 2 (3, 9) is one solution. Similarly (9, 3) is another solution.

2t2 + 2 = 5t Therefore, (3, 9) and (9, 3) are common solutions for the

given two equations.

(t - 2)(2t - 1) = 0

92 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Example 2.9

log3 x = ± 2

Solution: Taking logarithms with base 3, these equations

can be transformed into Now two situations occur:

-2 1 1

log3 x log3 y = 4 + log3 x (2.6) (2) log3 x = -2 Þ x = 3 = , log3 y = -1, y =

9 3

Comparing Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6) we get Thus, (9, 27) and (1/ 9, 1/ 3) are the solutions of the given

3 + log3 y = 4 + log3 x system of equations.

log3 y = 1 + log3 x

Example 2.10

log8 ( xy) = 3 (log8 x × log8 y ) 4( s - t ) = s / t

4 log8 ç ÷ = Therefore, we have

è y ø log8 y

t = 1/ 2 Þ log8 y = 1/ 2 Þ y = 2 2

Solution: This system of equations can be transformed to

s = 1 Þ log8 x = 1 Þ x = 8

log8 x + log8 y = 3 log8 x ´ log8 y

t = 1/ 6 Þ log8 y = 1/ 6 Þ y = 81/ 6 = 2

log8 x

4(log8 x - log8 y) =

log8 y s = -1/ 3 Þ log8 x = -1/ 3 Þ x = 8- 1/ 3 = 2- 1 = 1/ 2

By putting s = log8 x and t = log8 y, we get Therefore, (8, 2 2 ) and (1/ 2, 2 ) are the solutions of the

given system of equations.

Let us recall that, if a > 1, the function ax increases and that, 0 < a < 1, the function ax decreases. Also, the function loga x

increases if a > 1, and decreases if 0 < a < 1. These properties can be used to solve some exponential and logarithmic

inequalities.

Example 2.11

Solve the inequality These expressions are meaningful only when 2x/(x + 1) > 0.

Also, the function log9 x is increasing and hence the inequ-

1 2x ality (2.7) is equivalent to the inequality

< log 9 (2.7)

2 x+1

2x

3< (2.9)

Solution: This can be written as x+1

log9 3 < log9 (2.8) hence, by Eq. (2.9), 3( x + 1) < 2 x and hence x + 3 < 0, a

x+1

Worked-Out Problems 93

contradiction to the fact that 2 x /( x + 1) > 0 ]. Therefore and therefore, x > - 3. Thus, the interval (-3, - 1) is the

x < 0. Then x + 1 < 0 and hence x < - 1. Again by Eq. (2.9) set of solutions of the given inequality.

3( x + 1) > 2 x

Example 2.12

ý (2.12)

( x2 - 2.5 x + 1)x + 1 £ 1 (2.10) x + 1 £ 0 þï

The system Eq. (2.11) of inequalities has solutions

Solution: This is equivalent to the collection of two 0 £ x < 0.5 and 2 < x £ 2.5. The system Eq. (2.12) has

systems of inequalities solutions x £ - 1. Therefore, the set of solutions of the

0 < x2 - 2.5 x + 1 £ 1üï inequality Eq. (2.10) is

ý (2.11)

x + 1 ³ 0 þï éæ 1 ö æ 5 ö ù

[-¥, - 1] È êç 0, ÷ È ç 2, ÷ ú

ëè 2 ø è 2 ø û

Example 2.13

1

2x < 31/ x x< log2 3

(2.13) x

x2 - log2 3

Solution: First note that both sides of this inequality <0 (2.15)

are positive for all x ¹ 0 and therefore, their logarithms x

are defined with respect to any base. In particular, since If x is a solution of Eq. (2.15) and x > 0, then x2 - log2 3 < 0

the function log2 x is increasing, the inequality (2.13) is and hence 0 < x < log2 3 . If x < 0 and is a solution of

equivalent to the inequality

Eq. (2.15), then x2 - log2 3 > 0 and hence x < - log2 3 .

log2 (2x ) < log2 31/ x (2.14) Therefore, the set of solutions of the inequality (2.13) is

(-¥, - log2 3 ) È (0, log2 3 )

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

log2.5 [( 1 / 3) + ( 1 / 32 ) + +¥ ] -2 log2.5 ( 2 ) log5/ 2 ( 4 )

1. (0.16) = æ 2ö æ 5ö

=ç ÷ =ç ÷ =4

è 5ø è 2ø

(A) 2 2 (B) 2 (C) 4 2 (D) 4

Answer: (D)

Solution: We know that, for any -1 < r < 1,

a 2. If log 12 27 = a, then log 6 16 =

a + ar + ar2 + + ¥ =

1- r æ3+aö æ3-aö

(A) 4 ç ÷ (B) 4 ç ÷

Therefore è3-aø è3+aø

1 1 1/ 3 1 æ3-aö æ3+aö

+ + + ¥ = = (C) 2 ç ÷ (D) 2 ç ÷

3 32 1 - 1/ 3 2 è3+aø è3-aø

Finally we have Solution:

2 log2.5 ( 1 / 2 )

2 æ 2ö log 6 16 = 4 log 6 2 =

4

=

4

(0.16)log2.5 [(1/ 3) + (1/ 3 ) + +¥ ]

=ç ÷ (2.16)

è 5ø log 2 6 1 + log 2 3

94 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

x x

of x is

3 3

a = log12 27 = 3 log12 3 = = (A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 4

log3 12 1 + 2 log3 2

Solution: First note that 2x > 7 / 2 and 2x > 5. Therefore

Therefore

x > 2. From the hypothesis, we have

a(1 + 2 log3 2) = 3

3 3-a 2(2x - 7 / 2) = (2x - 5)2

2 log3 2 = - 1 =

a a Therefore

2 3-a

= 2 ´ 2x - 7 = 22 x - 10 ´ 2x + 25

log2 3 a

2a Put a = 2x . Then 2a - 7 = a2 - 10a + 25 . Therefore

log2 3 =

3-a a2 - 12a + 32 = 0

Substituting in Eq. (2.16), we get that (a - 8)(a - 4) = 0

4 æ 3 - aö Now a = 4 or 8. That is

log6 16 = = 4ç

1 + [2a /(3 - a)] è 3 + a ÷ø

2x = 4 or 8

Answer: (B) x = 2 or 3

(A) 2b = a + c (B) a2 + c2 = 2b2 Answer: (A)

2ac

(C) b2 = ac (D) =b 6. If log( 2 x + 3) (6 x2 + 23 x + 21) = 4 - log( 3 x + 7 ) (4 x2 + 12 x + 9),

a+c

then the value of -4x is

Solution:

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) -1/4

log[(a + c)(a - 2b + c)] = log(a - c) 2

Solution: First note that 2x + 3 > 0 and 2x + 3 ¹ 1, that

is, x > -3 / 2 and x ¹ -1. Also, 3 x + 7 > 0 and 3x + 7 ¹ 1,

(a + c)(a + c - 2b) = (a - c)2

that is, x > -7 / 3 and x ¹ -2. Suppose x > -3 / 2, x ¹ -1.

(a + c)2 - 2b(a + c) = (a - c)2 Then the given equation can be written as

b= = 4-

a+c log(2 x + 3) log(3 x + 7)

Answer: (D) log(3 x + 7) 2 log(2 x + 3)

1+ = 4-

log(2 x + 3) log(3 x + 7)

4. The solution of the equation log7 log5( x + 5 + x ) = 0 is

Put

(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 1

log(3 x + 7)

Solution: =y

log(2 x + 3)

log7 log5 ( x + 5 + x ) = 0 Then

log5 ( x + 5 + x ) = 7 = 10

2

1 1+ y = 4 -

x+5+ x = 5 = 5 y

x + 5 = 25 - 10 x + x Therefore

10 x = 20 2

y=3-

y

x=2

y2 - 3 y + 2 = 0

x=4

( y - 1)( y - 2) = 0

Therefore, x = 4 satisfies the given equation.

Answer: (C) This gives y = 1 or 2.

Worked-Out Problems 95

3x + 7 = 2 x + 3 Therefore, the number of the solutions of the given

equation is 2.

x = -4

Answer: (B)

This is rejected because x > -3/2.

Alternative Method

Case 2: Suppose that y = 2. Then 2

- 8 x + 15)/( x - 2 )

| x - 3 |( x =1

log(3 x + 7) = 2 log(2 x + 3) = log(2 x + 3) 2

Þ x ¹ 2, x ¹ 3 and | x - 3 | = 1 or x2 - 8 x + 15 = 0

Therefore Þ x ¹ 2, x ¹ 3 and ( x = 4 or 2 or x = 3 or 5)

3 x + 7 = 4 x2 + 12 x + 9

Þ x = 4 or x=5

4 x2 + 9 x + 2 = 0

(4 x + 1)( x + 2) = 0 9. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are solutions of the system of

simultaneous equations

x = - 1/ 4 or - 2

log8 ( xy) = 3 log8 x × log8 y

Here x = -1 / 4 (since x > -3 / 2). So

æ x ö log8 x

-4x = 1 4 log8 ç ÷ =

è y ø log8 y

Answer: (B) then x1 x2 + y1 y2 equals to

(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 2 (D) 8

7. The number of the solutions of the equation log(x2 -

6x + 7) = log(x - 3) is Solution: Clearly x > 0, y > 0 and y ¹ 1, so as to make

(A) 6 (B) 5 (C) 7 (D) 4 the equations meaningful. The given equations are

equivalent to

Solution: We have, for the term in parentheses on the

RHS of the given equation, log8 x + log8 y = 3 log8 x log8 y

4(log8 x - log8 y) = log8 x /log8 y

x2 - 6 x + 7 = ( x - 3)2 - 2 > 0 Û | x - 3 | > 2

Also, log(x - 3) is defined for all x > 3. From the given Put log8 x = m and log8 y = n ¹ 0. Then the equivalent

equation, x2 - 6 x + 7 = x - 3 , x > 3. Therefore system is

m + n = 3mn ü

x2 - 7 x + 10 = 0, x > 3 ý (2.17)

4(m - n) = m / n þ

( x - 2)( x - 5) = 0, x > 3

Multiplying both the equations of the equivalent system

x=5 we get

Answer: (B)

4(m2 - n2 ) = 3m2

8. The number of solutions of the equation Therefore

m2 = 4 n2 or m = ±2 n

2

- 8 x + 15)/( x - 2 )

| x - 3 |( x =1

is Putting m = 2 n in Eq. (2.17), we get that

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) 4

1

3n = 6 n2 or n = (since n ¹ 0) and m = 1

Solution: 2

2

- 8 x + 15)/( x - 2 )

| x - 3 |( x =1 Now

x2 - 8 x + 15 m = 1 Þ log8 x = 1 Þ x = 8

Þ x ¹ 3, x ¹ 2 and log | x - 3 | = 0

x-2 1 1

n= Þ log8 y = Þ y = 2 2

Þ x ¹ 2, x ¹ 3 and | x - 3 | = 1 or x - 8 x + 15 = 2

2

2 2

96 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

and is equivalent to

x1 = 8, y1 = 2 2

2

1 é 1 ù

Again by taking m = -2 n, we get that log2 x - 2 ê - log2 x ú + 1 > 0

2 ë 2 û

n = 6 n2 or n = 1/ 6 and m = - 1/3 1 1

log2 x - (log2 x)2 + 1 > 0

1 2 2

-1/ 3 = m = log8 x Þ x = 8-1/ 3 = (23 )-1/ 3 =

2 (log2 x)2 - log2 x - 2 < 0

1/ 6 = n = log8 y Þ y = 81/ 6 = (23 )1/ 6 = 2 (log2 x - 2)(log2 x + 1) < 0

1

1 < x < 22

x1 x2 + y1 y2 = 8 ´ +2 2 ´ 2 = 4+4 = 8 2

2

Answer: (C)

Answer: (D)

12. If log3 x( x + 2) = 1, then x is equal to

10. If

(A) 3 or -1 (B) 1 or -4

æ 1 ö (C) -3 or -1 (D) 1 or -3

log10 ç x = x(log10 5 - 1)

è 2 + x - 1÷ø

Solution: log3 x( x + 2) = 1 is meaningful if x( x + 2) ¹ 0

then x is equal to and x( x + 2) > 0 . Also, this equation implies

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0 x( x + 2) = 3

Solution: Given equation is equivalent to x + 2x - 3 = 0

2

æ 1 ö ( x + 3)( x - 1) = 0

log10 ç x = x(log10 5 - log10 10)

è 2 + x - 1÷ø x = -3 or 1

æ 5ö Answer: (D)

= x log10 ç ÷

è 10 ø

13. A solution of the equation

1

= log10 x 1

2 log(2 x) = log( x - 15)4

4

Therefore is

(A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 2 (D) -15

1 1

= Solution: The given equation is meaningful if x > 0 and

2x + x - 1 2x

x ¹ 15. If x > 15, then the given equation is equivalent to

This gives x – 1 = 0 or x = 1 which satisfies the equation. log 2 x = log( x - 15)

Answer: (A)

and hence 2 x = x - 15 and therefore x = -15, which is

11. The set of all values of x satisfying the inequality false (since x > 0). Therefore 0 < x < 15. Then, from the

log2 x - 2(log1/ 4 x)2 + 1 > 0 is the interval given equation

log(2 x) = log(15 - x)4 = log(15 - x)

4

(C) æç , 4ö÷ (D) æç ,

1 1 1ö

è2 ø è4 ÷

2ø and hence 2 x = 15 - x, so that x = 5.

Answer: (B)

Worked-Out Problems 97

1. Which of the following are true? (C) 34 log3 5 + (27)log9 36 = 54 + (33 )(1/ 2 ) log3 ( 36 )

1 1 1

(A) + + + = logn (43)! = 625 + (36)3 / 2 = 625 + 216 = 841

log2 n log3 n log43 n

3 1/ 3

121 + ( 1/ 3) + 1/ 3]

(D) 8log2 = 23[log2 (121)

1 1 1

(B) + + =2

logxy ( xyz) logyz ( xyz) logzx ( xyz) = 2log2 121+ 1 = 121 ´ 2 = 242

(C) If n = (2009)!, then Answers: (A), (B), (D)

+ + + =1

log2 n log3 n log2009 n log2 x + log4 y + log4 z = 2

loga n log3 y + log9 z + log9 x = 2

(D) = loga b - 1

logab n

log4 z + log16 x + log16 y = 2

43

1 43 43 (A) xy = 9 / 4 (B) yz = 36

(A) å log

k=2 n

= å logn k = å logn k = logn (43)!

k=2 k=2

(C) zx = 64 / 9 (D) x + y + z = xyz

k

(B) + +

logxy ( xyz) logyz ( xyz) logzx ( xyz)

log2 x = log4 ( x2 )

= logxyz ( xy) + logxyz ( yz) + logxyz (zx)

log3 y = log9 ( y2 )

= logxyz ( xy × yz × zx) = 2

log4 z = log16 (z2 )

(C) By (A), the given sum is logn (2009)! = logn n = 1.

loga n logn ab logn a + logn b From log2 x + log4 y + log4 z = 2, we get that

(D) = =

logab n logn a logn a

log4 x2 yz = 2

logn b

= 1+ = 1 + loga b and hence

logn a

x2 yz = 42 = 16 (2.18)

Answers: (A), (B), (C)

Similarly,

2. Which of the following are correct?

y2 zx = 92 = 81 (2.19)

(A) logb a × logc b × logd c × loga d = 1

z2 xy = 162 = 256 (2.20)

4

(B) 22 × 2- log2 5 =

5 From Eqs. (2.18) – (2.20), we get that x y z = 16 ´ 81 ´ 256. 4 4 4

3

121 + ( 1 / 3)

(D) 8log2 = 242 xyz = 2 ´ 3 ´ 4 = 24

(A) logb a × logc b × logd c × loga d = logc a × logd c × loga d 16 2

x= =

= logd a × loga d = 1 24 3

-1 4 Similarly, y = 27 / 8 and z = 32 / 3 . Therefore, xy = 9 / 4, yz = 36

(B) 22 × 2- log2 5 = 4 × 2log2 ( 5 )

=

5 and zx = 64 / 9.

Answers: (A), (B), (C)

98 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II. Therefore

solutions of the equation (C)

log4 ( x - 1) = log2 ( x - 3) is

(q) 0 1

(B) The number of solutions of the log0.3( x - 1) < log0.09( x - 1) = log( 0.3)2 ( x - 1) = log0.3( x - 1)

equation 2

2

x[ 3/ 4(log2 x ) + log2 x - 5/ 4 ] = x 2 is (r) 2 Therefore

(C) The smallest positive 2 log10 ( x - 1) log10 ( x - 1)

integer x such that <

(s) 4 log10 (0.3) log10 (0.3)

log0.3 ( x - 1) < log0.09 ( x - 1) is

(D) The minimum value of (t) 1 2 log10 ( x - 1) > log10 ( x - 1)

loga x + logx a, where log10 ( x - 1) > 0

1 < a < x is

x - 1 > 1 or x>2

Solution:

(A) Therefore, the smallest integer x satisfying the given equa-

tion is 3.

log4 ( x - 1) = log2 ( x - 3)

Answer: (C) Æ (p)

1 (D)

Þ log2 ( x - 1) = log2 ( x - 3)

2

1 < a £ x Þ loga x > 0, logx a > 0

Þ x - 1 = ( x - 3)2

Therefore

Þ x2 - 7 x + 10 = 0

Þ x = 2 or 5 loga x + logx a ³ 2(loga x × logx a)1/2 = 2

But the given equation is defined for x > 3. and equality occurs if and only if x = a. Therefore mini-

Therefore x = 5. mum value is 2.

Answer: (A) Æ (t) Answer: (D) Æ (r)

(B)

2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

[ 3 / 4 (log2 x )2 + log2 x - 5 / 4 ]

x = 2

Column I Column II

Taking logarithms on both sides to the base 2,

(A) log2 (log3 81) = (p) 0

é3 5ù 1

êë 4 (log2 x) + log2 x - 4 úû log2 x = 2

2

(q) 1

(B) 34 log9 7 = 7k , then k =

(r) 3

Put log2 x = t. Then (C) 2log3 5 - 5log3 2 = (s) 2

é3 2 5ù 1 (D) log3 [log2 (512)] = (t) 4

êë 4 t + t - 4 úû

t=

2

Solution:

Therefore

(A) log2 (log3 81) = log2 (log3 34 ) = log2 4 = 2

3t + 4t - 5t - 2 = 0

3 2

Answer: (A) Æ (s)

Clearly, t = 1 is root of this equation. Now, (B)

(t - 1)(3t2 + 7t + 2) = 0 34 log9 7 = 7k

t = 1, - 2, - 1/ 3 Þ 34 ´(1/ 2 ) log3 7 = 7k

Worked-Out Problems 99

Þ (3log3 7 )2 = 7k (D)

Þ k= 2 = log 3 9 = 2

Answer: (B) Æ (s) Answer: (D) Æ (s)

(C)

= (2log2 5 )log3 2 - 5log3 2

= 5log3 2 - 5log3 2 = 0

Answer: (C) Æ (p)

Comprehension-Type Questions

1. Passage: It is given that æ ö

(iii) logp ç logp p p p

p p ÷ (n radicals) =

loga (bc) = loga b + loga c, a ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 è ø

æbö (A) np (B) –n (C) –np (D) n

loga ç ÷ = loga b - loga c, a ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0

ècø

Solution:

n (i)

logam b = loga b, a ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, m ¹ 0

n

m

a2 + b2 = 7ab

loga b = logc b /logc a, a ¹ 1, c ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0

(a + b)2 = 9ab

1

loga b = , a ¹ 1, b ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0 2 log(a + b) = 2 log 3 + log(ab)

logb a

2 log ç = log(ab)

è 3 ÷ø

(i) If a > 0, b > 0 and a2 + b2 = 7ab, then

æ a + bö Answer: (A)

(A) 2 log ç = log(ab)

è 3 ÷ø (ii) The given number can be written as

æ a + bö log3 (135) log3 (15) - log3 5 × log3 405

(B) log ç = log(ab)

è 3 ÷ø

2

= (log3 5 + 3)(1 + log3 5) - (log3 5)(log3 5 + 4) = 3

æ a + bö æ aö

(C) log ç = log ç ÷

è 3 ÷ø

Answer: (C)

è bø

æ ö

æ | a - b |ö

(iii) logp ç log p p p p p ÷ = logp logp ( p1/p )

n

(D) log ç = log a + log b

è 3 ÷ø ç p

÷

è n ø

(ii) log3 135 - log3 5 is equal to æ 1ö

log15 3 log405 3 = log p ç n ÷ = -n

èp ø

(A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 3 (D) 0

Answer: (B)

1. Statement I: If a, b, c are the sides of a right-angled Statement II: a2 = c2 - b2

triangle with c as the hypotenuse and both c + b and

(A) Both Statements I and II are correct and State-

c - b are not equal to unity, then

ment II is a correct explanation of Statement I.

logc + b a + logc - b a = 2 logc + b a ´ logc - b a

100 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Statement II is not a correct explanation of =

loga (c + b) loga (c - b)

Statement I.

(C) Statement I is true, but Statement II is false. loga (c2 - b2 )

=

(D) Statement I is false, but Statement II is correct. loga (c + b) loga (c - b)

=

the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the loga (c + b) loga (c - b)

squares of the other two sides. Therefore Statement II is

correct. Also, = 2 logc + b a ´ logc - b a

1 1 Answer: (A)

logc + b a + logc - b a = +

loga (c + b) loga (c - b)

SUMMARY

2.1 Exponential function: For any positive real number a, 2.4 Properties of logarithmic function:

the function f(x) = ax for x Î is called exponential (1) a =y

loga y

function with base a.

(2) log a(ax) = x

2.2 Properties of ax: (3) loga y = x Û y = ax

(1) ax·ay = ax+y (4) loga(y1y2) = logay1 + logay2

x

(2) a > 0 (5) loga (1/ y) = - loga y

ax (6) loga( y1/y2) = logay1 - logay2

(3) y = ax - y

a (7) loga ( yz ) = z loga y for all z Î

(4) (ax)y = axy (8) logaa = 1 and loga1 = 0

(5) a-x = 1/ax

0

(6) a = 1 2.5 Some more important formulae:

1

(7) a = a (1) Change of base: If a, b are both positive and dif-

ferent from 1, and y is positive, then

(8) 1x = 1

x y

(9) For a > 1, if x ≤ y, then a ≤ a (i.e., a is an

x logay = logby × logab

increasing function). 1

(2) logb a ´ loga b = 1 or logba =

(10) If 0 < a < 1, then x ≤ y Þ ax ≥ ay (i.e., ax is a loga b

decreasing function). (3) logx y = log y /log x where both numerator and

(11) If a > 0, then ax is an infection. denominator have common base.

(12) For a > 0 and a ≠ 1, then ax = 1 Û x = 0.

1

(4) logan ( y) = loga y

2.3 Logarithmic function: Let a > 0 and a ≠ 1. Consider n

the function g: + ® defined by g(y) = x Û y = ax (5) If 0 < a < 1, then loga x is a decreasing function.

for all y Î+ and x Î . This function g is denoted (6) If a > 1, then loga x is an increasing function.

by loga meaning that loga y = x Û y = ax. Note that

loga y is defined only 0 < a ≠ 1 and y > 0.

EXERCISES

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. If a > 0, b > 0 and a2 + 4b2 = 12ab, then log(a + 2b) - (A) log a + log b (B) 2(log a + log b)

2 log 2 is equal to 1

(C) 3(log a + log b) (D) (log a + log b)

2

Exercises 101

(C) (-2, -1) (D) ( - 2, 0) È (0, 1)

2[ loga 4 ab + logb 4 ab

10. If |log2 ( x2 / 2)| £ 1, then x lies in

- loga 4 b / a + logb 4 a / b ] loga b = (A) (0, 1) (B) [ - 2, - 1] È [1, 2]

(C) (3, ¥) (D) (-¥, - 2)

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

11. The domain of the function

3. log3 2 × log4 3 × log5 4 × log6 5 × log7 6 × log8 7 =

log2 ( x + 3)

f ( x) =

(A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 1 (D) 2 x2 + 3 x + 2

2 3

is

logx (log2 x + 1) 1

4. log2(2x2) + (log2 x) × x + (log4 x4)2 + 2-3 log1/2 log2 x = (A) - { - 1, - 2} (B) (-2, ¥)

2 (C) - {- 1, - 2, - 3} (D) (- 3, ¥) - {- 1, - 2}

(A) (1 + log2 x)3 (B) 1 + log2 x

x ( x - 1)

(C) (1 + log2 x) 2

(D) (1 + log2 x)4 12. Let f : [1, ¥) ® [1, ¥) be defined by f ( x) = 2 .

Then f -1 ( x) is equal to

5. The number of pairs (x, y) satisfying the equations 1

(A) 2- x ( x - 1) (B) (1 + 1 + 4 log2 x )

logy x + logx y = 2 and x = 20 + y is

2 2

1

(A) Infinite (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) 1 (C) (1 - 1 + 4 log2 x ) (D) f -1 ( x) does not exist

2

6. The set of solutions of the inequality logx (2x - 3 / 4) > 13. Let f ( x) = x2 + x + log(1 + | x |) for 0 £ x £ 1. If F(x)

2 is is defined on [-1, 1] such that F(x) is odd and

æ 1ö æ 1 ö æ3 1ö æ 3ö F(x) = f(x) for 0 £ x £ 1, then

(A) ç 0, ÷ È ç , 1 ÷ (B) ç , ÷ È ç 1, ÷

è 2ø è2 ø è8 2ø è 2ø ì f ( x) for 0 £ x £ 1

æ 3ö æ 3ö æ 3ö (A) F ( x) = í 2

(C) ç 0, ÷ È ç 1, ÷ (D) (0, 1) È ç 1, ÷ î- x + x - log(1 + | x |) for - 1 £ x £ 0

è 8ø è 2ø è 2ø (B) F ( x) = x2 + x - log(1 + | x |) for -1 £ x £ 0

(C) F ( x) = - f ( x) for -1 £ x £ 0

7. The set of solutions of the inequality 2 log2 (x - 1) >

log2 (5 - x) + 1 is (D) F ( x) = - x2 + x + log(1 + | x |) for -1 £ x £ 0

(A) (1, 5) (B) (5, ¥)

14. Let W be the set of whole numbers and f : W ® W

(C) (3, 5) (D) (-¥, -3)

be defined by

8. If loga 2 = m and loga 5 = n, where 0 < a ¹ 1, then ìæ é x ùö [log10 x ] æ é x ùö

loga 500 = ïç x - 10 ê ú÷ø 10 + f ç ê ú÷ if x>0

f ( x) = íè ë 10 û è ë 10 ûø

(A) 2m + 3n (B) 3m + 2n ï

(C) 3m + 3n (D) 2m + 2n î0 iff x = 0

where [ y] denotes the largest integer £ y. Then

9. The domain of the function f (x) = [1 / log10 (1 - x)] + f (7752) =

x + 2 is

(A) 7527 (B) 5727 (C) 7257 (D) 2577

1. If logx (6 x - 1) > logx (2 x), then x belongs to x( y + z - x) y(z + x - y) z( x + y - z)

2. If = = then

log x log y log z

(A) æç ,

1ö

(B) æç , +¥ ö÷

1 1

è6 ÷ (A) xy yx = yz zy (B) yz zy = xz zx

4ø è6 ø

(C) xz zy = yz zx (D) xy yx = zx xz

(D) ç , +¥ ö÷

æ 1

(C) (1, + ¥)

è8 ø

102 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

log 2 x

= 5 is 6. If f ( x) = log10 (3 x - 4 x + 5), then

2

4. A solution of the system of equations

(B) Range of f is [log10 (11/ 3), + ¥)

(C) f is defined in (0, + ¥)

xx - y = yx + y and x ×y = 1

(D) Range of f is (-¥, log10 (11/ 3)]

is

g (x)

7. If e + e = e, then

x

(A) (1, 1) (B) (1, 3 3 )

(C) (1/ 3 9 , 1) (D) (1/ 3 9 , 3 3 ) (A) Domain of g is (-¥, 1)

(B) Range of g is (-¥, 1)

5. A solution of the inequality log0.2 ( x2 - 4) ³ - 1 satisfies

(C) Domain of g is (-¥, 0]

(A) 1 < x < 2 (B) 2 < x £ 3

(D) Range of g is (-¥, 1]

(C) 3 < x £ 4 (D) 1 < x £ 3

In each of the following questions, statements are given in 2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

two columns, which have to be matched. The statements in

Column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while those Column I Column II

in Column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and (t). Any

given statement in Column I can have correct matching (A) The number of solutions of the

(p) 0

with one or more statements in Column II. The appropriate equation log10(3x2 + 12x + 19) -

bubbles corresponding to the answers to these questions log10(3x + 4) = 1 is

have to be darkened as illustrated in the following example. (q) 3

(B) log 5 (4x - 6) - log 5 (2x - 2) = 2 is

Example: If the correct matches are (A) ® (p), (s); satisfied by x whose number is

(B) ® (q), (s), (t); (C) ® (r), (D) ® (r), (t); that is if the (r) 2

matches are (A) ® (p) and (s); (B) ® (q), (s) and (t); (C) The number of solutions of the

(C) ® (r); and (D) ® (r), (t); then the correct darkening equation log3 (3x - 8) = 2 - x is

(s) 4

of bubbles will look as follows: (D) The number of values of

p q r s t x that satisfy the equation

A 2 log3 ( x - 2) + log3 ( x - 4)2 = 0 is (t) 1

B

C

D 3. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II. Column I Column II

(A) f ( x) = is defined for x (p) [1, 2)

x

(A) The number of solutions (p) 3 belonging to

of the equation (q) (–2, 1)

2 - x + 3 log5 2 = log5 (3x - 52 - x ) is (B) Domain of the function

(B) The number of values of (q) 1 f ( x) = log[1 - log10 ( x2 - 5 x + 16)] is (r) (2, 3)

x satisfying the equation

(log2 x)2 - 5(log2 x) + 6 = 0 is (r) 4 (C) f ( x) = ( log0.5 ( x2 - 7 x + 13))-1 is (s) (3, 4)

(C) The number of roots of the equation defined for x belonging to

1 (s) 0 (D) Domain of the function

log10 x - 1 + log10 (2 x + 15) = 1 is (t) (2, 3]

2 æ 4 - x2 ö

(D) The number of solutions of the (t) 2 f ( x) = log ç ÷ is

è 1- x ø

equation log7 ( x + 2) = 6 - x is

Exercises 103

Statement I and Statement II are given in each of the Statement II: aloga x = x where 0 < a ¹ 1 and x > 0

questions in this section. Your answers should be as per

the following pattern: 3. Statement I: The equation log(2 + x )-1 (5 + x2 ) =

(A) If both Statements I and II are correct and II is a log3 + x2 (15 + x ) has no solution.

correct reason for I

1

(B) If both Statements I and II are correct and II is not a Statement II: logbm a = logb a

m

correct reason for I

(C) If Statement I is correct and Statement II is false 4. Statement I: The equation 9log3(log2 x) = log2 x - (log2 x)2 + 1

(D) If Statement I is false and Statement II is correct. has only one solution.

Statement II: aloga x = x and logaxn = nlogax, where

1. Statement I: If a = x2, b = y2 and c = z2, where x, y, x > 0.

z are non-unit positive reals, then 8(loga x3)(logb y3)

(logc z3) = 27. 5. Statement I: If n is a natural number greater than 1

such that n = p1a1 p2a2 pkak, where p1 , p2 , ¼, pk are dis-

Statement II: logb a × loga b = 1 tinct primes and a 1 , a 2 ,… , a k are positive integers,

2

then log n ³ k log 2.

2. Statement I: If xlogx (1- x ) = 9, then x = 3.

Statement II: loga x > loga y when x > y and a > 1.

The answer to each of the questions in this section is a 3. The value of x satisfying the equation 62x+4 = (33x) (2x+8)

non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below the is .

respective question numbers have to be darkened. For 2

-1

example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer to 4. The number of solutions of the equation | x - 2 |10 x =

the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under Y | x - 2 |3 x is .

labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.

5. The number of ordered pairs (x, y) satisfying the

X Y Z W

two equations 8( 2 )x - y = (0.5)y - 3 and log3 (x - 2y) +

0 0 0 0

log3 (3x + 2y) = 3 is .

1 1 1 1

6. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are the solutions of the simultane-

2 2 2

ous equations x + y = 12 and 2(2 logy2 x - log1/ x y) = 5,

3 3 3 3

then x1 x2 - y1 y2 is equal to .

4 4 4

7. The number of solutions of the system of equations

5 5 5 5

y = 1 + log4 x, xy = 46 is .

6 6 6

7 7 7 7 8. The number of integers satisfying the inequality

8 8 8 8

3( 5 / 2 )log3 (12 - 3 x ) - 3log2 x > 83 is .

9 9 9 9 9. The number of integer values of x satisfying the

inequality 2 x + 1 < 2 log2 ( x + 3) is .

æ 4 ö æ 1 ö

1. 5log1/5 (1/ 2 ) + log 2 ç + log1/ 2 ç =

÷

è 3 + 7ø è 10 + 2 21 ÷ø

.

( 81)1/ log 9 + 3

5 3 / log 6

3

[( 7 )2 / log25 7 - ( 125)

log25 6

2. ]= .

409

104 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

ANSWERS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. (D) 8. (A)

2. (B) 9. (D)

3. (C) 10. (B)

4. (A) 11. (D)

5. (D) 12. (B)

6. (B) 13. (A)

7. (C) 14. (D)

1. (A), (C) 5. (B), (D)

2. (A), (B), (D) 6. (A), (B), (C)

3. (B), (C) 7. (A), (B)

4. (A), (D)

1. (A) ® (q), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (q) 3. (A) ® (p), (r), (t); (B) ® (r),

2. (A) ® (r), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (t), (D) ® (t) (C) ® (s), (D) ® (q)

1. (A) 4. (A)

2. (D) 5. (A)

3. (A)

1. 6 6. 0

2. 1 7. 2

3. 4 8. 2

4. 2 9. 4

5. 1

Complex Numbers

3

Contents

3.1 Ordered Pairs of Real

Numbers

3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib

3.3 Geometric

Interpretation

3.4 The Trigonometric

Form

A: What do you mean?

B: Well, what if we make up a 3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem

number, say ‘i’, so that 3.6 Algebraic Equations

i × i = -1

A: Can we do that?

Worked-Out Problems

B: Why not!

A: But there is no such number Summary

that has that size. Exercises

B: I know, but the idea can exist in Answers

our imagination! I think we should

call it an imaginary number.

Complex Numbers

a and b are real numbers is

Firsts Lasts called a complex number.

The set of all complex num-

bers is denoted by which is

(a+bi)(c+di) ´ .

Inners

Outers

106 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

It is well known that there is no real number a for which a2 = -1. In other words, the equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no root

in the real number system . Likewise, the equation x2 + x + 1 = 0 has no root in . For this reason, the real number

system is enlarged to a system in such a way that every polynomial equation, with coefficients in , has a root in .

The members of are called complex numbers. Infact, the system of complex numbers is the smallest expansion of

the real number system satisfying the above property. In this chapter we will discuss the construction and several

properties of the system of the complex numbers.

A complex number can be defined as an ordered pair of real numbers. Let denote the set of real numbers and

=´

That is, is the set of all ordered pairs (a, b) such that a and b are real numbers. We will introduce all the

arithmetical concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division among members of . The members of are

called complex numbers. First let us recall that two ordered pairs (a, b) and (c, d) are said to be equal if a = c and b = d.

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 1 For any complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d), let us define

(a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)

(a, b) - (c, d) = (a - c, b - d)

(a, b) + (c, d) is called the sum of (a, b) and (c, d) and the process of taking sum is called the

addition. Similarly (a, b) - (c, d) is called the difference of (c, d) with (a, b) and the process of

taking difference is called the subtraction.

1. ((a, b) + (c, d)) + (s, t) = (a, b) + ((c, d) + (s, t))

2. (a, b) + (c, d) = (c, d) + (a, b)

3. (a, b) + (0, 0) = (a, b)

4. (a, b) + (-a, -b) = (0, 0)

5. (a, b) + (c, d) = (s, t) Û (a, b) = (s, t) - (c, d)

Û (c, d) = (s, t) - (a, b)

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 2 For any complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d), let us define

This is called the product of (a, b) and (c, d) and the process of taking products is called

multiplication.

Try it out Verify the following properties for any complex numbers (a, b), (c, d) and (s, t).

1. [(a, b) × (c, d)] × ( s, t ) = (a, b) × [(c, d) × ( s, t )]

2. (a, b) × (c, d) = (c, d) × (a, b)

3. (a, b) × [(c, d) + ( s, t )] = (a, b) × (c, d) + (a, b) × ( s, t )

4. (a, b) × (1, 0) = (a, b)

5. (a, 0) × (c, d) = (ac, ad)

6. (a, 0) × (c, 0) = (ac, 0)

7. (a, 0) + (c, 0) = (a + c, 0)

3.1 Ordered Pairs of Real Numbers 107

Properties 6 and 7 in “Try it out” suggest that, when we identify any real number a with the complex number

(a, 0), then the usual arithmetics of real numbers are carried over to the complex numbers of the form (a, 0). Further

one can easily observe that the mapping a (a, 0) is an injection of into . Therefore, we can identify with the

subset ´ {0} of . This also suggests that any real number a can be considered as a complex number (a, 0). Thus is

an enlargement of without disturbing the arithmetics in .

Examples

æ1 2ö æ 1 2ö

Let z1 = (2, 3) and z2 = ç , ÷ , then (3) z1 × z2 = (2, 3) × ç , ÷

è2 3ø è 2 3ø

æ 1 2 2 1ö

æ1 2ö æ 1 2 ö æ 5 11ö = ç2 ´ - 3 ´ , 2 ´ + 3 ´ ÷

(1) z1 + z2 = (2, 3) + ç , ÷ø = çè 2 + , 3 + ÷ =ç , ÷ è 2 3 3 2ø

è2 3 2 3ø è 2 3 ø

æ 4 3ö

= ç 1 - 2, + ÷

æ1 2ö æ 1 2ö æ 3 7ö è 3 2ø

(2) z1 - z2 = (2, 3) - ç , ÷ø = çè 2 - , 3 - ÷ =ç , ÷

è2 3 2 3ø è 2 3ø æ 17 ö

= ç -1, ÷

è 6ø

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 3 The complex numbers (0, 0) and (1, 0) are called the zero and unity, respectively, and are

simply denoted by 0 and 1. Note that these are the real numbers 0 and 1 also, since, for any

real number a, we identify a with the complex number (a, 0).

T H E O R E M 3 .1 For any non-zero complex number z, there exists a unique complex number s such that z × s = 1 [= (1, 0)].

PROOF Let z = (a, b) be a non-zero complex number; that is, z ¹ (0, 0) and hence either a ¹ 0 or b ¹ 0 so

that a2 + b2 is a positive real number. Put

æ a -b ö

s=ç 2 , 2

è a + b a + b2 ÷ø

2

Then

æ a -b ö

z × s = (a, b) × ç 2 , 2

è a + b a + b2 ÷ø

2

æ a2 b(- b) a(- b) ba ö

=ç 2 - 2 , 2 + 2

èa + b2

a +b a +b

2 2

a + b2 ÷ø

= (1, 0) = 1

If (c, d) is any complex number such that

(a, b) × (c, d) = (1, 0)

then ac - bd = 1 and ad + bc = 0. From these we can derive that

a -b

c= and d=

a + b2

2

a + b2

2

Multiplicative Inverse

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 4 The unique complex number s such that z × s = 1 is called the multiplicative inverse of z and

is denoted by 1/z or z-1. Also, z1 × (1/z2) will be simply expressed as z1/z2.

108 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

z1 × z2 = 0 Û z1 = 0 or z2 = 0

Examples

1 æ 2 -3 ö æ 2 -3 ö 1

=ç 2 , 2 =ç , ÷ = (0, - 1)

z è 2 + 3 2 + 32 ÷ø è 13 13 ø

2

z

(2) If z = (4, 0), then Infact, if z = (0, b), then

1 æ 4 -0 ö æ 1 ö 1 æ - 1ö

=ç 2 , 2 = ç , 0÷ = ç 0, ÷

z è 4 + 0 4 + 02 ÷ø è 4 ø

2

z è bø

Infact, if z = (a, 0), then (4) (0, 1) × (0, 1) = (-1, 0)

1 æ1 ö

= ç , 0÷

z èa ø

Even though there is no real number a such that a2 = -1, there is a complex number z such that z2 (= z × z) = - 1; for

consider the complex number (0, 1). We have

(0, 1) × (0, 1) = (-1, 0) = -1

Also,

(0, -1) × (0, -1) = (-1, 0) = -1

Infact, (0, 1) and (0, -1) are the only complex numbers satisfying the equation z2 = -1. For if z = (a, b) and z2 = - 1, then

(-1, 0) = -1 = (a, b) × (a, b) = (a2 - b2 , 2ab)

and hence a2 - b2 = -1 and 2ab = 0. Since b ¹ 0 (for, if b = 0, then a is a real number such that a2 = -1), it follows that

a = 0 and b = ± 1 and hence z = (0, 1) or (0, -1).

Note: We will denote the complex number (0, 1) by the symbol i (indicating that it is an imaginary number). By the

above discussion, we have i2 = -1 = (-i)2. Recall that we are identifying a real number a with the complex number

(a, 0). With this notation, we have the following theorem.

z = a + ib

where a and b are real numbers and i = (0, 1). This expression is called the algebraic form of z.

PROOF Let z be a complex number. Then z = (a, b) where a and b are real numbers. Now consider

z = (a, b) = (a, 0) + (0, 1)(b, 0) = a + ib

Clearly a and b are unique real numbers such that z = a + ib. ■

Note: We can perform the algebraic operations addition and multiplication with much ease when we consider the

complex numbers in the form a + ib. We can sum or multiply as in the real number system by substituting -1 for i2.

DEFINITION 3.5 Let z be a complex number and z = a + ib, where a and b are real numbers. Then a is called the real

part of z and is denoted by Re(z). Also, b is called the imaginary part of z and is denoted by Im(z).

3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib 109

By the uniqueness of the real and imaginary parts of a complex number, it follows that, for any complex numbers

z1 and z2,

z1 = z2 Û Re(z1 ) = Re(z2 ) and Im(z1 ) = Im(z2 )

Example 3.1

= -39 + 26i

(2 + 3i)(2 + 3i)(3 + 2i) = (4 - 9 + 12i)(3 + 2i)

Example 3.2

z = (1 + i)(5 + 2i)2

= 1 + 41i

= (1 + i)(21 + 20i)

Example 3.3

=

(1 + i)(2 - 3i) 25 + 1

z=

(1 - i)(2 + 3i) 24 æ -10 ö 12 æ -5 ö

= +ç ÷ i= +ç ÷i

26 è 26 ø 13 è 13 ø

Solution: Consider

(1 + i)(2 - 3i) (2 + 3) + (2 - 3)i Therefore Re(z) = 12 / 13 and Im(z) = -5 / 13.

z= =

(1 - i)(2 + 3i) (2 + 3) + (- 2 + 3)i

5-i (5 - i)2

= =

5 + i (5 + i)(5 - i)

Example 3.4

Þ z = 1 or (- 8a3 = 1 and b = ± 3a2 )

Compute all the complex numbers z such that z3 = 1.

æ -1 3ö

Solution: Let z = a + ib. Then Þ z = 1 or ç a = and b = ± ÷

è 2 2 ø

z3 = 1 Þ (a + ib)2 (a + ib) = 1

-1 3 -1 æ 3 ö

Þ z = 1; or z = + i; or z = - i

Þ (a2 - b2 + 2abi)(a + ib) = 1 2 2 2 çè 2 ÷ø

Þ (a2 - b2 )a - 2ab2 + (2a2 b + a2 b - b3 )i = 1

Therefore

ab2 ) + (3a2 b - b3 )i = 1 + 0i

Þ (a3 - 3a

Þ a3 - 3ab2 = 1 and 3a2 b - b3 = 0 -1 + 3i -1 - 3i

1, and

2 2

Þ a(a2 - 3b2 ) = 1 and b(3a2 - b2 ) = 0

Þ (b = 0 and a = 1) or [b2 = 3a2 and a(a2 - 3b2 ) = 1] are all the complex numbers z for which z3 = 1.

110 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Aliter: Now

z3 - 1 = 0 Û (z - 1)(z2 + z + 1) = 0 -1 + i 3 -1 - i 3

and

Ûz=1 or z + z+ 1= 0

2 2 2

Ûz=1 or z= other. If we denote one of them as w, then the other will

2 be w2 and, further, 1 + w + w2 = 0.

Thus, cube roots of unity are

-1 ± i 3

1,

2

Example 3.5

=

3+i 1 + 2 + i - 2i

z=

(1 + i)(1 - 2i) 3+i (3 + i)2

= =

3 - i (3 - i)(3 + i)

in the algebraic form.

9 - 1 + 6i 8 + 6i 4 + 3i

= = =

Solution: Consider 9+1 10 5

3+i =

4

+i

3

z=

(1 + i)(1 - 2i) 5 5

QUICK LOOK 1

4. = -i 2

tions on the complex numbers in algebraic form. a + ib a2 + b2 a + b2

1. (a + ib) + (c + id) = (a + c) + i(b + d) a + ib 1

5. = (c - id)(a + ib)

c + id c2 + d2

2. (a + ib) - (c + id) = (a - c) + i(b - d)

1

3. (a + ib) × (c + id) = (ac - bd) + i(ad + bc) = [(ac + bd) + i(bc - ad)]

c2 + d 2

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 6 A complex number z is called purely real if Im(z) = 0 and is called purely imaginary if

Re(z) = 0.

Note: A complex number is both purely real and purely imaginary if and only if it is 0 (= 0 + i0).

Examples

(1) If x is a positive real number such that (x + i)2 is (2) If x is a real number such that (2x + i)2 is purely real,

purely imaginary, then then

and hence x = 1 (since x > 0). and hence x = 0.

3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib 111

QUICK LOOK 2

Let us turn our attention to all the integral powers of i. Infact, for any integer n,

Recall that i [= (0, 1)] is a complex number such that

i2 = - 1. Now, ì 1 if n is a multiple of 4

ï i n - 1 is a multiple of 4

ï if

i 0 = 1, i 1 = i, i 2 = - 1, i 3 = - i, i 4 = 1 in = í

ï-1 if n - 2 is a multiple of 4

Also, ïî -i if n - 3 is a multiple of 4

æ 1ö

i -1ç = ÷ = - i, i -2 = - 1, i -3 = i, i -4 = 1, …

è iø

T H E O R E M 3 .3 The sum of any four complex numbers which are consecutive powers of i is zero.

PROOF Let z1, z2 , z3, z4 be any four consecutive powers of i. Then, there is an integer n such that

z1 = in, z2 = in + 1, z3 = in + 2 and z4 = in + 3

Among the powers of i, 1, i, -1, -i occur cyclically and hence z1 + z2 + z3 + z4 = 0. ■

Examples

å i = i + i2 + å n = 3 in = i - 1 + 0 = - 1 + i

2010 n 2010

(3) n=1

å i n = å n = 1 i n - å n = 1 i n = i - (i + i 2 ) = 1

3005 3005 1002

(4)

= -i + 1 + i - 1 = 0 n = 1003

DE F IN IT ION 3 . 7 For any complex number z = a + ib (a and b are real numbers), the conjugate of z is defined as

z = a - ib

In the following theorem, whose proof is a straight forward verification, we list several properties of the conjugates of

complex numbers.

QUICK LOOK 3

1. (z ) = z

æz ö z

9. If z2 ¹ 0, ç 1 ÷ = 1

z+z è z2 ø z2

2. Re(z) =

2

10. z × z is a non-negative real number

z-z

3. Im(z) = 11. zz = 0 Û z = 0 Û z = 0

2i

4. z = z Û z is purely real 12. z1z2 + z1z2 = 2 Re(z1z2 ) = 2 Re(z1z2 )

14. For any polynomial f(x) with real coefficients, f (z) =

6. z1 + z2 = z1 + z2

f (z )

7. z1 - z2 = z1 - z2

112 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

T H E O R E M 3 .4 For any complex numbers z and w, with w ¹ 0, there exists a complex number z1 such that

wz1 = z

This z1 is unique and is denoted by z/w.

PROOF Let z = a + ib and w = c + id, where a, b, c and d are real numbers such that c2 + d2 > 0. Put

1

z1 = zw

c2 + d 2

Then

1 1

wz1 = w × zw = [(c + id)(c - id)z] 2 =z

c +d

2 2

c + d2

Also, for any complex number z2,

wz2 = z Þ wwz2 = wz

1

Þ z2 = wz = z1

c2 + d 2 ■

Example 3.6

1

Solution: Take (2 + 3i)z = (2 - 3i)(2 + 3i)(3 - i)

2 + 32

2

1

z= (2 - 3i)(3 - i) 22 + 32

2 + 32

2

= (3 - i) = 3 - i

22 + 32

Example 3.7

4 + 3i 1

Express in the form a + ib. = (8 + 3 + 6 i - 4 i )

2+i 22 + 12

Solution: Consider 11 2

= + i

4 + 3i (4 + 3i) (2 - i) 5 5

=

2+i (2 + i) (2 - i)

We have introduced the concept of a complex number as an ordered pair of real numbers that can be viewed as a point

in the plane with respect to a given coordinate system. Infact, given a coordinate system in the plane, there is a one-

to-one correspondence between the complex numbers and the points in the plane. This makes it possible to consider

a complex number a + ib as the point (a, b) in the coordinate plane. For this reason, the plane is called ARGAND’S

plane or complex plane. The abscissa axis is called the real axis or the axis of real numbers, containing the points

of the form (a, 0), where a is a real number. The ordinate axis is called the imaginary axis or axis of imaginaries,

containing the points of the form (0, b), where b is a real number.

For any complex number z = a + ib, it is often convenient to represent z by the vector OM, where M is the point

(a, b) in the plane and O is the origin. Also, every vector in the plane begining at the origin O(0, 0) and terminating

at the point M(a, b) can be associated with the complex number a + ib. The origin O(0, 0) is associated with the zero

vector (Figure 3.1).

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 113

M

b z = a + ib

x

O a

complex numbers. First, let us consider the addition of complex numbers. Let z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2 be two

complex numbers represented by the points M1 and M2 in the plane as shown in Figure 3.2.

b1 +b2 M

b1 M1

z2 = a2 +ib2 z1 = a1 +ib1

M2 b2

x

a2 O a1 +a2 a1

When z1 and z2 are added, their real and imaginary parts are added up (see Figure 3.2). When adding up vectors

OM 1 and OM 2 corresponding to z1 and z2, their coordinates are added. Therefore, with the correspondence which we

have established between complex numbers and vectors, the sum z1 + z2 of the numbers z1 and z2 will be associated with

the vector OM which is equal to the sum of the vectors OM 1 and OM 2 . Thus, a sum of complex numbers can be inter-

preted in terms of geometry as a vector equal to the sum of the vectors corresponding to the complex numbers (in other

words, it also corresponds to the fourth vertex of the parallelogram

constructed

with OM 1 and OM 2 as adjacent sides).

For any complex number z = a + ib, the length of the vector OM corresponding to z has special importance. This

is same as the distance of the point (a, b) from the origin O in the plane. This is termed as modulus of z and is denoted

by | z |. The concept of the modulus of a complex number plays a vital role in the analysis of complex numbers. By the

Pythagorean Theorem, it follows that the modulus of a + ib is a2 + b2 . The following is a formal definition of the

modulus of a complex number.

Modulus of z

DE FIN IT ION 3 . 8 Let z = a + ib be a complex number, where a and b are real numbers. The modulus of z is

defined as a2 + b2 , the non-negative square root of a2 + b2 and is denoted by | z |. That is,

| z |2 = a2 + b2 = [Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2

114 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

In the following theorem, we list various properties of the modulus of a complex number and the proofs of these

are straight forward routine verifications.

QUICK LOOK 4

n n

The following hold for any complex numbers z, z1 and z2:

1. | z | is a real number and | z | ³ 0 9. |z1 + z2 | 2 = (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 ) = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 + (z2 z1 + z2 z1)

2. | z | = 0 if and only if z = 0 = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 + 2 Re(z1z2 )

3. | z | = | -z | = | z | = | -z | 10. |z1 - z2 | = (z1 - z2 )(z1 - z2 ) = | z1 | + | z2 | + (z2 z1 + z2 z1)

2 2 2

4. | z1z2 | = | z1 || z2 | = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 - 2 Re(z1z2 )

5. | z | = zz

2

11. | z1 + z2 | 2 + | z1 - z2 | 2 = 2[| z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 ]

z1 | z1 |

6. = , if z2 ¹ 0 12. || z1 | - | z2 || £ | z1 ± z2 | £ | z1 | + | z2 |

z2 | z2 |

Note that || z1 | - | z2 || = | z1 - z2 | if and only if z1, z2 are

7. | z1 ± z2 | £ | z1 | + | z2 | collinear with the origin on the same side of the origin.

Note that | z1 + z2 | = | z1 | + | z2 | if and only if the points

z1, z2 are collinear with the origin and lie on the same

side of the origin.

Property 12 above says that | z1 | + | z2 | is the greatest possible value of | z1 ± z2 | and || z1 | - | z2 || is the least possible

value of | z1 ± z2 |.

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 9 A complex number z is said to be unimodular if its modulus is 1, that is, | z | = 1.

Note that, for any non-zero complex number z, z / | z | is always unimodular and

z

z = | z|×

| z|

z = rw

where 0 < r Î and | w | = 1. Moreover, this expression is unique, since

1 z

| z | = | rw | = | r || w | = r × 1 = r and w = z =

r | z|

Example 3.8

(z1 - z2)/(z1 + z2) is unimodular, then prove that iz1/z2 is

a real number. (z1 /z2 ) - 1

=1

(z1 / z2 ) + 1

Solution: We are given that

2 2

æ z1 ö æ zö

z1 - z2

=1 çè z2 ÷ø - 1 = çè z2 ÷ø + 1

z1 + z2

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 115

z1

2

æz ö z

2

æz ö z1

+ 1 - 2 Re ç 1 ÷ = 1 + 1 + 2 Re ç 1 ÷ = ia

z2 z z z2

è 2ø 2 èz ø 2

where a is a real number and

Therefore

z1

i = -a

æz ö z1 z2

Re ç 1 ÷ = 0 or

è z2 ø z2

which is a real number.

is purely imaginary

The complex numbers z having the same modulus | z | = r evidently correspond to the points of the complex plane

located on the circle of radius r with center at the origin. If r > 0, then there are infinitely many complex numbers with

the given modulus r. If r = 0, then there is only one complex number, namely z = 0, whose modulus is 0.

z = a+ib

b

q

x

O a r

FIGURE 3.3 Geometrical determination of z using the angle q and the modulus a2 + b2 .

From the geometrical point of view, it is evident that the complex number z ¹ 0 is not completely determined

by its modulus and depends on the direction also; for example, in Figure 3.3, z is determined by the angle q and the

modulus a2 + b2 . Next, we introduce another important concept which, together with the modulus, completely

determines a complex number.

Argument of z

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 10 Let z ¹ 0 be a complex number and OM be the vector in the plane representing z. Then the

argument of z is defined to be

the magnitude of the angle between the positive direction of

the real axis and the vector OM, measured in counterclockwise sense. The angle will be con-

sidered positive if we measure counterclockwise and negative if we measure clockwise.

Note: For the complex number z = 0 the argument is not defined, and in this and only this case the number is specified

exclusively by its modulus. Specification of the modulus and argument results in a unique representation of any

non-zero complex number.

Unlike the modulus, the argument of a non-zero complex number is not defined uniquely. For example, the

arguments of the complex number z = a + ib shown in Figure 3.4 are the angles q1, q2 and q3. Note that

q2 = 2p + q1 and q3 = q1 - 2p

In general, q is an argument of z if and only if q = q1 + 2np for some integer n, where q1 is also an argument of z;

that is, any two arguments of a complex number differ by a number which is a multiple of 2p. The set of all arguments

of z will be denoted by arg z or arg(a + ib). That is, if q is an argument of z, then

arg z = {q + 2 np | n is an integer}

116 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

y y y

M M M

b

(z =a +ib) (z =a +ib) (z = a + ib)

q1 q2

x x x

O a q3

However, there is a unique q such that -p < q £ p and arg z = {q + 2np | n is an integer}. This q is called the principal

argument of z and is denoted by Arg z (note that A here is uppercase). Note that

-p < Arg z £ p

Also arg z and Arg z are related to each other by the relation

arg z = {Arg z + 2 np | n is an integer}

Frequently, we denote arg z by Arg z + 2np, where Arg z is the principal argument of z.

Example 3.9

z2 = 1 and z3 = -1 + i.

-p -p

Arg(- i) = and arg (- i) = + 2 np

Solution: From Figure 3.5, we have 2 2

q1 = , q2 = 0 and q 3 =

2 4 3p 3p

Arg (- 1 + i) = and arg (- 1 + i) = + 2 np

4 4

y y y

M3 (-1+i )

1

q3

q1

M2

x x x

1 -1

M1 -i

The real and imaginary parts of the complex number z = a + ib can be expressed in terms of the modulus | z | = r

and argument q as follows:

a = r cos q and b = r sin q

(see Figure 3.6) and hence

z = r(cosq + i sinq)

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 117

z =a +ib

b

q

r x

O a

Therefore, the arguments q of a complex number a + ib can be easily found from the following system of equations:

a b

cos q = and sin q = (3.1)

a +b

2 2

a + b2

2

Example 3.10

Find the arguments of the complex number z = - 1 - i 3 . Solving these we find that

-2p

Solution: In this case, we have a = -1 and b = - 3. Arg z =

Equation (3.1) takes the form 3

-1 - 3 and hence

cos q = and sin q =

2 2 - 2p

arg z = + 2 np, n Î

3

The arguments of a complex number can be found by another method. It can be seen from formula (3.1) that each

of the arguments satisfies the equation

b

tanq =

a

This equation is not equivalent to the system of equations (3.1). It has more solutions, but the selection of the required solu-

tions (the arguments of the complex number) does not present any difficulties since it is always clear from the algebraic

notation of the complex number in what quadrant of the complex plane it is located. This is elaborated in the following.

Key Points

Let z = a + ib and q = Arg z, the principal argument of z. Note that z is necessarily non-zero for the arg z to be

defined.

1. If a = 0 and b > 0, then

p p

Arg z = and arg z = + 2 np , n Î

2 2

If a = 0 and b < 0, then

-p -p

Arg z = and arg z = + 2 np , n Î

2 2

118 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Arg z = 0 or p and arg z = 2 np or (2 n + 1)p , n Î

y y

-p

q=

2

x x

-p

=q

2

2. Let (a, b) belong to the first quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a > 0 and b > 0. Then the principal argument of

z is given by

æ bö

Arg z = q = tan-1 ç ÷

è aø

where tan q = b/a. This is an acute angle 0 < q < p/2 and positive. Therefore,

æ bö

arg z = 2 np + tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î

è aø

y

b z = a + ib

q

x

a a

3. Let (a, b) belong to the second quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a < 0 and b < 0. Then the principal argument

of z is given by

æ bö

Arg z = q = p - tan-1 ç ÷

è | a |ø

æ -bö

arg z = (2 n + 1)p - tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î

è a ø

y

z = a +ib

M b

b q

x

a |a |

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 119

4. Let (a, b) lie in the third quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a < 0 and b < 0. Then the principal argument of z is

given by

æ bö

Arg z = q = -p + tan-1 ç ÷

è aø

This is an obtuse angle and negative. Therefore

æ bö

arg z = (2 n - 1)p + tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î

è aø

2p -q

a

x

|b| q

|a|

M b

z =a +ib

5. Let (a, b) lie in the fourth quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a > 0 and b < 0. Then the principal argument of z

is given by

æ | b|ö

Arg z = q = - tan-1 ç ÷

è aø

æ | b|ö æ -bö

arg z = 2 np - tan-1 ç ÷ = 2 np - tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î

è aø è a ø

a

x

q

|b|

b M

a z =a +ib

Note: Arg z is the smallest angle of rotation

of OX (positive x-axis) to fall on the vector OM [M = (a, b)]. Arg z >

<0

according to whether the rotation of OX is anticlockwise or clockwise, respectively.

Example 3.11

Arg z = p - tan-1 ç ÷ = p - tan-1 ç ÷ =p - =

è | a |ø è 3ø 6 6

Solution: In this case z = a + ib, where a = - 3 and b = 1.

Therefore z lies in the second quadrant of the complex Therefore

plane and hence the principal argument is

5p

arg (- 3 + i) = + 2 np, n Î

6

120 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Next we will discuss the geometrical constructions of difference, product and quotient of two complex numbers

z1 and z2.

Construction of z2 − z1

Let us construct the vector z2 - z1 as the sum of the vectors z2 and −z1 (Figure 3.7). By thedefinition

of the modulus, the

real number | z 2 - z1 | is the length of the vector z2 - z1; that is, the length of the vector OM , where M , M 1 , M 2 and N1

represent the points in the complex plane corresponding to the complex numbers z2 - z1, z1, z 2 and -z1, respectively.

The congruence of the triangles OMN1 and M1 M2O yields |OM | = | M1 M2 |. Therefore the length of the vector z2 - z1 is

equal to the distance between the points z1 and z2. Thus we can say that the modulus of the difference of two complex

numbers is the distance between the points of the complex plane corresponding to those complex numbers. This important

geometrical interpretation of the modulus of the difference between two complex numbers makes it possible to use

simple geometrical facts in solving certain problems. See examples given in Section 3.3.

y

M1

z1 M2

z2

O

x

-z1

z2 -z1

M

N1

FIGURE 3.7 Construction the vector z 2 - z1 as the sum of the vectors z2 and −z1.

Before going to illustrate the construction of the product and quotient of complex numbers, we present the following

definition:

DEFIN IT ION 3 . 11 Two triangles ABC and A¢B¢C¢ are said to be directly similar if ÐA = ÐA¢, ÐB = ÐB¢ and

ÐC = ÐC¢ and the ratios of the sides opposite to equal angles are equal.

Note that directly similar triangles are similar and not vice-versa. For example, if D ABC and D A¢ B ¢C ¢ are directly

similar, then D ABC and D B ¢A¢C ¢ are not directly similar (unless they are equilateral triangle).

Step 1: Let z1 and z2 be complex and P and Q the points representing them, respectively. Let O be the origin

numbers

so that the vectors OP and OQ represent z1 and z2, respectively. Let A be the point (1, 0). Join A and P, and

on the base OQ, construct the triangle OQR directly similar to the triangle OAP (Figure 3.8). Then

ÐQOR = ÐAOP, ÐOQR = ÐOAP, ÐQRO = ÐAPO

and further,

OR OQ QR

= =

OP OA AP

Therefore

OR = OP × OQ (∵ OA = 1) (3.2)

Let ÐXOP = q1 and ÐXOQ = q2 . Then

ÐXOR = ÐXOQ + ÐQOR

= ÐXOQ + ÐAOP (3.3)

= q2 + q1 = q1 + q2

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 121

y

R(z1z2)

Q(z2)

P(z1)

x

O A(1, 0)

Step 2: Draw a triangle OPR directly similar to the triangle OQA. By the above construction, if R is represented by z,

then z × z2 = z1 (Figure 3.9). Notice

that Ð QOP = arg( z1 / z2 ) is the angle through which OQ must be rotated

in order that it may lie along OP and arg(z1 /z2 ) is positive or negative according as the rotation of OQ is

anticlockwise or clockwise.

y

P(z1)

z1

r1 R z

2

r2 Q(z2)

x

O A(1, 0)

In the following theorem, an important consequence of arg(z1/z2) is derived. This can help the reader in solving

many problems in the geometry of complex numbers.

T H E O R E M 3 .5 Let z1, z2 and z3 be three complex numbers represented by P, Q and R, respectively. If a is the angle

ÐPRQ , then

z2 - z3 RQ

= (cos a + i sin a )

z1 - z3 RP

PROOF Let the points A and B represent z1 - z3 and z2 - z3, respectively, so that RP = OA, RQ = OB

and PQ = AB (Figure 3.10). Therefore DPQR and DABO are congruent and hence ÐAOB = a.

By Step 2 above,

æ z2 - z3 ö

a = arg ç ÷

è z1 - z3 ø

Therefore

z2 - z3 | z2 - z3 |

= (cos a + i sin a )

z1 - z3 | z1 - z3 |

RQ

= (cos a + i sin a )

RP

122 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

y

Q(z2)

a P(z1)

R(z3)

B(z2 -z3)

a A(z1 -z3)

x

O

QUICK LOOK 5

æz -z ö 2. For any four points z1, z2, z3 and z4, the angle of

1. arg ç 2 3 ÷ is the angle of rotation of the vector RP inclination of the line joining z1 to z2 with the line

è z1 - z3 ø

joining z3 to z4 is

to fall along RQ.

æz -z ö

z3 z1 arg ç 3 4 ÷

è z1 - z2 ø

if and only if

æz -z ö p

arg ç 3 4 ÷ = ±

è z1 - z2 ø 2

and hence

z2 z4

z3 - z4

= ±li

z1 - z2

where l > 0.

Example 3.12

Determine the sets of complex numbers defined by each (2) We can give a different formulation of the problem,

of the following conditions. using the geometrical interpretation of the modulus of

the difference between two complex numbers. We are

(1) | z - i | = 1

asked to determine the set of points in the complex

(2) | 2 + z | < | 2 - z| plane that are located closer to the point z = -2 than to

(3) 2 £ | z - 1 + 2 i | < 3 the point z = 2. It is clear that this property is possessed

by all the points of the plane that lie to the left of the

Solution: imaginary axis and only by those points. In the figure

given below, the shaded portion of the complex plane

(1) | z - i | = 1 is satisfied by those and only those points of the

represents the set of points satisfying | 2 + z | < | 2 - z |.

complex plane which are at a distance equal to 1 from

the point i. Therefore, the set of complex numbers z satis- y

fying the condition | z - i | = 1 is precisely the circle of unit

radius with center at the point i (see the figure below).

x

–2 O

x

O

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 123

2 £ | z - (1 - 2i)| < 3

and only if its distance from the point 1 - 2i is greater

than or equal to 2 but less than 3. Such points lie in

r =2

the interior and on the inner boundary of the ring

formed by two concentric circles with centers at the l =1-2i

point 1 - 2i and the radii r = 2 and R = 3. The required

R =3

set is indicated by the shaded portion of the figure at

the right side.

Next, we will turn our attention to general equations of certain geometrical figures in the complex plane, in terms

of a complex variable.

lz + lz + m = 0

where l is a non-zero complex number and m is a real number.

PROOF Let l = a + ib be a non-zero complex number and m a real number. Consider the equation

lz + lz + m = 0

Let z = x + iy be an arbitrary point on this curve. Then

(a + ib)( x + iy) + (a + ib)( x + iy) + m = 0

Therefore

(a - ib)( x + iy) + (a + ib)( x - iy) + m = 0

Solving we get

2 ax + 2 by + m = 0, a ¹ 0 or b ¹ 0 (since l ¹ 0)

This represents a straight line in the plane. Conversely, if px + qy + r = 0 is a straight line, where

p, q, r are reals and p ¹ 0 or q ¹ 0 and if z = x + iy is a point on this line, then

æz+zö æz-zö

pç ÷ + qç ÷+r=0

è 2 ø è 2i ø

Therefore

pz + pz - qiz + qi z + 2r = 0

( p - qi)z + ( p + qi) z + 2r = 0

By taking l = p + qi and m = 2r, the above equation takes the form

lz + lz + m = 0

Note that l ¹ 0, since p ¹ 0 or q ¹ 0. ■

T H E O R E M 3 .7 In the complex plane the equation of the line joining the points z1 and z2 is

z z 1

z1 z1 1 =0

z2 z2 1

124 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

PROOF Let the points z1 and z2 be A and B, respectively. Then P(z) is a point on the line AB if and only if

A, P and B are collinear which implies

æ z - zö

arg ç 1 = 0 or p

è z2 - z ÷ø

z1 - z

Û is pure real

z2 - z

z1 - z z1 - z

Û =

z2 - z z2 - z

Û (z1 - z)(z2 - z ) = (z2 - z)(z1 - z )

z z 1

Û z1 z1 1 =0

z2 z2 1 ■

QUICK LOOK 6

1. The complex number (z1 - z2 )/(z1 - z2 ) is called the and m is a real number), the complex number (z1 -

complex slope of the line joining z1 and z2. z2)/(z1 - z2 ) is equal to - l / l and hence - l / l is the com-

2. For any two points z1 and z2 on the straight line lz + plex slope of the line lz + lz + m = 0.

lz + m = 0 (where l is a non-zero complex number

T H E O R E M 3 .8 The equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the points z1 and z2 is

PROOF Let A(z1) and B(z2) be the given points and L be the perpendicular bisector of the line segment

AB. Then P(z) is point on L. This implies

PA = PB

Û | z - z1 | = | z - z2 |

Û (z - z1 )(z - z1 ) = (z - z2 )(z - z2 )

Û (z1 - z2 ) z + (z1 - z2 ) z + z2 z2 - z1z1 = 0 ■

In the following theorem we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for two points in the complex plane to be

images of each other in a given straight line in the same plane.

T H E O R E M 3 .9 Two points z1 and z2 are images of each other in the line lz + lz + m = 0 (0 ¹ l Î and m Î ) if

and only if lz1 + lz2 + m = 0.

PROOF Suppose that z1 and z2 are images of each other in the line lz + lz + m = 0. Then this line is the

perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining z1 and z2. By Theorem 3.7, the equation of the

perpendicular bisector is

(z1 - z2 )z + (z1 - z2 )z + z2 z2 - z1 z1 = 0

Therefore

l l m

= = = k (say)

z1 - z2 z1 - z2 z2 z2 - z1 z1

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 125

Now,

lz1 + lz2 + m = k(z1 - z2 )z1 + k(z1 - z2 )z2 + (z2 z2 - z1z1 )k

= k [z1z1 - z2 z1 + z1z2 - z2 z2 + z2 z2 - z1z1 ]

= k(0) = 0

Conversely, suppose that lz1 + lz2 + m = 0 . Let z be any point on the given line. Then

lz + lz + m = 0

and therefore

l (z - z1 ) + l(z - z2 ) = 0

| l (z - z1 )| = | - l(z - z2 )|

and hence

| z - z1 | = | z - z2 | = | z - z2 |

That is, z is equidistant from both the points z1 and z2. Therefore the line lz + lz + m = 0 is the

perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining z1 and z2. ■

T H E O R E M 3 .10 The perpendicular distance of the straight line lz + lz + m = 0 (0 ¹ l Î and m Î ) from a given

point z0 is

lz0 + lz0 + m

2l

( l + l ) x + i( l - l ) y + m = 0

which is a first degree equation in x and y with real coefficients. Therefore, the distance of the line

from the point z0 = a + ib is

=

( l + l ) 2 - ( l - l )2 4l l

lz0 + z0 + m

=

2l ■

zz + bz + bz + c = 0

PROOF Let z0 be a fixed point in the complex plane and r a non-negative real number. Then the equation

| z - z0 | = r

represents the locus of the point z whose distance from the point z0 is the constant r. We know that

this locus is a circle with centre at z0 and radius r. This equation is equivalent to

(z - z0 )(z - z0 ) = r2

126 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

b = - z0 and c = zz0 - r2. On the other hand, any equation zz + b z + bz + c = 0 can be written as

(z + b)(z + b ) = bb - c

That is,

| z + b | = bb - c

which represents a circle with center at -b and radius bb - c . Note that bb and c are real

numbers and b b - c > 0 or = 0 or < 0. ■

QUICK LOOK 7

z=

point circle or imaginary circle according as bb - c m+n

is a positive real number or bb = c or negative real

number, respectively. 3. If A(z1), B(z2) and C(z3) are the vertices of a triangle,

then the complex number (z1 + z2 + z3) / 3 represents

2. If A(z1) and B(z2) are points in the complex plane

the centroid of the triangle ABC.

and P(z) is a point on the line joining A(z1) and

B(z2) dividing the line segment AB in the ratio

m : n (m + n ¹ 0), then

Example 3.13

Find the center and radius of the circle where b = -(2 + 3i) and c = -3. Therefore -b(= 2 + 3i) is

zz - (2 + 3i)z - (2 - 3i)z - 3 = 0 the center of the circle and bb - c [= (2 + 3i)(2 - 3i) + 3

= 16 = 4] is the radius.

Solution: This equation is of the form

zz + bz + bz + c = 0

Example 3.14

If 2 + i and 4 + 3i represent the extremities A and C, In Figure 3.11 DEAB is right angled at E. If z represents B,

respectively, of a diagonal of a square ABCD, described then

in counterclock sense, then find the other two vertices

z - (3 + 2i) p p

B and D. = cos + i sin = i

(2 + i) - (3 + 2i) 2 2

Solution: Let E be the intersection of the diagonals.

and therefore, z = i(-1 - i) + 3 + 2i = 4 + i. Similarly, from

Then E is represented by

DECD, if z¢ represents D, then

(2 + i) + (4 + 3i)

= 3 + 2i z¢ - (3 + 2i)

1+ 1 =i

(4 + 3i) - (3 + 2i)

D C

and hence z¢ = 2 + 3i .

A B

3.3 Geometric Interpretation 127

Example 3.15

the counterclock sense, then express z2 and z4 in terms of = cos + i sin = i

z3 - z2 2 2

z1 and z3, and z1 and z3 in terms of z2 and z4 (Figure 3.12).

z1 - z2 = i(z3 - z2 )

D(z4) C(z3)

z1 - iz3 = (1 - i)z2

90° 90° 1

z2 = [(1 + i)z1 + (1 - i)z3 ]

2

Similarly

90° 90°

1

A(z1) B(z2) z4 = [(1 - i)z1 + (1 + i)z3 ]

2

FIGURE 3.12 Example 3.15. 1

z3 = [(1 + i)z2 + (1 - i)z4 ]

2

Solution: Rotate BC about B through 90° in anticlock-

1

wise sense. Then z1 = [(1 - i)z2 + (1 + i)z4 ]

2

Example 3.16

ght lines in the complex plane. Then prove that

which are first degree equations with real coefficients

(1) the lines are parallel if and only if l1 l2 = l 2 l1 . [recall that z + z and i(z - z) are always real numbers

(2) the lines are perpendicular if and only if l1 l2 + l 2 l1 = 0. for all complex numbers z]. Therefore, we can use the

conditions for parallelness and perpendicularity as in

Solution: Writing z = x + iy ( x and y real) , the equa- two-dimentional geometry.

tions of the given straight lines are transformed into Calculations are left for students as an exercise.

( l1 + l 1 ) x + i( l1 - l 1 ) y + m1 = 0

Example 3.17

Let lz + lz + m = 0 be a straight line in the complex plane Solution: Let Q(z) be any point on the given line.

and P(z0) be a point in the plane. Then prove that

(1) We have

(1) the equation of the line passing through P(z0) and -l z - z0

parallel to the given line is = slope of the line =

l z - z0

l ( z - z0 ) + l ( z - z 0 ) = 0 which gives the required equation.

(2) the equation of the line passing through P(z0) and (2) If Q(z) is any line passing through P(z0) and is

perpendicular to the given line is perpendicular to the given line, then

l (z - z0 ) - l(z - z0 ) = 0 z - z0 l

= (see Example 3.16)

z - z0 l

which gives the required equation.

Example 3.18

Find the foot of the perpendicular drawn from a point Solution: The given line is

P(z0) onto to a line lz + lz + m = 0. lz + lz + m = 0 (3.4)

128 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

The line passing through P(z0) and perpendicular to the Eqs. (3.4) and (3.5), we have

given line is

lz0 - lz0 - m

l (z - z0 ) - l(z - z0 ) = 0 (3.5) z=

2l

The foot of the perpendicular from P(z0) satisfies which is the foot of the perpendicular.

both Eqs. (3.4) and (3.5). Therefore, eliminating z from

Example 3.19

Find the radius and the center of the circle This equation represents a circle with center at

zz + (2 - 3i) z + (2 + 3i) z + 4 = 0 -b (= -2 -3i) and radius bb - 4 (= 4 + 9 - 4 = 3).

zz + bz + bz + 4 = 0

Example 3.20

circle and find its center and radius.

zz + (-3)z + (-3)z + 1 = 0

Solution: The given equation is equivalent to which represents a circle with centre at 3 [= (3, 0)] and

(z + 1)(z + 1) = 2(z - 1)(z - 1) radius 32 - 1 = 2 2 .

In the previous section, we have noted that the real and imaginary parts of a complex number z = a + ib can be

expressed in terms of the modulus | z | = r and argument q as

a = r cos q and b = r sin q

Therefore, any non-zero complex number z can be expressed as

z = r (cos q + i sin q )

where r is the modulus of z and q is an argument of z. This expression of a complex number is called the trigonometric

notation or trigonometric form or polar form of z.

Let us recall that the expression z = a + ib, where a and b are real numbers and i2 = -1, is called the algebraic form

of z. To pass from algebraic form to trigonometric form, it is sufficient to find the modulus of a complex number and

one of its arguments. Let us consider certain examples.

Example 3.21

z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç

form:

ë è 4 ø è 4 ÷ø úû

(1) z1 = -1 - i

(2) | z2 | = 2 and Arg z2 = p and hence

(2) z2 = -2

z2 = 2(cos p + i sin p )

(3) z3 = i

(3) | z3 | = 1 and Arg z3 = p / 2 and hence

Solution:

æpö æpö

z3 = cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷

(1) | z1 | = 2 and Arg z1 = -3p / 4 and hence è 2ø è 2ø

3.4 The Trigonometric Form 129

Example 3.22

form: é æ -p ö æ -p ö ù

z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç

æ 7p ö æpö ë è 4 ø è 4 ÷ø úû

(1) z1 = 2 cos ç ÷ - 2 i sin ç ÷

è 4 ø è 4ø

æpö æpö

z2 = - cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷

æpö æpö è 17 ø è 17 ø

(2) z2 = - cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷

è 17 ø è 17 ø æ pö æ pö

= cos ç p - ÷ + i sin ç p - ÷

Solution: Note that in these cases, we need not find the è 17 ø è 17 ø

modulus and arguments, although it is easy to find these. æ 16p ö æ 16p ö

= cos ç + i s in ç

Instead, we will make use of the facts that è 17 ÷ø è 17 ÷ø

æ 7p ö æ pö æ -p ö

cos ç ÷ = cos ç 2p - ÷ = cos ç

è 4 ø è 4ø è 4 ÷ø

æpö æ -p ö

and - sin ç ÷ = sin ç

è 4ø è 4 ÷ø

The operations of multiplication and division of complex numbers can be easily performed by transforming the given

complex numbers into trigonometric form. We have already noted that the modulus of the product (quotient) of any

two complex numbers is the product (quotient) of their moduli.

Now, let us turn our attention to the arguments of products and quotients.

T H E O R E M 3.1 2 The following hold for any two non-zero complex numbers z1 and z2.

1. z1 = z2 Û | z1 | = | z2 | and arg z1 = arg z2

æ 1ö

3. arg ç ÷ = - Arg z2 + 2np , n Î

è z2 ø

æ z1 ö

4. arg ç ÷ = Arg z1 - Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î

è z2 ø

PROOF First let us express the given non-zero complex numbers z1 and z2 in trigonometric form. Let

z1 = r1 (cos q 1 + i sin q 1 ), r1 > 0, -p < q 1 £ p and z2 = r2 (cos q 2 + i sin q 2 ), r2 > 0, -p < q 2 £ p . That is, |z1| =

r1, | z2 | = r2 , Arg z1 = q 1 and Arg z2 = q 2 .

2. Consider the product,

= r1 r2 [(cos q 1 cos q 2 - sin q 1 sin q 2 ) + i(cos q 1 sin q 2 + sin q 1 cos q 2 )]

= r1 r2 [cos(q 1 + q 2 ) + i sin(q 1 + q 2 )]

and therefore

| z1 z2 | = r1 r2 and arg(z1 z2 ) = q 1 + q 2 + 2 np = Arg z1 + Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î

130 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

1 cos q - i sin q

=

cos q + i sin q (cos q + i sin q )(cos q - i sin q )

cos q - i sin q

=

cos 2 q + sin 2 q

= cos(-q ) + i sin(-q )

Therefore,

æ 1ö

arg ç ÷ = -Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î

è z2 ø

Example 3.23

Let Therefore

é æ 11p ö æ 11p ö ù é æ - 7p ö æ - 7p ö ù

z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ø + i sin çè ÷ z1z2 = 4 êcos ç ÷ø + i sin çè

ë è 4 4 ø úû ë è 8

÷

8 ø úû

é æ 3p ö æ 3p ö ù é æ 7p ö æ 7p ö ù

and z2 = 8 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = 4 êcos ç ÷ - i sin ç ÷ ú

ë è 8ø è 8 øû è ø è 8 øû

ë 8

Find z1z2 and z1/z2.

Also,

Solution: First note that

11p 3p z1 z1 2 1

= 2p + = = =

4 4 z2 z2 8 2

arg ç ÷ = Arg z1 - Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î

3p 3p è z2 ø

Arg z1 = and Arg z2 =

4 8 3p 3p

= - + 2 np , n Î

4 8

Therefore, | z1z2 | = | z1 || z2 | = 2 8 = 4. Now

3p

= + 2 np , n Î

arg (z1 z2 ) = Arg z1 + Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î 8

3p 3p Therefore,

= + + 2 np , n Î

4 8 æ z1 ö 3p

9p Arg ç ÷ =

= + 2 np , n Î è z2 ø 8

8

and hence

-7p

= + 2(n + 1)p , n Î

8 z1 1 é æ 3p ö æ 3p ö ù

= cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú

-7p z2 2 êë è 8ø è 8 øû

= + 2 mp , m Î

8

and hence

-7p

Arg(z1 z2 ) =

8

3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem 131

In the previous section, we have derived formulas for the product and quotient of two complex numbers in

trigonometric form. The formula for the product of two complex numbers can be extended to the case of n factors by

mathematical induction. As a special case, we have the following.

(D E M O I V R E ’ S

THEOREM) (cos q + i sin q ) n = cos(n q ) + i sin (n q )

PROOF We prove this by induction on n. If n = 1, this is trivial. Now, let n > 1 and assume that

Now, consider

(cos q + i sin q ) n = (cos q + i sin q ) n - 1 (cos q + i sin q )

= [cos{(n - 1)q } + i sin {(n - 1)q }](cos q + i sin q )

= [cos{(n - 1) q }cos q - sin {(n - 1) q }sin q ]

+ i[cos{(n - 1) q }sin q + cos q sin{(n - 1) q }]

= cos[(n - 1) q + q ] + i sin[(n - 1) q + q ]

= cos(n q ) + i sin(n q ) ■

1 cos q - i sin q

=

cos q + i sin q (cos q + i sin q )(cos q - i sin q )

cos(- q ) + i sin(- q )

=

cos 2 q + sin 2 q

= cos(- q ) + i sin(- q )

Now,

1

=

(cos q + i sin q ) - n

1

=

cos(- n q ) + i sin(- n q )

= cos(n q ) + i sin(n q )

In the following we demonstrate the use of De Moivre’s Theorem in expressing certain powers of complex numbers

with natural exponents in algebraic form.

132 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Example 3.24

= 213 ê cos ç ÷ + i sin ç

ë è 6 ø è 6 ÷ø úû

Solution: First we write the given number in trigonomet-

ric form and then pass to the algebraic form. Let w = i - 3. é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù

= 213 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú

Then | w | = 1 + 3 = 2 and Arg w = 5p / 6. Therefore ë è 6 ø è 6 øû

é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù Thus

w = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú

ë è 6 ø è 6 øû æ 3 1 ö

(i - 3 )13 = 2 13 ç - + i÷ = - 2 12 3 + 2 12 i

and hence è 2 2 ø

é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù

z = w 13 = 2 13 êcos ç 13 × ÷ + i sin ç 13 × ÷ ú

ë è 6 ø è 6 øû

Roots of Degree n

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 12 If z and w are complex numbers and n a positive integer such that zn = w, then z is called a

root of degree n or nth root of the number w and is denoted by n w . Roots of degree 2 or 3

are called square roots or cube roots, respectively.

For example, i and -i are both square roots of -1. In general, to extract a root of degree n of a complex number w, it

is sufficient to solve the equation zn = w. If w = 0, then the equation zn = w has exactly one solution, namely z = 0. The

case w ¹ 0 is dealt with in the following.

T H E O R E M 3 .14 Let w be a non-zero complex number and n a positive integer. Then the equation zn = w has n

solutions.

z = r (cos q + i sin q ) and w = s (cos a + i sin a )

The equation z = w takes the form

n

Two complex numbers are equal if and only if their moduli are equal and argument differ by an

integral multiple of 2p. Therefore,

rn = s and n q = a + 2 mp , m Î

a 2p

or r=ns and q = + n m, m Î

n

Thus, all the solutions of the equation zn = w can be written as follows:

é æ a 2p ö æ a 2p ö ù

zm = n s êcos ç n + m÷ + i sin ç n + n m÷ ú , m Î

ë è n ø è øû

It can be easily seen that zm for m = 0, 1, … , n - 1 are different. For m ³ n, we cannot obtain any

other complex numbers different from z0 , z1 , … , zn - 1. For example, for m = n, we get

3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem 133

é æa ö æa öù

zn = n s êcos ç + 2p ÷ + i sin ç n + 2p ÷ ú

ë è n ø è øû

é æaö æaöù

= n s êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç n ÷ ú = z0

ë è ø

n è øû

It can be seen that zn + k = zk for all k ³ 0. Thus, these are exactly n roots of degree n of the number

w and they are all obtained from the formula

é æ a 2p ö æ a 2p ö ù

zm = n s êcos ç + m÷ + i sin ç + m÷ , for m = 0, 1, 2, …,, n - 1

ë è n n ø èn n ø úû ■

It can be seen from the above formula that all the roots of degree n of the number w have one and the same

moduli but distinct arguments differing from each other by (2p / n)m, where m is some integer.

QUICK LOOK 8

1. All the roots of degree n of the complex number w - 1 is understood to be the set consisting of

correspond to the points of the complex plane lying

two complex numbers i and -i. Sometimes, n w is

at the vertices of a regular n-gon inscribed in a circle

understood as a root of degree n of w. In such

of radius n | w | with centre at the point z = 0.

cases, it must be indicated what value of the root

2. Usually the expression n w is to be understood as is meant.

the set of all roots of degree n of w. For example,

Theorem 3.13 paves a way to formulate and prove the most general version of the De Moivre’s Theorem in the

following. If z0 is a solution of the equation zn = w, then let us agree to write z0 as w1/n. Therefore w1/n has n values. In

particular, if w is any complex number and r = m/n, where m and n are integers and n > 0, then w1/n has n values.

(DE MOIVRE’S

THEOREM FOR (cos q + i sin q ) r = cos(r q ) + i sin (r q )

R AT I O N A L

INDEX)

PROOF Let q be a real number and r = n/m, where n and m are integers and m > 0. Then

m

é æn ö æ n öù

[cos(r q ) + i sin(r q )]m = êcos ç q ÷ + i sin ç m q ÷ ú

ë è m ø è øû

= cos(n q ) + i sin (n q ) (by Theorem 3.13)

= (cos q + i sin q ) n (by Corollary 3.2)

Therefore cos(r q ) + i sin(r q ) is the mth root of (cos q + i sin q ) n or is a value of [(cosq + i sinq )n]1/m.

Thus cos(r q ) + i sin(r q ) is a value of (cos q + i sin q ) r. ■

Example 3.25

Find all the squares of the roots of the equation root of unity; that is, z = (- 1)1/ 7 or z = (1)1/ 4. Therefore,

x11 - x7 + x4 - 1 = 0 z2 = (- 1)2 / 7 or z2 = (1)2 / 4 = (1)1/ 2 = 1 or -1. That is

z2 = 1 or -1 or (1)1/ 7

Solution: We have x11 - x7 + x4 - 1 = x7 ( x4 - 1) + x4 - 1 =

( x7 + 1)( x4 - 1). If z is a root of x11 - x7 + x4 - 1 = 0, This implies that z2 is either a square root of 1 or a

then z must be either a seventh root of –1 or a fourth seventh root of 1.

134 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Example 3.26

z4 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = - 2i

ë è 2 ø è 2 øû

Solution: First, we should express w = - 64 in trigono-

é æ 11p ö æ 11p ö ù

metric form: z5 = 2 ê cos ç ÷ø + i sin çè ÷ = 3 -i

ë è 6 6 ø úû

w = - 64 = 64(cos p + i sin p )

These lie on the circle of radius 2 with center at z = 0 and

Now, if zm are the values of 6 - 64 , then form vertices of a regular hexagon.

é æ p 2p ö æ p 2p ö ù y

zm = 6 64 êcos ç + m÷ + i sin ç + m÷

ë è 6 6 ø è6 6 ø úû z1

z2 z0 = √3 +i

æp pö

z0 = 2 cos ç + i sin ÷ = 3 + i

è6 6ø

é æpö æpöù x

z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = 2 i

ë è 2 ø è 2øû O

é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù z5

z2 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = - 3 + i z3

ë è 6 ø è 6 øû

é æ 7p ö æ 7p ö ù

z3 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = - 3 - i z4

ë è 6 ø è 6 øû

FIGURE 3.13 Example 3.27.

In the following, we express the square roots of a given complex number and nth roots of unity in algebraic form.

These are straight forward verifications.

The square roots of z = a + ib are given as

é | z| + a | z| - a ù

±ê +i ú if b > 0 (3.6a)

êë 2 2 úû

é | z| + a | z| - a ù

and ±ê -i ú if b < 0 (3.6b)

êë 2 2 úû

QUICK LOOK 9

é 25 - 7 25 + 7 ù

2. The square roots of - i are ± (1 - i / 2 ) ±ê -i ú = ± (3 - 4 i)

ë 2 2 û

The cube roots of unity (solutions of z3 = 1) are

-1 + i 3 -1 - i 3

1, and

2 2

Usually (- 1 + i 3 )/ 2 is denoted by w. Note that 1, w, w are the cube roots of unity.

2

3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem 135

Let w ¹ 1 be a cube root of unity; that is

1

w = (- 1 ± i 3 )

2

Then the following properties are satisfied by w.

QUICK LOOK 10

lateral triangle inscribed in a circle of radius 1 with

2. w3 n = 1, w3 n + 1 = w and w3 n + 2 = w2 for any integer n

center at z = 0, one vertex being on positive real axis.

3. w = w2

6. For any real numbers a, b and c,

4. (w)2 = w

a + bw + cw2 = 0 Û a = b = c

In the following we list certain important relations concerning the cube roots 1, w and w2 of unity.

Let w ¹ 1 be a cube root of unity. The following relations hold good. Here x is any real or complex variable.

1. 1 + x + x2 = ( x - w)( x - w2 )

2. 1 - x + x2 = ( x + w)( x + w2 )

3. x2 + xy + y2 = ( x - yw)( x - yw2 )

4. x2 - xy + y2 = ( x + yw)( x + yw2 )

5. x3 + y3 = ( x + y)( x + yw)( x + yw2 )

6. x3 - y3 = ( x - y)( x - yw)( x - yw2 )

7. x2 + y2 + z2 - xy - yz - zx = ( x + yw + zw2 )( x + yw2 + zw)

8. x3 + y3 + z3 - 3 xyz = ( x + y + z)( x + yw + zw2 )( x + yw2 + zw)

Example 3.27

= 1, w, w2

the value of -2

a -1 b -1 g -1 which are the cube roots of unity. Therefore -1, 1 - 2w,

+ +

b -1 g -1 a -1 1 - 2w2 are the roots of the given equation. Let a = -1,

b = 1 - 2w and g = 1 - 2w2. Then a - 1 = -2, b - 1 = -2w

in terms of a cube root of unity. and g - 1 = -2w2. Hence

be expressed as + + = + +

b - 1 g - 1 a - 1 -2w -2w2 -2

( x - 1)3 + 8 = 0

1 1

That is, = + + w2

w w

( x - 1)3 = (-2)3 = w2 + w2 + w2 = 3w2

3

æ x - 1ö

çè ÷ =1

-2 ø

136 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Let n be a positive integer and

2p 2p

a = cos + i sin

n n

Then all the properties in “Quick Look 11” hold.

QUICK LOOK 11

n-1

é æ 2p ö æ 2p öù

r æ 2p

a = cos ç

ö æ 2p

r ÷ + i sin ç

ö

r÷ for 0 £ r < n å êëcos çè n r ÷ + i sin ç n

ø è

r÷ ú = 0

øû

è n ø è n ø r =0

1 - an and therefore

2. 1 + a + a 2 + + a n - 1 =

1-a n-1

æ 2p ö

n

æ 2p ö

1 - [cos(2p ) + i sin(2p )]

å cos çè

r =0

r = 0 = å sin ç

n ÷ø r =0

r

è n ÷ø

=

1-a

4. The terms 1, a , a 2 , … , a n- 1 represent the vertices of a

and therefore regular n-gon inscribed in the unit circle with center

at the origin, one vertex being on the positive real

1 + a + a 2 + + a n-1 = 0 axis.

3. The summation

n-1

åa

r =0

r

=0

Example 3.28

If 1, w, w2, …, wn-1 are all the nth roots of unity, find the Therefore

value of the product

xn - 1

(5 - w)(5 - w2 ) (5 - wn - 1 ) = ( x - w)( x - w2 ) ( x - wn - 1 )

x-1

Solution: The polynomial xn - 1 has n roots, namely This is true for all numbers x ¹ 1. Substituting x = 5, we

1, w, w2 , … , wn - 1 and hence get that

xn - 1 = ( x - 1)( x - w)( x - w2 ) ( x - wn - 1 ) 5n - 1

(5 - w)(5 - w2 ) (5 - wn - 1 ) =

4

Most gratifying fact about complex numbers is that any polynomial (algebraic) equation with complex numbers as

coefficients has a solution. We will discuss the same in this section.

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 13 Let f (z) = a0 + a1z + a2 z2 + + an zn, an ¹ 0 and a0 , a1 , … , an complex numbers. Then

f(z) = 0

is called an algebraic equation of degree n. Any algebraic equation of degree 2 is called a

quadratic equation. A complex number z0 is called a solution or root of the equation f(z) = 0 if

f(z0) = 0; that is,

a0 + a1z0 + a2 z02 + + an z0n = 0

3.6 Algebraic Equations 137

QUICK LOOK 12

1. 2 + i + z = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree 1 and 4. 32(1 - i)z + iz7 = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree

z0 = -2 -i is the only root of this. 7 and z0 = 0 is a root of this equation. In addition to

z0 = 0, any root of the equation z6 = 32(1 + i) must be

2. z2 - 1 = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree 2 and z0 = 1

a root of the given equation and hence there must be

and z1 = -1 are the roots of the equation z2 - 1 = 0. six more roots for the given equation.

3. i + iz2 + z3 + z5 = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree

5 and z0 = i is a root of this equation.

a0 + a1z = 0, a1 ¹ 0

Such an equation possesses exactly one solution z0 = -a0/a1. An equation of the second degree is generally written as

a0 + a1z + a2 z2 = 0, a2 ¹ 0

To solve this, we transform the equation as follows:

æ a a ö

a2 ç z2 + a1 z + a0 ÷ = 0

è 2 2ø

éæ a ö

2

a a2 ù

a2 êç z + 1 ÷ + 0 - 1 2 ú = 0

êëè 2a2 ø a2 4a2 ú

û

éæ a ö

2

a2 - 4a0 a2 ù

a2 êç z + 1 ÷ - 1 ú=0

êëè 2a2 ø 4a22 úû

2

æ a1 ö a12 - 4a0 a2

çè z + =

2a2 ÷ø 4a2

as

z= +

2a2 2a2

that is,

-a1 + D

z=

2a2

where D = a12 - 4a0 a2 . D is called the discriminant of the equation a0 + a1z + a2z2 = 0. D is to be understood as all the

values of the square root of D. The formula

-a1 + D

z=

2a2

for the roots of a quadratic equation has the same form as in the case when the coefficients of the equation are real

numbers and the solutions are thought in the set of real numbers. But in as much as in the set of complex numbers the

operation of extracting a square root is meaningful for any complex number, the restriction D > 0 becomes superflu-

ous. Moreover, the restriction loses sense since the discriminant D may prove to be not a real number, and the concepts

of “greater than” and “less than” are not defined for such numbers. Thus, in the set of complex numbers, any quadratic

equation is always solvable. If the discriminant D is zero, then the equation has one root. If D ¹ 0, the equation has two

roots that are given by the formula

138 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

-a1 + D

z0 =

2a2

This is known as the standard formula for the roots of a quadratic equation.

Example 3.29

Solve the equations: are the solutions of the given equation. To find all

the values of 3 - 4i, we can use the formula given

(1) z2 + 3z + 3 = 0

in Eqs. (3.6a) and (3.6b). But another technique is

(2) z2 - 8z - 3iz + 13 + 13i = 0 much simpler. Let us put

Solution: 3 - 4i = x + iy

(1) By the formula for the roots of a quadratic equation, Then 3 - 4i = x2 - y2 + i(2 xy) and therefore

the roots of z2 + 3z + 3 = 0 are given by x2 - y2 = 3 and xy = - 2

-3 + 9 - 12 -3 + -3 x and y being real numbers. This system of simultane-

z= =

2 2 ous equations has two real solutions, x = 2, y = -1 and

x = -2, y = 1. Therefore

Since -3 = ± i 3 , it follows that

3 - 4i = 2 - i or - 2 + i

-3 + i 3 -3 - i 3

z1 = and z2 = Thus,

2 2

8 + 3i + 2 - i

are the solutions of the equation z2 + 3z + 3 = 0. z1 = =5+i

2

(2) The given equation can be written as

8 + 3i - 2 + i

(13 + 13i) + (-8 - 3i)z + z2 = 0 and z2 = = 3 + 2i

2

By the standard formula for the roots of a quadratic

equation, we get that are the solutions of the given quadratic equation.

z= =

2 2

Solving algebraic equations of degree n > 2 is much more difficult. However, the great German mathematician

Carl Gauss proved the following celebrated theorem in 1799. In view of its importance and in honor of Gauss, the

theorem is named after Gauss and is popularly known as the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Its proof is beyond

the scope of this book and hence not given here.

Every algebraic equation has atleast one root in the set of complex numbers.

The following theorem is an important consequence of the fundamental theorem of algebra.

T H E O R E M 3 .16 Every algebraic equation of degree n has exactly n roots, including the repeatitions (multiplicities)

of the roots, in the set of complex numbers.

PROOF Let

f (z) = a0 + a1z + a2 z2 + + an zn , an ¹ 0

where a0 , a1 , a2 , … , an are all complex numbers. Then f(z) = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree n.

It can be proved that, for any complex number w,

f (z) = (z - w) g(z)

3.6 Algebraic Equations 139

for some polynomial g(z) with complex coefficients if and only if w is a root of the equation

f(z) = 0; that is, f(w) = 0. This, together with the fundamental theorem of algebra, gives us that

f (z) = an (z - z1 )r1 (z - z2 )r2 (z - zk )rk

where z1, z2, ¼, zk are distinct complex numbers and r1, r2, ¼, rk are positive integers such that

r1 + r2 + + rk = n

Therefore, if follows that z1, z2, ¼, zk are all the distinct roots of the equation f(z) = 0. Here we

say that zi is a root of multiplicity ri. If we agree to count the root of the equation as many

times as is its multiplicity, then we get that the equation f(z) = 0 has r1 + r2 + + rk (= n) roots in

the set of complex numbers. ■

Theorem 3.16 and the fundamental theorem of algebra are both typical theorems of existence. They both present

a comprehensive solution of the problem on the existence of roots of an arbitrary algebraic equation; but, unfortu-

nately they do not say how to find these roots. The root of the first-degree equation

a0 + a1z = 0

is determined by the formula

a0

z=-

a1

and the roots of the second-degree equation

a0 + a1z + a2 z2 = 0

are determined by the formula

-a1 + D

z=

2a2

where D is the determinant defined by

D = a12 - 4a0 a2

The analogous formulae for the roots of third- and fourth-degree equations are so cumbersome that they are avoided.

There is no general method for finding the roots of algebraic equations of degree greater than 4. The absence of a

general method does not prevent us, of course, from finding all the roots in certain special cases, depending on the

specific nature of the equation. For example, in Theorem 3.14, we discussed a method to find all the roots of the

equation

a0 + an zn = 0

The following theorem often helps us in solving algebraic equations with integral coefficients.

T H E O R E M 3 .17 Let f (z) = a0 + a1z + a2 z2 + + an zn , an ¹ 0, where a0, a1, a2, ¼, an are all integers. If k is an integer

and is a root of f(z) = 0, then k is a divisor of a0.

PROOF Let k be an integer and f(k) = 0. That is, a0 + a1k + a2 k 2 + + an k n = 0, and hence a0 = k(-a1 -

a2k - - ankn-1). Since k and a1, a2, ¼, an are integers, so is -a1 - a2 k - - an k n - 1. Therefore k is a

divisor of a0. ■

Example 3.30

Solve the equation Solution: Note that all the coefficients are integers. By

considering the divisors of the constant term -6 and by

z3 - z - 6 = 0

140 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

using Theorem 3.17, we get that 2 is the only integral root are

of z3 - z - 6 = 0. By the usual division of z3 - z - 6 by

z - 2, we get that -2 ± 4 - 12

2

(z - 2)(z2 + 2z + 3) = z3 - z - 6

Thus, z1 = 2, z2 = - 1 + 2i and z3 = - 1 - 2i are all the

Therefore, the roots of z3 - z - 6 = 0 are precisely the

roots of the equation z3 - z - 6 = 0.

roots of z2 + 2z + 3 = 0 and 2 . The roots of z2 + 2z + 3 = 0

Example 3.31

72 - 36z - 26z2 + 13z3 + 2z4 - z5 = 0 Again –3 and 3 are roots of -18 + 9z + 2z2 - z3 and

-18 + 9z + 2z2 - z3 = (z2 - 9)(z - 2). Therefore,

Solution: Let f (z) = 72 - 36z - 26z2 + 13z3 + 2z4 - z5. Note

that all the coefficients are integers. Consider the constant f (z) = (z - 2)(z + 2)(z - 3)(z + 3)(z - 2)

term 72. Testing the divisors of the constant term 72, we find = (z - 2)2 (z + 2)(z - 3)(z + 3)

that z1 = 2 and z2 = -2 are roots of the given equation. By

dividing f (z) with (z - 2)(z + 2) = z2 - 4, we get that Thus the roots of f (z) = 0 are 3, - 3, - 2 and 2 and the

root 2 is of multiplicity 2.

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS

Single Correct Choice Type Questions

1. If 4 1

= =

8-4 3 2- 3

3+i a+i

= Answer: (D)

2 a-i

and a is a real number, then a is 2. If z1, z2 are complex numbers such that Re(z1 ) = | z1 - 2|,

(A) 1/2 + 3 (B) 1/2 - 4 3 Re(z2 ) = | z2 - 2| and arg (z1 - z2 ) = p / 3, then Im(z1 - z2 ) =

(C) 2 - 3 (D) 1/2 - 3 (A) 2 / 3 (B) 4 / 3 (C) 2 3 (D) 3

Solution: The equation Solution: Let z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 . Then

=

2 a-i Therefore

implies that 4 x1 = y12 + 4 and 4 x2 = y22 + 4

( 3 + i)(a - i) = 2a + 2i On subtraction we get

that is, a( 3 - 2 + i) = ( 3 + 2)i - 1. Therefore 4( x1 - x2 ) = y12 - y22 = ( y1 + y2 )( y1 - y2 )

( 3 + 2)i - 1 Hence

a=

3-2+i 4( x1 - x2 )

y1 + y2 = (3.7)

[( 3 + 2)i - 1][( 3 - 2) - i] y1 - y2

=

[( 3 - 2) + i][( 3 - 2) - i] Also arg (z1 - z2 ) = p / 3. Therefore

(3 - 4))i - 3 + 2 + i + 3 + 2 p y1 - y2

= tan =

( 3 - 2) + 1

2 3 x1 - x2

y1 - y2

3= (3.8)

x1 - x2

Worked-Out Problems 141

Im (z1 + z2 ) = y1 + y2 =

4 Û3< x

3 Answer: (D)

Answer: (B)

6. If

3. The smallest positive integer n for which [(1 + i)/

3

(1 - i)]n = 1 is x + iy =

2 + cos q + i sin q

(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 7

Solution: We have then x2 + y2 =

(A) 4x - 3 (B) 3x - 4 (C) 4x + 3 (D) 3x + 4

1 + i (1 + i)2

= = i and in = 1 for n = 4, 8, 12, … Solution:

1- i 2

3(2 + cos q - i sin q )

Therefore, the smallest positive integer n for which x + iy =

(2 + cos q )2 + sin2 q

n

æ 1 + iö

çè 1 - i ÷ø = 1 is 4 =

3(2 + cos q ) + i(-3 sin q )

5 + 4 cosq

Answer: (B)

Comparing the real and imaginary parts we get

4. Let C be the set of all complex numbers and 3(2 + cos q ) -3 sin q

x= , y=

ì z -z ü 5 + 4 cos q 5 + 4 cos q

R = í(z1 , z2 ) ÎC ´ C : 1 2 is real ý

î z1 + z2 þ Squaring and adding values of x and y, we get

Then, on C, R is a 9(2 + cos q )2 + 9 sin2 q

(A) reflexive relation (B) symmetric relation x2 + y2 =

(5 + 4 cos q )2

(C) transitive relation (D) equivalence relation

9(5 + 4 cos q ) 9

Solution: Since (0, 0) ÏR, R is not reflexive, we have = =

(5 + 4 cos q )2

5 + 4 cosq

z1 - z2

(z1 , z2 ) Î R Þ is real Also

z1 + z2

z -z 12(2 + cos q ) 9

Þ 2 1 is real 4x - 3 = -3=

z1 + z2 5 + 4 cos q 5 + 4 cos q

Þ (z2 , z1 ) Î R Therefore

Therefore R is symmetric. x2 + y2 = 4 x - 3

Since (0, z) Î R and (z, 0) Î R, but (0, 0) Ï R, there-

fore R is not transitive. Hence R is not an equivalence Answer: (A)

relation.

7. If

Answer: (B)

3+i

5. If z = x + iy is such that z - 4 < z - 2 , then x + iy =

1 + 3i

(A) x > 0, y > 0

(B) x < 0, y > 0 then ( x2 + y2 )2 equals

(C) x > 2, y > 3 (A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 1

(D) x > 3 and y is any real number Solution:

Solution: We have 3 + i (3 + i)(1 - 3i)

x2 - y2 + 2ixy = =

2 2 1 + 3i 1+ 9

z-4 < z-2 Û z-4 < z-2

Comparing the real and imaginary parts we get

Û ( x - 4)2 + y2 < ( x - 2)2 + y2

6 -8

x2 - y2 = and 2 xy =

10 10

142 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Now is equal to

(x + y ) = (x - y ) + 4x y

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A) 1 (B) –1 (C) 0 (D) 1/2

2 2 Solution: We have

æ 6 ö æ -8 ö 9 16

=ç ÷ +ç ÷ = + =1

è 10 ø è 10 ø 25 25 (k - w)(k - w2 ) = k 2 + k + 1

Answer: (D) Therefore

cos ç å (k - w)(k - w2 ) ÷ = cos ç å (k 2 + k + 1)

az + 1 = 0, then è k =1 450 ø è k =1 450 ÷ø

(A) z is pure imaginary æ p ö

= cos ç 450 × ÷

(B) a2 = 2 è 450 ø

(C) a2 = 4 = cos p = - 1

(D) no such complex number exists Answer: (B)

Solution:

11. If a = - 1 + i 3 and n is a positive integer which is

z | z | - az + 1 = 0 not a multiple of 3, then

(a + 2i) a2 + 4 = a(a + 2i) - 1 a 2 n + 2n a n + 2 2 n =

(A) 1 (B) −1 (C) 0 (D) a 2

= a2 - 1 + 2ai

Solution: We have

This implies

éæ a ö 2 n æ a ö n ù

a a2 + 4 = a2 - 1 and 2 a2 + 4 = 2a a 2 n + 2n a n + 22 n = 22 n êç ÷ + ç ÷ + 1ú

êëè 2 ø è 2ø úû

which gives a2 = a2 - 1, which is absurd.

Answer: (D) é a -1 i 3 æaö

3

ù

= 22 n (w2 n + wn + 1) ê∵ = + and ç ÷ = 1ú

êë 2 2 2 è 2ø úû

9. If | z1 + z2 | = | z1| + | z2 |, then one of the values of

arg(z2/z1) is = 22 n (0) = 0 (since 3 does not divide n)

(A) 0 (B) p (C) p/2 (D) 3p Answer: (C)

Solution: If z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 , then z1, z2 and origin

12. If arg (z) < 0, then arg ( - z) - arg(z) =

are collinear and z1, z2 lie on same side to origin and

hence arg(z2/z1) = 2np. Then 0 is one of the values of (A) p (B) -p (C) p/2 (D) -p/2

arg(z2/z1). Solution: Let arg (z) = q < 0. Then -p < q < 0 and there-

Answer: (A) fore 0 < q + p < p. Hence

Alternate Method:

arg ( - z) = p + q

Let z1 = r1(cosq1 + i sinq1) and z2 = r2(cosq2 + i sinq2). Then

z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 implies arg ( - z) - arg (z) = p

Answer: (A)

(r1 cos q1 + r2 cos q2 )2 + (r1 sin q1 + r2 sin q2 )2 = (r1 + r2 )2

13. Let w ¹ 1 be a cube root of unity and

That is

E = 2(1 + w)(1 + w2 ) + 3(2w + 1)(2w2 + 1)

cos(q1 - q2 ) = 1

+ 4(3w + 1)(3w2 + 1) +

Therefore

+ (n + 1)(nw + 1)(nw2 + 1)

q1 - q2 = 2 np

Then E is equal to

10. If w is a cube root of unity and w ¹ 1, then n2 (n + 1)2 n2 (n + 1)2

(A) (B) +n

4 4

æ 10 p ö

cos ç å (k - w)(k - w2 ) n (n + 1)2

2

n2 (n + 1)2

è k =1 450 ÷ø (C) -n (D) - (n + 1)

4 4

Worked-Out Problems 143

Solution: We have by a + b + c and hence by z1 + z2 + z3. Note that the origin

(k + 1)(kw + 1)(kw2 + 1) = (k + 1)(k 2 - k + 1) = k 3 + 1 is the circumcenter.

Answer: (B)

Therefore,

n n

n2 (n + 1)2 16. If z1, z2 and z3 are the vertices of an equilateral triangle

E = å (k 3 + 1) = å k3 + n = +n

k =1 k =1 4 and z0 be its orthocenter, then z12 + z22 + z32 = kz 02 , where

k is equal to

Answer: (B)

(A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 6 (D) 9

14. If z - 3 + 2i £ 4, then the absolute difference between Solution: In an equilateral triangle, the circumcenter,

the maximum and minimum values of | z | is the centroid and the orthocenter are one and the same

(A) 2 11 (B) 3 11 (C) 2 13 (D) 3 13 point. Therefore

z0 =

z - 3 + 2i = 4. Join the origin to C and let it meet the 3

circle in A and B (see figure). 9z 02 = z12 + z22 + z32 + z(z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 )

Least value of | z | = OB = 3(z 12 + z 22 + z 23)

[since z1 + z2 + z3 = å z1 z2 (by Problem 7 of Multiple

2 2 2

= CB - OC

Correct Choice Type Questions in Worked-Out Problems

= 4 - 32 + 22 section)]. Therefore

= 4 - 13 z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02 and k = 3

Maximum value of | z | = OA = 4 + 13 Answer: (A)

The absolute difference between the maximum and 17. Let z1 = 10 + 6i and z2 = 4 + 6i. If z is any complex

minimum values of | z | is 2 13. number such that the argument of (z - z1)/(z - z2) is

p/4, then | z - 7 - 9i | is equal to

(A) 2 3 (B) 3 2 (C) 3 (D) 2

B

3

O Solution: Let z = x + iy, x, y Î . Then z - z1 = ( x - 10) +

2

C i( y - 6) and z - z2 = ( x - 4) + i( y - 6). Therefore

z - z1 ( x - 10) + i( y - 6)

A =

z - z2 ( x - 4) + i( y - 6)

=

( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2

15. If z1, z2 and z3 represent the vertices of a triangle

whose circumcenter is at the origin, then the complex Therefore

number representing the orthocenter of the triangle is z - z1 ( x - 10)( x - 4) + ( y - 6)2

1 1 1 Real part of =

(A) + + (B) z1 + z2 + z3 z - z2 ( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2

z1 z2 z3

z - z1 ( x - 4)( y - 6) - ( x - 10)( y - 6)

1 1 1 Imaginary part of =

(C) + + (D) z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 z - z2 ( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2

z1z2 z2 z3 z3 z1

6( y - 6)

Solution: It is known that every complex number can =

( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2

be represented by means of a vector in the Argand’s

plane. If A and B represent the complex numbers z1 Now,

and z2, respectively, then the vector AB represents the

complex number z2 - z1 . (These matters will be discussed p æ z - z1 ö é 6( y - 6) ù

= arg ç ÷ = tan-1 ê 2 ú

in detail later in Volume II) Correspondingly, if a, b, c 4 è z - z2 ø ë ( x - 10)( x - 4) + ( y - 6) û

are the position vectors of the points A(z1 ), B(z2 ), C (z3 ),

then the orthocenter of the triangle ABC is represented

144 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

( x - 10)( x - 4) + ( y - 6)2 = 6( y - 6) Solution: x + x + 1 = 0 Þ x is a non-real cube root of

2

x + y - 14 x - 18 y + 112 = 0

2 2

and 1 + w + w2 = 0. The given equation, thus, becomes

Now, 2 2 2 2

æ 1ö æ 2 1 ö æ 3 1 ö æ 27 1 ö

| z - 7 - 9 i | = ( x - 7) + ( y - 9 )

2 2 2 çè w + ÷ø + çè w + 2 ÷ø + çè w + 3 ÷ø + çè w + 27 ÷ø

w w w w

2 2

= x2 - 14 x + y2 - 18 y + 130 æ w2 + 1ö æ w4 + 1ö æ 1ö

2

=ç ÷ +ç ÷ + (1 + 1)2 + ç w + ÷ +

= - 112 + 130 = 18 è w ø è w ø è wø

+ (1 + 1)

2

Therefore

| z - 7 - 9i | = 18 = 3 2 éæ -w ö 2 æ -w2 ö 2 ù

= 9 êç ÷ + ç 2 ÷ + (1 + 1)2 ú

Answer: (B) êëè w ø è w ø úû

= 9(1 + 1 + 4) = 54

18. If x = cos a + i sin a and y = cos b + i sin b, then(x − y)/

(x + y) is equal to Answer: (C)

(A) i tan ç (B) - i tan ç

è 2 ÷ø è 2 ÷ø minimum possible value of | z | 2 + | z - 3 | 2 + | z - 6i | 2 is

æa + bö æa + bö (A) 15 (B) 30 (C) 20 (D) 45

(C) i tan ç (D) -i tan ç

è 2 ÷ø è 2 ÷ø Solution: Let z = x + iy. Then

Solution: We know that

| z2 | + | z - 3 | 2 + | z - 6i | 2 = x 2 + y 2 + ( y - 3)2 + y2 + x2 + ( y - 6)2

x - y (cos a - cos b ) + i(sin a - sin b ) = 3( x2 + y2 ) - 6 x - 12 y + 45

=

x + y (cos a + cos b ) + i(sin a + sin b ) = 3[( x - 1)2 + ( y - 2)2 ] + 30 ³ 30

- 2 sin[(a + b )/ 2]sin[(a - b )/ 2] (equality holds when z = 1 + 2i). Therefore, the minimum

+ 2i cos[(a + b )/ 2]sin[(a - b )/ 2] value is 30.

=

2 cos[(a + b )/ 2]cos[(a - b )/ 2] Answer: (B)

+ 2i sin[(a + b )/ 2]cos[(a - b )/ 2]

22. The curve in the complex plane given by the equa-

i sin[(a - b ) / 2]{cos[(a + b )/ 2] + i sin[(a + b )/ 2]} tion Re(1/z) = 1/4 is a

=

cos[(a - b )/ 2]{cos[(a + b )/ 2] + i sin[(a + b )/ 2]} (A) vertical line intersecting with the x-axis at (4, 0)

æa - bö (B) a circle with radius 2 and centre at (2, 0)

= i tan ç

è 2 ÷ø (C) circle with unit radius

Answer: (A) (D) straight line not passing through the origin

Solution: Let z = x + iy, where x and y are reals. Then

19. If | z1 - 1 | < 1, | z2 - 2 | < 2 and | z3 - 3 | < 3, then | z1 +

z2 + z3 | æ 1ö 1 æ x - iy ö 1

Re ç ÷ = Þ Re ç 2 =

(A) is less than 6 (B) is greater than 6 è zø 4 è x + y2 ÷ø 4

(C) is less than 12 (D) lies between 6 and 12 x 1

Þ =

Solution: We have x +y

2 2

4

| z1 + z2 + z3 - 6 + 6 | £ | z1 + z2 + z3 - 6 | + 6 Þ x2 + y2 = 4 x

= |(z1 - 1) + (z2 - 2) + (z3 - 3)| + 6 Þ ( x - 2)2 + y2 = 4 = 22

£ | z1 - 1| + | z2 - 2 | + | z3 - 3 | + 6 This is the equation of the circle with radius 2 and center

< 1 + 2 + 3 + 6 = 12 at (2, 0).

Answer: (C) Answer: (B)

20. If x2 + x + 1 = 0 then the value of 23. The origin and the points represented by the roots of

2 2 2 2

the equation z2 + mz + n = 0 form the vertices of an

æ 1ö æ 2 1 ö æ 3 1 ö æ 27 1 ö equilateral triangle if and only if

çè x + ÷ø + çè x + 2 ÷ø + çè x + 3 ÷ø + + çè x + 27 ÷ø is

x x x x

Worked-Out Problems 145

(C) 3m2 = n (D) 3n2 = m æ 2ö æ 2ö

(A) 2 cos ç 20 cos-1 ÷ (B) 2 sin ç 10 cos-1 ÷

è 3ø è 3ø

Solution: The points z1, z2 and z3 are the vertices of an

equilateral triangle if and only if æ 2ö æ 2ö

(C) 2 cos ç 10 cos-1 ÷ (D) 2 sin ç 20 cos-1 ÷

z + z + z = z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1

2 2 2 è 3ø è 3ø

1 2 3

(see Problem 7 of Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions Solution: Adding the two we get

in Worked-Out Problems section). Let z1 and z2 be the

(2 + i 5 ) 20 + (2 - i 5 ) 20

roots of z2 + mz + n = 0 . Therefore z1 + z2 = - m, z1 z2 = n . z1 + z2 =

Now z1, z2 and the origin form an equilateral triangle if 9 10

and only if Suppose 2 + i 5 = r (cos q + i sin q ), so that r = 22 + 5 = 3,

z12 + z22 = z1 z2 r cos q = 2 and r sin q = 5. Therefore

Û (z1 + z2 )2 = 3z1 z2 2 5

cos q = and sin q =

3 3

Û (- m)2 = 3n

Answer: (A) In this case

1 20

24. Let z = x + iy, where x and y are real. The points z1 + z2 = [r {cos(20 q ) + i sin(20 q )

910

(x, y) in the plane, for which (z + i)/(z - i) is purely + cos(20 q ) - i sin(20 q )}]

imaginary, lie on

r20 320 é æ 2ö ù

(A) a straight line = 2 cos(20 q ) = 10 2 cos ê 20 cos-1 ç ÷ ú

910

9 ë è 3ø û

(B) a circle

é æ 2ö ù

(C) a curve whose equation is of the form = 2 cos ê 20 cos-1 ç ÷ ú

ë è 3ø û

x2 y2

+ = 1, a ¹ 1, b ¹ 1 Answer: (A)

a2 b2

(D) a curve whose equation is of the form 26. If (1 + z)n = a0 + a1z + a2z2 + + anzn, where a0, a1,

a2, …, an, are real, then

x2 y2

- =1 (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + )2 + (a1 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )2 =

a2 b2

(A) 2n (B) a02 + a12 + a22 + + an2

Solution: We have 2

(C) 2n (D) 2 n2

z + i x + i( y + 1)

= Solution: Substitute z = i on both sides. Then

z - i x + i( y - 1)

[ x + i( y + 1)][ x - i ( y - 1)] (1 + i)n = (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + ) + i(a1 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )

=

x2 + ( y - 1)2 Therefore

This is pure imaginary if and only if | 1 + i |2 n = (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + )2 + (a4 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )2

æ z + iö 2n = (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + ))2 + (a1 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )2

Re ç =0

è z - i ÷ø Answer: (A)

x + ( y - 1)

2 2

Û =0 27. Let z1 and z2 be roots of the equation z + pz + q = 0,

2

x2 + ( y - 1)2

where p, q may be complex numbers. Let A and B

Û x2 + y2 = 1 represent z1 and z2 in the complex plane. If ÐAOB = a ¹ 0

and OA = OB, where O is the origin, then

Therefore (x, y) lie on the circle | z | = 1.

æaö æaö

Answer: (B) (A) p2 = 4 q cos2 ç ÷ (B) p2 = 4 q sin2 ç ÷

è 2ø è 2ø

25. Let z1 and z2 be given by æaö æaö

(C) p2 = - 4 q cos2 ç ÷ (D) q2 = 4 p sin2 ç ÷

10 10 è 2ø è 2ø

æ 2 + i 5ö æ 2 - i 5ö

z1 = ç ÷ and z2 = ç ÷ Solution: z1 and z2 are roots of z2 + pz + q = 0. This

è 2 - i 5ø è 2 + i 5ø

implies z1 + z2 = -p and z1z2 = q. Now

146 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

z2 - 0 OB Therefore

= (cos a + i sin a )

z1 - 0 OA é æ pö 3 æ p ö 3ù

z3 / 4 = 23 / 8 êcos ç 2kp + ÷ + i sin ç 2kp + ÷ ú

y ë è ø

4 4 è 4ø 4û

for k = 0, 1, 2, 3. The product of the values of this is equal

B(z2)

to

A(z1) 23 / 2 êcis ç + + + ÷ = 23 / 2 cis ç ×

ë è4 4 4 4 ø 4 úû è 4 4 ÷ø

a

39p

x = 23 / 2 cis

O 4

æ 3p ö

= 23 / 2 cis ç 9p + ÷

è 4ø

Therefore

æ pö

z2 = 23 / 2 cis ç 10p - ÷

= cos a + i sin a è 4ø

z1

z2 - z1 é æ pö æ pöù

= - 1 + cos a + i sin a = 23 / 2 êcos ç 10p - ÷ + i sin ç 10p - ÷ ú

z1 ë è 4 ø è 4øû

This gives é p pù

= 23 / 2 êcos - i sin ú

2 ë 4 4û

é a a aù

(z2 - z1 )2 = z12 ê -2 sin2 + 2 i sin cos ú

ë 2 2 2û æ 1 i ö

= 23 / 2 ç - ÷

è 2 2ø

2 2

æ aö é a aù

= z12 ç 2i sin ÷ êcos + i sin ú = 2(1 - i)

è 2ø ë 2 2û

Answer: (B)

a

= - 4z sin (cos a + i sin a )

2

1

2

celes triangle, right-angled at the vertex z2 (see

z2 a a figure), then z12 + 2z22 + z32 = kz2 (z1 + z3 ), where the value

= - 4z12 sin2 = - 4q sin2

z1 2 2 of k is

Hence, (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) -2 (D) 2

p2 = (z1 + z2 )2 = (z1 - z2 )2 + 4z1 z2 A(z1)

a

= - 4q sin2 + 4q

2

æ aö æaö

= 4q ç 1 - sin2 ÷ = 4q cos2 ç ÷

è 2 ø è 2ø

Answer: (A)

90°

28. The continued product of all the four values of the

complex number (1 + i)3 / 4 is B(z2) C(z3)

(A) 2 (1 + i)

3

(B) 2(1 - i) Solution: Let A, B and C represent z1, z2 and z3, respec-

(C) 2(1 + i) (D) 23(1 - i) tively, described in counterclock sense. Therefore

Solution: Let z1 - z2 BA æ p ö

= cis ç ÷ = i

æ p pö z3 - z2 BC è 2 ø

z = 1 + i = 2 ç cos + i sin ÷

è 4 4ø (z1 - z2 )2 = - (z3 - z2 )2

Worked-Out Problems 147

arg ç 3 ÷ = 2q = 2 arg ç 3 1 ÷

z + 2z + z = 2z2 (z1 + z3 )

2

1

2

2

2

3

è z2 ø è z2 - z1 ø

This gives k = 2. Therefore k = 2.

Answer: (D) Answer: (C)

30. Let z1, z2 and z3 be vertices of a triangle and | z1 | = a, 31. Let z = ( 3 / 2) - (i / 2). Then the smallest positive

| z2 | = b and | z3 | = c such that integer n such that (z95 + i 67 )94 = zn is

a b c (A) 12 (B) 10 (C) 9 (D) 8

b c a =0 Solution: From the hypothesis we have

c a b

Then 3 i æ 1 i 3ö

z= - = iç- - = iw

æz ö æz -z ö 2 2 è 2 2 ÷ø

arg ç 3 ÷ = k arg ç 3 1 ÷

è z2 ø è z2 - z1 ø where w = (- 1/ 2) - (i 3 / 2) which is a cube root of unity.

where k is Now, z95 = (iw)95 = -iw2 (since w3 = 1) and i67 = i3 = -i.

Therefore,

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3

Solution: We have z95 + i67 = - i(1 + w2 ) = (- i)(- w) = iw

(z95 + i67 )94 = (iw)94 = i2 w = - w

a b c

b c a =0 Now

c a b - w = zn = (iw)n

Þ 3abc - a3 - b3 - c3 = 0 Þ in × wn - 1 = - 1

Þ n = 2, 6, 10, 14, … and n - 1 = 3, 6, 9, …

Þ a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc = 0

Therefore n = 10 is the required least positive integer.

Þ (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ca) = 0

Answer: (B)

1

Þ (a + b + c) ((a - b)2 + (b - c)2 + (c - a)2 ) = 0

2 32. The number of complex numbers z satisfying the

conditions |(z / z ) + (z / z)| = 1, | z| = 1 and arg z Î(0, 2p) is

Therefore (a - b)2 = 0 = (b - c)2 = (c - a)2 and hence a = b = c

(since a, b, c are positive). This implies that z1, z2 and z3 rep- (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 8

resent points on a circle with center at the origin. Suppose Solution: It is given that | z | = 1 which implies that z =

A, B and C represent z1, z2 and z3, respectively, described cosq + i sinq, 0 £ q < 2p :

in counterclock sense (see figure). If ÐBAC = q , then

ÐBOC = 2q. In such case z z

+ =1

z z

Þ 2 |cos 2q | = 1

B(z2)

1 -1

Þ cos 2q = or cos 2q =

2 2

q A(z1)

Now

O

1 p 5p 7p 11p

cos 2q = Þq = , , ,

2 6 6 6 6

1 p 2p 4p 5p

and cos 2q = - Þq = , , ,

C(z3) 2 3 3 3 3

1 Answer: (D)

148 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

1. The complex number z that satisfies simultaneously z1 z2 and z1/z2 are pure imaginary.

the equations is Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)

z - 4i z - 8 + 3i 3

= 1 and = 3. If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers, then

z - 2i z + 3i 5

(A) 2(| z1 |2 + | z2 |2 ) = | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2

(A) 3 + 8 i (B) 8 + 3 i (C) 3 + 17 i (D) 17 + 3 i

(B) | z1 + z12 - z22 | + | z1 - z12 - z22 | = | z1 + z2 | + | z1 - z2 |

Solution:

z1 + z2 z +z

z - 4i (C) + z1z2 + 1 2 - z1 z2 = | z1 | + | z2 |

= 1 Þ | z - 4i | = | z - 2i | 2 2

z - 2i

(D) | z1 + z2 | 2 - | z1 - z2 | 2 = 2(z1z2 + z1z2 )

Therefore, the point representing z in the Argand’s plane

Solution: | z1 + z2 | 2 = (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 )

is equidistant from the points (0, 2) and (0, 4). Hence, z

lies on the line y = 3 and so = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 + z1z2 + z1z2

z = x + yi = x + 3i and | z1 - z2 | 2 = (z1 - z2 )(z1 - z2 )

Substituting z = x + 3i in the second equation, we get that Therefore

x + 3i - 8 + 3i 3 | z1 + z2 | 2 + | z1 - z2 | 2 = 2(| z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 ) (A is true)

=

x + 3i + 3i 5

| z1 + z2 | - | z1 - z2 | = 2(z1z2 + z1z2 )

2 2

(D is true)

x - 8 + 6i 3

= Now

x + 6i 5

Therefore (| z1 + z12 - z22 | + | z1 - z12 - z22 |) 2

25 [( x - 8)2 + 36] = 9( x2 + 36) = | z1 + z12 - z22 | 2 + | z1 - z12 - z22 | 2 + 2 | z12 - (z12 - z22 )|

x2 - 25 x + 136 = 0 = 2(| z1 |2 + | z2 |2 ) + 2 | z12 - z22 |

( x - 8)( x - 17) = 0 = | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 + 2 | z1 + z2 || z1 - z2 |

x = 8, 17 = (| z1 + z2 | + | z1 - z2 |)2

Hence

Therefore

z = 8 + 3i, 17 + 3 i

Answers: (B), (D) | z1 + z12 - z22 | + | z1 - z12 - z22 | = | z1 + z2 | + | z1 - z2 |

2. If z1 and z2 are complex numbers such that | z1 + z2 |2 =

| z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 , then z1 + z2 z +z

+ z1z2 + 1 2 - z1z2

(A) z1z2 is pure imaginary (B) z1z2 + z1z2 = 0 2 2

æz ö p æz ö p 1 1

(C) Arg ç 1 ÷ = ± (D) Arg ç 1 ÷ = ± = | z1 + z2 | 2 + | z1 - z2 | 2

è 2ø

z 2 z

è 2ø 2 2 2

Solution: 1

= [2 | z1 | 2 +2 | z2 | 2 ]

2

| z1 + z2 |2 = | z1 |2 + | z2 |2

= | z1 | + | z2 |

(z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 ) = z1z1 + z2 z2

z1z2 + z2 z1 = 0 Therefore (C) is true.

z1 æz ö Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)

= - ç z1 ÷

z2 è 2ø

Worked-Out Problems 149

+ =i

3+ i 3-i 1 + 2i sin( x / 2)

then Then

(A) x = 3 (B) y = 1 (C) y = -1 (D) x = -3 [sin( x / 2) + cos( x / 2) + i tan x][1 - 2i sin( x / 2)]

z=

Solution: From the given equation, we get that 1 + 4 sin2 ( x / 2)

(3 - i)[(1 + i) x - 2 i] + (3 + i)[(2 - 3i) y + i] = 10i Suppose that z is real. Then Im(z) = 0. Therefore

Therefore x é æ xö æ xö ù

tan x - 2 sin êsin çè 2 ÷ø + cos çè 2 ÷ø ú = 0

4 x - 2 + i(2 x - 6) + 9 y - 1 + i (3 - 7 y) = 10i 2 ë û

4 x + 9 y - 3 + (2 x - 7 y - 13)i = 0 x æ x xö

sin x - 2 sin cos x ç sin + cos ÷ = 0

4 x + 9 y = 3 an nd 2 x - 7 y = 13 2 è 2 2ø

The two equations give x = 3 and y = -1. æ xö

sin x - sin x cos x - 2 sin2 ç ÷ cos x = 0

Answers: (A), (C) è 2ø

sin x(1 - cos x) - (1 - cos x)cos x = 0

5. The complex number(s) satisfying the equations

(1 - cos x)(sin x - cos x) = 0

z - 12 5 z- 4

= and = 1 is (are) cos x = 1 or tan x = 1

z - 8i 3 z-8

(A) 6 - 8i (B) 6 + 17i (C) 6 + 8i (D) 6 - 17i Therefore

Solution: Let z = x + iy p

x = 2 np , x = np + , n is an integer

4

z-4

=1 Since 0 £ x £ 2p , x = 0, p /4, 2p , 5p /4 .

z-8

Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)

( x - 4)2 + y2 = ( x - 8)2 + y2

x=6 7. If z1, z2 and z3 represent the vertices A, B and C, respec-

Therefore tively, of a triangle (see figure), then the triangle ABC

is equilateral if and only if

z = 6 + iy

(A) z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1

Now 1 1 1

(B) + + =0

z - 12 5 z1 - z2 z2 - z3 z3 - z1

=

z - 8i 3 (C) | z1 + z2 + z3 | = 3

9(36 + y ) = 25 [36 + ( y - 8) ]

2 2

(D) | z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 | = 3

( y - 8)( y - 17) = 0

y = 8, 17 A(z1)

Therefore

60°

z = 6 + 8i, 6 + 17i

Answers: (B), (C)

60°

6. If x is a real number such that 0 £ x £ 2p and B(z2) C(z3)

[sin( x / 2) + cos( x / 2)] + i tan x Solution: Suppose that triangle ABC is equilateral.

1 + 2i sin( x / 2) Then

is real, then the possible value(s) of x is (are) z3 - z1 p p z1 - z2 p p

= cos + i sin and = cos + i sin

(A) 0 (B) 2p (C) p /4 (D) 5p /4 z2 - z1 3 3 z3 - z2 3 3

150 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Therefore Then

(z3 - z1 )(z3 - z2 ) = (z2 - z1 )(z1 - z2 ) a+b 1

=-

z - z3 z2 - z1z3 + z1z2 = z2 z1 - z22 - z12 + z1z2

2

3 ab g

z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 Therefore

Conversely, suppose that - g 2 = - ab (since a + b = - g )

z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 g 3 = abg

Then, Similarly

z1 (z1 - z2 ) + z2 (z2 - z3 ) + z3 (z3 - z1 ) = 0 b 3 = abg = a 3

Therefore This gives a3 = b 3 = g 3 and therefore | a | = | b | = | g |. That is,

z1 (z1 - z2 ) + z2 (z2 - z1 + z1 - z3 ) + z3 (z3 - z1 ) = 0

| z1 - z2 | = | z2 - z3 | = | z3 - z1 |

(z1 - z2 )2 - (z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 ) = 0

Therefore DABC is equilateral.

That is Answers: (A) and (B)

(z1 - z2 )2 = (z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 )

8. If c ³ 0, then the equation | z | - 2iz + 2c (1 + i) = 0

2

(z1 - z2 )3 = (z1 - z2 )(z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 )

(z is complex) has

Similarly, (A) infinitely many solutions if c < 2 - 1

(z2 - z3 )3 = (z1 - z2 )(z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 ) (B) has unique solution if c = 2 - 1

(C) finite number of solutions if c > 2 - 1

and (z3 - z1 )3 = (z1 - z2 )(z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 )

(D) no solutions if c > 2 - 1

Therefore

Solution: Let z = x + iy. Then

(z1 - z2 )3 = (z2 - z3 )3 = (z3 - z1 )3

( x2 + y2 ) - 2i( x + iy) + 2c(1 + i) = 0

| z1 - z2 | = | z2 - z3 | = | z3 - z1 |

Therefore

Therefore AB = BC = CA. That is DABC is equilateral.

x2 + y2 + 2 y + i(2c - 2 x) + 2c = 0

Answer: (A)

x2 + y2 + 2 y + 2c = 0 (3.9)

We will prove that (B) is also correct. Suppose that

DABC is equilateral. Then and 2c - 2 x = 0 or x=c (3.10)

| z1 - z2 | = | z2 - z3 | = | z3 - z1 | = k (say) Substituting x = c in Eq. (3.9), we get that

Let a = z1 - z2 , b = z2 - z3 and g = z3 - z1. Then a + b + g = 0 c2 + y2 + 2 y + 2c = 0 (3.11)

and hence a + b + g = 0. That is Equation (3.11) has solutions if 4 - 4 (c2 + 2c) ³ 0 , that is

k2 k2 k2 1 - c2 - 2c ³ 0. Therefore

+ + = 0 (since aa = |a |2 = k2 )

a b g (c + 1)2 £ 2 or - 2 £ c + 1 £ 2

Therefore - 2 - 1£ c £ 2 -1

1 1 1 It is given that c ³ 0. Therefore 0 £ c £ 2 - 1.

+ + =0

a b g (i) If c < 2 - 1, then z = c + (- 1 ± 1 - 2c - c2 )i.

1 1 1 (ii) If c = 2 - 1, then z = ( 2 - 1) - i.

+ + =0

z1 - z2 z2 - z3 z3 - z1 (iii) If c > 2 - 1, the equation has no solutions.

Conversely, suppose that Answers: (B), (D)

1 1 1

+ + =0 9. If z1, z2, z3 are complex numbers such that

a b g z12 z2 z2

| z1 | = | z2 | = | z3 | = 1 and + 2 + 3 = -1

z2 z3 z3 z1 z1z2

Worked-Out Problems 151

(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3/2

arg (z3 / 8 ) = (1/ 2) arg (z2 + zz1 / 2 )

Solution: Let z = z1 + z2 + z3. Then

then which of the following is (are) true?

1 1 1 z z + z2 z3 + z3 z1 (A) | z | = 1 (B) z is real

z = z1 + z2 + z3 = + + = 1 2

z1 z2 z3 z1z2 z3 (C) z is pure imaginary (D) z1/2 = 1

Therefore zb= z1z2 + z2z3 + z3z1, where b = z1z2z3. Hence Solution: The given relation is

2 2 2

z z z

+

1

+ 2

= - 1 Þ z13 + z23 + z33 = - z1z2 z3

3

2 arg (z3 / 8 ) = arg (z 2 + zz1 / 2 )

z2 z3 z3 z1 z1z2

æ z3 / 4 ö

Þ z13 + z23 + z33 - 3z1z2 z3 = - 4b Þ arg ç 2 =0

è z + zz1/ 2 ÷ø

Now

z3/ 4

(z1 + z2 + z3 ) [(z1 + z2 + z3 )2 - 3(z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 )] = - 4b Þ is purely real

z + zz1/ 2

2

That is z2 + zz1/ 2

Þ is purely real

z(z - 3zb) = - 4b

2

z3/ 4

Therefore Þ z 5 / 4 + zz - 1/ 4 is purely real

z - 3 | z | b + 4b = 0

3 2

Þ z5 / 4 + zz-1/ 4 = z5 / 4 + zz - 1/ 4

z = (3 | z | - 4)b

3 2

Þ ((z )5 / 4 + z(z ) - 1/ 4 ) = z5 / 4 + zz - 1/ 4

| z | = | 3 | z | - 4 | (since | b | = | z1z2 z3 | = 1)

3 2

(z ) 5 / 4 - z5 / 4

Þ (z )5 / 4 - z5 / 4 = zz - 1/ 4 - z(z ) - 1/ 4 =

Case 1: Suppose that 3 | z | ³ 4. Then 2

(zz )1/ 4

| z|3 = 3| z|2 - 4 é 1 ù

Þ [(z )5 / 4 - z5 / 4 ] ê1 - =0

| z| - 3| z| + 4 = 0

3 2

ë ( zz )1/ 4 úû

(| z| - 2)(| z |2 - | z | - 2) = 0 1

Þ z = z or =1

(| z | - 2)(| z | - 2)(| z | + 1) = 0 | z|2

| z| = 2 Þ z = z or | z | = 1

| z|3 = | 3| z|2 - 4 | = 4 - 3| z|2 11. The vertices A and C of a square ABCD (see figure)

| z| + 3| z| - 4 = 0

3 2 are 2 + 3i and 3 - 2i, respectively. If z1 and z2 repre-

sent the other two vertices B and D respectively,

(| z | - 1)(| z | + 4 | z | + 4) = 0

2

then

(| z | - 1)(| z | + 2) 2 = 0 (A) z1 = 0 (B) z2 = 5 - i

| z| = 1 (C) z1 = 1 + i (D) z2 = 5 + i

Answers: (B) and (C)

B (z1) A (2+ 3i )

Note that, in case 2, z, z1, z2, and z3 lie on the circle with

radius 1 and center at the origin. Therefore, origin is the

circumcenter of the triangle with z1, z2 and z3 as verti-

ces. Hence, z1 + z2 + z3 (= z) represents the orthocenter. 90°

Thus z1, z2 and z3 form a right-angled triangle because

M

the distance between the orthocenter and circumcenter

is equal to the radius of the circumcircle. Hence two of

z1, z2, and z3 are the reflections of each other, through the

center of the circle. Since z1, z2, z3 satisfy the condition

å z12 / z2 z3 = -1, it implies that two are real and the third is C (3-2i ) D

the reflection of them in the origin.

152 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Solution: Let M be the center of the square. Then (C) D is the reflection of the orthocenter in the

side BC

5 i

M= + (D) If H is the orthocenter, then HD is perpendicular

2 2

to the side BD

Let z1 denote the point B. Then ÐCMD = 90°. Therefore

A(z1)

z1 - (5 + i)/ 2

=i

2 + 3i - (5 + i)/ 2

5+i æ 5 + iö

z1 = + i ç 2 + 3i - ÷

2 è 2 ø 90°

C(z3)

5+i æ - 1 + 5i ö B(z2)

= + iç

2 è 2 ÷ø

5+i-i-5

= =0

2

Therefore, D(z)

z2 = 5 + i

Answers: (A) and (D) æ z - z1 ö p

arg ç =±

è z3 - z2 ÷ø 2

12. For any complex number z = x + iy, define

This implies that (z - z1)/(z3 - z2) is pure imaginary.

(z) = | x | + | y | Therefore

If z1 and z2 are any complex numbers, then

z - z1 æ z - z1 ö

(A) (z1 + z2 ) £ (z1 ) + (z2 ) = -ç

z3 - z2 è z3 - z2 ÷ø

(B) (z1 + z2 ) = (z1 ) + (z2 )

(1/z) - (1/z1 ) æ z - z1 ö

(C) (z1 + z2 ) ³ (z1 ) + (z2 ) = -ç

(1/z3 ) - (1/z2 ) è z3 - z2 ÷ø

(D) |(z1 + z2 )| £ |(z1 )| + |(z2 )|

æ z1 - z ö æ z2 z3 ö æ z - z1 ö

Solution: Let z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 . Then z1 + z2 = çè z - z ÷ø çè zz ÷ø = - çè z - z ÷ø

2 3 1 3 2

( x1 + x2 ) + i( y1 + y2 ). Now

z2 z3 -z z

= - 1 or z = 2 3

(z1 + z2 ) = | x1 + x2 | + | y1 + y2 | zz1 z1

£ | x1 | + | x2 | + | y1 | + | y2 |

This implies (A) is correct.

= (z1 ) + (z2 ) Also, since the orthocenter H is z1 + z2 + z3, we have

|(z1 + z2 )| = || x1 + x2 | + | y1 + y2 || BH = | z1 + z2 + z3 - z2 | = | z1 + z3 |

= | x1 + x2 | + | y1 + y2 |

£ | x1 | + | x2 | + | y1 | + | y2 | z2 z3 | z2 |

and BD = z2 + = | z1 + z3 | = | z1 + z3 |

z1 | z1 |

= |(z1 )| + |(z2 )|

Answers: (A) and (D) (since | z1 | = 1 = | z2 |)

Therefore, B is equidistant from H and D. Similarly, C

13. Let z1, z2 and z3 be complex numbers representing is equidistant from H and D. This gives that BC is the

three points A, B and C, respectively, on the unit perpendicular bisector of HD and so H, D are reflections

circle | z | = 1 (see figure). Let the altitude through A of each other through the side BC.

meet the circle in D(z). Then Answers: (A) and (C)

- z2 z3 - z1

(A) z = (B) z =

z1 z2 z3

Worked-Out Problems 153

III. z2 - z1 = (z3 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷

è 3 3ø

X = {z : | z - a | = 2a2 + b }

æ 2p 2p ö

Y = {z : | z + a | = 2a2 - b } IV. z1 + z2 ç cos + i sin ÷

è 3 3ø

S = {z : | z2 - a2 | = | 2az + b |}

æ 4p 4p ö

+ z3 ç cos + i sin ÷ = 0

Then which of the following is (are) true? è 3 3ø

(A) X is a subset of S (B) Y is a subset of S Then which one is correct:

(C) S = X È Y (D) S = X Ç Y (A) I Þ II (B) II Þ III

Solution: Let z Î S. Therefore | z2 - a2 | = | 2az + b |. This (C) III Þ IV (D) IV Þ I

relation is equivalent to

Solution:

| z2 - a2 |2 = | 2az + b|2

I. Suppose D ABC is equilateral (see figure). Rotating AB

(z2 - a2 )(z 2 - a2 ) = (2az + b)(2az + b) about A through the angle p/3 in anticlocksense, we get

| z|4 - a2 (z2 + z 2 ) + a4 = 4a2 | z|2 + 2ab (z + z ) + b2 z3 - z1 p p

= cos + i sin

| z|4 - a2 [(z + z )2 - 2 | z|2 ] + a4 = 4a2 | z|2 + 2ab (z + z ) + b2 z2 - z1 3 3

| z|4 - 2a2 | z|2 + a4 = a2 (z + z )2 + 2ab (z + z ) + b2

Therefore, I Þ II. This implies (A) is true.

Hence, (| z | 2 - a2 ) 2 = [a(z + z ) + b] 2 . Therefore C(z3)

| z|2 - a2 = ± [a(z + z ) + b]

p

Therefore 3

| z|2 - a2 - a(z + z ) - b = 0 p p

3 3

or | z|2 - a2 + a (z + z ) + b = 0

A(z1) B(z2)

This is equivalent to II. Assume that

(z - a)(z - a) = 2a + b 2

æ p pö

z3 - z1 = (z2 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷

or (z + a)(z + a) = 2a - b 2

(3.12) è 3 3ø

Hence, Therefore

| z - a | = 2a + b or | z + a | = 2a - b

2 2 z3 - z1 p p

= cos + i sin

z2 - z1 3 3

Since | b | £ 2a2 , both 2a2 + b and 2a2 - b are non-negative.

From Eq. (3.12), if we retrace the steps backwards, then p

| z3 - z1 | = | z2 - z1 | and ÐBAC =

we get z satisfying the relation 3

| z2 - a2 | = | 2az + b | This implies DABC is equilateral. Therefore, II Þ I.

Therefore Now rotate AC about A through angle 5p /3 in anti-

clock sense so that

S = X ÈY

Answers: (A), (B), (C) æ 5p 5p ö

z2 - z1 = (z3 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷

è 3 3ø

15. Let z1, z2, z3 be the complex numbers representing

the vertices A, B, C of a triangle described in coun- This means II Û III.

terclocksense. Consider the following statements. Similarly we can see that III Û IV and IV Û I.

I. D ABC is equilateral Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)

æ p pö

II. z3 - z1 = (z2 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷

è 3 3ø

154 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3 = z2 - 2z + 3

= (z - 1)2 + 2 = i2 + 2 = 1

Column I Column II

4(z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) = 4

(A) If z = x + iy, z1/ 3 = a - ib and (p) 10

x y Answer: (D) Æ (s)

- = l (a2 - b2 ), then l is

a b (q) 14

2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

(B) If | z - i | < 1, then the value of In the following, w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity.

| z + 12 - 6i | is less than (r) 1

(C) If | z1 | = 1 and | z2 | = 2, then (s) 4 Column I Column II

| z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 is equal to

(A) The value of the determinant (p) 3w (1 - w )

(D) If z = 1 + i, then (t) 5

4 (z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) is equal to 1 1 1

1 - 1 - w2 w2 is

Solution: 1 w2 w4 (q) 3w(w - 1)

(A) x + iy = z = (a - ib)3 = a3 - 3a2 bi + 3a(ib)2 - i3 b3

(B) The value of 4 + 5w2002 + 3w2009

= (a3 - 3ab2 ) + i(b3 - 3a2 b) is

(r) -i 3

Comparing the real parts we get (C) The value of the determinant

x = a3 - 3ab2 = a(a2 - 3b2 ) 1 1 + i + w2 w2

x 1- i -1 w2 - 1 is (s) i 3

= a2 - 3b2

a -i -i + w 2 + 1 -1

Comparing the imaginary parts we get (D) w2 n + wn + 1 (n is a positive integer (t) 0

y = b - 3a b = b(b - 3a )

3 2 2 2 and not a multiple of 3) is

y

= b2 - 3a2 Solution:

b

(A) 1 1 1 3 1 + w + w2 1 + w2 + w

Therefore 1 - 1 - w2 w2 = 1 w w2

x y 1 w2 w4

1 w2 w

- = 4(a2 - b2 )

a b

3 0 0

l=4

= 1 w w2

Answer: (A) Æ (s)

1 w2 w

(B) | z - 12 - 6i | = |(z - i) + (12 - 5i)|

= 3(w2 - w4 ) = 3w(w - 1)

£ | z - i | + | 12 - 5i | < 1 + 13 = 14 Answer: (A) Æ (q)

Answer: (B) Æ (q) (B) 4 + 5w 2002

+ 3w

2009

= 4 + 5w + 3w 2

(∵ w3 = 1)

(C) | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 = 2(| z1 |2 + | z2 |2 ) = 2(1 + 4) = 10 = 1 + 2w + 3 (1 + w + w2 )

Answer: (C) Æ (p) = 1 + 2w

(D) If z = 1 + i, then Since

(z - 1) = i

4 4

-1 i 3

Therefore w= ±

2 2

z4 - 4z3 + 6z2 - 4z + 1 = 1 we get

(z - 4z + 7z - 6z + 3) - z + 2z - 2 = 1

4 3 2 2

æ -1 i 3 ö æ -1 i 3 ö

4 + 5w2002 + 3w2009 = 1 + 2 ç + or 1 + 2 ç -

è 2 2 ÷ø è 2 2 ÷ø

Worked-Out Problems 155

=±i 3 (A) We have

Answers: (B) Æ (r), (s) 1 1

(1 - w)(1 - w2 )(1 - w4 )(1 - w8 ) = (1 - w)2 (1 - w2 )2

3 3

(C) 1 1+ i + w 2

w 2

1 -w + i w 2

1- i -1 w2 - 1 = 1 - i -1 w2 - 1 1

= [(1 - w)(1 - w2 )]2

3

-i -i + w - 1 -1 -i -i + w -1 -1

1

1 -w + i -1 = (1 - w - w2 + w3 )2

3

= 0 0 0 =0 1

-i -i + w - 1 -1 = (1 + 1 + 1)2 = 3

3

Answer: (C) Æ (t) Answer: (A) Æ (t)

(B) We have

(D) Let n > 0 and n ¹ 3m for all integers m. Then

n = 3m + 1 or 3m + 2 w(1 + w - w2 )7 = w(-w2 - w2 )7

n = 3m + 1 Þ w2 n + wn + 1 = w6 m + 2 + w3 n + 1 + 1 = w[2(-w2 )]7

= w2 + w + 1 = 0

-27 w15 = -128

6 m+ 4 3m+ 2

n = 3m + 2 Þ w + w + 1 = w

2n n

+w +1 Answer: (B) Æ (p)

=w + w + 1= 02 (C) We have

Answer: (D) Æ (t) (1 + w2 )n = (1 + w4 )n

3. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II. (1 + w2 )n = (1 + w)n

w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity.

(-w)n = (-w2 )n

Column I Column II wn = w2 n

(A) The value of (p) -128 The least such positive n is 3.

1 Answer: (C) Æ (t)

(1 - w)(1 - w2 )(1 - w4 )(1 - w8 ) is (q) 6

3 (D) We have

(B) w (1 + w - w2 )7 is equal to (r) 0

1 1 1 1 1+ w - 2 - w

+ - = +

(C) The least positive integer n such that 1 + 2w 2 + w 1 + w 1 + 2w (2 + w)(1 + w)

(1 + w2 )n = (1 + w4 )n is (s) 128

1 1

1 1 1 = -

(D) + - is equal to (t) 3 1 + 2w 2 + 3w + w2

1 + 2w 2 + w 1 + w 1 1

= - =0

1 + 2w 1 + 2w

Answer: (D) Æ (r)

Comprehension-Type Questions

1. Passage: A complex number z is pure real if and only (A) 8 x - 17 y = 16 (B) 8 x + 17 y = 16

if z = z and is pure imaginary if and only if z = - z.

(C) 17 x - 8 y = 16 (D) 17 x - 8 y = - 16

Answer the following questions:

(ii) If

(i) If x and y are real numbers and the complex

number 3 + 2i sin q æ pö

z= çè 0 < q £ ÷ø

1 - 2i sin q 2

(2 + i) x - i (1 - i) y + 2i

+

4+i 4i is pure imaginary, then q is equal to

is pure real, the relation between x and y is (A) p/4 (B) p/6 (C) p/3 (D) p/12

156 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Û sinq = ±

z1 - z2 2

=1 p æ pö

z1 + z2 Ûq = çè since 0 < q £ ÷ø

3 2

then Answer: (C)

(A) z1/z2 is pure real

(iii) | z1 - z2 | = | z1 + z2 |

(B) z1/z2 is pure imaginary

(C) z1 is pure real Þ (z1 - z2 )(z1 - z2 ) = (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 )

(D) z1 and z2 are pure imaginary Þ z1z2 = - z1z2

Solution: z1 z æz ö

Þ = - 1 = -ç 1 ÷

(i) Let z2 z2 è z2 ø

(2 + i) x - i (1 - i) y + 2i z1

z= + Þ is pure imaginary

4+i 4i z2

2 x + ( x - 1)i y + (2 - y)i

= + Answer: (B)

4+i 4i

(2 x + ( x - 1))i)(4 - i) -iy + (2 - y) 2. Passage: Consider z = a + ib and z = a - ib, where a and

= +

17 4 b are real numbers, are conjugates of each other. Answer

8 x + x - 1 + i(4 x - 4 - 2 x) (2 - y) - iy the following three questions:

= +

17 4 (i) If the complex numbers -3 + i(x2y) and x2 + y + 4i,

9 x - 1 + i(2 x - 4) 2 - y - iy where x and y are real, are conjugate to each

= +

17 4 other, then the number of ordered pairs (x, y) is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

Now

(ii) Let z = x 2

- 7 x - 9 yi such that z = y i + 20i - 12,

2

Û Im z = 0 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

2x - 4 y (iii) The number of real values of x such that sin x +

Û - =0 i cos 2x and cos x - i sin 2x are conjugate to each

17 4

other is

Û 8 x - 16 = 17 y (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) >2 (D) 0

Û 8 x - 17 y = 16 Solution:

Answer: (A) (i) -3 + ix2 y = x2 + y - 4i implies

3 + 2i sin q x2 + y = -3 and x2 y = - 4 (3.13)

(ii) z =

1 - 2i sin q

Therefore

(3 + 2i sin q )(1 + 2i sin q ) 4

= x2 - = -3

1 + 4 sin2 q x2

(3 - 4 sin2 q ) + i(8 sin q ) x4 + 3 x2 - 4 = 0

=

1 + 4 sin2 q

( x2 + 4)( x2 - 1) = 0

Now,

This gives x2 = 1 (since x2 ¹ -4). Therefore x = ±1 and

z is pure imaginary Û z = - z y = -4. Hence the ordered pairs are (1, -4) and (-1, -4).

Û Re(z) = 0 Answer: (B)

3 - 4 sin2 q (ii) We have

Û =0

1 + 4 sin2 q z = x2 - 7 x - 9 yi

3 Þ z = x2 - 7 x + 9 yi

Û sin2 q =

4

Þ x2 - 7 x + 9 yi = y2 i + 20i - 12

Summary 157

x2 - 7 x = - 12 (3.14) Þ sin x = cos x and cos 2 x = sin 2 x

and 9 y = y + 20

2

(3.15) Þ 2 cos2x - 1 = cos 2 x = sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x = 2 cos2x

Solving Eq. (3.14) we get

Þ - 1 = 0, which is absurd

x = 3, 4

Therefore, there are no such real numbers x.

Solving Eq. (3.15) we get

Answer: (D)

y2 - 9 y + 20 = 0 Þ y = 4, 5

Therefore, the required ordered pairs are (3, 4), (3, 5),

(4, 4) and (4, 5).

Answer: (D)

In the following set of questions, a Statement I is given Let z = x + iy. Then

and a corresponding Statement II is given just below it.

æ z - zö p

Mark the correct answer as: arg ç 1 = Þ ( x - 9)( x - 3) + ( y - 5)2 = 6 y - 30

è z2 - z ÷ø 4

(A) Both I and II are true and II is a correct reason for I

(B) Both I and II are true and II is not a correct reason for I Þ x2 + y2 - 12 x - 16 y + 82 = 0

(C) I is true, but II is false Now

(D) I is false, but II is true

| z - 6 - 8i | 2 = ( x - 6) 2 + ( y - 8)2

1. Statement I: If z1 = 9 + 5i, z2 = 3 + 5i and arg [(z−z1)/

= x2 + y2 - 12 x - 16 y + 100

(z − z2)] = p / 4, then the values of | z - 6 - 8i | is 3 2 .

Statement II: In a circle, the angle made by a chord at = ( x2 + y2 - 12 x - 16 y + 82) + 18

the center is double the angle subtended by the same

= 0 + 18

chord on the circumference.

Solution: Let z be a point such that Therefore

æ z - zö p z - 6 - 8i = 3 2

arg ç 1 =

è z2 - z ÷ø 4 Answer: (B)

SUMMARY

Complex Number

3.1 Complex number: Any ordere

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