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Mathematics

ALGEBRA
for IIT-JEE
VOL. 1
Mathematics
ALGEBRA
for IIT-JEE
VOL. 1

Dr. G.S.N. Murti


Reader and HOD of Maths (Retd.)
Rajah R. S. R. K. R. R. College, Bobbili, Andra Pradesh, India

Dr. U.M. Swamy


Professor of Mathematics (Retd.), Andhra University, India

Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.


Mathematics
ALGEBRA
for IIT-JEE
VOL. 1

Copyright © 2010 by Wiley India Pvt. Ltd., 4435-36/7, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002.
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First Edition: 2010
ISBN: 978-81-265-2182-1
ISBN: 978-81-265-8125-2 (ebk)
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Printed at: Sanat Printers, New Delhi
Dedication

Dedicated to
my mother
Smt. Ganti Balamma
for her untiring efforts to bring up the family to a respectable stage in the
society after our father's premature demise.

Dr. G. S. N. Murti
Acknowledgments

Dr. G. S. N. Murti would like to extend his thanks to the following:


1. Mr. U. V. Chalapati Rao, M. Sc. of erstwhile Gangadhar Tutorials, a pioneer
in IIT-JEE coaching, for giving him the opportunity to teach for IIT
coaching in 1985.
2. Dr. P. Narayana, Chairman, Narayana Group of Educational Institutions.
3. Dr. U.M. Swamy, research advisor and co-author of this book, for
immediately accepting his request.
4. Last but not least, his wife Smt. Balamba for her cooperation and advise.

Dr. U. M. Swamy would like to thank the following:


1. His wife Mrs. U. Lakshmi and daughters Sowmya and Mythri for their
excellent support in completing this project.
2. The co-author Dr. G. S. N. Murti for his collaboration in this work.
Features and Benefits
at a Glance
Feature Benefit to student
Chapter Opener Peaks the student’s interest with the chapter opening vignette, definitions
of the topic, and contents of the chapter.
Clear, Concise, and Inviting Students are able to Read this book, which reduces math anxiety and
Writing Style, Tone and Layout encourages student success.
Theory and Applications Unlike other books that provide very less or no theory, here theory is
well matched with solved examples.
Theorems Relevant theorems are provided along with proofs to emphasize
conceptual understanding.
Solved Examples Topics are followed by solved examples for students to practice and
understand the concept learned.
Examples Wherever required, examples are provided to aid understanding of
definitions and theorems.
Quick Look Formulae/concepts that do not require extensive thought but can be
looked at the last moment.
Try It Out Practice problems for students in between the chapter.
Worked Out Problems Based on IIT-JEE pattern problems are presented in the form of
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions
Matrix-Match Type Questions
Comprehension-Type Questions
Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions
Integer Answer Type Questions
In-depth solutions are provided to all problems for students to
understand the logic behind.
Summary Key formulae, ideas and theorems are presented in this section in
each chapter.
Exercises Offer self-assessment. The questions are divided into subsections as per
requirements of IIT-JEE.
Answers Answers are provided for all exercise questions for student’s to validate
their solution.
Note to the Students
The IIT-JEE is one of the hardest exams to crack for students, for a very simple
reason – concepts cannot be learned by rote, they have to be absorbed, and IIT
believes in strong concepts. Each question in the IIT-JEE entrance exam is meant
to push the analytical ability of the student to its limit. That is why the questions
are called brainteasers!
Students find Mathematics the most difficult part of IIT-JEE. We understand that
it is difficult to get students to love mathematics, but one can get students to love
succeeding at mathematics. In order to accomplish this goal, the book has been
written in clear, concise, and inviting writing style. It can be used as a self-study
text as theory is well supplemented with examples and solved examples. Wher-
ever required, figures have been provided for clear understanding.
If you take full advantage of the unique features and elements of this textbook,
we believe that your experience will be fulfilling and enjoyable. Let’s walk
through some of the special book features that will help you in your efforts to
crack IIT-JEE.
To crack mathematics paper for IIT-JEE the five things to remember are:
1. Understanding the concepts
2. Proper applications of concepts
3. Practice
4. Speed
5. Accuracy

About the Cover Picture


The Mandelbrot set is a mathematical set of points in the complex plane,
the boundary of which forms a fractal. It is the set of complex values of c
for which the orbit of 0 under iteration of the complex quadratic polynomial
zn+1 = zn2 + c remains bounded. The Mandelbrot set is named after Benoît
Mandelbrot, who studied and popularized it.
A. PEDAGOGY

CHAPTER OPENER
Quadratic Equations
4 Each chapter starts with an opening vignette, defini-
tion of the topic, and contents of the chapter that give
you an overview of the chapter to help you see the
big picture.
Contents
4.1 Quadratic Expressions
and Equations

Worked-Out Problems
Summary
Exercises
Answers

A polynomial equation of
the second degree having
the general form
Quadratic Equations

<0 ax2 + bx + c = 0
=0 is called a quadratic equation.
Here x represents a variable,
and a, b, and c, constants,
with a ¹ 0. The constants a, b,
and c are called, respectively,
the quadratic coefficient, the
linear coefficient and the
constant term or the free
term.
The term “quadratic” comes
from quadratus, which is the
>0 Latin word for “square”.
Quadratic equations can be
solved by factoring,completing
the square, graphing, Newton’s
method, and using the
quadratic formula (explained
in the chapter).

CLEAR, CONCISE, AND INVITING WRITING


Special attention has been paid to present 4.1 | Quadratic Expressions and Equations
an engaging, clear, precise narrative in the In this section, we discuss quadratic expressions and equations and their roots. Also, we derive various properties
of the roots of quadratic equations and their relationships with the coefficients.
layout that is easy to use and designed to
DE F I NI T I O N 4. 1 A polynomial of the form ax2 + bx + c, where a, b and c are real or complex numbers and
reduce math anxiety students may have. a ¹ 0, is called a quadratic expression in the variable x. In other words, a polynomial f (x)
of degree two over the set of complex numbers is called a quadratic expression. We often
write f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c to denote a quadratic expression and this is known as the standard
form. In this case, a and b are called the coefficients of x2 and x, respectively, and c is called
the constant term. The term ax2 is called the quadratic term and bx is called the linear term.

D E F I NI T I O N 4. 2 If f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c is a quadratic expression and a is a complex number, then we write


f (a) for aa 2 + ba + c. If f (a) = 0, then a is called a zero of the quadratic expression f (x).

DEFINITIONS Examples
(1) Let f (x) º x2 - 5x - 6. Then f (x) is a quadratic expres- (3) Let f ( x) º 2 x2 - ix + 1 be a quadratic expression. In
Every new topic or concept starts with de- sion and 6 and –1 are zeros of f (x). this case i and −i/2 are zeros of f (x).
(2) Let f (x) º x2 + 1. Then f (x) is a quadratic expression (4) The expression x2 + x is a quadratic expression and
fining the concept for students. Related ex- and i and –i are zeros of f (x). 0 and –1 are zeros of x2 + x.

amples to aid the understanding follow the DE F I NI T I O N 4. 3 If f (x) is a quadratic expression, then f (x) = 0 is called a quadratic equation. If a is a zero
of f (x), then a is called a root or a solution of the quadratic equation f (x) = 0. In other
definition. words, if f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c, a ¹ 0, then a complex number a is said to be a root or a solution
of f (x) = 0, if aa 2 + ba + c = 0. The zeros of the quadratic expression f (x) are same as the roots
or solutions of the quadratic equation f (x) = 0. Note that a is a zero of f (x) if and only if x − a
is a factor of f (x).

Examples

(1) 0 and –i are the roots of x2 + ix = 0. (3) i and –i are the roots of x2 + 1 = 0.
(2) 2 is the only root of x2 - 4 x + 4 = 0. (4) i is the only root of x2 - 2ix - 1 = 0.
Example 4.1 EXAMPLES
Find the quadratic equation whose roots are 2 and –i. ( x - 2)[ x - (-i)] = ( x - 2)( x + i) = x2 + (i - 2) x - 2i
Hence the equation is x2 + (i - 2) x - 2i = 0. Examples pose a specific problem
Solution: The required quadratic expression is

Example 4.2 using concepts already presented


Find the quadratic equation whose roots are 1 + i and 3 [ x - (1 + i)]( x - (1 - i)) = 3 [( x - 1) - i)][( x - 1) + i] and then work through the solution.
1 – i and in which the coefficient of x2 is 3.
= 3 [( x - 1)2 + 1]
These serve to enhance the students'
Solution: The required quadratic expression is = 3 x2 - 6 x + 6
Hence the equation is 3x - 6x + 6 = 0.
2 understanding of the subject matter.
Example 4.3

If a and b are roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + 0 = ( x - za )( x - zb )


c = 0 and z is any complex number, then find the quadratic
= x2 - (za + zb ) x + za ´ zb
equation whose roots are za and zb .
= x2 + z[-(a + b )]x + z2ab
Solution: We have
æ bö c
-b c = x2 + z ç ÷ x + z2
a+b= and ab = è aø a
a a
that is,
The equation whose roots are za and zb is
ax2 + zbx + z2 c = 0

Example 4.4

If a and b are the roots of a quadratic equation Therefore, the required equation is
ax2 + bx + c = 0, then find the quadratic equation whose
0 = a[ x - (a + z)] ´ [ x - (b + z)]
roots are a + z and b + z, where z is any given complex
number. = ax2 + a[-(a + z) - (b + z)]x + a(a + z)(b + z)
æb ö æc b ö
Solution: We have = ax2 + a ç - 2z÷ x + a ç - z + z2 ÷
èa ø èa a ø

THEOREMS THEOREM 4.5 If a, b and c are real numbers and a ¹ 0, then (4ac - b2 )/ 4a is the maximum or minimum value of
quadratic equation of f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c according as a < 0 or a > 0, respectively.
PROOF We have
Relevant theorems are provided along
æ b cö
f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c º a ç x2 + x + ÷
with proofs to emphasize conceptual un- è a aø

derstanding rather than rote learning. éæ bö


º a êç x + ÷ +
4ac - b2 ù
2
æ bö
ú º aç x + ÷ +
2
4ac - b2
êëè 2a ø 4a2 úû è 2a ø 4a

If a < 0, then
4ac - b2 æ -b ö
f ( x) £ =fç ÷ for all x Î
4a è 2a ø

Hence (4ac - b )/ 4a is the maximum value of f ( x).


2

If a > 0, then
æ -b ö 4ac - b
2
fç ÷= £ f ( x) for all x Î
è 2a ø 4a
Hence (4ac - b )/ 4a is the minimum value of f ( x).
2

QUICK LOOK 2 QUICK LOOK


Let f ( x) º ax + bx + c = 0 be a quadratic equation and
2
3. f (- x) = 0 is an equation whose roots are -a and -b.
a and b be its roots. Then the following hold good. 4. If ab ¹ 0 and c ¹ 0, f(1/x) = 0 is an equation whose
1. f (x - z) = 0 is an equation whose roots are a + z and roots are 1/a and 1/b .
Some important formulae and con-
b + z, for any given complex number z. 5. For any complex numbers z1 and z2 with z1 ¹ 0, cepts that do not require exhaustive
2. f ( x / z) = 0 is an equation whose roots are za and zb f [( x - z2 )/z1 ] = 0 is an equation whose roots are
for any non-zero complex number z. z1a + z2 and z1 b + z2. explanation, but their mention is im-
portant, are presented in this section.
These are marked with a magnifying
glass.
TRY IT OUT Try it out Verify the following properties:
1. ((a, b) + (c, d)) + (s, t) = (a, b) + ((c, d) + (s, t))
Within each chapter the stu- 2. (a, b) + (c, d) = (c, d) + (a, b)
dents would find problems 3. (a, b) + (0, 0) = (a, b)
4. (a, b) + (-a, -b) = (0, 0)
to reinforce and check their 5. (a, b) + (c, d) = (s, t) Û (a, b) = (s, t) - (c, d)
understanding. This would Û (c, d) = (s, t) - (a, b)
help build confidence as one
DEF I NI TI O N 3 . 2 For any complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d), let us define
progresses in the chapter.
(a, b) × (c, d) = (ac - bd, ad + bc)
These are marked with a
This is called the product of (a, b) and (c, d) and the process of taking products is called
pointed finger. multiplication.

Try it out Verify the following properties for any complex numbers (a, b), (c, d) and (s, t).
1. [(a, b) × (c, d)] × ( s, t ) = (a, b) × [(c, d) × ( s, t )]
2. (a, b) × (c, d) = (c, d) × (a, b)
3. (a, b) × [(c, d) + ( s, t )] = (a, b) × (c, d) + (a, b) × ( s, t )
4. (a, b) × (1, 0) = (a, b)
5. (a, 0) × (c, d) = (ac, ad)
6. (a, 0) × (c, 0) = (ac, 0)
7. (a, 0) + (c, 0) = (a + c, 0)

SUMMARY SUMMARY
4.1 Quadratic expressions and equations: If a, b, c a At the end of every
ax2 + bx + c = (a ¢x2 + b¢ x + c ¢)
are real numbers and a ≠ 0, the expression of the a¢
form ax2 + bx + c is called quadratic expression and chapter, a summary is
4.8 Cube roots of unity: Roots of the equation x - 1 = 0
3
ax2 + bx + c = 0 is called quadratic equation. presented that organ-
are called cube roots of unity and they are
4.2 Let f (x) º ax2 + bx + c be a quadratic expression izes the key formulae
and a be a real (complex) number. Then we write -1 3
1, ±i and theorems in an
f (a) for aa2 + ba + c. If f(a) = 0, the a is called a zero 2 2
of f(x) or a root of the equation f(x) = 0. -1/ 2 ± i 3 / 2 are called non-real cube roots of unity. easy to use layout. The
Further each of them is the square of the other and related topics are indi-
4.3 Roots: The roots of the quadratic equation ax2 +
the sum of the two non-real cube roots of unity is
bx + c = 0 are cated so that one can
equal to -1. If w ≠ 1 is a cube root of unity and n is
- b + b2 - 4ac - b - b2 - 4ac any positive integer, then 1 + wn + w2n is equal to 3 quickly summarize a
and or 0 according as n is a multiple of 3 or not.
2a 2a chapter.
4.9 Maximum and minimum values: If f(x) º ax2 +
4.4 Discriminant: b2 - 4ac is called the discriminant of
bx + c and a ≠ 0, then
the quadratic expression (equation) ax2 + bx + c = 0.
æ - b ö 4ac - b
2

4.5 Sum and product of the roots: If a and b are roots of fç ÷=


è 2a ø 4a
the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, then
is the maximum or minimum value of f according
-b c as a < 0 or a > 0.
a+b= and a b =
2a a
4.10 Theorems (change of sign of ax + bx + c): Let f(x) º
2

4.6 Let ax + bx + c = 0 be a quadratic equation and


2
ax + bx + c where a, b, c are real and a ≠ 0. If
2

Δ = b2 - 4ac be its discriminant. Then the following a and b are real roots of f(x) = 0 and a < b, then
hold good. (1) (i) f(x) and a (the coefficient of x ) have the
2

(1) Roots are equal Û Δ = 0 (i.e., b2 = 4ac). same sign for all x < a or x > b.
(2) Roots are real and distinct Û Δ > 0. (ii) f(x) and a will have opposite signs for all x
(3) Roots are non-real complex (i.e., imaginary) Û such that a < x < b.
Δ > 0. (2) If f (x) = 0 has imaginary roots, then f(x) and a
will have the same sign for all real values of x.
4.7 Theorem: Two quadratic equations ax + bx + c = 0
2

and a ¢x2 + b¢ x + c ¢ = 0 have same roots if and only 4.11 If f(x) is a quadratic expression and f (p)f (q) < 0
if the triples (a, b, c) and (a¢, b¢, c¢ ) are proportional for some real numbers p and q, then the quadratic
and in this case equation f (x) = 0 has a root in between p and q.
B. WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS AND ASSESSMENT – AS PER IIT-JEE PATTERN
Mere theory is not enough. It is also important to practice and test what has been
proved theoretically. The worked-out problems and exercise at the end of each
chapter are in resonance with the IIT-JEE paper pattern. Keeping the IIT-JEE
pattern in mind, the worked-out problems and exercises have been divided into:
1. Single Correct Choice Type Questions
2. Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions
3. Matrix-Match Type Questions
4. Comprehension-Type Questions
5. Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions
6. Integer Answer Type Questions

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
In-depth solutions are provided to all worked-out problems for students to understand the logic behind and
formula used.

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
SINGLE CORRECT
Single Correct Choice Type Questions CHOICE TYPE
1. If the equations m < 0 and 3m2 + 4 m - 4 > 0
Þ m < 0 and (3m - 2)(m + 2) > 0
QUESTIONS
x2 + ax + 1 = 0 and x2 - x - a = 0
have a real common root, then the value of a is This gives m < -2 and so
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) −1 (D) 2 x2 - 5 x + 6 < 0 Þ ( x - 2)( x - 3) < 0 Þ x Î (2, 3) These are the regular mul-
Answer: (C)
Solution: Let a be a real common root. Then tiple choice questions with
a 2 + aa + 1 = 0 4. If p is prime number and both the roots of the equation
x2 + px - (444) p = 0 are integers, then p is equal to four choices provided. Only
a -a -a=0
2
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 31 (D) 37
Therefore one among the four choices
Solution: Suppose the roots of x2 + px - (444) p = 0 are
a (a + 1) + (a + 1) = 0 integers. Then the discriminant will be the correct answer.
(a + 1)(a + 1) = 0 p2 + 4(444) p = p{ p + 4 ´ (444)}
If a = - 1, then the equations are same and also cannot must be a perfect square. Therefore p divides p + 4 ´
have a real root. Therefore a + 1 ¹ 0 and hence a = - 1, (444). This implies
so that a = 2.
p divides 4 ´ (444) = 24 ´ 3 ´ 37
Answer: (D)
Th f

MULTIPLE Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


CORRECT CHOICE 1. Suppose a and b are integers and b ¹ -1. If the quadratic
equation x2 + ax + b + 1 = 0 has a positive integer root,
Solution:
Case 1: Suppose b is even, that is, b = 2 m. Then b2 - 4ac =
TYPE QUESTIONS then 4(m2 - ac) = 4k.
Case 2: Suppose b is odd, that is, b = 2 m - 1. Then
(A) the other root is also a positive integer
(B) the other root is an integer
b2 - 4ac = (2 m - 1)2 - 4ac
Multiple correct choice type (C) a2 + b2 is a prime number
(D) a2 + b2 has a factor other than 1 and itself = 4 m2 + 4 m + 1 - 4ac
questions have four choices Solution: Let a and b be the roots and a be a positive = 4(m2 + m - ac) + 1
provided, but one or more of integer. Then
= 4k + 1
the choices provided may be a + b = -a and ab = b + 1 Answers: (A), (B)
b = -a - a implies b is an integer and
correct. 3. If a and b are roots of the equation x2 + ax + b = 0,
a2 + b2 = (a + b )2 + (ab - 1)2 then
= a2 + b2 + a2 b2 + 1 (A) a = 0, b = 1 (B) a = 0 = b
= (a 2 + 1)(b 2 + 1) (C) a = 1, b = - 1 (D) a = 1, b = - 2
Solution: If a + b = -a and ab = b, then a = 0 = b or a = 1,
Since a 2 + 1 > 1 and b 2 + 1 > 1, it follows that a 2 + 1 is a
b = -2.
factor of a2 + b2 other than 1 and itself.
Answers: (B), (D)
Answers: (B), (D)
MATRIX-MATCH TYPE QUESTIONS
These questions are the
regular “Match the Follow- Matrix-Match Type Questions
ing” variety. Two columns 1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3 = z2 - 2z + 3

each containing 4 subdivi- = (z - 1)2 + 2 = i2 + 2 = 1


Column I Column II
4(z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) = 4
sions or first column with (A) If z = x + iy, z1/ 3 = a - ib and (p) 10
x y Answer: (D) Æ (s)
four subdivisions and sec- - = l (a2 - b2 ), then l is
a b (q) 14
2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.
ond column with more sub- (B) If | z - i | < 1, then the value of In the following, w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity.
divisions are given and the | z + 12 - 6i | is less than (r) 1
(C) If | z1 | = 1 and | z2 | = 2, then Column I Column II
student should match ele- | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 is equal to
(s) 4
(A) The value of the determinant (p) 3w (1 - w )
ments of column I to that (D) If z = 1 + i, then (t) 5
4 (z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) is equal to 1 1 1
of column II. There can be
1 - 1 - w2 w2 is
one or more matches. Solution: 1 w2 w4 (q) 3w(w - 1)
(A) x + iy = z = (a - ib)3 = a3 - 3a2 bi + 3a(ib)2 - i3 b3
(B) The value of 4 + 5w 2002
+ 3w2009

= (a3 - 3ab2 ) + i(b3 - 3a2 b) is


(r) -i 3
Comparing the real parts we get (C) The value of the determinant
x = a3 - 3ab2 = a(a2 - 3b2 ) 1 1 + i + w2 w2
x 1- i -1 w2 - 1 is (s) i 3
= a2 - 3b2
a -i -i + w 2 + 1 -1
Comparing the imaginary parts we get (D) w2 n + wn + 1 (n is a positive integer (t) 0
d l i l f 3) i

COMPREHENSION-TYPE QUESTIONS
Comprehension-type questions consist
Comprehension-Type Questions
of a small passage, followed by three
1. Passage: 4 Indians, 3 Americans and 2 Britishers are (ii) The number of ways in which all the four prizes can
to be arranged around a round table. Answer the be given to any one of the 6 students = 6. Therefore multiple choice questions. The ques-
following questions. the required number of ways is 6 4 - 6 = 1290.
(i) The number of ways of arranging them is Answer: (B) tions are of single correct answer type.
1 1 (iii) Give a set of two prizes to the particular student.
(A) 9! (B) 9! (C) 8! (D) 8!
2 2 Then the remaining 2 can be distributed among
5 students in 52 ways. There are 4 C 2 sets, each
(ii) The number of ways arranging them so that the
containing 2 prizes. Therefore the required number
two Britishers should never come together is
of ways of distributing the prizes is
(A) 7 ! ´ 2 ! (B) 6 ! ´ 2 ! (C) 7! (D) 6 ! 6 P2
(iii) The number of ways of arranging them so that 52 ´ 4C 2 = 25 ´ 6 = 150
the three Americans should sit together is Answer: (C)
(A) 7 ! ´ 3! (B) 6 ! ´ 3! (C) 6 ! 6 P3 (D) 6 ! 7 P3
3. Passage: A security of 12 persons is to form from a
Solution: group of 20 persons. Answer the following questions.
(i) n distinct objects can be arranged around a circular (i) The number of times that two particular persons
table in (n - 1)! ways. Therefore the number of ways are together on duty is
of arranging 4 + 3 + 2 people = 8!.
20 ! 18 ! 20 ! 20 !
Answer: (C) (A) (B) (C) (D)
12 ! 8 ! 10 ! 8 ! 10 ! 8 ! 10 ! 10 !
(ii) First arrange 4 Indians and 3 Americans around a
round table in 6! ways. Among the six gaps, arrange (ii) The number of times that three particular
the two Britishers in 6 P2 ways. Therefore the total persons are together on duty is
number of arrangements in which Britishers are 17 ! 17 ! 20 ! 20 !
(A) (B) (C) (D)
separated is 6 ! ´ 6 P2 . 8! 9! 8! 8! 17 ! 3! 9! 8!
Answer: (D) (iii) The number of ways of selecting 12 guards such
(iii) Treating the 3 Americans as a single object, 7 (= 4 + that two particular guards are out of duty and
1 + 2) objects can be arranged cyclically in 6! ways. three particular guards are together on duty is
In each of these, Americans can be arranged among (20)! (18)! (15)! (15)!
themselves in 3! ways. Therefore, the number of (A) (B) (C) (D)
(15)! 5! 9 ! 3! 9! 6! 5! (10)!
required arrangements is 6 ! ´ 3!.
ASSERTION–REASONING TYPE QUESTIONS
These questions check the
Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions
analytical and reasoning
2. Statement I: If P( x) = ax + bx + c and Q( x) = - ax +
2 2
In the following set of questions, a Statement I is given
skills of the students. Two and a corresponding Statement II is given just below it. dx + c , where ac ¹ 0, then the equation P ( x) Q ( x) = 0
Mark the correct answer as: has at least two real roots.
statements are provided –
(A) Both I and II are true and II is a correct reason for I Statement II: A quadratic equation with real coeffi-
Statement I and Statement ( B ) Both I and II are true and II is not a correct reason cients has real roots if and only if the discriminant is
for I greater than or equal to zero.
II. The student is expected ( C ) I is true, but II is false Solution: Let px2 + qx + r = 0 be a quadratic equation.
( D) I is false, but II is true
to verify if (a) both state- The roots are

ments are true and if both 1. Statement I: Let a, b and c be real numbers and - q ± q2 - 4 pr
a ¹ 0. If 4a + 3b + 2c and a have same sign, then not 2p
are true, verify if statement both the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 belong
to the open interval (1, 2). These are real Û q2 - 4 pr ³ 0. Therefore Statement II
I follows from statement is true.
Statement II: A quadratic equation f ( x) = 0 will have In Statement I, ac ¹ 0. Therefore ac > 0 or ac < 0. If
II; (b) both statements are a root in the interval (a, b) if f (a) f (b) < 0 . ac < 0, then b2 - 4ac > 0, so that P(x) = 0 has two real roots.
If ac > 0, then d2 + 4ac > 0 so that Q(x) = 0 has two real
true and if both are true, Solution: Let f ( x) = px2 + qx + r . If f (a) and f (b) are
roots. Further, the roots of P(x) = 0 and Q(x) = 0 are also
of opposite sign, the curve (parabola) y = f ( x) must
verify if statement II is not the roots of P(x)Q(x) = 0. Therefore, Statement I is true
intersect x-axis at some point. This implies that f (x) has a
and Statement II is a correct reason for Statement I.
the correct reasoning for root in (a, b). Therefore, the Statement II is true.
Let a and b be roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 . Then, Answer: (A)
statement I; (c), (d) which -b c 3. Statement I: If a, b and c are real, then the roots of the
a+b= and ab = equation (x - a)(x - b) + (x - b)(x - c) + (x - c)(x - a) = 0
of the statements is untrue. a a
are imaginary.
By hypothesis,
Statement II: If p, q and r are real and p ¹ 0 , then
4a + 3b + 2c the roots of the equation px2 + qx + r = 0 are real or
>0 imaginary according as q2 - 4 pr ³ 0 or q2 - 4 pr < 0.
a

INTEGER-TYPE QUESTIONS
Integer Answer Type Questions The questions in this section are nu-
The answer to each of the questions in this section is 2. The number of negative integer solutions of x2 ´ 2x + 1 + merical problems for which no choices
a non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below 2| x - 3|+2 = x2 ´ 2| x - 3|+ 4 + 2x - 1 is .
the respective question numbers have to be darkened. are provided. The students re required
3. If (a + 5i)/ 2 is a root of the equation 2 x - 6 x + k = 0,
2
For example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer
to the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under then the value of k is . to find the exact answers to numerical
Y labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.

X Y Z W
4. If the equation x - 4 x + log1/ 2 a = 0 does not have
2
problems and enter the same in OMR
distinct real roots, then the minimum value of 1/a
0 0 0 0 is . sheets. Answers can be one-digit or
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 5. If a is the greatest negative integer satisfying two-digit numerals.
3 3 3 3 x2 - 4 x - 77 < 0 and x2 > 4
4 4 4
simultaneously, then the value of | a | is .
5 5 5 5
6 6 6 6. The number of values of k for which the quad-
7 7 7 7 ratic equations (2k - 5)x2 - 4x - 15 = 0 and (3k - 8)
8 8 8 8 x2 - 5x - 21 = 0 have a common root is .
9 9 9 9
7. The number of real roots of the equation 2 x2 - 6 x -
5 x2 - 3 x - 6 = 0 is .
1. The integer value of k for which
EXERCISES EXERCISES
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. The roots of the equation For self-assessment, each chapter has
(C) ln = m2 + c / a (D) mn = l2 + bc / a
17
(10)2 /x
+ (25) = (50)1/x
1 /x
adequate number of exercise prob-
4 3. If x is real, then the least value of
are 6 x2 - 22 x + 21
lems where the questions have been
(A) 2, 1/2 (B) -2, 1/2 (C) 2, -1/2 (D) 1/2, -1/2 5 x2 - 18 x + 17 subdivided into the same categories as
2. If a ¹ 0 and a(l + m) + 2blm + c = 0 and a(l + n) + is
2 2

2 bln + c = 0, then (A) 5/4 (B) 1 (C) 17/4 (D) -5/4


asked in IIT-JEE pattern.
(A) mn = l2 + c / a (B) lm = n2 + c / a

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


2
+ log2 x - ( 5 / 4 )
1. The equation x
( 3 / 4 )(log2 x )
= 2 has (A) a + b (B) a − b
(A) atleast one real solution (C) ( a + b )2 (D) ( a - b )2
(B) exactly three solutions
(C) exactly one irrational solution 8. If the product of the roots of the equation
(D) complex roots x2 - 4 mx + 3e2 log m - 4 = 0
is 8, then the roots are
2. If S is the set of all real values of x such that
(A) real (B) non-real
2x - 1 (C) rational (D) irrational
>0
2 x + 3 x2 + x
3
- log1/ 9 [ x2 - ( 10 / 3) x + 1]
9. If 3 £ 1, then x belongs to
then S is a superset of (A) [0, 1/3) (B) (1/3, 1)
(A) (-¥, - 3 / 2) (B) (-3/2, -1/4) (C) (2, 3) (D) (3, 10/3]
(C) (-1/ 4, 1/ 2) (D) (1/2, 3)
10. If every pair of the equations x2 + ax + bc = 0, x2 + bx +
Matrix-Match Type Questions
In each of the following questions, statements are given
in two columns, which have to be matched. The state- Column I Column II
ments in Column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and
(D), while those in Column II are labeled as (p), (q), (A) The equation (p) cx2 + bx + a = 0
(r), (s) and (t). Any given statement in Column I can whose roots are
have correct matching with one or more statements in a + b and ab is
(B) The equation (q) a2 x2 + (2ac - b2 ) x + c2 = 0
Column II. The appropriate bubbles corresponding to
the answers to these questions have to be darkened as whose roots are a 2
illustrated in the following example. and b 2 is (r) a2 x2 + a(b - c) x - bc = 0
(C) The equation
Example: If the correct matches are (A) ® (p), (s); whose roots are
(B) ® (q), (s), (t); (C) ® (r); (D) ® (r), (t); that is if the (s) ax2 + (2ac + b) x + ac2 +
1/a and 1/b is
matches are (A) ® (p) and (s); (B) ® (q), (s) and (t); bc + c = 0
(D) The equation
(C) ® (r); and (D) ® (r), (t), then the correct darkening
whose roots are
of bubbles willComprehension-Type
look as follows: Questions a - c and b - c is (t) cx2 - bx + a = 0
1. Passage: Let A be a square matrix. Then (A) idempotent matrix
(A) A is called idempotent matrix, if A2 = A. (B) involutory
(B) A is called nilpotent matrix of index k, if Ak = O (C) nilpotent matrix of index 2
and Ak-1 ¹ O. (D) AAT = I.
(C) A is called involutory matrix if A2 = I.
2. Passage: Let A be 3 ´ 3 matrix and B is adj A. Answer
(D) A is called periodic matrix with least periodic k, if the following questions:
Ak + 1 = A and Ak ¹ A.
é0 1 1ù
(i) If A = êê 1 2 0 úú , then A-1 is equal to
Answer the following questions:

0 - 1ù êë 3 - 1 4 úû
(i) The matrix éê ú is
ë-1 0 û
é 8 -5 -2ù é- 8 5 2ù
1 ê
- 4 - 3 1 úú
1 ê
(A) idempotent (B) involutory (A) (B) 4 3 - 1úú
Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions 11 ê 11 ê
In each of the following, two statements, I and II, are given Statement II: If f ( x) º ax2 + bx + c > 0 for all x > 5,
and one of the following four alternatives has to be chosen. then the equation f ( x) = 0 may not have real roots or
(A) Both I and II are correct and II is a correct reasoning will have real roots less than or equal to 5.
for I.
(B) Both I and II are correct but II is not a correct 2. Statement I: If a, b and c are positive integers and
reasoning for I. ax2 - bx + c = 0 has two distinct roots in the integer
(0, 1), then log5 (abc) ³ 2.
(C) I is true, but II is not true.
(D) I is not true, but II is true. Statement II: If a quadratic equation f ( x) = 0 has
roots in an interval (h, k), then f (h), f (k ) > 0
1. Statement I: If f ( x) º ax + bx + c is positive for all x
2

greater than 5, then a > 0, but b may be negative or 3. Statement I: There are only two values for sin x satis-
2 2
may not be negative. fying the equation 2sin x
+ 5 ´ 2cos x
= 7.

Integer Answer Type Questions


The answer to each of the questions in this section is 2. The number of negative integer solutions of x2 ´ 2x + 1 +
a non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below 2| x - 3|+2 = x2 ´ 2| x - 3|+ 4 + 2x - 1 is .
the respective question numbers have to be darkened.
3. If (a + 5i)/ 2 is a root of the equation 2 x - 6 x + k = 0,
2
For example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer
to the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under then the value of k is .
Y labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.
4. If the equation x2 - 4 x + log1/ 2 a = 0 does not have
X Y Z W distinct real roots, then the minimum value of 1/a
0 0 0 0 is .
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 5. If a is the greatest negative integer satisfying
3 3 3 3 x2 - 4 x - 77 < 0 and x2 > 4
4 4 4
simultaneously, then the value of | a | is .
5 5 5 5
ANSWERS
The Answer key at the end of each chapter contains answers to all exercise problems.

ANSWERS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. (D) 14. (B)
2. (B) 15. (C)
3. (C) 16. (A)
4. (C) 17. (A)
5. (A) 18. (B)
6. (D) 19. (B)
7. (D) 20. (D)
8. (A) 21. (C)
9. (D) 22. (D)
10. (D) 23. (A)
11. (C) 24. (A)
12. (B) 25. (C)
13. (A)

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. (B), (C) 9. (A), (B), (C), (D)
2. (B), (D) 10. (B), (D)
3. (B), (C) 11. (A), (B), (C)
4. (A), (B) 12. (A), (B), (C), (D)
5. (B), (D) 13. (A), (B)
6. (A), (B), (C) 14. (A), (B), (C), (D)
7. (A), (B), (C), (D) 15. (A), (D)
8. (A), (B), (C), (D)

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (r), (D) ® (r) 4. (A) ® (r), (B) ® (r), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (p)
2. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (q), (C) ® (p), (D) ® (q) 5. (A) ® (q), (r) , (s) (B) ® (s), (C) ® (p), (D) ® (q),(s)
3. (A) ® (q), (B) ® (s), (C) ® (p), (D) ® (r)

Comprehension-Type Question
1. (i) (B); (ii) (A); (iii) (C) 3. (i) (A); (ii) (B); (iii) (A)
2. (i) (B); (ii) (A); (iii) (C) 4. (i) (D); (ii) (C); (iii) (D)

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


1. (A) 4. (C)
2. (A) 5. (A)
3. (D)

Integer Answer Type Questions


1. 2 4. 16
2. 3 5. 0
3. 6
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Contents
1 Sets, Relations and Functions 1
1.1 Sets: Definition and Examples ........................................................................................................................ 2
1.2 Set Operations ............................................................................................................................................... 5
1.3 Venn Diagrams ............................................................................................................................................. 13
1.4 Relations ....................................................................................................................................................... 25
1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions ............................................................................................................ 33
1.6 Functions ...................................................................................................................................................... 38
1.7 Graph of a Function ...................................................................................................................................... 49
1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions ............................................................................................................. 53
Worked-Out Problems .................................................................................................................................. 58
Summary ....................................................................................................................................................... 68
Exercises ....................................................................................................................................................... 73
Answers ........................................................................................................................................................ 83

2 Exponentials and Logarithms 85


2.1 Exponential Function .....................................................................................................................................86
2.2 Logarithmic Function .................................................................................................................................... 88
2.3 Exponential Equations .................................................................................................................................. 89
2.4 Logarithmic Equations .................................................................................................................................. 90
2.5 Systems of Exponential and Logarithmic Equations .................................................................................... 91
2.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Inequalities .................................................................................................... 92
Worked-Out Problems .................................................................................................................................. 93
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 100
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 100
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 104

3 Complex Numbers 105


3.1 Ordered Pairs of Real Numbers .................................................................................................................. 106
3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib ................................................................................................................................. 108
3.3 Geometric Interpretation ............................................................................................................................ 112
3.4 The Trigonometric Form ............................................................................................................................. 128
3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem ................................................................................................................................. 131
3.6 Algebraic Equations ................................................................................................................................... 136
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 140
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 157
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 161
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 166
xxii Contents

4 Quadratic Equations 169


4.1 Quadratic Expressions and Equations ........................................................................................................ 170
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 180
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 197
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 197
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 204

5 Progressions, Sequences and Series 207


5.1 Sequences and Series ................................................................................................................................ 208
5.2 Arithmetic Progressions .............................................................................................................................. 211
5.3 Geometric Progressions ............................................................................................................................. 217
5.4 Harmonic Progressions and Series .............................................................................................................. 221
5.5 Some Useful Formulae ............................................................................................................................... 225
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 227
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 264
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 266
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 274

6 Permutations and Combinations 277


6.1 Factorial Notation ....................................................................................................................................... 278
6.2 Permutations .............................................................................................................................................. 278
6.3 Combinations ............................................................................................................................................. 286
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 297
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 312
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 314
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 319

7 Binomial Theorem 321


7.1 Binomial Theorem for Positive Integral Index ............................................................................................ 322
7.2 Binomial Theorem for Rational Index ......................................................................................................... 329
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 333
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 352
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 353
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 357

8 Matrices, Determinants and System of Equations 359


8.1 Matrices ...................................................................................................................................................... 360
8.2 Determinants .............................................................................................................................................. 395
8.3 Solutions of Linear Equations ..................................................................................................................... 412
Contents xxiii

Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 418


Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 443
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 449
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 456

9 Partial Fractions 459


9.1 Rational Fractions ....................................................................................................................................... 460
9.2 Partial Fractions .......................................................................................................................................... 462
Worked-Out Problems ................................................................................................................................ 466
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 470
Exercises ..................................................................................................................................................... 471
Answers ...................................................................................................................................................... 473

Index 475
Sets, Relations and
Functions 1
Contents
1.1 Sets: Definition and
Examples
1.2 Set Operations
1.3 Venn Diagrams
1.4 Relations
Sets, Relations and Functions

A AÇB B 1.5 Equivalence Relations


and Partitions
AÇBÇC 1.6 Functions
AÇC BÇC 1.7 Graph of a Function
1.8 Even Functions and
Odd Functions
C
Worked-Out Problems
Summary
Exercises
Answers

f(x) = x2 Sets: Any collection of well-


defined objects.
function name input what to output
Relations: For any two sets A
and B, any subset of A ´ B is
called a relation from A to B.
Input Relationship Output Functions: A relation f from
a set A to a set B is called a
f, g, h, ...
x, t,q, ... f(x), g(q),... function from A to B if for
each a ÎA, there exists unique
Domain Range Image
b ÎB such that (a, b) Îf.
Domain Elements Range Elements
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Argument Value of Function
2 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Mankind has been using the number concept as an abstraction without expressely formulating what, in precise terms,
a number is. The first precise formulation was made by the Swiss mathematician George Cantor during the years
1874 –1897 while working on number aggregates. To start with one has to realize that the abstraction that is the number
“five”‚ say, is the commonality that exists between all sets which can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the
set of fingers on a normal human hand. In olden days a shepherd would carry a bag of pebbles just to say that he has
that many sheep with him or, equivalently, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the pebbles in the bag and
the sheep he possesses. The concept of set and the concept of one-to-one correspondence of sets were introduced
by George Cantor for the first time into the world of mathematics. For a number like five or for any finite number,
Cantor’s approach through one-to-one correspondence of sets may appear to be a triviality. But if we turn to infinite
sets, we feel the difference. First of all, what is a set? The precise mathematical definition of a set had to wait for
more than three decades after Cantor’s proposal: It is a collection of objects and several paradoxes that followed the
Cantor’s viewpoint.

1.1 | Sets: Definition and Examples


For our present discussion we can be content with what most introductory mathematics texts are content with: the
intuitive concept of a set. A set is just a well-defined collection of objects, well-defined in the sense that given any object
in the world, one can say this much: Either the object belongs to the set or it does not. It cannot happen both ways. Let
us consider a counterexample first and an example of a set later.

Counter Example

Let X be the collection of all sets A such that A is not an If X does not belong to X, then X belongs to X. Either
object in A or, A does not belong to A. We shall argue way, we get a contradiction. Therefore, we cannot decide
that X is not a set. Suppose, on the contrary, that X is a set. whether X is an object in X. Thus, X is not a well-defined
If X belongs to X, then X does not belong to X. collection of objects and hence X is not a set.

Example

A positive integer greater than one is called a prime whether it is a prime number or not. For example, consider
number if it has exactly two positive divisors, namely 1 the number 2009. We may not be able to answer whether
and itself. Let P be the collection of all prime numbers. it is a prime number or not. But this much is certain that
This is a well-defined collection of objects. For, given any either 2009 is a prime or it is not. It can never be both.
object in the world, the question whether it belongs to This is the property of being a well-defined collection.
this set or not has a unique answer. First recognize that if
the given object is other than a positive integer, one can
answer the question in the negative without any think-
ing. If the object is a positive integer, the question arises

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 1 Set Any well-defined collection of objects is called a set.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 2 Element Let X be any set. The objects belonging to X are called elements of X, or members
of X. If x is an element X, then we say that x belongs to X and denote this by x Î X. If x does
not belong to X, then we write x Ï X.

The sets are usually denoted by capital letters of English alphabet while the elements are denoted in general by small
letters. A set is represented by listing all its elements between the brackets { } and by separating them from each
other by commas, if there are more than one element. Here are some examples of sets and the usual notations used
to denote them.
1.1 Sets: Definition and Examples 3

QUICK LOOK 1

1. The set of all natural numbers (i.e., the set of all 5. The set of all real numbers is denoted by .
positive integers) is denoted by  or +. That is, 6. The set of all positive real numbers is denoted by +.
 = {1, 2, 3, 4, ¼}.
7. The set of all positive rational numbers is denoted
2. The set of all non-negative integers is denoted by W; by +.
that is W = {0, 1, 2, 3, ¼}.
8.  denotes the set of all complex numbers.
3.  denotes the set of all integers.
4.  denotes the set of all rational numbers.

Example 1.1

Verify whether the following are sets: Note that the collections given in (1) and (4) are not
(1) The collection of all intelligent persons in Visakha- sets because, if we select a person in Visakhapatnam,
patnam. we cannot say with certainty whether he/she belongs to
the collection or not, as there is no stand and scale for the
(2) The collection of all prime ministers of India.
evaluation of intelligence or for being tall. However, the
(3) The collection of all negative integers. collections given in (2) and (3) are sets.
(4) The collection of all tall persons in India.

A set may be represented with the help of certain property or properties possessed by all the elements of that set.
Such a property is a statement which is either true or false. Any object which does not possess this property will not be
an element of that set. In order to represent a set by this method we write between the brackets { } a variable x which
stands for each element of the set. Then we write the property (or properties) possessed by each element x of the set.
We denote this property by p(x) and seperate x and p(x) by a symbol: or |, read as “such that”. Thus, we write
{ x | p(x)} or { x : p(x)}
to represent the set of all objects x such that the statement p(x) is true. This representation of a set is called “set builder
form” representation.

Examples

(1) Let P be the collection of all prime numbers. Then it (3) Let X be the set given above in (2) and
can be represented in the set builder form as
ì 1 ü
P = { x | x is a prime number} Y = í y| y = 0 or Î X ý
î y þ
(2) Let X be the set of all even positive integers which
are less than 15. Then Then
X = { x | x is even integer and 0 < x < 15} ì 1 1 1 1 1 1 1ü
Y = í0, , , , , , , ý
= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14} î 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 þ

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 3 Empty Set The set having no elements belonging to it is called the empty set or null set and
is denoted by the symbol f.

Examples

(1) Let X = {x | x is an integer and 0 < x < 1} . Then X is a (2) Let X = { a | a is a rational number and a2 = 2}. Then X
set and there are no elements in X, since there is no is the empty set, since there is no rational number a for
integer x such that 0 < x < 1. Therefore, X is the which a2 = 2 .
empty set.
4 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Notation: The symbol Þ is read as “implies”. Thus a Þ b is read as “a implies b”. The symbol Û is read as “implies
and is implied by” or as “if and only if”. Thus a Û b is read as “a implies and implied by b” or “a if and only if b”.

Examples

(1) x is an integer and 0 < x < 2 Û x = 1. (2) a is an integer and a2 = a Û a = 0 or a = 1.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 4 Equal Sets Two sets A and B are defined to be equal if they contain the same elements, in the
sense that,
x Î A Û x ÎB
In this case, we write A = B. If A and B are not equal, then we denote it by A ¹ B.

Examples

(1) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {4, 2, 3, 1}. Then A = B. and Z = { n | n Î + and 1 £ n2 £ 16}
(2) Let Then Y = Z and X ¹ Y, since -1 ÎX and -1 ÏY. Note that
X = {-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4}.
X = {n | n Î  and 1 £ n2 £ 16}
Y = { n | n Î  and 1 £ n £ 4}

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 5 Finite and Infinite Sets A set having a definite number of elements is called a finite set. A set
which is not finite is called an infinite set.

Examples

(1) The set + of positive integers is an infinite set. (3) The set  of real numbers is an infinite set.
(2) {a, b, c, d} is a finite set, since it has exactly four (4) { x | x Î  and 0 < x £ 100} is a finite set.
elements. (5) { x | x Î  and 0 < x < 1} is an infinite set.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 6 Family of Sets A set whose members are sets is called a family of sets or class of sets.

Note that a family of sets is also a set. Usually families of sets are denoted by script letters Ꮽ, Ꮾ, Ꮿ, Ᏸ, etc.

Examples

(1) For any integer n, let An = { x | x is an integer and Xh = The set of persons belonging to the house h
x ³ n}. Then { An | n is an integer} is a family of sets.
Then {Xh | h is a house in Visakhapatnam} is a family of
(2) For any house h, let sets.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 7 Indexed Family of Sets A family Ꮿ of sets is called an indexed family if there exists a set I
such that for each element i Î I, there exists a unique member Ai in Ꮿ associated with i and
Ꮿ = {Ai : i Î I}. In this case, the set I is called the index set.

For example, the family of sets + of positive integers is an indexed family of sets, the index set being , the set of
integers. In the example Xh = The set of persons belonging to the house h where {Xh | h is a house in Visakhapatnam}
also we have an indexed family of sets, where the index set is the set of houses in Visakhapatnam. If Ꮽ is an indexed
family of sets with the index set I, then we usually write
Ꮽ = {Ai}i ÎI or {Ai | i Î I }
1.2 Set Operations 5

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 8 Intervals in  For any real numbers a and b, we define the intervals as the sets given below:
1. (a, b) = { x | x Î  and a < x < b}
2. (a, b] = { x | x Î  and a < x £ b}
3. [a, b) = { x | x Î  and a £ x < b}
4. [a, b] = { x | x Î  and a £ x £ b}

Examples

(1) [2, 4] = {x | x Î  and 2 < x < 4} (2) [0, 1] = { x | x Î and 0 £ x £ 1}

Note that, for any two real numbers a and b, the intervals [a, b] or [a, b) or (a, b] is empty if and only if a ³ b. Also
(a, b) is empty if and only if a > b. Further [a, b] has exactly one element if and only if a = b. Thus these intervals
become non-trivial only if a < b. Usually (a, b) is called an open interval, (a, b] is called left open and right closed inter-
val, [a, b) is called the left closed and right open interval and [a, b] is called a closed interval.

1.2 | Set Operations


We define certain operations between sets. These are closely related to the logical connectives “and”, “or” and “not”.
To begin with, we have the following.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 9 Subset For any two sets A and B, we say that A is a subset of B or A is contained in B if every
element of A is an element of B; in this case we denote it by A Í B. A is not a subset of B is
denoted by A Í/ B .

If A Í B we also say that B is a super set of A or B contains A or B is larger than A or A is smaller than B. Sometimes,
we write B Ê A instead of A Í B. If A is a subset of B and A ¹ B, then we say that A is a proper subset of B and denote
this by A Ì B. Note that, for any sets A and B, A = B if and only if A Í B and B Í A.

QUICK LOOK 2

1. The set + of positive integers is a proper subset of 4.  is a proper subset of the set  of complex numbers.
the set  of integers. 5. The set of Indians is a subset of the set of human beings.
2.  is a proper subset of the set  of rational numbers. 6. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} and B = { x | x Î  and x2 − 5x +
3.  is a proper subset of the set  of real numbers. 6 = 0}, then B Ì A.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 10 Power Set For any set X, the collection of all subsets of X is also a set and is called the
power set of X. It is denoted by P(X ).

Note that the empty set f and the set X are always elements in the power set P(X ). Also, X = f if and only if P(X ) has
only one element. Infact, X has exactly n elements if and only if P(X ) has exactly 2n elements, as proved in Theorem 1.1.
First, let us consider certain examples.

Examples

(1) If X = {a}, then P( X ) = {f, X } (4) If X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, then P(X ) has 32 (= 25 ) elements
(2) If X = {a, b}, then P( X ) = {f, {a}, {b}, X } (5) If X is a set such that P(X ) has 128 elements then X
(3) If X = {1, 2, 3}, then has 7 elements, since 27 = 128

P( X ) = {f, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {2, 3}, {3, 1}, X }
6 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 11 Cardinality If X is a finite set, then the number of elements in X is denoted by | X | or n(X )
and this number is called the cardinality of X.

T H E O R E M 1 .1 Let X be any set. Then X is a finite set with n elements if and only if the power set P(X ) is a finite
set with 2n elements.
PROOF Suppose that X is a finite set with n elements. We apply induction on n. If n = 0, then X = f and
P(X ) = {f} which is a set with 1 (= 20) element. Now, let n > 0 and assume that the result is true
for all sets with n - 1 elements; that is, if Y is a set with n - 1 elements, then P(Y ) has exactly 2n-1
elements.
Since n > 0, X is a non-empty set and hence we can choose an element a in X. Let Y be the set of
all elements in X other than a. Then | Y | = n - 1 and therefore | P(Y )| = 2n - 1. Clearly P(Y ) Í P( X ).
Also, if A Î P(X ) and A Ï P(Y ), then A Í X and A Ë Y and hence a Î A. Therefore, the number of
subsets of X which are not subsets of Y is equal to the number of subsets of X containing a which
in turn coincides with |P(Y)|. Hence,
| P( X )| = | P(Y )| + | P(Y )| = 2n - 1 + 2n - 1 = 2n
Converse is clear; since each element x Î X produces an element { x } Î P(X ), therefore X must
be finite if P(X ) is finite. Also, note that, for non-negative integers n and m, 2n = 2m if and only if
n = m. ■

C O R O L L A RY 1.1 For any finite set X, | X | < | P(X ) |.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 12 Intersection of Sets For any two sets A and B, we define the intersection of A and B to be
the set of all elements belonging to both A and B. It is denoted by A Ç B. That is,
A Ç B = { x | x Î A and x Î B}

Example 1.2

Let A = { x | x is an odd prime and x < 20} and B = { x | x is A = {3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19} and B = {7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, ...}
an integer and x > 6}. Find A Ç B.
Therefore
Solution: By hypothesis A Ç B = {7, 11, 13, 17, 19}

Example 1.3

Let X = The set of all circles in the plane whose radii is Solution: X Ç Y = f, the empty set, since no circle of
5 cm and Y = The set of all line segments of length 5 cm positive radius can be a line segment.
in the plane. Find X Ç Y.

Example 1.4

Let F = The set of all boys in a school who can play Solution: F Ç C = The set of all boys in the school who
football and C = The set of all boys in the school who can can play both football and cricket.
play cricket. Find F Ç C.

Example 1.5

Let A = The set of all non-negative integers and B = The Solution: A Ç B = {x | x is an integer, x ≥ 0 and x ≤ 0} = {0}.
set of all non-positive integers. Find A Ç B.
1.2 Set Operations 7

The following can be proved easily.

Try it out
T H E O R E M 1 .2 The following hold for any sets, A, B and C.
1. A Í B Û A = A Ç B
2. A Ç A = A
3. A Ç B = B Ç A
4. (A Ç B) Ç C = A Ç (B Ç C)
5. A Ç f = f, where f is the empty set.
6. For any set X, X Í A Ç B if and only if X Í A and X Í B.

In view of (4) above, we write simply A Ç B Ç C for (A Ç B) Ç C or A Ç (B Ç C). In general, if A1, A2, ¼, An are sets,
we write
n

∩A
i =1
i for A1 Ç A2 Ç Ç An

More generally, for any indexed family {Ai}i ÎI of sets, we write ∩A i for the set of all elements common to all Ai’s,
i Î I and express this by i ÎI

∩ A = { x | x Î A for all i Î I }
i ÎI
i i

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 13 Disjoint Sets Two sets A and B are called disjoint if A Ç B is the empty set. In this case we
say that A is disjoint with B or B is disjoint with A.

Examples

(1) Let E be the set of even integers and O the set of all æ


¥
odd integers. Then E and O are disjoint sets. (4) ÷ =f
çè 0,
n=1

(2) Let A = { p | p is a prime number}. Then A Ç  = f, since, for any given a > 0, we can find an integer n
where  is the set of rational numbers, since it is such that 0 < 1/n < a and hence a Ï(0, 1/n).
known that p is an irrational number for any prime p.

é 1ù

¥
(3) n=1 êë0, n úû = {0}

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 14 Union of Sets For any two sets A and B, we define the union of A and B as the set of all
elements belonging to A or B and denote this by A È B; that is,
A È B = {x | x Î A or x Î B}
Note that the statement “x Î A or x Î B” does not exclude the case “x Î A and x Î B”.
Therefore
A È B = {x | x Î A or x Î B or both}

Example

Let E be the set of even integers and O the set of all odd E and O are disjoint and hence we do not come across
integers. Then E È O = , the set of integers. In this case, the case “x Î E and x ÎO ”.
8 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.6

Let A be the interval [0, 1] and B the interval [1/2, 2]. = {x | x Î  and 0 £ x £ 2}
Then find A È B and A Ç B.
= [0, 2]
Solution: We have Also,
A È B = {x | x Î A or x Î B} é1 ù
A Ç B = ê , 1ú
ì 1 ü ë2 û
= í x | x Î  and ‘0 £ x £ 1 or £ x £ 2 ’ý
î 2 þ

Example 1.7

Let A = [0, 1] Ç  and B = (1, 2) Ç . Find A È B . = { x | x Î  and 0 £ x < 2}


= [0, 2) Ç 
Solution: A È B = { x | x Î A or x Î B}
= { x | x Î  and ‘x Î[0, 1] or x Î(1, 2)’}

Example 1.8
Let A be the set of all even primes and B the interval = {x | x Î  and 2 £ x < 3}
(2, 3). Find A È B.
= [2, 3)
Solution: A È B = {x | x is an even prime or x Î(2, 3)}
= {x | x = 2 or x Î  such that 2 < x < 3}

The following can be easily proved.

Try it out
T H E O R E M 1 .3 For any sets A, B and C the following hold.
1. A Ç B Í A È B
2. For any set X, A È B Í X if and only if A Í X and B Í X
3. A È A = A
4. A È B = B È A
5. (A È B) È C = A È (B È C)
6. A Í B Û A È B = B
7. A È f = A
8. A = A Ç B Û A Í B Û A È B = B
9. A Ç (A È B) = A
10. A È (A Ç B) = A

T H E O R E M 1 .4 The following hold for any sets A, B and C.


DISTRIBUTIVE 1. A Ç (B È C) = (A Ç B) È (A Ç C)
LAWS
2. A È (B Ç C) = (A È B) Ç (A È C)
These are called the distributive laws for intersection Ç and union È.
1.2 Set Operations 9

PROOF 1. x Î A Ç (B È C) Þ x Î A and x ÎB È C
Þ x Î A and ( x Î B or x ÎC )
Þ ( x Î A and x Î B) or ( x Î A and x ÎC )
Þ x Î A Ç B or x ÎA Ç C
Þ x Î( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C )
Therefore
A Ç ( B È C ) Í ( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C ) (1.1)
On the other hand, we have
x Î( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C ) Þ x Î A Ç B or x Î A ÇC
Þ ( x Î A and x Î B) or ( x Î A and x ÎC )
Þ x Î A and (x Î B or x ÎC )
Þ x Î A and x Î B ÈC
Þ x Î A Ç (B È C )
Therefore
( A Ç B) È ( A È C ) Í A Ç ( B È C ) (1.2)
From Eqs. (1.1) and (1.2), we have A Ç ( B È C ) = ( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C ).
2. It can be proved similarly and is left as an exercise for the reader. ■

Try it out A È (B Ç C) = (A È B) Ç (A È C)

T H E O R E M 1 .5 For any sets A, B and C,

A Ç B = A Ç C and AÈ B = A ÈC imply B=C


PROOF Suppose that A Ç B = A Ç C and A È B = A È C . Consider
B = B Ç ( A È B) [by part (9) of Theorem 1.3]
= B Ç (A ÈC) (since A È B = A È C)
= ( B Ç A) È ( B Ç C ) (by the distributive laws)
= (C Ç A) È (C Ç B) (since A Ç B = A Ç C)
= C Ç ( A È B) (by the distributive laws)
= C Ç (A ÈC) (since A È B = A È C)
=C [by part (9) of Theorem 1.3]
Therefore B = C.
Since (A È B) È C = A È (B È C) for any sets A, B and C, we simply write A È B È C without
bothering about the brackets. In general, if A1, A2, …, An are any sets, then we write
n

∪A
i =1
i for A1 È A2 È È An

For any indexed family { Ai }iÎI of sets, we write ∪ i ÎI


Ai for the set of all elements belonging to at
least one Ai and express this by

∪ A = { x | x Î A for some i Î I }
i i
i ÎI ■
10 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Examples

(1) For any positive integer n, let (3) For any positive real number a, let
An = (- n, n) = {x | x Î  and - n < x < n} Aa = The set of human beings on the Earth whose
height is less than or equal to a cm
Then
Then
¥

∪A
n=1
n
+
= {x | x Î  and -n < x < n for some n Î  } =  ∪ A = The set of all human beings on the Earth
a
aÎ+

since, for any real number x, there exists a positive (4) For any positive integer n, let
integer n such that | x | < n and hence -n < x < n, so
that x Î An. æ 1 1ö ì 1 1ü
Xn = ç - , ÷ = í x | x Î  and - < x < ý
è n nø î n nþ
(2) For any positive integer n, let
Pn = { p | p is a prime number and p < n} Then
¥ ¥
Note that P1 = f = P2, P3 = {2} and P4 = {2, 3}. Now
¥ ∩ X = {0}
n and ∪X n = (-1, 1)
∪ P = The set of all prime numbers
n=1 n=1
n
n=1
since Xn Í X1 for all n Î +.
since, for any prime p, we have p Î Ap +1 .

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 15 For any two sets A and B, the difference of A and B is defined as the set
A - B = { x | x Î A and x Ï B}

Example 1.9

Find the difference of the following sets. Now


(1) A = (0, 1) = {x | x Î  and 0 < x < 1} and A - B = {x | x Î A and x Ï B}
ì 1 ü
B = í x | x Î + and Î  ý ì 1 ü
î x þ = í x | x Î , 0 < x < 1 and Ï  ý
(2)  -  where the symbols have there usual meaning. î x þ
(3) A = The set of all students in a school and B = The ¥
æ 1 1ö
set of all girls = ∪ç , ÷
n=1 è n + 1 n ø
(4)  - + where the symbols have the usual meaning.
(2)  -  = {x | x Î  and x Ï }
Solution: = {x | x is a real number and not an integer}
(1) By hypothesis
A = (0, 1) = {x | x Î  and 0 < x < 1} and B = {x | x Î+
= ∪ (n, n + 1)
n Î
and 1/x Î}. We have
= È (-2, - 1) È (-1, 0) È (0, 1) È (1, 2) È
ì 1 1 1 ü (3) A - B = The set of all boys in the school
B = í1, , , , ý
î 2 3 4 þ (4)  - + = The set of all non-positive integers
= {x | x Î  and x £ 0}

T H E O R E M 1 .6 For any sets A, B and C, the following hold:


DE MORGAN'S 1. A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C)
LAWS
2. A - (B Ç C) = (A - B) È (A - C)

PROOF 1. x Î A - ( B È C ) Þ x Î A and x ÏB È C
Þ x Î A and ( x Ï B and x ÏC )
1.2 Set Operations 11

Þ ( x Î A and x Ï B) and ( x Î A and x ÏC )


Þ x Î A - B and x ÎA - C
Þ x Î( A - B) Ç ( A - C )
and therefore, A - (B È C) Í (A - B) Ç (A - C). Also,
x Î( A - B) Ç ( A - C ) Þ x Î A - B and x ÎA - C
Þ ( x Î A and x Ï B) and ( x Î A and x ÏC )
Þ x Î A and ( x Ï B and x ÏC )
Þ x Î A and x ÏB È C
Þ x Î A - (B È C )

and therefore (A - B) Ç (A - C) Í A - (B È C). Thus


A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C)
2. It can be similarly proved and is left as an exercise for the reader. ■

Try it out
T H E O R E M 1 .7 The following hold for any sets A, B and C.
1. B Í C Þ A - C Í A - B
2. A Í B Þ A - C Í B - C
3. (A È B) - C = (A - C) È (B - C)
4. (A Ç B) - C = (A - C) Ç (B - C)
5. (A - B) - C = A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C)
6. A - (B - C) = (A - B) È (A Ç C)

T H E O R E M 1 .8 Let { Ai }i ÎI be any family of sets and B and C any sets. Then the following hold:
GENERALIZED
æ ö
DE MORGAN'S 1. B - ç ∪ Ai ÷ = ∩ ( B - Ai )
LAWS è iÎI ø iÎI
æ ö
2. B - ç ∩ Ai ÷ = ∪ ( B - Ai )
è iÎI ø iÎI
æ ö
3. ç ∪ Ai ÷ - B = ∪ ( Ai - B)
è iÎI ø iÎI

æ ö
4. ç ∩ Ai ÷ - B = ∩ ( Ai - B)
è i ÎI ø i ÎI

PROOF These follow from the facts that

x Î ∪ Ai Û x Î Ai for some i Î I
i ÎI

x Î ∩ Ai Û x Î Ai for all i Î I
i ÎI

x Ï∪ Ai Û x Ï Ai for all i Î I
i ÎI

and x Ï∩ Ai Û x Ï Ai for some i Î I


i ÎI ■
12 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Examples
æ ö
(1)  -  =  - ç ∪ {n}÷ (3) For any integer n,
è nÎ ø
 - (n, n + 1) = (-¥, n] È [n + 1, ¥)
= ∩ ( - {n})
n Î
Here (-¥, n) stands for the set of real numbers x
such that x £ n and [n + 1, ¥) for the set of real num-
æ ö
(2)  -  = ç ∪ [n, n + 1]÷ -  bers x such that n + 1 £ x .
è nÎ ø
(4) Let
= ∪ ([n, n + 1] - )
n Î
A = {x Î + | x < 10} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
and B = The set of all prime numbers
= ∪ (n, n + 1)
n Î
Then
Note that, here we have used the fact that, for any A - B = {1, 4, 6, 8, 9}
integer n, there is no integer m such that n < m < n + 1.

It is convenient to write B ¢ for the set of all elements not belonging to B and to write A - B as A Ç B ¢. But the
problem here is that B ¢ may not be a set at all. However, if X is a superset of B, then certainly X - B is a set, which can
be imagined as B ¢. For any two sets A and B, we can take X = A È B and then
A - B = A Ç ( X - B) = A Ç B ¢
When we are dealing with a family { Ai }i ÎI of sets (or set of sets), we can assume that each Ai is a subset of some set X;
for example, we can take X = ∪ i ÎI Ai . This common superset is called a universal set. Therefore, when we discuss about
difference set A - B, we can treat A and B as subsets of a universal set X and treat A - B as A Ç B ¢, where
B ¢ = {x | x Î X and x Ï B}
B ¢ is certainly a set, since X and B are sets and so is X - B . This B ¢ is called the complement of B in X or, simply, the comple-
ment of B, when there is no ambiguity about X. Note that A - B = A - ( A Ç B) and A Ç B is a subset of A. Therefore, we
can call A - B is the complement of B in A. With this understanding, the properties proved above can be restated as follows:
A - B = A Ç B¢
A - B = A - ( A Ç B)
( B È C )¢ = B ¢ Ç C ¢ [Part (1), Theorem 1.6]
( B Ç C )¢ = B ¢ È C ¢ [Part (2), Theorem 1.6]
B Í C Þ C ¢ Í B¢ [Part (1), Theorem 1.7]
æ ö¢
çè ∪ Ai ÷ø = ∩ Ai¢ [Part (1), Theorem 1.8]
iÎI iÎI

æ ö¢
çè ∩ Ai ÷ø = ∪ Ai¢ [Part (2), Theorem 1.8]
iÎI iÎI

A - ( A - B) = A Ç B
B Í A Þ A - ( A - B) = B or ( B ¢)¢ = B
A Ç A¢ = f
A È A¢ = X, the universal set

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 16 Symmetric Difference For any sets A and B, the symmetric difference of A and B is defined
as the set
A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A) = ( A Ç B ¢) È ( B Ç A¢)
That is, A D B is the set all elements belonging to exactly one of A and B.
1.3 Venn Diagrams 13

Example 1.10

Find the symmetric difference of the following: Therefore


(1) A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {4, 5, 6} A D B = {1, 2, 3} È {5, 6} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 6}
(2) A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B = {b, c, f, g}
(2) From the given sets we have
Solution: A – B = {a, d, e} and B – A = { f, g}
(1) We have A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {4, 5, 6}. Then
Therefore
A - B = {1, 2, 3} and B - A = {5, 6} A D B = {a, d, e} È { f, g} = {a, d, e, f, g}

T H E O R E M 1 .9 The following hold for any sets A, B and C.


1. A D B = B D A
2. ( A D B) D C = A D ( B D C )
3. A D f = A
4. A D A = f

PROOF 1. A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A)
= ( B - A) È ( A - B)
= BD A
2. ( A D B) D C = [( A D B) Ç C ¢] È [C Ç ( A D B)¢ ]

= [{( A Ç B¢) È ( B Ç A¢)} Ç C ¢] È [C Ç {( A Ç B¢) È ( B Ç A¢)}¢ ]


= [( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢)] È [C Ç ( A¢ È B) Ç ( B¢ È A)]
= ( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢) È [C Ç {( A¢ Ç B¢) È ( A¢ Ç A) È ( B Ç B¢) È ( B Ç A)}]
= ( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢) È [{C Ç ( A¢ Ç B¢) È ( A Ç B)}]
= ( A Ç B¢ Ç C ¢) È ( B Ç A¢ Ç C ¢) È (C Ç A¢ Ç B¢) È (C Ç A Ç B)
Therefore, we have
( A D B) D C = ( A Ç B ¢ Ç C ¢) È ( A¢ Ç B Ç C ¢) È ( A¢ Ç B ¢ Ç C ) È ( A Ç B Ç C )
This is symmetric in A, B and C; that is, if we take B, C and A for A, B and C, respectively, the
resultant is same. Therefore,
( A D B) D C = ( B D C ) D A = A D ( B D C )
3. A D f = ( A - f ) È (f - A) = A È f = A
4. A D A = ( A - A) È ( A - A) = f È f = f ■

1.3 | Venn Diagrams


A set is represented by a closed curve, usually a circle, and its elements by points within it. This facilitates better
understanding and a good insight. A statement involving sets can be easily understood with pictorial representation of
the sets. The diagram showing these sets is called the Venn diagram of that statement, named after the British logician
John Venn (1834 –1883).
Usually the universal set is represented by a rectangle and the given sets are represented by circles or closed
geometrical figures inside the rectangle representing the universal set. An element of set A is represented by a point
within the circle representing A.
14 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

In Figure 1.1, the rectangle represents the universal set S, A and B represent two disjoint sets contained in S and
a and b represent arbitrary elements in A and B, respectively.

a b

A B

FIGURE 1.1 A Venn diagram.

In Figure 1.2, two intersecting sets A and B are represented by the intersecting circles, indicating that the common
area of the circles represents the intersection A Ç B . Figure 1.3 represents the statement “A is a subset of B”.
The shaded parts in Figures 1.4 –1.6 represent the union of two sets A and B, namely A È B in the cases
A Ç B = f , A Ç B ¹ f and A Í B , respectively. Figures 1.7–1.9 represent the intersection A Ç B in these cases.

A B

FIGURE 1.2 Two intersecting sets A and B.

S
B

FIGURE 1.3 Representation of “A is a subset of B”.

A B

FIGURE 1.4 Representation of A È B when A Ç B = f.


1.3 Venn Diagrams 15

A B

FIGURE 1.5 Representation of A È B when A Ç B ¹ f.

S
B

FIGURE 1.6 Representation of A È B when A Í B.

A B

FIGURE 1.7 Representation of A Ç B when A Ç B = f.

A B

FIGURE 1.8 Representation of A Ç B when A Ç B ¹ f.

FIGURE 1.9 Representation of A Ç B when A Í B.


16 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

A
B

FIGURE 1.10 Representation of A - B when B Í A.

S
B

FIGURE 1.11 Representation of A - B when A Í B. In this case A – B = f.

A B

FIGURE 1.12 Representation of A - B when A Ç B = f.

A B

FIGURE 1.13 Representation of A - B when A Ë B and B Ë A.

The shaded parts in Figures 1.10 –1.13 represent the difference A - B in various cases. The symmetric differences
A D B [= (A - B) È (B - A)] are represented by the shaded parts in the Figures 1.14 –1.17 in these cases.

A
B

FIGURE 1.14 Representation of A D B when B Í A.


1.3 Venn Diagrams 17

B
A

FIGURE 1.15 Representation of A D B when A Í B.

A B

FIGURE 1.16 Representation of A D B when A Ç B = f.

A B

FIGURE 1.17 Representation of A D B when A Ë B and B Ë A.

Figure 1.18 represents the complement of a set A in a universal set S. Figures 1.19 –1.21 illustrate the cases A D B,
(A D B) - C and C - (A D B), respectively. (A D B) D C is represented by Figure 1.22. From this one can easily see that
(A D B) D C = (A D B) D C.

A A

FIGURE 1.18 Complement of a set A.


18 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

S
A B

FIGURE 1.19 Representation of A D B.

S
A B

FIGURE 1.20 Representation of (A D B) - C.

S
A B

FIGURE 1.21 Representation of C - (A D B).

S
A B

FIGURE 1.22 Representation of (A D B) D C.

Figures 1.23 and 1.24 represent the property


A - ( B È C ) = ( A - B) Ç ( A - C )
1.3 Venn Diagrams 19

S
A B

FIGURE 1.23 Representation of A - ( B È C ).

S
A B

FIGURE 1.24 Representation of ( A - B) Ç ( A - C ).

In the following, we derive certain formulas for the number of elements in the intersection, union, difference and
symmetric difference of two given finite sets. First, recall that, for any finite set A, n(A) or |A| denotes the number of
elements in A.

Examples

(1) Let A = {a, b, c, d}, then n(A) = 4. (4) If X = {m | m Î Z and m2 = 1}, then n(X) = 2, since
(2) If A = {2, 3, 5, 7}, then n(A) = 4. X = {1, -1}.
(3) If X is a finite set and n(X ) = m, then n[ P( X )] = 2m,
where P(X) is the set of all subsets of X.

T H E O R E M 1 .10 For any two disjoint sets A and B,


n( A È B) = n( A) + n( B)
PROOF Any element of A È B is in exactly one of A and B and therefore n( A È B) = n( A) + n( B)
In Figure 1.25, the shaded part represents A È B when A and B are disjoint sets.

A B

FIGURE 1.25 Representation of A È B when A and B are disjoint sets. ■


20 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

C O R O L L A RY 1.2 If A1 , A2 , … , An are pairwise disjoint sets, then

n ( A1 È A2 È È An ) = n ( A1 ) + n ( A2 ) + + n ( An )

T H E O R E M 1 .11 For any finite sets A and B,

n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B) - n ( A Ç B)

PROOF Let A and B be finite sets, n ( A) = a, n ( B) = b and n ( A Ç B) = m. If A Ç B is empty then m = 0


and, by Theorem 1.10,
n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B) = n ( A) + n ( B) - n ( A Ç B) ■

Suppose that A Ç B ¹ f . Then A - B, B - A and A Ç B are pairwise disjoint sets (Figure 1.26) and hence we have

n ( A È B) = n [( A - B) È ( B - A) È ( A Ç B)] = n ( A - B) + n ( B - A) + n ( A Ç B)
= n ( A) + n ( B) - n( A Ç B)

since n ( A) = n ( A - B) + n ( A Ç B) and n ( B) = n ( B - A) + n ( A Ç B).


We have earlier proved that n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B), if A and B are disjoint sets. The converse of this is also true.

A B

FIGURE 1.26 Representation of pairwise disjoint sets.

C O R O L L A RY 1.3 If A and B are finite sets such that n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B), then A and B are disjoint.

PROOF If n ( A È B) = n ( A) + n ( B) , then by Theorem 1.11 n( A Ç B) = 0 and hence A Ç B = f . ■

C O R O L L A RY 1.4 For any finite sets A and B,


n ( A - B) = n ( A) - n ( A Ç B)

C O R O L L A RY 1.5 If A is a subset of a finite set B, then

n ( B) = n ( A) + n ( B - A)

T H E O R E M 1 .12 For any finite sets A, B and C,


n ( A È B È C ) = n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B) - n( B Ç C ) - n(C Ç A) + n ( A Ç B Ç C )
PROOF Let A, B and C be any finite sets. Then
n( A È B È C ) = n( A È B) + n(C ) - n[( A È B) Ç C ]
= n( A) + n( B) - n( A Ç B) + n(C ) - n[( A Ç C ) È ( B Ç C )]
1.3 Venn Diagrams 21

= n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B) - [n( A Ç C ) + n( B Ç C ) - n( A Ç C Ç B Ç C )]
= n( A) + n( B)) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B) - n( B Ç C ) - n(C Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )

S
A B

T H E O R E M 1 .13 Let A, B and C be finite sets. Then the number of the elements belonging to exactly two of the sets
A, B and C is
n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C )
PROOF The required number is
n[( A Ç B) - C ] + n[( B Ç C ) - A] + n[(C Ç A) - B] = [n( A Ç B) - n( A Ç B Ç C )]
+ [n( B Ç C ) - n( B Ç C Ç A)] + [n(C Ç A) - n(C Ç A Ç B)]
= n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C ) ■

T H E O R E M 1 .14 Let A, B and C be any finite sets. Then the number of elements belonging to exactly one of the
sets A, B and C is
n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2 n( B Ç C ) - 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C )
PROOF The number of elements belonging only to A is
n[ A - ( B È C )] = n( A) - n[ A Ç ( B È C )]
= n( A) - n[( A Ç B) È ( A Ç C )]
= n( A) - [n( A Ç B) + n( A Ç C ) - n( A Ç B Ç A Ç C )]
= n( A) - n( A Ç B) - n( A Ç C ) + n( A Ç B Ç C )
Similarly, the number of elements belonging only to B is
n( B) - n( B Ç C ) - n( B Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )
Also, the number of the elements belonging only to C is
n(C ) - n(C Ç A) - n(C Ç B) + n( A Ç B Ç C )
Thus the number of elements belonging to exactly one of the sets A, B and C is
[n( A) - n( A Ç B) - n( A Ç C ) + n( A Ç B Ç C )] + [n( B) - n( B Ç C ) - n( B Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )]
+ [n(C ) - n(C Ç A) - n(C Ç B) + n( A Ç B Ç C )]
= n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2n( B Ç C ) - 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C ) ■
22 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

QUICK LOOK 3

Summary of the formulas 6. The number of elements belonging to exactly one of


Let A, B and C be given finite sets and S a universal A, B and C is
finite set containing A, B and C. Then the following
n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2 n( B Ç C )
hold:
- 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C )
1. n(A È B) + n(A Ç B) = n(A) + n(B)
2. n(A È B) = n(A - B) + n(B - A) + n(A Ç B) 7. The number of elements belonging to exactly two of
3. n(A È B) = n(A) + n(B) Û A Ç B = f A, B and C is
4. n(A) = n(A - B) + n(A Ç B) n(A Ç B) + n(B Ç C) + n(C Ç A) - 3n(A Ç B Ç C)
5. The number of the elements belonging to exactly 8. n(A¢ È B¢) = n(S) - n(A Ç B)
one of A and B is
9. n(A¢ Ç B¢) = n(S) - n(A È B)
n( A D B) = n( A - B) + n( B - A)
= n( A) + n( B) - 2 n( A Ç B)
= n( A È B) - n( A Ç B)

Example 1.11

If A and B are sets such that n(A) = 9, n(B) = 16 and Therefore, substituting the values we get
n(A È B) = 25, find A Ç B.
25 = 9 + 16 - n( A Ç B)
Solution: We have = 25 - n( A Ç B)
0 = n( A Ç B)
n( A È B) = n( A) + n( B) - n( A Ç B)
Hence A Ç B = f.

Example 1.12

If A and B are sets such that n( A) = 14, n( A È B) = 26 Solution: We have


and n( A Ç B) = 8, then find n( B) .
n( B) = n( A È B) + n( A Ç B) - n( A)
= 26 + 8 - 14 = 20

Example 1.13

If A, B, C are sets such that n(A) = 12, n(B) = 16, n(C) = 18, n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - 2 n( A Ç B) - 2 n( B Ç C )
n(A Ç B) = 6, n(B Ç C) = 8, n(C Ç A) = 10 and n(A Ç B Ç - 2 n(C Ç A) + 3n( A Ç B Ç C )
C) = 4, then find the number of elements belonging to exa-
ctly one of A, B and C. = 12 + 16 + 18 - 2 ´ 6 - 2 ´ 8 - 2 ´ 10 + 3 ´ 4
= 10
Solution: The number of elements belonging to exactly
one of A, B and C is

Example 1.14

In Example 1.13, find the number of elements belonging Solution: The number is
to exactly two of A, B and C.
n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C )
= 6 + 8 + 10 - 3 ´ 4 = 12
1.3 Venn Diagrams 23

Example 1.15

If A, B and C are sets defined as A = { x | x Î + and x £ Now


16}, B = { x | x Î and -3 < x < 8} and C = { x | x is a prime
A Ç B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
number}, then find the number of elements belonging to
exactly two of A, B and C, even though C is an infinite set. B Ç C = {2, 3, 5, 7}
C Ç A = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13}
Solution: We have
and A Ç B Ç C = {2, 3, 5, 7}
n( A) = 16, n( B) = 10 and n(C ) = ¥
Therefore, the required number is
n( A Ç B) + n( B Ç C ) + n(C Ç A) - 3n( A Ç B Ç C )
=7+4+6-3´4=5

Example 1.16

In a group of 80 students, 50 play football, 45 play cricket n(F Ç C ) = n(F ) + n(C ) - n(F È C )
and each student plays either football or cricket. Find the
number of students who play both the games. = 50 + 45 - 80 = 15

Solution: Let F be the set of the students who play


football and C be the set of students who play cricket.
Then n(F) = 50 and n(C) = 45. FÇC
Since each of the 80 students play at least one of the
two games, we have n(F È C) = 80. Therefore,
F C

Example 1.17

If 65% of people in a town like apples and 78% like n( A Ç M ) = n( A) + n(M ) - n( A È M )


mangoes, then find out the percentage of people who like
both apples and mangoes and the percentage of people = 65 + 78 - 100 = 43
who like only mangoes. Hence 43% of people like both apples and mangoes.
Also,
Solution: Let the total number of people in the village be
100. Let A be the set of people who like apples and M the n(M ) - n( A Ç M ) = 78 - 43 = 35
set of people who like mangoes. Then n(A) = 65, n(M) = 78 Therefore, 35% of people like only mangoes.
and n(A È M) = 100. Therefore

Example 1.18

The total number of students in a school is 600. If 150 n(A Ç P) = 100. Then
students drink apple juice, 250 students drink pineapple
n( A È P ) = n( A) + n( P ) - n( A Ç P )
juice and 100 students drink both apple juice and
pineapple juice, then find the number of students who = 150 + 250 - 100 = 300
drink neither apple juice nor pineapple juice.
Let S be the set of all students in the school, then S is
the universal set containing A and P. We are given that
Solution: Let
n(S) = 600. Now,
A = The set of students who drink apple juice
and P = The set of students who drink pineapple juice n [S - ( A È P )] = n(S) - n( A È P )
= 600 - 300 = 300
We are given that n(A) = 150, n(P) = 250 and
Therefore 300 students drink neither apple juice nor
pineapple juice.
24 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.19

In a class there are 400 students. Following is a table We have,


showing the number of students studying one or more of
the subjects mentioned: n[M - ( P È C )] = n(M ) - n[M Ç ( P È C )]
= n(M ) - n[(M Ç P ) È (M Ç C )]
= n(M ) - [n(M Ç P ) + n(M Ç C )
Mathematics 250
- n(M Ç P Ç M Ç C )]
Physics 150
= n(M ) - n(M Ç P ) - n(M Ç C )
Chemistry 100
+ n(M Ç P Ç C )
Mathematics and Physics 100
= 250 - 100 - 60 + 30
Mathematics and Chemistry 60
= 120
Physics and Chemistry 40
Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry 30 Therefore 120 students study only Mathematics. Also
Only Mathematics n[ P - (M È C )] = n( P ) - n[ P Ç (M È C )]
Only Physics = 150 - n[( P Ç M ) È ( P Ç C )]
Only Chemistry
= 150 - n( P Ç M ) - n( P Ç C )
None of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
+ n( P Ç M Ç C )
Fill in the empty places in the above table. = 150 - 100 - 40 + 30
= 40
Solution: Let M, P and C stand for the set of students
studying Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry. Let S be the Therefore 40 students study only Physics. Similarly,
set of all students in the class. The Venn diagram is as follows:
n[C - (M È P )] = n(C ) - n[C Ç (M È P )]
S = 100 - n(C Ç M ) - n(C Ç P )
P C
+ n(C Ç M Ç P )
= 100 - 60 - 40 + 30
= 30
Therefore 30 students study only Chemistry. Again
n(M È P È C ) = n(M ) + n( P ) + n(C ) - n(M Ç P )
M
- n( P Ç C ) - n(C Ç M ) + n(M Ç P Ç C )
= 250 + 150 + 100 - 100 - 40 - 60 + 30
We are given that = 330
n(S) = 400, n(M ) = 250, n( P ) = 150, n(C ) = 100 n[S - (M È P È C )] = n(S) - n(M È P È C )
Also, from the table, = 400 - 330 = 70
n(M Ç P) = 100, n(M Ç C) = 60, n(P Ç C) = 40, Therefore 70 students study none of Mathematics, Physics
n(M Ç P Ç C) = 30 and Chemistry.

Example 1.20

Let X1 , X2 , …, X30 be 30 sets each with five elements and Suppose that each element of S belongs to exactly 10 of
Y1 , Y2 , …, Ym be m sets each with 3 elements. Let Xi’s and exactly 9 of Yj’s. Then find m.
30 m

∪ Xi = ∪ Yj = S
i =1 j =1
1.4 Relations 25

Solution: Let n(S) = s. Since each element of S belongs Therefore, 10 s = 150 and hence s = 15. Similarly
to exactly 10 of Xi’s, so m

30
3m = å n(Yj ) = 9 ´ s = 9 ´ 15 = 135
å n( X ) = 10 s
i =1
i
j =1

Therefore, m = 45.
Since each Xi contains 5 elements, therefore
30

å n( X ) = 30 ´ 5 = 150
i =1
i

1.4 | Relations
Let A be the set of all straight lines in the plane and B the set of all points in the plane. For any L Î A and x Î B, let
us write L R x if the line L passes through the point x. This is a relation defined between elements of A and elements
of B. Here L R x can be read as “L is related to x” and R denotes the relation “is passing through”. Therefore L R x
means “L is passing through x” . We can also express this statement by saying that the pair of L and x is in relation R
or that the ordered pair (L, x) Î R. This pair is ordered in the sense that L and x cannot be interchanged because the
first coordinate L represents a straight line and the second coordinate represents a point and because the statement
“x passes through L” has no sense. Therefore, we can think of R as a set of ordered pairs (L, x) satisfying the property
that L passes through x. We formalize this in the following.

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 17 Ordered Pairs A pair of elements written in a particular order is called an ordered pair. It
is written by listing its two elements in a particular order, separated by a comma and enclos-
ing the pair in brackets. In the ordered pair (L, x), L is called the first component or the first
coordinate and x is called the second component or the second coordinate.

The ordered pairs (3, 4) and (4, 3) are different even though they consist of same pair of elements; for example these
represent different points in the Euclidean plane.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 18 The Cartesian Product Let A and B be any sets. The set of all ordered pairs (a, b) with
a Î A and b Î B is called the Cartesian product of A and B and is denoted by A ´ B; that is,
A ´ B = {(a, b)| a Î A and b Î B}

Examples

(1) Let A = {a, b, c} and B = {1, 2}. Then (2) If A = {x, y, z} and B = {a}, then
A ´ B = {(a, 1), (a, 2), (b, 1), (b, 2), (c, 1), (c, 2)} A ´ B = {( x, a), ( y, a), (z, a)}
and B ´ A = {(1, a), (2, a), (1, b), (2, b), (1, c), (2, c)} and B ´ A = {(a, x), (a, y), (a, z)}

QUICK LOOK 4

1. For any sets A and B, 3. For any non-empty sets A and B,


A ´ B = f Û A = f or B = f A´ B= B´ AÛ A= B
2. If one of A and B is an infinite set and the other is a
non-empty set, then the Cartesian product A ´ B is
an infinite set.
26 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 19 If A1, A2, ¼, An are sets, then their Cartesian product is defined as the set of n-tuples (a1, a2,
n n
¼, an) such that ai Î Ai for 1 £ i £ n. This is denoted by A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ An or X Ai or
i =1
ÕA .
i =1
i

That is,

A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ An = {(a1 , a2 , …, an )| ai Î Ai for 1 £ i £ n}

If A1 = A2 = = An = A, say, then the Cartesian product A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ An is denoted by An ;


that is,

A1 = A, A2 = A ´ A = {(a, b)| a, b Î A}

A3 = A ´ A ´ A = {(a, b, c)| a, b, c Î A}

An = {(a1, a2, …, an )| ai Î A for 1 £ i £ n}

Examples

(1) If A = {a, b, c}, then (2) If A = {1, 2}, then


A = {(a, a), (a, b), (a, c), (b, a), (b, b),
2
A3 = {(1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 2), (1, 2, 1), (1, 2, 2),
(b, c), (c, a), (c, b), (c, c)} (2, 1, 1), (2, 1, 2), (2, 2, 1), (2, 2, 2)}

T H E O R E M 1 .15 For any finite sets A and B,


n( A ´ B) = n( A) × n( B)
PROOF Let A and B be finite sets such that n(A) = m and n(B) = n. Then A = {a1, a2, ¼, am} and B = {b1, b2, ¼,
bn} where ai’s are distinct elements of A and bj’s are distinct elements of B. In such case
m
A ´ B = ∪ ({ai } ´ B)
i =1

Since {ai } ´ B = {(ai , bj )| 1 £ j £ n} , we get that n({ai } ´ B) = n( B) = n. Also, for any i ¹ k, ai ¹ ak and
hence
({ai } ´ B) Ç ({ak } ´ B) = f

Therefore,

æm ö
n( A ´ B) = n ç ∪ ({ai } ´ B)÷
è i =1 ø
m
= å n({ai } ´ B)
i =1

m
= å n( B)
i =1

m
= ån
i =1

= m × n = n( A)× n( B) ■

C O R O L L A RY 1.6 If A1, A2 , … , Am are finite sets, then A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ Am is also finite and

n( A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ Am ) = n( A1 ) ´ n( A2 ) ´ ´ n( Am )
1.4 Relations 27

C O R O L L A RY 1.7 If A is a finite set and m is any positive integer, then


n( Am ) = [n( A)]m
In particular, n( A2 ) = n( A)2 .

QUICK LOOK 5

Let A, B, C and D be any sets. Then the following hold. 6. ( A Ç B) ´ (C Ç D) = ( A ´ C ) Ç ( B ´ D)


1. (A È B) ´ C = (A ´ C) È (B ´ C) = ( A ´ D) Ç ( B ´ C )
2. A ´ (B È C) = (A ´ B) È (A ´ C) 7. ( A - B) ´ C = ( A ´ C ) - ( B ´ C )
3. A ´ (B Ç C) = (A ´ B) Ç (A ´ C) 8. A ´ ( B - C ) = ( A ´ B) - ( A ´ C )
4. (A Ç B) ´ C = (A ´ C) Ç (B ´ C)
5. ( A È B) ´ (C È D) =
( A ´ C ) È ( A ´ D) È ( B ´ C ) È ( B ´ D)

Try it out Prove the equalities in Quick Look 5.

Examples

(1) If A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {1, 2, 3}, then Then


n( A ´ B) = n( A) ´ n( B) = 4 ´ 3 = 12 S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6)} È {(2, 2),
(2) If A = {a, b, c, d}, then (2, 4), (2, 6)} È {(3, 3), (3, 6), (4, 4), (5, 5), (6, 6)}
2

n(A2) = n(A)2 = 42 = 16 (6) If A is a finite set and n(A) = m, then n[P(A ´ A)] = 2m

and n(A3) = n(A)3 = 43 = 64 (7) If A has 3 elements,


2
then the number of subsets of
A ´ A is 23 = 29 , since A ´ A has 9 elements.
(3) For any sets A and B, we have
(8) If A has only one element, then An also has one
A´B= ∪ ({a} ´ B) = ∪ ( A ´ {b}) element and P( An ) has two elements for any posi-
aÎA bÎB tive integer n.
+
(4) Let S = {(a, b)| a, b Î  and a + 2b = 7} . Then (9) For any non-empty finite sets A and B,

S = {(1, 3), (3, 2), (5, 1)} n( A ´ B) n( A ´ B)


n( A) = and n( B) =
n( B) n( A)
(5) Let
A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and S = {(a, b) | a, b ÎA and a
divides b}

Example 1.21

If A and B are sets such that n(A ´ B) = 6 and A ´ B Since (1, 2), (2, 1) and (3, 2) Î A ´ B, 1, 2, 3 Î A and
contains (1, 2), (2, 1) and (3, 2), then find the sets A, B hence n(A) ³ 3. Also, 2, 1 ÎB and hence n(B) ³ 2. Thus
and A ´ B. n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2. Therefore, A = {1, 2, 3} and B =
{1, 2}, so that
Solution: Since n(A) × n(B) = n(A ´ B) = 6, n(A) and
A ´ B = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2), (3, 1), (3, 2)}
n(B) are divisors of 6. Hence n(A) = 1 or 2 or 3 or 6.
28 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Graphical Representation of Cartesian Product

(d, 5)
5

(a, 4)
4

(c, 3)
3

(e, 2)
2

(b, 1)
1

0
a b c d e X
FIGURE 1.27 Graphical representation of Cartesian product.

Let A and B be non-empty sets. The Cartesian product A ´ B can be represented graphically by drawing two
perpendicular lines OX and OY. We represent elements of A by points on OX and those of B by points on OY.
Now draw a line parallel to OY through the point representing a on OX and a line parallel to OX through the point
representing 4 on OY. The point of intersection of these lines represents the ordered pair (a, 4) in A ´ B. Figure 1.27
represents graphically the Cartesian product A ´ B where A = {a, b, c, d, e} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}.

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 20 For any sets A and B, any subset of A ´ B is called a relation from A to B.

Examples

(1) {(a, 2), (b, 1), (a, 4), (c, 3)} is a relation from A to B, (2) For any sets A and B, the empty set f and A ´ B are
where A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {1, 2, 3, 4}. also relations from A to B.

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 21 Let R be a relation from a set A into a set B. That is, R Í A ´ B. If (a, b) Î R, then we say that
“a is R related to b” or “a is related to b with respect to R” or “a and b have relation R”. It is
usually denoted by a R b.

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 22 Domain Let R be a relation from A to B. Then the domain of R is defined as the set
of all first components of the ordered pairs belonging to R and is denoted by Dom (R).
Mathematically,
Dom(R) = {a | (a, b) Î R for some b Î B}

Note that Dom(R) is a subset of A and that Dom(R) is non-empty if and only if R is non-empty.

D E F I N I T I O N 1 . 2 3 Range Let R be a relation from A to B. Then the range of R is defined as the set of all
second components of the ordered pairs belonging to R and is denoted by Range(R).
Mathematically,
Range(R) = {b | (a, b) Î R for some a Î A}

Note that Range(R) is a subset of B and that it is non-empty if and only if R is non-empty.
1.4 Relations 29

Examples

(1) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c, d, e}, and R = {(1, a), (3) Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | 2a = b}. Then R is a relation
(2, c), (3, a), (2, a)}. Then from + to + and is given by
Dom(R) = {1, 2, 3} and Range(R) = {a, c} R = {(a, 2a) | a is a positive integer}
(2) Let A = {2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} and R = {(a, b) Î Then
A ´ B | a divides b}. Then
Dom(R) = +
R = {(2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (3, 3), (3, 6), (4, 4), (4, 8)} and Range(R) = The set of all positive even integers
Dom(R) = {2, 3, 4} and Range(R) = {2, 4, 6, 8, 3}

T H E O R E M 1 .16 Let A and B be non-empty finite sets with n(A) = m and n(B) = n. Then the number of relations
from A to B is 2mn.

PROOF It is known that the number of subsets of an n-element set is 2n. Since the relations from A to B
are precisely the subsets of A ´ B and since n(A ´ B) = n(A) × n(B) = mn, it follows that there are
exactly 2mn relations from A to B. ■

Examples

(1) Let A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {a, b}. Then n(A) = 3, n(B) = 2 (2) Let A and B be two finite sets and K be the number
and n(A ´ B) = n(A) × n(B) = 3 × 2 = 6. Therefore there of relations from A to B. Then K is not divisible by
are exactly 64 (=26) relations from A to B. any odd prime number, since K = 2n ( A)× n ( B) and 2 is
the only prime dividing 2m for any positive integer m.

Representations of a Relation
A relation can be expressed in many forms such as:
1. Roster form: In this form, a relation R is represented by the set of all ordered pairs belonging to R. For example,
R = {(1, a), (2, b), (3, a), (4, c)} is a relation from the set {1, 2, 3, 4} to the set {a, b, c}.
2. Set-builder form: Let A = {2, 3, 4, 5} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}. Let R = {(a, b) ÎA ´ B | a divides b}. Then R is a relation
from A to B. This is known as the set-builder form of a relation. Note that
R = {(2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (2, 10), (3, 6), (4, 4), (4, 8), (5, 10)}
3. Arrow-diagram form: In this form, we draw an arrow corresponding to each ordered pair (a, b) in R from the first
component a to the second component b. For example, consider the relation R given in (2) above. Then R can be
represented as shown in Figure 1.28. There are nine arrows corresponding to nine ordered pairs belonging to the
relation R.

2
2
4
3 6

4 8

5 10

A B
FIGURE 1.28 Representation of arrow-diagram form.
30 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

4. Tabular form: To represent a given relation R, sometimes it is convenient to look at it in a tabular form. Suppose
R is a relation from a finite set A to a finite set B. Let
A = {a1, a2, …, an} and B = {b1, b2, …, bm}
Write the elements b1, b2, ..., bm (in this order) in the top row of the table and the elements a1, a2, …, an (in this order)
in the leftmost column. For any 1 ≤ i ≤ n and 1 ≤ j ≤ m, let us define

ìï 1 if (ai , bj ) Î R
rij = í
ïî0 if (ai , aj ) Ï R

Write rij in the box present in the ith row written against ai and in the jth column written against bj. This is called the
tabular form representation of the relation R.

Examples

Tabular Form R 2 4 6 8 10
Let us consider sets A = {2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, and 2 1 1 1 1 1
relation R given by 3 0 0 1 0 0
R = {(a, b) Î A ´ B | a divides b} 4 0 1 0 1 0
5 0 0 0 0 1
That is
R = {(2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 8), (2, 10), (3, 6), (4, 4), Instead of writing 1 and 0, we can write T and F
(4, 8), (5, 10) signifying whether ai Rbj is true or false.
This relation R is represented in the following tabular form.

Among all four representations of a relation, the set-builder form is most popular and convenient. The roster form,
the arrow-diagram form and the tabular form can represent a relation R from A to B only when both the sets A and B
are finite. The set-builder form is more general and can represent a relation even when A or B or both are infinite sets.

Examples

Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ +| a divides b}. Then R is a relation form or set-builder form or tabular form. Note that
from + to + . This cannot be represented by the roster
Dom(R) = + = Range(R)

DE FIN IT ION 1 . 24 Binary Relation Any relation from a set A to itself is called a binary relation on A or
simply a relation on A.

For example, the relation R given in the above example is a relation on +.
2 2
Remark: For any n-element set A, there are 2n relations on A. For example, if A = {a, b, c}, then there are 512 (= 23 )
relations on A.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 25 Composition of Relations Let A, B and C be sets, R a relation from A to B and S a relation
from B to C. Define
S R = {(a, c) Î A ´ C | there exists b Î B such that (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S}
Then S R is a relation from A to C. In other words for any a Î A and c ÎC,
a(S R)c Û aRb and bSc for some b Î B
S R is called the composition of R with S.

Note that, for any relations R with S, R S may not be defined at all even when S R is defined. Also even when both
R S and S R are defined, they may not be equal.
1.4 Relations 31

Examples

(1) Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | b = 2a} and S = {(a, b) Î Note that (3, 8) ÏR S and (3, 10) ÏS R. Therefore
+ ´ + | b = a + 2}. Then both R and S are relations S R Ë R S and R S Ë S R.
from + to + and hence both R S and S R are (2) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c, d}, and C = {x, y, z}. Let
defined. For any positive integers a and c, we have
R = {(1, c), (2, d), (2, a), (3, d)}
a(R S)c Û aSb and bRc for some b Î +
and S = {(a, y), (b, x), (b, y), (a, z)}
Û b = a + 2 and c = 2b for some b Î +
Then R is a relation from A to B and S is a relation
Û c = 2(a + 2) = 2a + 4 from B to C.
and Dom(R) = {1, 2, 3} and Range(R) = {a, c, d}
a(S R)c Û aRb and bSc for some b Î  + Dom(S) = {a, b} and Range(S) = {x, y, z}

Û b = 2a and c = b + 2 for some b Î + R S is not defined. However S R is defined and

Û c = 2a + 2 S R = {(2, y), (2, z)}


Since (2, a) ÎR and (a, y) ÎS, we have (2, y) ÎS R
For example, (3, 10) ÎR S since (3, 5) ÎS and (5, 10)
Since (2, a) ÎR and (a, z) ÎS, we have (2, z) ÎS R
ÎR. Also, (3, 8) ÎS R since (3, 6) ÎR and (6, 8) ÎS.

T H E O R E M 1 .17 Let A, B and C be sets, R a relation from A to B and S a relation from B to C. Then the following
hold:
1. S R ¹ f if and only if Range(R) Ç Dom(S) ¹ f
2. Dom(S R) Í Dom(R)
3. Range(S R) Í Range(S)
PROOF 1. Suppose that S R ¹ f. Choose(a, c) Î S R. Then there exists b Î B such that (a, c) Î R and
(b, c) Î S and hence b Î Range(R) and b Î Dom(S). Therefore b Î Range(R) Ç Dom(S). Thus
Range(R) Ç Dom(S) is not empty.
Conversely, suppose that Range(R) Ç Dom(S) ¹ f. Choose b Î Range(R) Ç Dom(S). Then
there exist a Î A and c Î C such that (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S and hence (a, c) Î S R. Thus S R
is not empty.
2. a Î Dom(S R) Þ (a, c) Î S R for some c Î C
Þ (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S for some b Î B
Þ a Î Dom(R)
Therefore Dom(S R) Í Dom(R).
3. c Î Range(S R) Þ (a, c) Î S R for some a Î A
Þ (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S for some b Î B
Þ c Î Range(S)
Therefore Range (S R) Í Range(S). ■

Example 1.22

Find S R, Dom(S R), Range(S R) for the following: (2) The sets are the same as above. The relations are
(1) A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c} and C = {x, y, z}. The rela- R = {(1, a), (2, b), (2, c), (4, a)}
tions are R = {(2, a), (3, b), (2, b), (3, c)} and S = {(a,
y), (b, x), (b, y)}. and S = {(b, x), (b, y), (d, z)}
32 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Solution: (2) Using the given data we have


(1) From the given data, we have S R = {(2, x), (2, y)}
Dom(R) = {2, 3} and Range(R) = {a, b, c} Dom(S R) = {2} Ì {1, 2, 4} = Dom(R)
Dom(S) = {a, b} and Range(S) = {x, y} Range(S R) = {x, y} Ì {x, y, z} = Range(S)
(a) S R = {(2, y), (3, x), (3, y), (2, x)}
(b) Dom(S R) = {2, 3} = Dom(R)
(c) Range(S R) = {x, y} = Range(S)

T H E O R E M 1 .18 Let A, B, C and D be non-empty sets, R Í A ´ B, S Í B ´ C and T Í C ´ D. Then


(T S) R = T (S R)
PROOF For any a Î A and d Î D,
(a, d) Î (T S) R Þ (a, b) Î R and (b, d) Î T S for some b Î B
Þ (a, b) Î R, (b, c) Î S and (c, d) Î T for some b Î B and c Î C
Þ (a, c) Î S R and (c, d) Î T, c Î C
Þ (a, d) Î T (S R)
Therefore,
(T S) R Í T (S R)
Similarly
T (S R) Í (T S) R
Thus,
(T S) R = T (S R) ■

DEFIN IT ION 1 . 26 Inverse of a Relation Let A and B be non-empty sets and R a relation from A to B. Then
the inverse of R is defined as the set
{(b, a) Î B ´ A| (a, b) Î R}
and is denoted by R-1.

Note that, if R is a relation from A to B, then R-1 is a relation from B to A and that R R-1 is a relation on B and R-1 R
is a relation on A.

Examples

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {a, b, c, d, e}. R R-1 = {(a, a), (b, b),(b, c),(a, e), (d, d),
Let R = {(1, a), (2, b), (3, a), (4, d), (2, c), (3, e)}. Then (c, b), (c, c), (e, a), (e, e)}

R-1 = {(a, 1), (b, 2), (a, 3), (d, 4), (c, 2), (e, 3)} and R-1 R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)} = DA
(the diagonal of A).

T H E O R E M 1 .19 Let A, B and C be non-empty sets and R a relation from A to B and S a relation from B to C. Then
the following hold.
1. (S R)-1 = R-1 S-1
2. (R-1)-1 = R
1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions 33

PROOF 1. S R is relation from A to C and therefore (S R)-1 is relation from C to A. Now consider
(c, a) Î (S R)-1 Û (a, c) Î S R
Û (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S for some b Î B
Û (c, b) Î S-1 and (b, a) Î R-1 for some b Î B
Û (c, a) Î R-1 S-1
Therefore (S R)-1 = R-1 S-1.
2. It is trivial and left as an exercise for the reader. ■

1.5 | Equivalence Relations and Partitions


A partitioning of a set is dividing the set into disjoint subsets as shown in the Venn diagram in Figure 1.29. In this
section we discuss a special type of relations on a set which induces a partition of the set and prove that any such
partition is induced by that special type of relation. Let us begin with the following.

FIGURE 1.29 Partitioning of a set.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 27 Let X be a non-empty set and R a (binary) relation on X. Then,


1. R is said to be reflexive on X if (x, x) Î R for all x Î X.
2. R is said to be symmetric if (x, y) Î R Þ (y, x) Î R
3. R is said to be transitive if (x, y) Î R and (y, z) Î R Þ (x, z) Î R.
4. R is said to be an equivalence relation on X if it is a reflexive, symmetric and transitive
relation on X.

Examples

(1) Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4} and R = {(1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1), (2, 2)}. (4) For any set X, let
Then R is a relation on X. R is not reflexive on X,
DX = {(x, x)| x ÎX}
since 3 ÎX and (3, 3) ÏR. However R is symmetric
and transitive. You can easily see that R is reflexive Then DX is reflexive, symmetric and transitive rela-
on a smaller set, namely {1, 2}. Therefore R is an equ- tion on X and hence an equivalence relation on X.
ivalence relation on {1, 2}. DX is called the diagonal on X.
(2) Let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | a divides b}. Then R is a (5) For any positive integer n, let
reflexive and transitive relation on the set + of posi-
Rn = {(a, b) Î  ´  | n divides a - b}
tive integers. However, R is not symmetric, since
(2, 6) ÎR and (6, 2) ÏR. Note that a relation R on a For any a Î , n divides 0 = a - a and hence (a, a) Î Rn.
set S is symmetric Û R = R-1. Therefore Rn is reflexive on . For any a, b Î ,
(3) Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4} and R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (a, b) ÎRn Þ n divides (a - b)
(2, 3), (3, 2), (3, 4), (4, 3)}. Then R is a reflexive and
Þ n divides - (a - b)
symmetric relation on X. But R is not transitive, since
(2, 3) ÎR and (3, 4) ÎR, but (2, 4) ÏR. Þ n divides (b - a)
Þ (b, d) ÎRn
34 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Therefore Rn is symmetric. Also, for any a, b and Therefore Rn is transitive also. Thus Rn is an equiva-
c Î , lence relation on  and is called the congruence relation
modulo n.
(a, b) ÎRn and (b, c) ÎRn Þ n divides (a - b) and (b - c)
(6) Let A and B be subsets of a set X such that A Ç B = f
Þ n divides (a - b) + (b - c) and A È B = X. Define
Þ n divides (a - c) R = {(x, y) ÎX ´ X | either x, y ÎA or x, y ÎB}
Þ (a, c) ÎRn Then R is an equivalence relation on X.

T H E O R E M 1 .20 Let R be a symmetric and transitive relation on a set X. Then the following are equivalent to each
other.
1. R is reflexive on X.
2. Dom(R) = X.
3. Range(R) = X.
4. R is equivalence relation on X.
PROOF Since R is already symmetric and transitive, (1) Û (4) is clear.
Also, since (a, b) Î R if and only if (b, a) Î R, it follows that (2) Û (3).
If R is reflexive on X, then (x, x) Î R for all x Î X and hence Dom(R) = X. Therefore (1) Û (2)
is clear.
Finally, we shall prove (2) Þ (1). Suppose that Dom(R) = X. Then,
x Î X Þ x Î Dom(R)
Þ (x, y) Î R for some y Î X
Þ (x, y) Î R and (y, x) Î R (since R is symmetric)
Þ (x, x) Î R (since R is transitive)
Therefore (x, x) Î R for all x Î X. Thus R is reflexive on X. ■

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 28 Partition Let X be a non-empty set. A class of non-empty subsets of X is called a partition
of X if the members of the class are pairwise disjoint and their union is X. In other words, a
class of sets {Ai}iÎI is called a partition of X if the following are satisfied:
1. For each i Î I, Ai is a non-empty subset of X
2. Ai Ç Aj = f for all i ¹ j Î I
3. ∪A = X
i ÎI
i

Examples

(1) For any set X, the class {{x}}x ÎX is a partition of X; (3) For any non-empty proper subset A of a set X, the
that is, the class of all singleton subsets of X is a class {A, X - A} is a partition of X. Note that X - A
partition of X. is not empty since A is a proper subset of X.
(2) Let E = the set of all even integers and O = the set of
all odd integers. Then the class {E, O} is a partition of .

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 29 Let R be an equivalence relation on a set X and x Î X. Then define


R(x) = {y Î x | (x, y) Î R}
R(x) is a subset of X and is called the equivalence class of x with respect to R or the
R-equivalence class of x or simply the R-class of x.
1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions 35

Examples

(1) Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4} and R = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), Rn(a) = {y ÎX | (a, y) ÎRn}
(2, 3), (3, 2)}. Then R is an equivalence relation on X
= {y ÎX | n divides a - y}
and the R-classes are as follows:
= {y ÎX | a - y = nx for some x Î }
R(1) = {x ÎX | (1, x) ÎR} = {1}
= {a + nx | x Î }
R(2) = {x ÎX | (2, x) ÎR} = {2, 3}
We can prove that Rn(0), Rn(1), …, Rn(n - 1) are all
R(3) = {x ÎX | (3, x) ÎR} = {2, 3}
the distinct Rn-classes in . If a ³ n or a < 0, we can
R(4) = {x ÎX | (4, x) ÎR} = {4} write by the division algorithm that
(2) Let n be a positive integer and a = qn + r
Rn = {(a, b) Î ´  | n divides a - b} where q, r Î  and 0 £ r < n. Hence Rn(a) = Rn(r),
0 £ r < n.
Then Rn is an equivalence relation on the set  of
integers. For any a Î , the Rn-class of “a” denoted
by Rn (a) is given by

T H E O R E M 1 .21 Let R be an equivalence relation on a set X and a, b Î X. Then the following are equivalent to each other:
1. (a, b) Î R
2. R(a) = R(b)
3. R(a) Ç R(b) ¹ f
PROOF (1) Þ (2): Suppose that (a, b) Î R. Then (b, a) Î R (since R is symmetric) and
x Î R(a) Þ (a, x) Î R
Þ (b, a) Î R and (a, x) Î R
Þ (b, x) Î R (since R is transitive)
Þ x Î R(b)
Therefore R(a) Í R(b). Similarly R(b) Í R(a). Thus R(a) = R(b).
(2) Þ (3) is trivial, since a Î R(a) and if R(a) = R(b), then a Î R(a) Ç R(b).
(3) Þ (1): Suppose that R(a) Ç R(b) ¹ f. Choose an element c Î R(a) Ç R(b). Then (a, c) Î R and
(b, c) Î R and hence (a, c) Î R and (c, b) Î R. Since R is transitive, we get that (a, b) Î R. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .22 Let R be an equivalence relation on a set X. Then the class of all distinct R-classes forms a partition
of X; that is,
1. R(a) is a non-empty subset of X for each a Î X.
2. Any two distinct R-classes are disjoint.
3. The union of all R-classes is the whole set X.
PROOF 1. By definition of the R-class R(a), we have
R(a) = { x Î X | (a, x) Î R}
Therefore R(a) is a subset of X. Since (a, a) Î R we have a Î R(a). Thus R(a) is a non-empty
subset of X for each a Î X.
2. This is a consequence of (2) Û (3) of Theorem 1.21.
3. Since a Î R(a) for all a Î X, we have
∪ R(a) = X
a ÎX ■
36 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Examples

Let X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} and R = {(x, y) Î X ´ X | both and R(2) = {2, 4, 6, 8} = R(4) = R(6) = R(8)
x and y are either even or odd}. Then
Therefore, there are only two distinct R-classes, namely
R(1) = {1, 3, 5, 7} = R(3) = R(5) = R(7) R(1) = {1, 3, 5, 7} and R(2) = {2, 4, 6, 8} and these two form
a partition of X.

In Theorem 1.22, we have obtained a partition from a given equivalence relation on set a X. Infact, for any given
partition of X, we can define an equivalence relation on X which induces the given partition. This is proved in the
following.

T H E O R E M 1 .23 Let X be a non-empty set and {Ai}iÎI a partition of X. Define


R = {(x, y) Î X ´ X | both x and y belong to same Ai , i Î I }
Then R is an equivalence relation whose R-classes are precisely Ai ’s .
PROOF We are given that {Ai}iÎI is a partition of X, that is,
1. Each Ai is a non-empty subset of X.
2. Ai Ç Aj = f for all i ¹ j Î I .
3. ∪ A = X.
i ÎI
i

For any x Î X, there exists only one i Î I such that x Î Ai and hence (x, x) Î R. This means that R
is reflexive on X; clearly R is symmetric. Also, (x, y) Î R and (y, z) Î R Þ x, y Î Ai and y, z Î Aj for
some i, j Î I. This implies
Ai Ç Aj ¹ f and hence i = j and Ai = Aj
Þ x, z Î Ai , i Î I
Þ (x, z) Î R
Thus R is transitive also. Therefore R is an equivalence relation on X. For any i Î I and x Î Ai, we
have
y Î Ai Û (x, y) Î R Û y Î R(x)
and have Ai = R(x). This shows that Ai ’s are all the R-classes in X. ■

Theorems 1.22 and 1.23 imply that we can get a partition of X from an equivalence relation on X and conversely
we can get an equivalence relation from a partition of X and that these processes are inverses to each other.

Examples

For any i = 0, 1 or 2, let R = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | a, b Î A0 or a, b Î A1


Ai = {a Î + | on dividing a with 3, the remainder is i} or a, b Î A2 }
That is, = {(a, b) Î + ´ + | The remainders are same
when a and b are divided by 3}
A0 = {3, 6, 9, 12, …} = {3n | n Î + }
= {(a, b) Î + ´ + | 3 divides a - b}
+
A1 = {1, 4, 7, 10, …} = {3n + 1| 0 £ n Î  }
In this case, R(1) = A1, R(2) = A2 and R(3) = A0 and these
A2 = {2, 5, 8, 11, …} = {3n + 2 | 0 £ n Î + } three are the only R-classes in +.

Then {A0, A1, A2} is a partition of +. The equivalence


relation corresponding to this partition is
1.5 Equivalence Relations and Partitions 37

T H E O R E M 1 .24 Let R and S be two equivalence relations on a non-empty set X. Then R Ç S is also an equivalence
relation on X and, for any x Î X,
(R Ç S)(x) = R(x) Ç S(x)
PROOF For any x Î X, (x, x) Î R and (x, x) Î S (since R and S are reflexive on X ). Hence (x, x) Î R Ç S.
Therefore R Ç S is reflexive on X. Also,
(x, y) Î R Ç S Þ (x, y) Î R and (x, y) Î S
Þ (y, x) Î R and (y, x) Î S
Þ (y, x) Î R Ç S
Therefore R Ç S is symmetric. Further
(x, y), (y, z) Î R Ç S Þ (x, y), (y, z) Î R and (x, y), (y, z) Î S
Þ (x, z) Î R and (x, z) Î S
Þ (x, z) Î R Ç S
Therefore R Ç S is an equivalence relation. For any x Î X, we have
(R Ç S)(x) = { y Î X | ( x, y) Î R Ç S}
= { y Î X | ( x, y) Î R} Ç { y Î X | ( x, y) Î S}
= R(x) Ç S(x) ■

We have proved in Theorem 1.24 that the intersection of equivalence relations on a given set X is again an
equivalence relation. This result cannot be extended to the composition of equivalence relations. In this direction, we
have the following theorem that gives us several equivalent conditions for the composition of equivalence relations to
again become an equivalence relation.

T H E O R E M 1 .25 Let R and S be equivalence relations on a set X. Then the following are equivalent to each other.
1. R S is an equivalence relation on X.
2. R S is symmetric.
3. R S is transitive.
4. R S = S R.
PROOF (1) Þ (2) is clear.
(2) Þ (3): Suppose that R S is symmetric. Then
R S = (R S)–1 = S–1 R–1 = S R
and (R S) (R S) = R (S R) S
= R (R S) S
= (R R) (S S)
= (R S)
Since R and S are reflexive, we get that R DX = R = DX R and S DX = S = DX S. Also,
since R and S are transitive, R R Í R = R DX Í R R-1 so that R R = R. Similarly, S S = S.
Therefore, R S is transitive.
(3) Þ (4): Suppose that R S is transitive. Then (R S) (R S) = R S. Now, consider
S R = (DX S) (R DX ) Í (R S) (R S) = R S
and R S = R-1 S-1 = (S R)-1 Í (R S)-1 = S-1 R-1 = S R
38 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Therefore
R S = S R
(4) Þ (1): Suppose that R S = S R. Then
(R S)-1 = S-1 R-1 = S R = R S
Hence R S is symmetric and transitive also. Further DX = DX DX Í R S and therefore R S is
reflexive on X. Thus, R S is an equivalence relation on X. ■

1.6 | Functions
Functions are a special kind of relations from one set to another set. The concept of a function is an important tool
in any area of logical thinking, not only in science and technology but also in social sciences. The word “function”
is derived from a Latin word meaning operation. For example, when we multiply a given real number x by 2, we
are performing an operation on the number x to get another number 2x. A function may be viewed as a rule which
provides new element from some given element. Function is also called a map or a mapping. In this section, we discuss
various types of functions and their properties. The following is a formal definition of a function.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 30 Function A relation R from a set A to a set B is called a function (or a mapping or a map)
from A into B if the following condition is satisfied:
For each element a in A there exists one and only one element b in B such that (a, b) Î R.
That is, R Í A ´ B is called a function from A into B if the following hold:
1. For each a Î A, there exists b Î B such that (a, b) Î R.
2. If (a, b) Î R and (a, c) Î R, then b = c.

ALTERNATE DEFINITION A relation R from A to B is a function from A into B if Dom(R) = A and whenever
the first components of two ordered pairs in R are equal, then the second components
are also equal.

Examples

(1) Let R = {(x, 2x) | x Î }. Then R is a function from  (4) Let A and B be as in (3) above and R = {(1, a), (2, b),
into . (3, c), (3, a), (4, a)}. Then R is not a function from A
(2) Let R = {(x, | x |) | x Î }. Then R is a function from into B, since we have two ordered pairs (3, c) and (3, a)
the real number system  into itself. in R whose first components are equal and the
second components are different. Also, if S = {(1, a),
(3) Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {a, b, c}. Let R = {(1, a),
(2, b), (4, c)}, then S is not a function of A into B,
(2, a), (3, b), (4, b)}. Then R is a function from A into B.
since Dom(S) ¹ A.

Notation
1. If R is a function from A into B and a Î A, then the unique element b in B such that (a, b) Î R is denoted by R(a).
2. Usually functions will be denoted by lower case letters f, g, h, ….
3. If f is a function from A into B, then we denote this by f : A ® B.
4. If f : A ® B is a function and a Î A, then there exists a unique element b in A such that (a, b) Î f. This unique
element is denoted by f (a). We write f (a) = b to say that (a, b) Î f or a f b. Some authors also write (a)f = b or simply
bb

af = b to say that (a, b) Î f . However in this chapter we prefer to use f (a) = b.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 31 Let f : A ® B be a function. Then A is called the domain of f and is denoted by Dom( f ). B is
called the co-domain of f and is denoted by codom( f ). The range of f is also called the image
of f or the image of A under f and is denoted by Im( f ). That is,
Im( f ) = { f (a) | a Î A}
1.6 Functions 39

Note that Im( f ) is a subset of B and may not be equal to B. If f (a) = b, then b is called the image of a under f and a is
called a pre-image of b. Note that for any a Î A, the image of a under f is unique. But, for b Î B, there may be several
pre-images of b or there may not be any pre-image of b at all. To describe a function f : A ® B it is enough if we pre-
scribe the image f (a) of each a Î A under f.

Examples

(1) Define a function f :  ®  by f (x) = x2 for all x Î. (2) Define f :  ®  by f (x) = x / 2 for all x Î. Then the
That is, f = {(x, x2) | x Î }. Here x2 is the image of domain of f is  and the co-domain of f is . Also
any x Î. Note that x2 is always non-negative for
any x Î and hence a negative real number has no ìx ü
Im( f ) = { f ( x) | x Î } = í | x Î  ý
pre-image under f. For example, there is no x Î such î2 þ
that f (x) = -1. Here both the domain and co-domain
of the function are  and the image of f (or range Here note that every integer n has a pre-image, namely
of f ) is equal to the set of non-negative real numbers. 2n, since f (2n) = n. The real number 1/3 has no pre-image.

Quite often a function is given by an equation of type f (x) = y without specifically mentioning the domain and co-
domain. We can identify the domain and co-domain by looking at the validity of the equation. The following examples
illustrate these.

Example 1.23

Let f be the function defined by The expression of the right-hand side has meaning for
all real numbers except when x = 6 or x = 2. Therefore,
x2 + 2 x + 1 the domain of f is the set at all real number other than 6
f ( x) =
x2 - 8 x + 12 and 2, that is,
Find out the domain of f. Dom ( f ) =  - {2, 6}

Solution: We are given that


x2 + 2 x + 1
f ( x) =
x2 - 8 x + 12

Example 1.24

Consider a function defined by Suppose


x2
ïìæ x2 ö üï y = f ( x) =
f = íç x, 2÷
x Î ý 1 + x2
ïîè 1 + x ø ïþ Then
Then f is a function from  into . Find the range of f. y + yx 2 = x 2 or x 2 (1 - y) = y
Therefore
Solution: We have
y y
x2 x2 = or x=±
f ( x) = for all x Î 1- y 1- y
1 + x2
provided y /(1 - y) ³ 0; that is, 0 £ y < 1. Thus the range
of f is [0, 1).

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 32 Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions. Then the composition of f with g is defined as the
function g f : A ® C given by
(g f )(a) = g( f (a)) for all a Î A
40 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Note that g f is defined only when the range of f is contained in the domain of g. If f : A ® B is a function and g : D ® C is
another function such that Range( f ) Í D = Dom(g), then g f can be defined as a function from A into C. When we regard
functions as relations, then the composition of functions is same as that of the relations as given in Definition 1.25. That is,
(a, c) Î g f Û (a, b) Î f and (b, c) Î g for some b Î B
Û f (a) = b and g(b) = c
Û g( f (a)) = c
Û (g f )(a) = c

Example 1.25

Let f :  ®  and g :  ®  be defined by [( x + 2)/ 3]2 - 1


=
x+2 [( x + 2)/ 3]2 + 1
f ( x) = for all x Î
3
( x + 2)2 - 9
=
x -1
2
( x + 2)2 + 9
and g( x) = for all x Î
x2 + 1
x2 + 4 x - 5
Find (g f )(x). =
x2 + 4 x + 13
Solution: We have

æ x + 2ö
( g f )( x) = g( f ( x)) = g ç
è 3 ÷ø

Example 1.26

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {a, b, c} and C = {x, y, z}. Let Solution: We have f : A ® B and g : B ® C are func-
tions. Then g f : A ® C is given by
f = {(1, a), (2, c), (3, b), (4, a)}
g f = {(1, y), (2, x), (3, z), (4, y)}
and g = {(a, y), (b, z), (c, x)}
Find g f.

Try it out
T H E O R E M 1 .26 Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions. Then Dom(g f ) = Dom( f ) and codom(g f ) =
codom(g).

Two functions f and g are said to be equal if their domains are equal and f(x) = g(x) for all elements x in Dom ( f ).
For any functions f and g, even when both g f and f g are defined, g f may be different from f g, as seen in the
following example.

Example 1.27

Let f :  ®  and g :  ®  be defined by ( f g )( x) = f ( g( x))


f (x) = x 2
and g(x) = x + 2 for all x Î = f ( x + 2) = ( x + 2)2
Show that g f ¹ f g. = x2 + 4 x + 4
Solution: We have Therefore g f ¹ f g.
( g f )( x) = g( f ( x)) = g( x ) = x + 2
2 2
1.6 Functions 41

The following is an easy verification and is a direct consequence of Theorem 1.18.

Try it out
T H E O R E M 1 . 27 Let f : A ® B, g : B ® C and h : C ® D be functions. Then
h ( g f ) = (h g ) f

In the following we discuss certain special types of functions. If f : A ® B is a function, a1 and a2 are elements of A
and b1 and b2 are elements of B such that f (a1) = b1 and f (a2) = b2 and if a1 = a2, then necessarily b1 = b2. In other words,
two elements of B are equal if their pre-images are equal. It is quite possible that two distinct elements of A may have
equal images under f. A function f : A ® B is called an injection if distinct elements of A have distinct images under f.
The following is a formal definition.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 32 Injection A function f : A ® B is called an injection or “one-one function” if f (a1) ¹ f (a2)
for any a1 ¹ a2 in A; in other words,
f (a1) = f (a2) Þ a1 = a2
for any a1, a2 Î A.

Examples

(1) Let f :  ®  be defined by Then f is not an injection, since two distinct elements
f (x) = x + 2 for all x Î  have the same image; for example, 1 ¹ -1 but f(1) = 12
= (–1)2 = f(–1).
Then f is an injection, since, for any x, y, Î ,
f ( x) = f ( y) Þ x + 2 = y + 2 Þ x = y
(2) Let f :  ®  be defined by
f (x) = x2 for all x Î 

T H E O R E M 1 .28 Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions. Then the following hold.


1. If f and g are injections, then so is g f.
2. If g f is an injection, then f is an injection.
PROOF 1. Suppose that both f and g are injections. For any a1, a2 Î A, we have
( g f )(a1 ) = ( g f )(a2 )
Þ g( f (a1 )) = g( f (a2 ))
Þ f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) (since g is an injection)
Þ a1 = a2 (since f is an injection)
Therefore, g f is an injection.
2. Suppose that g f is an injection. Then, for any a1, a2 Î A, we have
f (a1 ) = f (a2 ) Þ g( f (a1 )) = g( f (a2 )) (∵ g is a function)
Þ ( g f )(a1 ) = ( g f )(a2 )
Þ a1 = a2 (since g f is an injection)
Therefore f is an injection. ■

Note that g f can be an injection without g being an injection. An example of this case is given in the following.
42 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example

Define Þ (x + 2)2 = (y + 2)2


f : + ®  by f(x) = x + 2 for all x Î+ Þx+2=y+2 (since x and y are positive)
and g :  ®  by g(x) = x2 for all x Î Þx=y
+
Then g f :  ®  is given by Therefore g f is an injection. However, g is not an injec-
tion, since
(g f )(x) = g( f(x)) = g(x + 2) = (x + 2)2 for all x Î+
g(2) = 22 = (–2)2 = g(–2)
Now, for any x, y Î+,
(g f )(x) = (g f )(y)

Next we discuss functions under which every element in the codomain is the image of some element in the domain.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 33 Surjection A function f : A ® B is called a surjection or “onto function” if the range of f is
equal to the co-domain B; that is, for each b Î B, b = f(a) for some a Î A.

Examples

(1) Let f :  ®  be defined by f (–1) = |–1| = 1 = f (1) and –1 ¹ 1


f(x) = 2x + 1 for all x Î (3) Define f :  ®  by f (x) = x + 1 for all x Î. Then
2

f is neither an injection nor a surjection. It is not an


Then, for any element y in the co-domain , we have
injection, since
(y - 1)/2 is in the domain  and
f (–1) = (-1)2 + 1 = 2 = 12 + 1= f (1) and –1 ¹ 1
æ y - 1ö 2( y - 1)
fç = + 1= y
è 2 ÷ø 2 f is not a surjection, since we cannot find an element
x in  such that x2 + 1 = 0; that is f (x) = 0.
Therefore f is a surjection. Note that f is an injection (4) Define f :  ®  by f(x) = x + 2 for all x Î . Then
also, since f is an injection and it is not a surjection, since we
f ( x) = f ( y) Þ 2 x + 1 = 2 y + 1 Þ x = y cannot find an integer x such that f(x) = 1/2. Note that
f (x) = x + 2 is always an integer for any integer x.
(2) Let  be the set of all non-negative integers. Define
f :  ®  by f (x) = | x | for all x Î. Then f is a
surjection, since f (x) = x for all x Î and  Í .
However, f is not an injection since

T H E O R E M 1 .29 Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions. Then the following hold:


1. If f and g are surjections, then so is g f.
2. If g f is a surjection, then g is a surjection.
PROOF 1. Suppose that f and g are surjections. Also g f is a function from A into C. The domain of g f is
A and the co-domain of g f is C. Now,
c ÎC Þ c = g(b) for some b Î B (since g is a surjection)
Þ f (a) = b and g(b) = c fo
or some a Î A and b Î B (since f is a surjection)
Þ a Î A and ( g f )(a) = g( f (a)) = g(b) = c
Þ ( g f )(a) = c for some a Î A
Thus g f is a surjection.
1.6 Functions 43

2. Suppose g f is a surjection. To prove that g : B ® C is a surjection, let c Î C. Since g f : A ® C


is a surjection, there exists a Î A such that (g f )(a) = c. Then f(a) Î B and
g( f (a)) = (g f )(a) = c
Thus g is a surjection. ■

Note that g f can be a surjection without f being a surjection. This is substantiated in the following.

Example

Define f :  ®  by f(x) = [2x] for x Î and g :  ®  by In this case g f is a surjection, since, for any n Î, n/2 Î
g(x) = [x] for all x Î, where [x] is the integral part of x and
(i.e., [x] is the largest integer £ x). Then g f :  ®  is
given by æ nö é n ù
( g f ) ç ÷ = ê 2 × ú = [n] = n
è 2ø ë 2 û
( g f )( x) = g( f ( x)) = [[2 x]] = [2 x]
However f is not a surjection, since f(x) is always an
integer and we cannot find x Î such that f (x) = 1/2.

It is a convention that, when f : A ® B is a surjection, we often denote this by saying “f is a function of A onto B”
or f is a surjection of A onto B. We use the word onto only in the case of surjections. Whenever we want to mention that
f : A ® B is a surjection, we say that f is a surjection (or surjective function or onto function) of A onto B.

DEFIN IT ION 1 . 34 Bijection A function f : A ® B is said to be a bijection or a one-one and onto function or a
one-to-one function if f is both injective and surjective.

Examples

(1) For any set X, define I : X ® X by I(x) = x for all Also, f is surjective, since, for any y Î,
x ÎX. Then clearly I is an injection and a surjection, y-b æ y - bö æ y - bö
Î  and fç = aç +b= y
è a ÷ø è a ÷ø
and hence a bijection. This is called the identity
a
function on X or identity map on X. To specify the set
X also, we denote the identity function I on X by IX. Thus, f is a bijection of  onto itself.
(2) Define f :  ®  by f (x) = x + 3 for all x Î. Then f is (4) Let E be the set of all even integers and  the set of
a bijection of  onto  (the term “onto” is used, since all integers. Define f : E ®  by
any bijection is necessarily a surjection).
ìï2 y if x = 4 y
(3) For any real numbers a and b with a ¹ 0, define f ( x) = í
f :  ®  by îï y if x = 2 y and y is odd
f (x) = ax + b for all x Î Then f is a bijection. One can verify that
Then f is an injection, since f (0) = 0 f (- 2) = - 1
f ( x) = f ( y) Þ ax + b = ay + b Þ ax = ay f ( 2) = 1 f (- 4) = - 2
Þ x = y (since a ¹ 0) f ( 4) = 2
f (6) = 3 f (- n) = - f (n)
f (8) = 4

Try it out
T H E O R E M 1 .30 Let f : A® B be any function. Then
IB f = f = f IA
44 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

T H E O R E M 1 .31 If f : A ® B and g : B ® C are bijections, then g f : A ® C is a bijection.


PROOF This is an immediate consequence of Theorems 1.28 [part (1)] and 1.29 [part (1)], since a bijection
is both an injection as well as a surjection. ■

In the following, we give a characterization property for bijections.

T H E O R E M 1 .32 Let f : A ® B be a mapping. Then f is a bijection if and only if there exists a function g : B ® A
such that
g f = IA and f g = IB
that is, g( f (a)) = a for all a Î A and f (g(b)) = b for all b Î B.
PROOF If there is a function g : B ® A such that
g f = IA and f g = IB
then, by Theorem 1.28 [part (2)], f is an injection (since g f = IA which is an injection. Also, by
Theorem 1.29 [part (2)], f is a surjection (since f g = IB which is a surjection). Thus f is a bijection.
Conversely suppose that f is a bijection. Define g : B ® A as follows:
g(b) = The pre-image of b under f
That is, if f (a) = b, then g(b) is defined as a. First observe that every element b Î B has a
pre-image a Î A under f (since f is a surjection). Also, this pre-image is unique (since f is an injection).
Therefore g is properly defined as a function from B into A. Now, for any a Î A and b Î B, we have
( g f )(a) = g( f (a)) = a
since a is the pre-image of f(a) and
( f g )(b) = f ( g(b)) = b
since g(b) = a if f(a) = b. Thus g f = IA and f g = IB . ■

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 35 Inverse of a Bijection Let f : A ® B and g : B ® A be functions such that g f = IA and
f g = IB. Then both f and g are bijections (by the above theorem). Also, g is unique such that
g f = IA and f g = IB, since, for any a Î A and b Î B, we have
f (a) = b Û g( f(a)) = g(b) Û a = g(b)
The function g is called the inverse function of f and f is called the inverse function of g. Both
f and g are interrelated by the property
f (a) = b Û a = g(b)
for all a Î A and b Î B. The inverse function of f is denoted by f -1. When we look at f as a
relation, then f -1 is precisely the inverse relation as defined in Definition 1.26.

To confirm that f is a bijection, the existence of g satisfying both the properties g f = IA and f g = IB are necessary.
Just g f = IA may not imply that f is a bijection. In this context, we have the following two results.

T H E O R E M 1 .33 Let f : A ® B be a function. Then f is an injection if and only if there exists a function g : B ® A
such that g f = IA.

PROOF If g : B ® A is a function such that g f = IA, then by Theorem 1.28 [part (2)], f is an injection, Conversely
suppose that f is an injection. Choose an arbitrary element a0 Î A and define g : B ® A as follows:
ìïa if b = f (a) for some a Î A
g(b) = í
îïa0 if b Î
/ Range ( f )
1.6 Functions 45

Recall that Range( f ) = { f(a) | a Î A} Í B. Since f is an injection, there can be at most one a Î A for
any b Î B such that f (a) = b. Therefore, g is a well-defined function from B into A. Also, for any a Î A,
( g f )(a) = g( f (a)) = a
and hence g f = IA. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .34 Let f : A ® B be a function. Then f is a surjection if and only if there exists a function g : B ® A
such that f g = IB.
PROOF If there is a function g : B ® A such that f g = IB, then, by Theorem 1.29 [part (2)], f is a surjection.
Conversely, suppose that f is a surjection. Then each element b in B has a pre-image a in A [i.e.,
a is an element in A such that f (a) = b]. Now, for each b Î B, choose one element ab in A such that
f (ab) = b. Define g : B ® A by
g(b) = ab for each b Î B

Then g is a function from B into A and, for any b Î B, we have


( f g )(b) = f ( g(b)) = f (ab ) = b
Therefore f g = IB. ■

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 36 Real-Valued Function If f : A ® B is a function and a Î A then the image f(a) is also called
a value of f at a. If the value of f at each a Î A is a real number, then f is called a real-valued
function on A; that is, any function from a set A into a subset of the real number system  is
called a real-valued function on A.

If f : A ® B is a function and B Í C, then f can be treated as a function from A into C as well. Therefore, a real-valued
function on A is just a function from A into .

QUICK LOOK 6

Let f and g be real valued functions on a set A. Then we 4. ( f × g)(a) = f (a)f (b)
define the real-valued functions f + g, - f, f - g and f × g
on A as follows: Note that the operation symbols are those in the real
number system . Also, if g(a) ¹ 0 for all a ÎA, then
1. ( f + g)(a) = f (a) + g(a) the function f /g is defined as follows:
2. ( -f )(a) = - f (a)
5. ( f /g)(a) = f (a)/g(a) for all a ÎA
3. ( f - g)(a) = f (a) - g(a)

Examples

(1) Let f be a polynomial over , that is Then f is a real-valued function on .


f = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn (3) Define f : [0, 2p ] ®  by
f (a) = sin a for all a Î 
where a0, a1, a2, ¼, an are all real numbers. For any
a Î, let us define Then f is a real-valued function defined on [0, 2p]
and is denoted by sin.
f (a) = a0 + a1a + a2 a + + an a
2 n

(4) Define f : + ®  by
Then f :  ®  is a real-valued function on  and is
called a polynomial function. f (a) = a for all a Î +
(2) Define f :  ®  by This is a real-valued function defined on +. Here a
f (a) = ea for all a Î  stands for the positive square root of a.
46 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

We have earlier made use of the notation [x] to denote the largest integer ≤ x and called it the integral part of x.
Now, we shall formally define this concept before going on to prove certain important properties.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 37 For any real number x, the largest integer less than or equal to x is called the integral part of x
and in denoted by [x]. The real number x - [ x] is called the fractional part of x and is denoted
by { x }.

Note that, for any real number x, [x] is an integer and { x } is a real number such that
x = [ x] + {x} and 0 £ {x} < 1
Also, this expression of x is unique in the sense that, if n is an integer and a is a real number such that x = n + a
and 0 £ a < 1 , then n = [x] and a = {x}.

Examples
é5ù ì5ü 5 é - 11 ù ì - 11 ü 9
(1) ê ú = 0 and í ý = (4) ê ú = - 2 and í ý=
ë6û î6 þ 6 ë 10 û î 10 þ 10
(2) For any 0 £ a < 1, [a] = 0 and {a} = a
é 1ù ì -1 ü 3
(3) ê - ú = - 1 and í ý =
ë 4û î4þ 4

T H E O R E M 1 .35 The following hold for any real number x.


1. [x] £ x < [x] + 1
2. x - 1 < [x] £ x
3. 0 £ { x } = x - [x] < 1
4. [ x] = å 1£ i £ x i, if x > 0
5. [ x] = x Û x Î  Û {x} = 0
6. {x} = x if and only if [ x] = 0
ìï 0 if x is an integer
7. [ x] + [- x] = í
îï- 1 if x is not an integer
PROOF (1) through (6) are all straight-forward verifications using the definition that [x] is the largest
integer n such that n £ x and that x - [ x] = {x}.
To prove (7), let [ x] = n. Then n £ x < n + 1 and therefore
-n - 1 < -x £ -n

If x is an integer, then so is –x and hence [ x] + [-x] = x + (-x) = 0. If x is not an integer, then –x is


also not an integer and therefore
-n - 1 < -x -n
So [-x] = -n - 1 and hence [ x] + [-x] = n + (-n - 1) = -1. ■

Examples

é 9ù é9ù é 6 ù é -6 ù
(1) ê - ú + ê ú = - 2 + 1 = - 1 (3) ê ú + ê ú = 1 + (- 2) = - 1
ë 5û ë5û ë5û ë 5 û

(2) [- 3] + [3] = - 3 + 3 = 0 é -7 ù é 7 ù
(4) ê ú + ê ú = - 1 + 0 = - 1
ë 8 û ë8û
1.6 Functions 47

T H E O R E M 1 .36 The following hold for any real numbers x and y:


ìï[ x] + [ y] if {x} + { y} < 1
1. [ x + y] = í
îï[ x] + [ y] + 1 if {x} + {y} ³ 1
2. [ x + y] ³ [ x] + [ y] and equality holds if and only if {x} + { y} < 1
3. If x or y is an integer, then [ x + y] = [ x] + [ y]
PROOF 1. Let x = n + r and y = m + s, where n and m are integers, 0 £ r < 1 and 0 £ s < 1. Then [x] = n,
{ x } = r, [y] = m and {y} = s. Now,
x + y = [ x] + [ y] + ({x} + { y})
and 0 £ {x} + { y} < 2
Therefore
ìï[ x] + [ y] if {x} + { y} < 1
[ x + y] = í
ïî[ x] + [ y] + 1 if {x} + {y} ³ 1
2. This is a consequence of (1).
3. This is a consequence of (2) and the fact that x is an integer if and only if { x } = 0. ■

Examples

é8ù é9ù Note that


(1) ê ú + ê ú = 1 + 1 = 2
ë5û ë5û ì 7 ü ì 6 ü 3 1 19
í ý+ í ý = + = <1
é 8 9 ù é 17 ù é8ù é9ù î 4 þ î 5 þ 4 5 20
and êë 5 + 5 úû = êë 5 úû = 3 = êë 5 úû + êë 5 úû + 1
é8 ù é 23 ù é8ù
(3) ê + 5ú = ê ú = 7 = 2 + 5 = ê ú + [5]
Note that ë3 û ë3û ë3û
é 7 17 ù é 24 ù é 7 ù é 17 ù
ì8 ü ì9 ü 3 4 7 (4) ê + ú = ê ú = 4 = 1 + 2 + 1 = ê ú + ê ú + 1
í ý+ í ý = + = > 1 ë6 6 û ë 6 û ë6û ë 6 û
î5þ î5þ 5 5 5
Note that
é 7 6 ù é 51 ù é7ù é6ù
(2) ê + ú = ê ú = 2 = 1 + 1 = ê ú + ê ú ì 7 ü ì 17 ü 1 5
ë 4 5 û ë û
20 ë4û ë5û í ý+ í ý = + = 1
î6 þ î 6 þ 6 6

T H E O R E M 1 .37 The following hold for any real number x and any non-zero integer m:
é x ù é [ x] ù
1. ê ú = ê ú
ëmû ë m û
2. If n and k are positive integers and k > 1, then

é n ù é n + 1 ù é 2n ù
êë k úû + êë k úû £ êë k úû

PROOF 1. Let [x] = n. Then x = n + r, 0 £ r < 1 (where r = { x }). Let m > 0. By division algorithm, we have
n = qm + s, q, s Î  and 0£s<m
Alternately
n s s
=q+ , 0£ <1
m m m
48 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Therefore,
é [ x] ù é n ù
êë m úû = êë m úû = q

Also,
x n+r n r s+r
= = + = q+ , 0 £ s+r < s+1£ m
m m m m m
and therefore
éxù é [ x] ù
êë m úû = q = êë m úû

Similar technique proves this when m < 0 also.


2. Let n and k be positive integers and k > 1. Let
énù
êë k úû = m

Then
n
= m + r, 0 £ r < 1
k
Therefore
n+1 1 2n
= m+r + and = 2 m + 2r
k k k
Now,
é n ù é n + 1 ù ì2m if r + (1/ k ) < 1
êë k úû + êë k úû = í2 m + 1 if r + (1/ k ) ³ 1
î
é 2n ù ì2m if 2r < 1
and êë k úû = í2 m + 1 if 2r ³ 1
î
Note that, if r + (1/ k ) ³ 1, then 2r ³ 2 - (2/k ) ³ 1 (∵ k ³ 2). Thus
é n ù é n + 1 ù é 2n ù
êë k úû + êë k úû £ êë k úû

Examples
é 16 ù é 17 ù é 2 ´ 16 ù é 13 ù é 14 ù é 2 ´ 13 ù
(1) ê ú + ê ú = 0 + 0 = 0 < 1 = ê (3) ê ú + ê ú = 0 + 0 = 0 < 1 = ê
ë 25 û ë 25 û ë 25 úû ë 15 û ë 15 û ë 15 úû
é7ù é8ù é2 ´ 7ù é -21 ù é -21 + 1 ù é -21 ´ 2 ù
(2) ê ú + ê ú = 0 + 1 = 1 = ê (4) ê +ê = (-1) + (-1) = -2 = ê
ë8 û ë8û ë 8 úû ú
ë 29 û ë 29 û ú ë 29 úû

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 38 Let A be a subset of  and f : A ®  be a function. A positive real number p is called a period
of f if f (x) = f (x + p) whenever x and x + p Î A. A function with a period is called a periodic
function.

Note that, if p is a period of a function f :  ® , then np is also a period of f for any positive integer n, since for any x Î,
f ( x) = f ( x + p) = f ( x + 2 p) =
1.7 Graph of a Function 49

Examples

(1) Define the function f :  ®  by (3) The function f :  ® , defined by f (x) = c, for all
x Î, where c is a given constant, is a periodic func-
f ( x) = {x}, the fractional part of x tion. Infact, every positive real number is a period
Note that any real number x can be uniquely of this.
expressed as x = n + r, where n is an integer and (4) The function f :  ®  defined by
0 £ r < 1 and this r is the fractional part of x denoted
by {x} and this n is the integral part of x denoted by f (x) = [x] (the integral part of x)
[x]. If x = n + r, then x + 1 = (n + 1) + r and hence
is not a periodic function. Note that
f ( x) = {x} = {x + 1} = f ( x + 1)
[x + n] = [x] + n
for all x Î. Thus, 1 is a period of f and hence every
for all x Î and for all integers n.
positive integer n is a period of f. Therefore, f is a
periodic function.
(2) We will be learning later in Vol. II that functions like
sin x, cos x, cosec x, etc. are all periodic functions and
2p is a period of all these.

1.7 | Graph of a Function


A function f from a set A into a set B is a relation from A to B; that is, f Í A ´ B and hence it can be represented as
a subset of the Cartesian product A ´ B graphically. In particular, when the function is a real-valued function defined
on the real number system or a subset of , we can plot the point (a, f (a)) on the coordinate plane by treating the
x-axis as the domain and the y-axis as the co-domain of the function. This type of representation facilitates a better
insight into understanding various properties of the function. First, let us have the formal definition of the graph in
the following.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 39 Graph of a Function Let f : A ® B be a function. Then the graph of f is defined as the set
of all ordered pairs whose first coordinate is an element a of A and the second coordinate is
the image of a under f. This is denoted by Graph ( f ). That is,

Graph ( f ) = {(a, f (a)) | a Î A}

Note that the graph of a function f : A ® B is a subset of the Cartesian product A ´ B. For each a Î A, there is exactly
one ordered pair in Graph ( f ) with a as the first coordinate. In the following, we shall provide graphs of certain
important functions and draw diagrams of these.

Example 1.28

Let f :  ®  be defined by f(x) = x for all x Î. (Recall Y=


that f is called the identity function on  and is denoted
by IR .) What is the graph of f ? Sketch the same.
b (b, b)
Solution: The graph of f is

{(a, f (a)) | a Î } = {(a, a) | a Î } a


(a, a)
This is known as the diagonal relation on . As shown in
Figure 1.30, it is a straight line passing through the origin, X=
contained in the first and third quadrants and bisecting O a b
the right angle XOY.
FIGURE 1.30 Example 1.28.
50 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.29

For any given real numbers m and c, let us define the Y=
function f :  ®  by
f (x) = mx + c for all x Î
Sketch the graph of the same.
Solution: The graph of f is
{(x, mx + c) | x Î} (0, c)

As shown in Figure 1.31, this is a straight line whose


X=
slope is m and the intercept on the y-axis is c. If we take O
m = 1 and c = 0, we get the identity function given in
Example 1.28.
FIGURE 1.31 Example 1.29.

Example 1.30

Sketch the graph for m = 0 in Example 1.29. Y=

Solution: If m = 0 in Example 1.29, then we get


f (x) = c for all x Î
This is called the constant function with image c. (0, c)
The graph of f is a straight line parallel to the x-axis
(Figure 1.32). X=
O

FIGURE 1.32 Example 1.30.

Example 1.31

Define f :  ®  by Y=

f (x) = | x | for all x Î


y=

x
y=
-x

Sketch the graph of f.

Solution: The given function is


X⬘ X=
ìï x if x ³ 0 O
f ( x) = í
îï- x if x < 0
The graph of f is
{( x, x)| x ³ 0} È {( x, - x)| x < 0}
FIGURE 1.33 Example 1.31.
This is the combination of two straight lines: one passing
and contained in the
through the origin, bisecting XOY
first quadrant and the second passing through the origin,
and contained in the second quadrant
bisecting X ¢OY
(Figure 1.33).
1.7 Graph of a Function 51

Example 1.32

Let f :  ®  be defined by f(x) = [x] for all x Î, where Y= 


[x] is the largest integer ≤ x. For example
æ 1ö
f ç 1 ÷ = 1, f (-2.5) = - 3, f (2.5) = 2
è 2ø
f (2) = 2, f (-4.2) = - 5, f (5.01) = 5
X =
O
f (3.9) = 3, f (-8.9) = - 9, f (-6.01) = - 7
Sketch the graph of f.

Solution: The graph of f is ∪ nÎ ([n, n + 1) ´ {n}) and


is given in Figure 1.34. This function is called the step
function. The graph of f restricted to an interval [n, n + 1), FIGURE 1.34 Example 1.32.
with n an integer, is a line segment parallel to the x-axis.

Example 1.33

Let f :  ®  be defined by This function is called the signum function. The graph
of this f is in three parts: one is the line y = 1 which is
ì 0 if x = 0 parallel to x-axis and contained in the first quadrant;
ï
f ( x) = í | x | the second is the origin (0, 0) and the third is the line
ï if x ¹ 0 y = –1 which is parallel to the x-axis and contained in the
îx third quadrant (Figure 1.35).
Sketch the graph of this function. Y=

Solution: We have
y =1
ì 0 if x = 0
ï
f ( x) = í | x |
ï if x ¹ 0 X=
îx O
y = -1
Then
ì-1 if x < 0
ï
f ( x) = í 0 if x = 0
ï
î 1 if x > 0 FIGURE 1.35 Example 1.33.

Example 1.34

Let f :  ®  be defined by Y =

ì1 - x if x < 0
ï
f ( x) = í 1 if x = 0
ï
î1 + x if x > 0 M L
P ( 0, 1 )
Sketch the graph for this function.
O X =
Solution: Note that f (x) = 1 + | x | for all x Î. The graph
of f is given by
FIGURE 1.36 Example 1.34.
{( x, 1 + x) x > 0} È {(0, 1)} È {( x, 1 - x)| x < 0}
52 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

This is in three parts: one is the straight line bisecting bisecting MPY and contained in the second quadrant
and contained in the first quadrant, the second
LPY (Figure 1.36).
is the point P = (0, 1) and the third is the straight line

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 40 Let A be a subset of  and f : A ®  be a function. Then we say that f is increasing if
f (x) £ f (y) whenever x £ y. f is said to be decreasing if f (x) ³ f (y) whenever x £ y.

Example 1.35

Let 1 < a Î and define f :  ®  by f (x) = ax for all x Î. Y =


Sketch the graph of f.

Solution: Since a > 1, f is an increasing function.


The graph of f is a curve which goes upward when x y = a x, a > 1
increases [i.e., f (x) increases when x increases] and goes
downwards when x decreases [i.e., f (x) decreases when
x decreases]. Also, since a > 1, a is positive and hence
ax is positive for all x. This implies that the graph of (0, 1)
f (x) = ax is contained in the first and second quadrants
X =
(Figure 1.37). O

FIGURE 1.37 Example 1.35.

Example 1.36

Let 0 < a < 1 and define f :  ®  by f (x) = ax for all x Î. y = a x, 0 < a < 1 Y =
Sketch the graph of f. Here, f(x) decreases as x increases
(since 0 < a < 1) and hence f is a decreasing function. The
graph of f is the curve shown in Figure 1.38. The curve
cuts the y-axis at (0, 1). Also, since a > 0, ax > 0 for all
x Î. Therefore, the graph of f is contained in the first
and second quadrants only.

(0, 1)

X =
O

FIGURE 1.38 Example 1.36.

Example 1.37

Let f :  ®  be a periodic function with a period p. Y= 


What would the graph of this function look like?

Solution: In this case, the graph of f between the lines


x = 0 and x = p is similar to that between the lines x = p X= 
and x = 2p. For example, consider the function f :  ®  -2 -1 0 1 2 3
defined by
f (x) = {x}, the fractional part of x
This is a periodic function with 1 as a period. The graph FIGURE 1.39 Example 1.37.
of this function is as shown in Figure 1.39. Note that
0 £ f (x) < 1 for all real numbers x.
1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions 53

1.8 | Even Functions and Odd Functions


If we consider the function f :  ®  defined by f (x) = x2, then we have f (x) = f (-x). Functions satisfying this property
are called even functions. If f is a real-valued function such that f (x) = -f (x) for all x, then f is called an odd function.
In this section we discuss certain elementary properties of even and odd functions. We shall begin with a formal defini-
tion in the following.

Even Functions
DEF IN IT ION 1 . 41 Symmetric Set A subset X of the real number system  is said to be a symmetric set if
x Î X Û -x Î X

Examples

(1) The interval [–1, 1] is a symmetric set, since -1 £ x £ 1 (4) The sets {0}, {–1, 1}, {–1, 0, 1} are symmetric.
if and only if -1 £ -x £ 1. (5) [-2, -1] È [1, 2] is a symmetric set.
(2) The interval [0, 1] is not symmetric.
(3) The set  of integers, the set  of rational numbers
and the whole set  are all symmetric sets.

DEF IN IT ION 1 . 42 Even Function Let X be a symmetric set and f : X ®  a function. Then f is said to be an
even function if
f (-x) = f (x) for all x Î X

Examples

(1) If f :  ®  is the function defined by f (x) = x 2 for all (3) Any constant function f :  ®  is even, that is, for
x Î, then f is an even function, since, for any x Î, any c Î, the function f :  ® , defined by f (x) = c
for all x Î, is even.
f (-x) = (-x)2 = x2 = f (x)
(4) The function f : [-p, p] ® , defined by f (x) = cos x
(2) The function f :  ® , defined by f (x) = | x | for all for all -p £ x £ p, is an even function, since cos(-x) =
x Î, is even, since cos x.
f (-x) = | -x | = | x | = f (x) for all x Î

Graphs of Even Functions


The graph of an even function is symmetric about the y-axis, in the sense that, when y-axis is assumed as plane mirror, the
graph in the left part is the image of the right part. Equivalently, if the graph is rotated through 180o about the y-axis, we
get the appearance of the graph as original. Figure 1.40 shows the graphs of the even functions given in the example above.

Odd Functions

DE F IN IT ION 1 . 41 Odd Function Let X be a symmetric set. A function f : X ®  is said to be an odd function if
f (-x) = - f (x) for all x Î X
54 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Y= Y=

O X= O X=
(a) (b)

Y= Y=

(0, 1)

X=
(0, 0)
(0, c)
(0, -1)

O X=
(c) (d)
FIGURE 1.40 Graphs of the functions: (a) f (x) = x ; (b) f (x) = | x |; (c) f (x) = c; (d) f (x) = cos x.
2

Examples

(1) The identity function f :  ® , defined by f (x) = x (3) Define f : [-p, p] ®  by f (x) = sin x for all -p £ x £
for all x Î, is an odd function, since f (-x) = -x = p. Then f is an odd function, since f (-x) = sin(-x) =
-f (x) for all x Î. -sin x = -f (x) for all x Î[-p, p].
(2) In general, for any integer n, the function f :  ® , (4) Define f : (-p / 2, p / 2) ®  by f (x) = tan x for all
defined by f (x) = x2n+1, is an odd function, since -p / 2 < x < p / 2. Then f is an odd function, since
f (-x) = (-x)2n+1 = -x2n+1 = -f (x) for all x Î. tan(-x) = -tan x for all x Î(-p / 2, p / 2).

Note: If f is an odd function defined on a symmetric set S containing 0, then necessarily f (0) = 0, for f (0) = f (-0) = -f (0).
Hence 2 f (0) = 0, so that f (0) = 0.

Graphs of Odd Functions


The graph of an odd function is symmetric about the origin. If the graph is rotated through 180o, either clockwise or
anticlockwise, about the origin, the resulting figure gives the same appearance as original. Figure 1.41 gives the graphs
of the odd functions given in the above example.
1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions 55

Y Y

X X
O O

(a) (b)

( p /2, 1)

X
p -p /2 0 p /2 p

( -p /2, 1)

(c)

X
-p /2 0 p /2

(d)
FIGURE 1.41 Graphs of the functions: (a) f ( x) = x; (b) f ( x) = x3 ; (c) f(x) = sin x; (d) f(x) = tan x.
56 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Remark: Unlike in integers, a function can be neither even nor odd. For example, consider the function f :  ® 
defined by f (x) = x2 + x + 1 for all x Î . Then f (-1) = 1 and f (1) = 3 and hence
f (–1) ¹ f (1) and f(–1) ¹ – f (1)
Therefore f is neither even nor odd. Next, note that a function f is both even and odd if and only if f ( x) = 0 for all x.

Examples

(1) Define f :  ®  by f (x) = ex + e-x for all x Î . Then = 4 1 + x3 - 4 1 - x3


f (-x) = e-x + e-(-x) = ex + e-x = f (x) for all x Î  and
therefore f is an even function. = - ( 4 1 - x3 - 4 1 + x3 )
(2) Define f : [-1, 1] ®  by f ( x) = 4 1 - x3 - 4 1 + x3 for = - f ( x)
all -1 £ x £ 1. Then
for all x Î[-1, 1]. Therefore f is an odd function.
f (- x) = 1 - (- x) - 1 + (- x)
4 3 4 3

T H E O R E M 1 .38 Let X be a symmetric set and f and g functions of X into . Then, the product fg is an even function
if both f and g are even or both f and g are odd.
PROOF Suppose that both f and g are even functions. Then, for any x Î X, we have
( fg )( x) = f ( x)g( x) = f (- x)g(- x) = ( fg )(- x)
and hence fg is an even function. One the other hand, suppose that both f and g are odd functions.
Then, for any x Î X, we have
( fg)(- x) = f (- x)g(- x) = (- f ( x))(- g( x)) = f ( x)g( x) = ( fg)( x)
and therefore fg is an even function. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .39 For any real-valued functions f and g defined on a symmetric set X, the product fg is an odd
function if one of f and g is odd and the other is even.
PROOF Note that fg = gf, since rs = sr for any real numbers r and s. Without loss of generality, we can
suppose that f is even and g is odd. Then, for any x Î X, we have
( fg )(- x) = f (- x)g(- x) = f ( x)(- g( x)) = -( f ( x)g( x)) = -( fg )( x)
Therefore fg is an odd function. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .40 Let f be a real-valued function on a symmetric set X. Then the following hold:
1. f is even if and only if af is even for any 0 ¹ a Î .
2. f is odd if and only if af is odd for any 0 ¹ a Î .
3. f is even (odd) if and only if –f is even (odd).
PROOF 1. Let us recall that for any a Î  the function af is defined by (af )(x) = af (x) for all x Î X. Suppose
that f is even. Then, for any a Î  and x Î X,
(af )(-x) = af (-x) = af (x) = (af )(x)
and hence af is even. Conversely, suppose that 0 ¹ a Î  such that af is even. Then, for any x Î X,
we have
af (- x) = (af )(- x) = (af )(x) = af (x)
Now, since a ¹ 0, f (-x) = f (x). Therefore, f is even.
1.8 Even Functions and Odd Functions 57

2. It can be proved similarly.


3. It is a simple consequence of (1) and (2); take a = 1 in (1) and (2). ■

T H E O R E M 1 .41 If f and g are even (odd), then so is f ± g.


PROOF Suppose that f and g are even. Then, for any x Î X, we have
( f + g )(- x) = f (- x) + g(- x) = f ( x) + g( x) = ( f + g )( x)
Therefore f + g is even. This together with the above theorem implies that f - g is also even.
Similarly, we can prove that, if f and g odd, then so is f ± g. ■

T H E O R E M 1 .42 Any function can be expressed as a sum of an even function and an odd function.

PROOF Let f : X ®  be a function whose domain X is a symmetric set. Define g : X ®  and h : X ®  by

f ( x) + f (- x) f ( x) - f (- x)
g( x) = and h( x) =
2 2
for all x Î X . Then
f (- x) + f (-(- x)) f ( x) + f (- x)
g(- x) = = = g( x)
2 2
f (- x) = f (-(- x)) f (- x) - f ( x)
and h(- x) = = = - h( x)
2 2
for all x Î X . Therefore, g is an even function and h is an odd function. Also, for any x Î X,
f ( x) + f (- x) f ( x) - f (- x)
g( x) + h( x) = + = f ( x)
2 2
and hence f = g + h. ■

Note: The above representation of f is unique in the sense that if g + h = f = a + b, where g and a are even and h and
b are odd, then g = a and h = b; for, in this case g - a = b - h, which is both even and odd. Therefore, g - a = 0 = b - h
or g = a and h = b.
The unique functions g and h given in the proof of Theorem 1.42 are called the even extension of f and odd
extension of f, respectively.

Examples

(1) Let f :  ®  be defined by Then g is even, h is odd and f = g + h. Note that

f ( x) = x2 + 2 x + 1 = ( x + 1)2 f ( x) + f (- x) f ( x) - f (- x)
= g( x) and = h( x)
2 2
Note that f is neither even nor odd, since
(2) Consider the function f :  ®  defined by
f (-1) = (-1)2 + 2(-1) + 1 = 0
f (x) = ex for all x Î
and f (1) = (1)2 + 2(1) + 1 = 4
Then f = g + h, where
Therefore f (-1) ¹ f (1) and f (-1) ¹ -f (1). However,
consider the functions g and h defined by ex + e- x ex - e- x
g( x) = and h( x) =
2 2
g(x) = x2 + 1 and h(x) = 2x
Note that g is even and h is odd.
58 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example 1.38

Determine the even and odd extensions of the function and the odd extension of f is given by
f :  ®  given by f (x) = e-x.
f ( x) - f (- x) e- x - ex
h( x) = =
Solution: The even extension of f is given by 2 2

f ( x) + f (- x) e- x + ex
g( x) = =
2 2

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. If A is the set of positive divisors of 20, B is the set of Therefore,
all prime numbers less than 15 and C is the set of all
A6 Ç A10 = A30
positive even integers less than 11, then (A Ç B) È C is
(A) {2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10} (B) {2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10} since LCM {6, 10} = 30.
(C) {2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10} (D) {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} Answer: (C)

Solution: It is given that 4. Let A = {a, b, c, d} and B = {a, b, c}. Then the number
A = {1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 20} of sets X contained in A and not contained in B is
B = {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13} (A) 8 (B) 6 (C) 16 (D) 12
C = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} Solution: If X Í A and X Í B, then necessarily d Î X
Í A and hence X = Y È { d }, where Y is any subset of
Therefore
B. The number of subsets of B is 23 and therefore the
A Ç B = {2, 5} and ( A Ç B) È C = {2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} required number is 8.
Answer: (A)
Answer: (D)
5. Let A, B and C be three sets and X be the set of all
2. Which of the following sets is empty?
elements which belong to exactly two of the sets A, B
(A) { x Î  | x2 = 9 and 2x = 6} and C. Then X is equal to
(B) { x Î  | x2 = 9 and 2x = 4} (A) ( A Ç B) È ( B Ç C ) È (C Ç A)
(C) { x Î  | x + 4 = 4} (B) A D ( B D C )
(D) { x Î  | 2x + 1 = 3} (C) ( A È B) Ç ( B È C ) Ç (C È A)
Solution: We have x2 = 9 only if x = ±3. For this value (D) ( A È B È C ) - [ A D ( B D C )]
of x the equation 2x = 4 is not satisfied. Sets in (A), (B),
Solution: We have
and (D) are non-empty.
Answer: (B) x Î X Û x Î A Ç B and x ÏC
or x Î B Ç C and x ÏA
3. For each positive integer n, let
or x ÎC Ç A and x ÏB
An = The set of all positive multiples of n
Therefore
Then A6 Ç A10 is
X = [(A Ç B) - C] È [(B Ç C) - A] È [(C Ç A) - B]
(A) A10 (B) A20 (C) A30 (D) A60
= ( A È B È C ) - [ A D ( B D C )]
Solution: Given that An = {a Î + | n divides a}. Now
since
a Î An Ç Am Û Both n and m divide a
Û The LCM of {n, m} divides a A D ( B D C ) = ( Ac Ç Bc Ç C ) È ( A Ç Bc Ç C c ) È
Û a Î Ar , where r = LCM {n, m} ( Ac Ç B Ç C c ) È ( A Ç B Ç C )
Answer: (D)
Worked-Out Problems 59

6. Let Ã( x) denote the power set of X. If A = {a, b, c, d, e} 10. Let S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} and A = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Then
and B = {a, c, d, x, y}, then Ã( A Ç B) = the number of subsets B of S such that A D B = {5} is
(A) {f , {a, c}, {c, d}, {a, c, d}, {a}, {c}, {d}} (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0
(B) {f , {a}, {c}, {a, c}, {c, d}, {a, d}, {a, c, d}} Solution: For any subsets X, Y and Z of S, we have
(C) Ã( A È B) X D X = f, X D f = X
(D) Ã( A) Ç Ã( B)
and X DY =Z ÛY = X D Z
Solution: We have X Í A Ç B Û X Í A and X Í B.
Now,
Answer: (D)
A D B = {5} Û B = A D {5} = {2, 3, 4, 6}
7. Let A and B be finite sets with n(A) = m and n(B) = n.
Answer: (A)
If the number of elements in Ã(A) is 56 more than
those in Ã(B), then
11. Let A, B and C be finite sets such that A Ç B Ç C = f
(A) m = 6, n = 4 and each one of the sets A D B, B D C and C D A has
(B) m = 6, n = 3 100 elements. The number of elements in A È B È C is
(C) m = 7, n = 4 (A) 250 (B) 200 (C) 150 (D) 300
(D) m = 5, n = 3 Solution: Let n(X ) denote the number of elements in X.
Solution: It is given that Then,
n( A È B È C ) = n( A) + n( B) + n(C ) - n( A Ç B)
n(Ã( A)) = 2m = 56 + n(Ã( B)) = 56 + 2n
- n( B Ç C ) - n(C Ç A) + n( A Ç B Ç C )
Now 2m - 2n = 56 and m > n. Hence we get
= å n( A) - å n( A Ç B)
2n (2m - n - 1) = 56 = 8 ´ 7 = 23 (23 - 1)
(since A Ç B Ç C = f )
Therefore n = 3 and m - n = 3 and hence m = 6 and n = 3.
Answer: (B) Now,
A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A) = ( A È B) - ( A Ç B)
8. If A and B are two subsets of a universal set X, then
Ac - Bc = Therefore
(A) A - B (B) (A - B) c
n( A D B) = n( A È B) - n( A Ç B)
(C) B Ç Ac (D) (B - A)c = n( A) + n( B) - 2 n( A Ç B)
Solution: We have and
A - Bc = Ac Ç ( Bc )c = Ac Ç B = B Ç Ac
c
300 = å n( A D B) = å [n( A) + n( B) - 2 n( A Ç B)]
Answer: (C)
= 2 éë å n( A) - å n( A Ç B)ùû
9. If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {1, 2, 5, 6}, C = {2, 7, 8, 9} and
D = {2, 4, 8, 9}, then (A D B) D (C D D) = Therefore
(A) {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} (B) {3, 4, 5, 7} n( A È B È C ) = å n( A) - å n( A Ç B) = 300/2 = 150
(C) {3, 5, 7, 8} (D) {3, 5, 6, 7}
Answer: (C)
Solution: We have Alternate Method
A D B = ( A - B) È ( B - A) = {3, 4, 5, 6} Draw the Venn diagram as follows:

C D D = (C - D) È (D - C ) = {7, 4} A B

and ( A D B) D (C D D) = ( A D B) - (C D D) a x b

È [(C D D) - ( A D B)]
z y
= {3, 5, 6} È {7} = {3, 5, 6, 7}}
Answer: (D) c
C
60 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

The shaded part is A Ç B Ç C which is given to be empty. with n + 1 elements, n > 0. If A is a non-empty subset of
Let a, b, c denote n[A – (B È C )], n[B – (C È A)], n[C – æ n + 1ö
X with K-elements (such sets are ç in number),
(A È B)] respectively. Let x, y, z denote the number è K ÷ø
of elements in (A Ç B) - C, (B Ç C) - A, (C Ç A) - B then the number of partitions of the set X - A is P( n + 1) - K .
respectively. Then For each f ¹ A Í X and for each partition of X - A,
we get a partition of X. Conversely, any partition of X
n( A È B È C ) = a + b + c + x + y + z
corresponds to a non-empty subset A of X and a parti-
We are given that tion of X - A. Therefore

100 = n( A D B) = (a + z) + (b + y)
n+1
æ n + 1ö n
æ nö
P( n + 1) = å çè
K =1 K ÷
ø
P( n + 1) - K = å ç ÷ Pr
r =0 è r ø
100 = n( B D C ) = (b + x) + (c + z)
Answer: (C)
and 100 = n(C D A) = (c + y) + (a + x)
Note: If n is a positive integer and 0 £ r £ n is an integer,
Adding the above three, we get that æ nö
then ç ÷ denotes the number of selections of n distinct
è rø
300 = 2(a + b + c) + 2( x + y + z) = 2 n( A È B È C )
objects taken r at a time (see Chapter 6).
and hence n( A È B È C ) = 150.
14. The number of equivalence relations on a five element
Answer: (C)
set is
12. Let n be a positive integer and (A) 32 (B) 42 (C) 50 (D) 52
R = {(a, b) Î  ´  | a - b = nm for some 0 ¹ m Î } Solution: Note that equivalence relations and partitions
are same in number. By Problem 13, we have
Then R is
(A) Reflexive on 
4
æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö
P5 = å ç ÷ Pr = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 + ç ÷ P3 + ç ÷ P4
(B) Symmetric r=0 è rø è 0ø è 1ø è 2ø è 3ø è 4ø
(C) Transitive Now,
(D) Equivalence relation on  æ 1ö æ 1ö
P0 = 1, P1 = 1, P2 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 = 1 + 1 = 2
Solution: R is not reflexive, since (2, 2) ÏR. R is sym- è 0ø è 1ø
metric, since
æ 2ö æ 2ö æ 2ö
(a, b) Î R Þ a - b = nm for some 0 ¹ m Î  P3 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 = 1 + 2 × 1 + 1× 2 = 5
è 0ø è 1ø è 2ø
Þ b - a = n(- m) and 0 ¹ - m Î 
æ 3ö æ 3ö æ 3ö æ 3ö
P4 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 + ç ÷ P3
Þ (b, a) Î R è ø
0 è ø
1 è ø
2 è 3ø
R is not transitive, since (2, n + 2) ÎR and (n + 2, 2) Î R, = 1× 1 + 3× 1 + 3× 2 + 1× 5 = 15
but (2, 2) ÏR.
æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö æ 4ö
Answer: (B) P5 = ç ÷ P0 + ç ÷ P1 + ç ÷ P2 + ç ÷ P3 + ç ÷ P4
è 0ø è 1øø è 2ø è 3ø è 4ø
13. Let P0 = 1 and Pn be the number of partitions on = 1× 1 + 4 × 1 + 6 × 2 + 4 × 5 + 1× 155 = 52
a finite set with n elements. For n ≥ 1, a recursion
formula for Pn is given by Answer: (D)

(A) Pn = Pn - 1 + Pn - 2 for n ≥ 2 15. Which one of the following represents a function?


n-1
æ n - 1ö (A)
(B) Pn = å ç P
r =1 è r ÷ø r 1 a

n
æ nö 2 b
(C) Pn + 1 = å ç ÷ Pr
r =0 è r ø 3 c
(D) Pn + 1 = Pn + nPn - 1 4 d
Solution: We are given that P0 = 1. If X is a set with
only one element, then clearly P1 = 1. Now, let X be a set
Worked-Out Problems 61

(B) 17. Let f :  ®  be the function defined by


1 a
ì x2 - 4 x + 3 if x < 2
f ( x) = í
2 b îx - 3 if x ³ 2

3 c Then number of real numbers x for which f ( x) = 3 is


(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
4 d
Solution: We have
x < 2 and f ( x) = 3 Þ x2 - 4 x + 3 = 3
(C)
Þ x ( x - 4) = 0
1 a
Þ x = 0 (since x < 2)
2 b
Also x ³ 2 and f ( x) = 3 Þ x - 3 = 3 Þ x = 6. Therefore,
3 c only x = 0 or 6 satisfy f ( x) = 3.
4 d
Answer: (B)

18. Let

(D) ax
f ( x) = for x ¹ -1
1 a x+1

2 b Then the value of a such that ( f f )( x) = x for all


x ¹ -1 is
3 c (A) -1 (B) 2 (C) - 2 (D) 1
4 d Solution: We have
æ ax ö a[ax /( x + 1)]
x = ( f f )( x) = f ç ÷ =
Solution: In (A), 3 ® b and 3 ® d. It does not represent è x + 1ø [ax /( x + 1)] + 1
a function, since one element in the domain cannot be
Therefore
sent to two elements in the codomain. Similarly (B) and
(C) do not represent functions. But (D) represents a func- a2 x
x= for all x ¹ - 1
tion f, where f (1) = a, f (2) = b, f (3) = b and f (4) = d. ax + x + 1
Answer: (D)
(a + 1) x2 + (1 - a2 ) x = 0 for all x ¹ -1
16. Let A be the set of all men living in a town. Which This is a quadratic equation which is satisfied by more
one of the following relations is a function from than two values of x (infact, for all x ¹ -1). Therefore, the
A to A? coefficients of x2 and x must be both zero. Hence
(A) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | b is the son of a} a + 1 = 0 and 1 - a2 = 0
(B) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | b is the father of a}
and so
(C) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | a and b are same}
a = -1
(D) {(a, b) Î A ´ A | a is the grandfather of b}
Answer: (A)
Solution: Here (B) is not a function, since for any a Î A,
there should be exactly one b such that b is the father 19. If f (x) is a polynomial function satisfying the relation
of a. Then again there should be c Î A such that c is the
æ 1ö æ 1ö
father of b and so on. This chain breaks at some stage, f ( x) + f ç ÷ = f ( x) f ç ÷ for all x ¹ 0
where there is man a whose father is not in that town. è xø è xø
Therefore, not every element in A has an image. In (A) and f (4) = 65, then f (2) =
and (D) an element can have more than one images and
(A) 7 (B) 4 (C) 9 (D) 6
hence they do not represent a function. However, (C) is a
function; in fact, it is the identity function on A. Solution: Since f (4) = 65, f (x) must be a non-zero poly-
Answer: (C) nomial. Let
f ( x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an xn, an ¹ 0
62 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Suppose that 9x 9
= +
æ 1ö æ 1ö 9 + 3 3(3 + 9x )
x

f ( x) + f ç ÷ = f ( x) f ç ÷ for all x ¹ 0
è xø è xø 3 × 9x + 9
= =1
Then 3(3 + 9x )

n n
ar æ n öæ n a ö Therefore,
åa x + å x
r
r
r
= ç å ar xr ÷ ç å rr ÷
è r=0 ø è r=0 x ø
r=0 r=0 2008
æ r ö é æ 1 ö æ 2008 ö ù
n
å f çè 2009 ÷ø = êë f çè 2009 ÷ø + f çè 2009 ÷ø úû + …
r =1
Multiplying throughout by x , we get that
æ n öæ n ö
1004
é æ r ö æ 2009 - r ö ù
å êë f çè 2009 ÷ø + çè
n n
=
å
r=0
ar xn + r + å ar xn - r = ç å ar xr ÷ ç å ar xn - r ÷
r=0 è r=0 ø è r=0 ø r =1
÷
2009 ø úû

æ r ö æ r ö
1004
That is, = å f çè 2009 ÷ø + f çè 1 - 2009 ÷ø
r =1
(a0 xn + a1 xn + 1 + + an x2 n ) + (a0 xn + a1 xn - 1 + + an - 1 x + an ) 1004

= (a0 + a1 x + + an x )(a0 x + a1 x n n n-1


+ + an - 1 x + an )
= å 1 = 1004
r =1

Equating the corresponding coefficients of powers of x, Answer: (A)


we have
Note: If a is any positive integer and f ( x) = a2 x/(a2 x + a),
an = a0 an, an - 1 = a0 an - 1 + a1an
then
an - 2 = a2 an + a1an - 1 + an - 2 a0
f ( x) + f (1 - x) = 1
2a0 = a02 + an2
21. Let [x] and { x } denote the integral part and fractional
an = a0 an Þ a0 = 1 (since an ¹ 0) part of x, respectively. Then the number of solutions
an - 1 = a0 an - 1 + a1an Þ a1an = 0 Þ a1 = 0 of the equation 4{ x } = x + [x] is
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) infinite
an - 2 = a2 an + a1an - 1 + an - 2 a0 Þ an - 2 = a2 an + an - 2 Þ a2 = 0
Solution: Let 4{ x } = x + [x] = 2[ x ] + { x }. Therefore 3{ x }
Continuing this process, we get that an- 1 = 0 and 2 = 1 + an2 . = 2[x]. Since 0 £ { x } < 1, we have 0 £ 3{ x } < 3 and there-
Hence an = ±1. Therefore fore 0 £ 2{ x } < 3. Since 2[x] is even integer,
f ( x) = 1 ± xn 2
[ x] = 0 or 1 and {x} = 0 or
Since we are given that f (4) = 65 we have 3

65 = 1 ± 4n Therefore

Therefore f (x) cannot be 1 - xn. Thus, f (x) = 1 + xn and x = 0 or [ x] = 1


65 = 1 + 4n and hence n = 3. So f (x) = 1 + x3 and f (2) = 9. æ 2ö
x = 0 or 4 ç ÷ = x + 1
Answer: (C) è 3ø
5
20. Let f ( x) = 9 /(9 + 3 ) for all x Î. Then the value of
x x x = 0 or
3
å
2008
r =1
f (r / 2009) is Answer: (B)
(A) 1004 (B) 1005 (C) 1004.5 (D) 1005.5
22. If the function f :  ®  satisfies the relation f (x) +
Solution: Consider f (x + 4) = f (x + 2) + f (x + 6) for all x Î, then a period
of f is
9x 91- x
f ( x) + f (1 - x) = + 1- x (A) 3 (B) 7 (C) 5 (D) 8
9 +3 9 +3
x

Solution: The given relation is


9x 9
= +
9 + 3 9 + 3 × 9x
x f ( x) + f ( x + 4) = f ( x + 2) + f ( x + 6) (1.3)
Worked-Out Problems 63

Replacing x with x - 2, we get that Therefore

f ( x - 2) + f ( x + 2) = f ( x) + f ( x + 4) (1.4) [ f ( x + a) - 1]2 = 2 f ( x) - [ f ( x)] 2 (1.5)

From Eqs. (1.3) and (1.4) we get Replacing x with x + a, we get


[ f (x + 2a) - 1]2 = 2f (x + a) - [ f (x + a)]2
f ( x - 2) = f ( x + 6) for all x Î 
or f ( x) = f ( x + 8) for all x Î  = -[ f ( x + a) - 1]2 + 1
= -[2 f ( x) - { f ( x)}2 ] + 1 [by Eq. (1.5)]
Answer: (D)
= [ f ( x) - 1] 2

23. Let A =  ´ ,  the real number system and Therefore,


R = {(( x, y), (a, b)) Î A ´ A | either x < a f ( x + 2a) - 1 = f ( x) - 1 [since f ( x + a), f ( x) ³ 1]
or x = a and y > b} f ( x + 2a) = f ( x) for all x Î 
Then which one of the following is true, if ((x, y), Thus 2a is a period of f.
(a, b)) Î R and ((a, b), ( p, q)) Î R? Answer: (A)
(A) (( x, y), ( p, q)) ÎR (B) (( x, y), (q, p)) ÎR
(C) (( x, y), ( y, q)) ÎR (D) (( y, x), ( p, q)) ÎR 25. The range of the function f defined by

Solution: Suppose that ((x, y), (a, b)), ((a, b), (p, q)) Î R. ex - e | x|
f ( x) =
Then ex + e | x|
either x < a or x = a and y > b is
and either a < p or a = p and b > q (A) [0, 1] (B) (–1, 0] (C) (0, 1) (D) [–1, 0]
If x < a and a < p, then x < p and hence ((x, y), (p, q)) Î R. Solution: Here f (x) is defined for all real x, since
Same is the case when x < a and a = p and also when x = a ex + e | x| ¹ 0 for all x Î . Also
and a < p. If x = a, y > b, a = p and b > q, then x = p and
ì0 for x ³ 0
y > b > q. Therefore ((x, y), (p, q)) Î R. ï x -x
f ( x) = í e - e e -1
2x

ï ex + e- x = e2 x + 1 for x < 0
Answer: (A)
î
24. Let a be a positive real number and f : ®  a func- Therefore
tion such that
2
f ( x + a) = 1 + 2 f ( x) - f 2 ( x) for all x Î  f ( x) = 1 - for all x < 0
e2 x + 1
Then a period of f is
For x < 0,
(A) 2a (B) 3a (C) 4a (D) 5a
2
Solution: Given f ( x + a) = 1 + 2 f ( x) - f 2( x) for all y = f ( x) Û 0 ³ y = 1 - > -1
e2 x + 1
x Î . Replacing x with x - a we get
From this it follows that the range of f is (–1, 0].
f ( x) = 1 + 2 f ( x - a) - ( f ( x - a)) and 1 £ f ( x) £ 2
2
Answer: (B)

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. Let A and B be two sets. If X is any set such that = ( B Ç A) È ( X Ç A)
A Ç X = B Ç X and A È X = B È X , then
= ( B Ç A) È ( X Ç B)
(A) B Í A (B) A Í B (C) A = B (D) A D B = f
= B Ç (A È X )
Solution: We have
= B Ç (B È X ) = B
A = (A È X ) Ç A Therefore A = B and hence all are correct answers.
= (B È X ) Ç A Answers: (A), (B), (C) and (D)
64 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

2. S is a set and the Cartesian product S ´ S has 9 elem- - x2 [{ f ( x)/ x2 } + 1]


ents of which two elements are (-2, 1) and (1, 2). Then = +1
( x + 1)2
(A) (2, - 2) Î S ´ S (B) (-2, - 2) Î S ´ S
-[ f ( x) + x2 ]
(C) (-2, 2) Ï S ´ S (D) S = {-2, 1, 2} = +1
( x + 1)2
Solution: S ´ S has 9 = 32 elements and hence S must
have 3 elements. Since (-2, 1) and (1, 2) Î S ´ S, we have Therefore
-2, 1, 2 Î S and therefore S = {-2, 1, 2}. Therefore (2, æ 1 ö ( x + 1)2 - x2 - f ( x)
-2) Î S ´ S and (-2, -2) Î S ´ S. fç = (1.7)
è x + 1÷ø ( x + 1)2
Answers: (A), (B) and (D)
From Eqs. (1.6) and (1.7), we get
3. Let f :  ®  be a function satisfying the following:
f ( x) + 1 = ( x + 1)2 - x2 - f ( x) = 2 x + 1 - f ( x)
(a) f (- x) = - f ( x)
Therefore, 2 f ( x) = 2 x and hence f ( x) = x for all x Î .
(b) f ( x + 1) = f ( x) + 1
Answers: (A), (B), (C) and (D)
æ 1 ö f ( x)
(c) f ç ÷ = 2 for all x ¹ 0
è xø x 4. If a ¹ b Î  and f :  ®  is a function such that

Then æ 1ö
af ( x) + bf ç ÷ = x - 1 for all 0 ¹ x Î 
(A) f ( x) = x for all x Î  è xø
(B) f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) for all x, y Î  Then
(C) f (xy) = f (x)f (y) for all x, y Î  2a + b
(A) f (2) = (B) f (1) = 0
æ x ö f ( x) 2(a2 - b2 )
(D) f ç ÷ = for all x, y Î  with y ¹ 0
è y ø f ( y) (C) f (-1) = -2/(a + b) (D) f (-1) = 2(a - b)
Solution: We shall prove that f (x) = x for all x Î  and Solution: We are given that
hence (A), (B), (C) and (D) are all true. By (a), f is an odd
function and hence f (0) = 0. æ 1ö
a f ( x) + b f ç ÷ = x - 1 (1.8)
è xø
0 = f (0) = f (-1 + 1) = f (-1) + 1 [by (b)]
Replacing x with 1/x, we get
Therefore f (-1) = - 1. For any x ¹ 0 and -1, we have
æ 1ö 1
æ 1 ö f ( x + 1) f ( x) + 1 b f ( x) + a f ç ÷ = - 1 (1.9)
fç = = (1.6) è xø x
è x + 1÷ø ( x + 1)2 ( x + 1)2
From Eqs. (1.8) and (1.9), we have
Also, æ1 ö
(a2 - b2 ) f ( x) = a( x - 1) - b ç - 1÷
æ 1 ö æ -x ö èx ø
fç ÷ = fç + 1÷
è x + 1ø èx+1 ø Therefore
æ -x ö
=fç +1 a + b/ 2 2a + b
è x + 1÷ø f ( 2) = =
a -b
2 2
2(a2 - b2 )
æ x ö
= -f ç +1 f (1) = 0
è x + 1÷ø
-2a + 2b -2
æ 1 ö and f (-1) = =
= -f ç +1 a2 - b2 a+b
è ( x + 1) x ÷ø
Answers: (A), (B) and (C)
- f [( x + 1)/ x]
= +1
[( x + 1)/ x]2 5. Let P(x) be a polynomial function of degree n such that
- f [1 + (1/ x)]
= +1 k
[( x + 1)/ x] 2 P (k ) =
k+1
- x2 [ f (1/ x) + 1]
= +1
( x + 1) 2
Worked-Out Problems 65

for k = 0, 1, 2, …, n. Then P(n + 1) is equal to Therefore


(A) -1 if n is even (B) 1 if n is odd
1 é (-1)n + 1 x( x - 1)( x - 2) ( x - n) ù
n n P ( x) º ê x + ú
(C) if n is even (D) if n is odd x + 1ë (n + 1)! û
n+2 n +2

Solution: Consider the polynomial 1


P(n + 1) = [(n + 1) + (-1)n + 1 ]
n+2
Q ( x) º P ( x)( x + 1) - x
Then Q(x) is a polynomial of degree n + 1 and 0, 1, 2, …, n ì 1 if n is odd
ï
are the roots of the equation Q(x) = 0. Therefore =í n
ï n + 2 if n is even
î
Q ( x) = Ax( x - 1)( x - 2) ( x - n)
where A is a non-zero constant. Substituting x = -1, we Answers: (B) and (C)
get that
1 = Q(-1) = A(-1)n + 1 (n + 1)!

Matrix-Match Type Questions


+
1. If A = {1, 2, 4, 5}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5} and C = {4, 5, 6, 7}, then 3. Let P : [0, ¥) ®  be defined as
match the items in Column I with those in Column II.
ì 13 if 0 £ x < 1
P ( x) = í +
î13 + 15n if n £ x < n + 1, n Î 
Column I Column II
Then match the items in Column I with those in
(A) (A - B) È C (p) {1, 2, 3} Column II.
(B) (A - B) È (B - C) (q) {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
(C) (A È B) - C (r) {1, 4, 5, 6, 7}
Column I Column II
(D) (A D B) D C (s) {1, 2, 3, 4}
(A) P(3 × 01) (p) 68
Solution: This can be solved by simple checking. (B) P(4 × 9) (q) 63
Answer: (A)Æ(r), (B)Æ(p), (C)Æ(p), (D)Æ(q) (C) P(3 × 999) (r) 73
(D) P([4 × 99]) (s) 58
2. Let A, B and C be subsets of a finite universal set X. Let
n(P) denote the number of elements in a set P. Then Solution: Given that P(x) = 13 + 15[x] for all x ³ 0,
match the items in Column I with those in Column II. where [x] is the integral part of x. Then
P(3 × 01) = 13 + 15 ´ 3 = 58
Column I Column II
Remaining parts can be solved similarly.
(A) n(A - B) (p) n(X) - n(A Ç B) Answer: (A)Æ(s), (B)Æ(r), (C)Æ(s), (D)Æ(r)
(B) n(A D B) (q) n(C) - n(C Ç B)
Note: Functions of this type are called Postage-stamp
(C) n(Ac È Bc) (r) n(A) - n(A Ç B)
functions.
(D) n(C Ç Bc) (s) n(A) + n(B) - 2n(A Ç B)

Solution: This can be solved by simple checking.


Answer: (A)Æ(r), (B)Æ(s), (C)Æ(p), (D)Æ(q)

Comprehension-Type Questions
1. In a group of 25 students aged between 16 years and ball, 9 play both cricket and tennis, 4 play tennis and
18 years, it was found that 15 play cricket, 12 play football and 3 play all the three games. Based on this,
tennis, 11 play football, 5 play both cricket and foot answer the following questions.
66 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

(i) The number of students in the group who play (i) f (x) is equal to
only football is
1é 1 x - 1ù
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5 (A) êx + - ú
2ë 1- x x û
(ii) The number of students in the group who play
only cricket is 1é 1 x - 1ù
(B) êx - + ú
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 2ë 1- x x û
(iii) The number of students in the group who play
1é 1 x - 1ù
only tennis is (C) êx - - ú
2ë 1- x x û
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
(iv) The number of students who do not play any of 1é 1 x - 1ù
(D) êx + + ú
the three games is 2ë 1- x x û
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
(ii) f (-1) is equal to
Solution: Let C, T and F denote the sets of students in (A) 3/4 (B) -3/4 (C) 5/4 (D) -5/4
the group who play cricket, tennis and football, respec-
tively. Consider the Venn diagram. (iii) f (1/2) is equal to
C T (A) 5/4 (B) -7/4 (C) 7/4 (D) 9/4
Solution: Given that
x a y
æ x - 1ö
f ( x) + f ç =x (1.10)
3 è x ÷ø
c b
for all x ¹ 0, 1. Replacing x with ( x - 1)/ x both sides, we
z get that
F
æ x - 1ö æ [( x - 1)/ x] - 1ö x - 1
fç ÷ + fç =
We are given that
è x ø è ( x - 1)/ x ÷ø x

n(C ) = x + a + c + 3 = 15 That is,


n(T ) = y + b + a + 3 = 12 æ x - 1ö æ 1 ö x-1
fç + fç = (1.11)
è x ÷ø è 1 - x ÷ø x
n(F ) = z + c + b + 3 = 11
Then Again replacing x with ( x - 1)/ x in this, we get

n (C Ç T ) = a + 3 = 9 æ 1 ö 1
fç ÷ + f ( x) = (1.12)
n (T Ç F ) = b + 3 = 4 è 1 - xø 1- x

n (C Ç F ) = c + 3 = 5 Then by taking Eq. (1.10) + Eq. (1.12) - Eq. (1.11), we get that

n (C Ç T Ç F ) = 3 1 x-1
2 f (x) = x + -
1- x x
and by solving these, we get a = 6, b = 1, c = 2, x = 4, y = 2
and z = 5. The number of students who do not play any of 1é 1 x - 1ù
these games is 25 - (a + b + c + x + y + z + 3) = 2. or f (x) = êx + - ú (1.13)
2ë 1- x x û
Answer: (i) Æ (D); (ii) Æ (D); (iii) Æ (B); (iv) Æ (B)
Substituting the values x = -1 and 1/2 in Eq. (1.13) we get
2. Let f :  - {0, 1} ®  be a function satisfying the relation the solution for (ii) and (iii).
æ x - 1ö Answer: (i) Æ (A); (ii) Æ (D); (iii) Æ (C)
f ( x) + f ç =x
è x ÷ø

for all x Î  - {0, 1}. Based on this, answer the follo-


wing questions.
Worked-Out Problems 67

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


In the following question, a Statement I is given and a Solution: Note that, for any sets A, B, C and D,
corresponding Statement II is given just below it. Mark
the correct answer as: ( A ´ B) Ç (C ´ D) = ( A Ç C ) ´ ( B Ç D)
(A) Both I and II are true and II is a correct reason for I and hence
(B) Both I and II are true and II is not a correct reason for I ( A ´ B) Ç ( B ´ A) = ( A Ç B) ´ ( B Ç A)
(C) I is true, but II is false
= ( A Ç B) ´ ( A Ç B)
(D) I is false, but II is true
Therefore
1. Statement I: If A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {2, 3, 5, 6, 7},
then n((A ´ B) Ç (B ´ A)) = 4. n(( A ´ B) Ç ( B ´ A)) = [n( A Ç B)]2

Statement II: If two sets A and B have n elements in Answer: (A)


common, then the sets A ´ B and B ´ A have n2 elements
in common.

Integer Answer Type Questions


1. Let f :  ®  be a function such that f (1) = f (0) = 0 Therefore, we have 1 = f (1) > f (2) > f (3) > and hence
and | f(x) - f( y)| < |x - y| for all x ¹ y in [0, 1]. If f (n) ¹ n for all n > 1. Thus 1 is the only positive integer n
2| f(x) - f( y)| < K for all x, y Î [0,1], then K can be such that f (n) = n.
. Answer: 1
Solution: Let 0 < x < y < 1. Then
3. Let f :  ®  be a function such that f (2 + x) = f (2 - x)
| f ( x) - f ( y)| £ | f ( x)| + | f ( y)| and f (7 + x) = f (7 - x) for all real numbers x. If f (0) = 0
and there are atleast m number of integer solutions
= | f ( x) - f (0)| + | f ( y) - f (1)|
for f (x) = 0 in the interval [–2010, 2010], then m can
< | x - 0 | + | y - 1| be .

=x+1-y (1.14) Solution: For all x Î , we have

Also, f (2 + x) = f (2 - x) = f [7 - (5 + x)]

| f ( x) - f ( y)| < | x - y | = y - x (1.15) = f [7 + (5 + x)] = f (12 + x)

By adding Eqs. (1.14) and (1.15), we have By replacing x with x – 2 we get that

2 | f ( x) - f ( y)| < 1 f ( x) = f ( x + 10) for all x Î  (1.16)

Answer: 1 Now,

2. Let f :  ®  be a function such that f (x + y) = f (x) + 0 = f (0) = f (2 - 2) = f (2 + 2) = f (4) (1.17)


f (y) - xy - 1 for all x, y Î  and f (1) = 1. Then the From Eqs. (1.16) and (1.17), we have f (4 + 10 n) = 0 for
number of positive integers n such that f (n) = n is all integers n. Also, since f (0) = 0, we have f (10 n) = 0
. for all integers n. There are 403 integers of the form
Solution: By taking x = 0 = y, we get that f (0) = 1. By 10n and 402 integers of the form 10 n + 4 in the interval
hypothesis, f (1) = 1. For any integer n > 1, [–2010, 2010]. Therefore, there are atleast 805 integers n
in [–2010, 2010] for which f (n) = 0.
f (n) = f [(n - 1) + 1] = f (n - 1) + f (1) - (n - 1)1 - 1 Answer: 805
= f (n - 1) - (n - 1) < f (n - 1)
68 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

SUMMARY
1.1 Set: Any collection of well-defined objects. 1.13 If | X | = n, then |P(X)| = 2n.

1.2 Elements: Objects belonging to a set. 1.14 Intersection of sets: For any two sets A and B, the
intersection of A and B is the set of all elements
1.3 Empty set: Set having no elements and is denoted Ø. belonging to both A and B and is denoted by

1.4 Equal sets: Two sets A and B are said to be equal, if A Ç B = {x | x Î A and x Î B}
they contain same elements or every element of A
1.15 Theorem: The following hold for any sets A, B and C.
belong to B and vice-versa.
(1) A Í B Û A = A Ç B
1.5 Finite set: A set having definite number of elements is (2) A Ç A = A
called finite set. A set which is not a finite set is called (3) A Ç B = B Ç A (Commutative law)
infinite set.
(4) (A Ç B) Ç C = A Ç (B Ç C) (Associative law)
1.6 Family or class of sets: A set whose numbers are (5) A Ç Ø = Ø, where Ø is the empty set.
family of sets or class of sets. Family of sets or class (6) For any set X, X Í A Ç B Û X Í A and X Í B.
of sets are denoted by script letters Ꮽ, Ꮾ, Ꮿ, Ᏸ, P etc. (7) In view of (4) we write A Ç B Ç C for A Ç (B Ç C).


n
1.7 Indexed family of sets: A family C of sets is called (8) For any sets A1, A2, ¼, An we write Ai for
i=1
indexed family if there exists a set I such that for A1 Ç A2 Ç A3 Ç ¼ Ç An.
each element i Î I, there exists unique member
A Î C associated with i. In this case the set I is called 1.16 Disjoint sets: Two sets A and B are said to be
index set, C is called indexed family sets and we disjoint sets if A Ç B = Ø.
write C = {Ai : i Î I}.
1.17 Union of sets: For any two sets A and B, their union
1.8 Intervals: Let a, b be real numbers and a < b. Then is defined to be the set of all elements belonging to
(a, b) = {x Î  | a < x < b} either A or to B and this set is denoted by A È B.
That is A È B = {x| x Î A or x Î B} .
[a, b) = {x Î  | a £ x < b}
1.18 Theorem: For any sets A, B and C the following
(a, b] = {x Î  | a < x £ b} hold.
[a, b] = {x Î | a £ x £ b} (1) A Ç B Í A È B

(-¥, +¥) or (-¥, ¥) is  (2) For any set X, A È B Í X Û A Í X and B Í X


(3) A È A = A
1.9 Subset and superset: A set A is called a subset of a set (4) A È B = B È A (Commutative law)
B, if every element of A is also an element of B. In this
(5) (A È B) È C = A È (B È C) and we write A È B È C
case we write A Í B. If A is a subset of B, then B is for (A È B) È C
called superset of A. If A is not a subset of B, then we
(6) A Ç B = A Û A È B = B
write A Í B.
(7) A È Ø = A
1.10 Proper subset: Set A is called a proper subset of a (8) A Ç (A È B) = A
set B if A is a subset of B and is not equal to B. (9) A È (A Ç B) = A

1.11 Powerset: If X is a set, then the collection of all 1.19 Theorem (Distributive laws): If A, B and C are
subsets of X is called the powerset of X and is three sets, then
denoted by P(X).
(1) A Ç (B È C) = (A Ç B) È (A Ç C)
1.12 Cardinality of a set: If X is a finite set having n (2) A È (B Ç C) = (A È B) Ç (A È C)
elements, then n called cardinality of X and is
denoted by |X | or n(X ). 1.20 Theorem: For any sets A, B and C, A Ç B = A Ç C and
A È B = A È C Þ B = C.
Summary 69

∪ i ÎI Ai is
1.21 If {Ai}iÎI is an indexed family of sets then (3) A D Ø = A
the set of all elements x where x belongs to atleast (4) A D A = Ø
one Ai.
1.31 Theorem: If A and B are disjoint sets, then
1.22 Set difference: For any two sets A and B, A – B =
(1) n(A È B) = n(A) + n(B)
{ x Î A| x Ï B} = A – (A Ç B)
(2) If A1, A2, ¼, Am are pairwise disjoint sets, then
1.23 De Morgan’s laws: If A, B and C are any sets, then æm ö
n ç ∪ Ai ÷ = n( A1 ) + n( A2 ) + + n( Am )
(1) A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C) è i =1 ø
(2) A - (B Ç C) = (A - B) È (A - C)
Recall that for any finite set P, n(P) denotes the
number of elements in P.
1.24 Theorem: Let A, B and C be sets. Then
(1) B Í C Þ A - C Í A - B 1.32 Theorem: For any finite sets A and B, n(A È B) =
(2) A Í B Þ A - C Í B - C n(A) + n(B) - n(A Ç B).
(3) (A È B) - C = (A - C) È (B - C)
1.33 Theorem: For any finite sets A, B and C,
(4) (A Ç B) - C = (A - C) Ç (B - C)
(5) (A - B) - C = A - (B È C) = (A - B) Ç (A - C) n(A È B È C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) - n(A Ç B)
-n(B Ç C) - n(C Ç A) + n(A Ç B Ç C)
(6) A - (B - C) = (A - B) È (A Ç C)
1.34 Theorem: If A, B and C are finite sets, then the
1.25 Universal set: If {Ai}iÎI is a class of sets, then the set
number of elements belonging to exactly two of the
X = ∪ i ÎI Ai is called universal set. In fact the set X
sets is
whose subsets are under our consideration is called
universal set. n(A Ç B) + n(B Ç C) + n(C Ç A) - 3n(A ÇB Ç C)
Caution: Do not be mistaken that universal set
1.35 Theorem:
means the set which contains all objects in the
universe. Do not be carried away with word universal. (1) If A, B and C are finite sets, then the number of
In fact, the fundamental axiom of set theory is: elements belonging to exactly one of the sets is
Given any set, there is always an element which does n(A) + n(B) + n(C) - 2n(A Ç B) - 2n(B Ç C)
not belong to the given set. - 2n(C Ç A) + n(A Ç B Ç C)
(2) If A and B are finite sets, then the number of
1.26 Complement of a set: If X is an universal set and
A Í X then the set X - A is called complement of elements belonging to exactly one of the sets
A and is denoted by A¢ or Ac. equals
n(A D B) = n(A) + n(B) - 2n(A Ç B)
1.27 Relative complement: If X is an universal set and
= n(A È B) - n(A Ç B)
A, B are subsets of X, then A - B = A Ç B¢ is called
relative complement of B in A.
Relations
1.28 De Morgan’s laws (General form): If A and B are
two sets, then 1.36 Ordered pair: A pair of elements written in a
particular order is called an ordered pair and is
(1) (A È B)¢ = A¢ Ç B ¢ written by listing its two elements in a particular
(2) (A Ç B)¢ = A¢ È B ¢ order, separated by a comma and enclosing the pair
in brackets. In the ordered pair (x, y), x is the first
1.29 Symmetric difference: For any two sets A and B, element called first component and y is the second
the set (A - B) È (B - A) is called symmetric differ- element called second component. Also x is called
ence of A and B and is denoted by A D B. Since A first coordinate and y is called second coordinate.
- B = A Ç B ¢ and B - A = B Ç A¢, A D B = (A Ç B ¢)
È (B Ç A¢). 1.37 Cartesian product: If A and B are sets, then the
set of all ordered pairs (a, b) with a Î A and b Î B
1.30 Theorem: The following hold for any sets A, B and C. is called the Cartesian product of A and B and is
(1) A D B = B D A (Commutative law)
denoted by A × B (read as A cross B). That is
(2) (A D B) D C = A D (B D C) (Associative law) A ´ B = {(a, b) | a Î A and b Î B}
70 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

1.38 Let A, B be any sets and Ø is the empty set. Then 1.45 Range: If R is a relation from a set A to a set B,
(1) A ´ B = Ø Û A = Ø or B = Ø. then the set of all second components of the
ordered pairs belonging to R is called range of R
(2) If one of A and B is an infinite set and the
and is denoted by Range(R).
other is a non-empty set, then A ´ B is an infi-
nite set.
1.46 Theorem: If A and B are finite non-empty sets
(3) A ´ B = B ´ A Û A = B. such that n(A) = m and n(B) = n, then the number
of relations from A to B is 2mn which include the
1.39 Cartesian product of n sets (n is a finite positive empty set and the whole set A ´ B.
integer greater than or equal to 2): Let A1, A2, A3,
¼, An be n sets. Then their Cartesian product is 1.47 Relation on a set: If A is a set, then any subset of
defined to be the set of all n-tuples (a1, a2, ¼, an) A ´ A is called a binary relation on A or simply a rela-
such that ai ÎAi for i = 1, 2, 3, ¼, n and is denoted by tion on A.
n n
A1 ´ A2 ´ A3 ´ ´ An or X Ai
i =1
or ÕA
i =1
i 1.48 Composition of relations: Let A, B and C be sets, R
is a relation from A to B and S is a relation from B
That is, to C. Then, the composition of R and S denoted by
S R defined to be
A1 ´ A2 ´ L ´ An = {(a1, a2, K, an )| ai Î Ai for 1 £ i £ n}
The Cartesian product of a set A with itself n times S R = {(a, c) Î A ´ C | there exist b Î B
is denoted by An.
such that (a, b) Î R and (b, c) Î S}
1.40 Theorem: If A and B are finite sets, then n(A ´ B) =
n(A) · n(B). In general, if A1, A2, ¼, Am are infinite 1.49 Theorem: Let A, B and C be sets, R a relation from
sets, then n(A1 ´ A2 ´ ´ Am) = n(A1) ´ n(A2) ´ A to B and S a relation from B to C. Then the
´ n(Am). In particular, n(Am) = (n(A))m where A following hold:
is a finite set. (1) S R ¹ Ø if and only if Range(R) Ç Dom(S) ¹ Ø
(2) Dom(S R) = Dom(R)
1.41 Theorem: Let A, B, C and D be any sets. Then
(3) Range(S R) Í Range(S)
(1) A ´ (B È C) = (A ´ B) È (A ´ C)
(2) (A È B) ´ C = (A ´ C) È (B ´ C) 1.50 Theorem: Let A, B, C and D be non-empty sets,
(3) A ´ (B Ç C) = (A ´ B) Ç (A ´ C) R Í A ´ B, S Í B ´ C and T Í C ´ D. Then
(4) (A Ç B) ´ C = (A ´ C) Ç (B ´ C) (T S) R = T (S R) (Associative law)
(5) (A È B) ´ (C È D) = (A ´ C) È (A ´ D) È (B ´
C) È (B ´ D) 1.51 Inverse relation: Let A and B be non-empty sets
(6) (A Ç B) ´ (C Ç D) = (A ´ C) Ç (B ´ D) = (A ´ D) and R a relation from A to B. Then the inverse of R
Ç (B ´ C) is defined as the set {(b, a) Î B ´ A | (a, b) Î R} and
is denoted by R–1.
(7) (A - B) ´ C = (A ´ C) - (B ´ C)
(8) A ´ (B - C) = (A ´ B) - (A ´ C) 1.52 Theorem: Let A, B and C be non-empty sets, R a
relation from A to B and S a relation from B to C.
1.42 Relation: For any two sets A and B, any subset of Then the following hold:
A ´ B is called a relation from A to B. -1 -1 -1
(1) (S R) = R S
1.43 Symbol aRb: Let R be a relation from a set A to a (2) (R-1)-1 = R
set B (R Í A ´ B). If (a, b) Î R, then a is said to be
R related to b or a is said to be related to b and we
write aRb.
Types of Relations
1.53 Reflexive relation: Let X be a non-empty set and R
1.44 Domain: Let R be a relation from a set A to a set B.
relation from X to X. Then R is said to be reflexive
Then the set of all first components of the ordered
on X if (x, x) Î R for all x Î X.
pairs belonging to R is called the domain of R and
is denoted by Dom(R).
1.54 Symmetric relation: A relation R on a non-empty
set X is called symmetric if (x, y) Î R Þ (y, x) Î R.
Summary 71

1.55 Transitive relation: A relation R on a non-empty set for each a Î A, there exists unique b Î B such that
X is called transitive if (x, y) Î R and (y, z) Î R Þ (a, b) Î f. That is f Í A ´ B is called a function from
(x, z) Î R. A to B, if
(1) Dom ( f ) = A
1.56 Equivalence relation: A relation R on a non-empty
(2) (a, b) Î f and (a, c) Î f Þ b = c
set X is called an equivalence relation if it is reflexive,
symmetric and transitive. If f is a function from A to B, then we write f : A ® B
is a function and for (a, b) Îf, we write b = f(a) and b
1.57 Partition of a set: Let X be a non-empty set. A is called f-image of a and a is called f-preimage of b.
class of subsets of X is called a partition of X if they
are pairwise disjoint and their union is X. 1.65 Domain, codomain and range: Let f : A ® B be a
function. Then A is called domain, B is called codo-
1.58 Equivalence class: Let X be a non-empty set and R main and Range of f denoted by f(A) = { f(a) | a ÎA}.
an equivalence relation on X. If x Î X, then the set f (A) is also called the image set of A under the
{ y Î X |( x, y) ÎR} is called the equivalence class of x function f.
with respect to R or the R-equivalence of x or simply
the R-class of x and is denoted by R(x). 1.66 Composition of functions: Let f : A ® B and g :
B ® C be functions. Then the composition of f with
1.59 Theorem: Let R be an equivalence relation on a set g denoted by g f is defined as g f : A ® C given by
X and a, b Î X. Then the following statements are (g f ) (a) = g(f (a)) for all a ÎA
equivalent:
(1) (a, b) Î R 1.67 Theorem: Let f : A ® B, g : B ® C and h : C ® D be
(2) R(a) = R(b) functions. Then
(3) R(a) Ç R(b) ¹ Ø (h g) f = h (g f)

1.60 Theorem: Let R be an equivalence relation on X. 1.68 One-one function or injection: A function f : A ® B
Then the class of all R-classes form a partition of X. is called “one-one function” if f (a1) ¹ f (a2) for any
a1 ¹ a2 in A.
1.61 Theorem: Let X be a non-empty and {Ai}i ÎI a parti-
tion of X. Then 1.69 Theorem: If f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions.
Then the following hold:
R = {( x, y) Î X ´ X | both x and y
(1) If f and g are injections, then so is g f .
belong to the same Ai, i Î I }
(2) If g f is an injection, then f is an injection.
is an equivalence relation on X, whose R-classes are
precisely Ai’s. 1.70 Onto function or surjection: A function f : A ® B
is called “onto function” if the range of f is equal to
1.62 Theorem: Let R and S be equivalence relations on the codomain B. That is, to each b Î B, there exists
a non-empty X. Then R Ç S is also an equivalence a Î A such that f (a) = b.
relation on X and for any x Î X, (R Ç S)(x) = R(x)
Ç S(x). 1.71 Theorem: Let f : A ® B and g : B ® C be functions.
Then, the following hold:
1.63 Theorem: Let R and S be equivalence relations (1) If f and g are surjections, then so is g f.
on a set X. Then the following statements are
(2) If g f is a surjection, then g is a surjection.
equivalent.
(1) R S is an equivalence relation on X 1.72 Bijection or one-one and onto function: A function
(2) R S is symmetric f : A ® B is called “bijection” if f is both an injection
(3) R S is transitive and a surjection.
(4) R S = S R
1.73 Theorem: If f : A ® B and g : B ® C are bijections,
then g f : A ® C is a bijection.
Functions
1.74 Identity function: A function f : A ® A is called
1.64 Function: A relation f from a set A to a set B is an identity function if f (x) = x for all x Î A and is
called a function from A into B or simply A to B, if denoted by IA.
72 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

1.75 Theorem: If f: A ® B is a function, then IB f = f = f IA. QUICK LOOK

0 ≤ {x} < 1 for any real number x.


QUICK LOOK

Identity function is always a bijection.


1.81 Theorem: The following hold for any real numbers
x and y.
1.76 Theorem: Let f : A ® B be a function. Then, f is
ìï[ x] + [ y] if {x} + { y} < 1
a bijection if and only if there exists a function (1) [ x + y] = í
g : B ® A such that îï[ x] + [ y] + 1 if {x} + { y} ³ 1
g f = IA and f g = IB (2) [x + y] ≥ [x] + [y] and equality holds if and only
if { x } + {y} < 1.
That is
(3) If x or y is an integer, then [x + y] = [x] + [y].
g( f(a)) = a for all a Î A
(4) é x ù = é [ x] ù for any real number x and
and f (g(b)) = b for all b Î B êë m úû êë m úû
non-zero-integer m.
1.77 Inverse of a bijective function: Let f : A ® B and (5) If n and k are positive integers and k > 1, then
g : B ® A be functions such that g f = IA and f g =
IB. Then f and g are bijections. Also g is unique such é n ù é n + 1 ù é 2n ù
that g f = IA and f g = IB. g is called the inverse of f êë k úû + êë k úû £ êë k úû
and f is called the inverse of g. The inverse function
of f is denoted by f –1. 1.82 Periodic function: Let A be a subset of  and
f : A ®  a function. A positive real number p is
QUICK LOOK called a period of f if f (x + p) = f (x) whenever x and
x + p belong to A. A function with a period is called
If f : A ® B is a bijection, then f –1 : B ® A is also a periodic function. Among the periods of f, the least
bijection and f –1(b) = a Û f (a) = b for b Î B. one (if it exists) is called the least period.

1.83 Step function (greatest integer function): Let


1.78 Real-valued function: If the range of a function is f :  ®  be defined by f(x) = [x] for all x Î  where
a subset of the real number set , then the function [x] is the largest integer less than or equal to x. This
is called a real-valued function. function f is called step function.

1.79 Operations among real-valued functions: Let f 1.84 Signum function: Let f :  ®  be defined by
and g be real-valued functions defined on a set A.
Then we define the real-valued functions f + g, -f, ì- 1 if x < 0
f - g and f × g on the set A as follows: ï
f ( x) = í 0 if x = 0
(1) ( f + g)(a) = f (a) + g(a) ï 1 if x > 0
î
(2) (-f )(a) = -f (a)
(3) ( f - g)(a) = f (a) - g(a) is called Signum function and is written as sign(x).
(4) ( f · g)(a) = f (a) g(a)
1.85 Increasing and decreasing functions: Let A be a
(5) If g(a) ¹ 0 for all a Î A, then
subset of  and f : A ®  a function. Then, we say
æfö f (a) that f is an increasing function if f(x) ≤ f(y) whenever
çè g ÷ø (a) = g(a) x ≤ y. f is said to be decreasing function if f(x) ≥ f(y)
whenever x ≤ y.
(6) If n is a positive integer, then f (a) = ( f (a)) .
n n

1.86 Symmetric set: A subset X of  is called a symmetric


1.80 Integral part and fractional part: If x is a real set if x Î X Û -x Î X.
number, then the largest integer less than or equal
to x is called the integral part of x and is denoted by 1.87 Even function: Let X be a symmetric set and
[x]. x - [x] is called the fractional part of x and will f : X ®  a function. Then f is said to be even func-
be denoted by { x }. tion if f(-x) = f(x) for all x Î X.
Exercises 73

1.88 Odd function: Let X be a symmetric set and 1.91 Theorem: If f and g are even (odd) functions then so
f : X ®  a function. Then f is said to be odd is f ± g.
function if f (-x) = -f(x ) for all x Î X.
1.92 Theorem: Every real-valued function can be
QUICK LOOK uniquely expressed as a sum of an even function
and an odd function. The representation is
If f is an odd function on a symmetric set X and 0
1 1
belongs to X, then f(0) is necessarily 0. f ( x) = [ f ( x) + f (- x)] + [ f ( x) - f (- x)]
2 2

1.93 Number of partions of a finite set: Let P0 = 1 and


1.89 Theorem: Let X be a symmetric set and f, g be func-
Pn be the number of partions on a finite set with n
tions from X to . Then, the following hold:
elements. Then for n ≥ 1,
(1) f · g is even if either both f and g are even or both
are odd. n æ nö
Pn + 1 = å ç ÷ Pr
(2) f · g is odd if one of them is odd and the other r =1 è r ø
is even.
æ nö
1.90 Theorem: Let f be a real valued function defined where ç ÷ is the number of selections of r objects
on a symmetric set X. Then the following hold: èr ø
(0 ≤ r ≤ n) from n distinct objects and this number
(1) f is even if and only if af is even for any non-zero
is equal to
a Î .
(2) f is odd if and only if af is odd for any non-zero n!
a Î . r ! ( n - r )!
(3) f is even (odd) if and only if -f is even (odd).

EXERCISES
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. Let U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, (C) X
6, 8} and C = {3, 4, 5, 6}. Then
(A) (B Ç C)c = {2, 4, 5, 6, 7}
(B) (A Ç C)c = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9}
(C) (B È C)c = {1, 7, 8, 9}
(D) (A Ç B)c = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} A B

2. If A and B are two non-empty subsets of a set X, then


which one of the following shaded diagrams represent
(D)
the complement of B - A in X? X
(A) X

A B

A B

3. Let A Δ B denote the symmetric difference of A and B.


(B) X Then, for any sets, A, B and C, which one of the following
is not correct?
(A) A D B = C Û A = B D C
(B) A D B = C D B Û A = C
(C) ( A D B) D ( B D A) = f
A B (D) A D B = f Û A Í B
74 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

4. A, B, C are three finite sets such that A Ç B Ç C has (A)


10 elements. If the sets A D B, B D C and C D A have 1
100, 150 and 200 elements, respectively, then the
1
number of elements in A È B È C is
2
(A) 325 (B) 352 (C) 235 (D) 253
2

5. In a class of 45 students, it is found that 20 students liked 3


apples and 30 liked bananas. Then the least number of
students who liked both apples and bananas is
(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 15 (D) 8 (B)
1
6. In a class of 45 students, 25 play chess and 26 play 1
cricket. If each student plays chess or cricket, then 2
the number of students who play both is 2
3
(A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 7 (D) 4 3
4
7. The number of subsets of the empty set is
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) 3
(C)
8. The number of non-empty subsets of the set {1, 2, 3,
4, 5} is 1
1
(A) 30 (B) 32 (C) 31 (D) 33 2
2
9. The number of subsets of a set A is of the form 10 3
n + 4, where n is a single-digit positive integer. Then 3
4
n is equal to
(A) 8 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6
(D)
10. If A and B are sets such that n(A È B) = 40, n(A) = 25
1
and n( B) = 20 , then n( A Ç B) = 1
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 5 (D) 4 2
2
3
11. Let  be the set of all natural numbers and 3
4
R = {(a, b) Î  ´  | g.c.d. of {a, b} = 1}
Then R is
(A) reflexive on  14. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {5, 6, 7} and c = {a, b, c, d, e}. If
(B) symmetric f = {(1, 5), (2, 5), (3, 6), (4, 7)} and g = {(5, a), (6, d),
(C) transitive (7, c)} are functions from A to B and from B to C,
(D) an equivalence relation respectively, then
(A) (g f ) (4) = d (B) ( g f )(3) = a
12. Let  denote the set of non-zero rational numbers
*
(C) ( g f )(2) = c (D) ( g f )(1) = a
and
15. Which one of the following diagrams does not repre-
R = {(a, b) Î * ´ * | ab = 1}
sent a function?
Then R is (A)
(A) symmetric
1
(B) reflexive on * a
(C) an equivalence relation 2
(D) transitive b
3
c
13. Which one of the following diagrams represents a 4
function?
Exercises 75

(B) (C) 

1
a
2
b
3 
c O
4

(C)
1
a (D) 
2
b
3
c
4

O

(D)
1
a
2
b 17. Let f : [1, ¥) ® [2, ¥) be the function defined by
3
c 1
4 f ( x) = x +
x
If g : [2, ¥) ® [1, ¥), is a function such that (g f )(x) = x
for all x ³ 1, then g(t ) =
16. Which one of the following graphs does not represent
1 1
a function from the real number set  into ? (A) t + (B) t -
t t
(A) 
(C ) t + t - 4 (D) t - t - 4
2 2

2 2

18. Let f and g be the functions defined from  to  by

 ì- 2 if x < 0
O ï
f ( x) = í 0 if x = 0 and g( x) = 1 + {x}
ï 2 if x > 0
î
where {x} is the fractional part of x. Then, for all x Î ,
f (g(x)) is equal to
(B) 
(A) –2 (B) 0 (C) x (D) 2

19. The number of surjections of {1, 2, 3, 4} onto {x, y} is


(A) 16 (B) 8 (C) 14 (D) 6

O 20. If f (x) is a polynomial function satisfying the relation

æ 1ö æ 1ö
f ( x) + f ç ÷ = f ( x) f ç ÷
è xø è xø
for all 0 ¹ x Î  and if f (2) = 9, then f (6) is
(A) 216 (B) 217 (C) 126 (D) 127
76 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

21. Let a be positive real number and n a positive 27. The number of solutions of the equation 2x + {x + 1} =
integer. If f ( x) = (a - xn )1/ n, then ( f f )(5) is 4[x + 1] – 6 is
(A) 5 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D)

22. For any 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, let f (x) = max {x , (1 - x) , 2x(1 -


2 2
28. Let [x] denote the integral part of x. If a is a positive real
x)}. Then which one of the following is correct? number and f :  ®  is defined by f (x) = x - [x - a],
then a period of f is
ì2 x(1 - x), 0 £ x £ 1/ 3
ïï (A) 1 (B) a (C) 2[a] (D) 2a
(A) f ( x) = í (1 - x)2 , 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3
ï 29. If f (x) = k (constant) for all x Î , then the least
ïî x2 , 2 / 3 < x £ 1
period of f is
ì (1 - x)2 , 0 £ x £ 1/ 3 (A) 1/3 ( B) 1/2
ïï (C ) 2/3 (D) does not exist
(B) f ( x) = í 2 x(1 - x), 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3
ï
ïî x2 , 2 / 3 < x £ 1 30. Let a > 0 and f :  ®  a function satisfying

ì x , 0 £ x £ 1/ 3
2 f ( x + a) = 1 + [2 - 3 f ( x) + 3 f ( x)2 - f ( x)3 ]1/ 3
ïï
(C) f ( x) = í 2 x(1 - x), 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3 for all x Î . Then a period of f ( x) is ka where k is
ï a positive integer whose value is
ïî (1 - x) , 2 / 3 < x £ 1
2
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
ì (1 - x)2 , 0 £ x £ 1/ 3
ïï 31. Let a < c < b such that c - a = b - c . If f : ®  is a
(D) f ( x) = í x2 , 1/ 3 < x £ 2 / 3 function satisfying the relation
ï
ïî2 x(1 - x), 2 / 3 < x £ 1 f ( x + a) + f ( x + b) = f ( x + c) for all x Î
then a period of f is
23. Let [x] denote the greatest integer £ x. Then the
number of ordered pair (x, y), where x and y are (A) (b - a) ( B) 2(b - a)
positive integers less than 30 such that (C ) 3(b - a) (D) 4(b - a)

é x ù é 2 x ù é y ù é 4 y ù 7 x 21y 32. If f :  - {0, 1} ®  is a function such that


êë 2 úû + êë 3 úû + êë 4 úû + êë 5 úû = 6 + 20
æ 1 ö 2(1 - 2 x)
f ( x) + f ç = for all x ¹ 0, 1
is è 1 - x ÷ø x(1 - x)
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
then the value of f(2) is
24. Let P : [0, ¥) ®  be defined by (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

ì 13 if 0 £ x < 1 33. If f :  ®  is a function satisfying the relations


P ( x) = í f (2 + x) = f (2 – x) and f (7 + x) = f (7 – x) for all x Î 
î13 + 15n if n £ x < n + 1, n Î 
then a period of f is
Then P is (A) 5 (B) 9 (C) 12 (D) 10
(A) an injection
( B) a surjection 34. If f :  ®  is defined by
(C ) a surjection but not an injection
é 1ù é 2ù
(D) neither an injection nor a surjection f ( x) = [ x] + ê x + ú + ê x + ú - 3 x + 5
ë 2û ë 3û
25. If [x] and {x} denote the integral part and the fractional where [x] is the integral part of x, then a period of f is
part of a real number x, then the number of negative (A) 1 (B) 2/3 (C) 1/2 (D) 1/3
real numbers x for which 2[ x] - {x} = x + {x} is
(A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) infinite 35. If a function f :  ®  satisfies the relation

26. The number of real numbers x ³ 0 which are solutions f ( x + 1) + f ( x - 1) = 3 f ( x) for all x Î
of [ x] + 3{x} = x + {x} is
then a period of f is
(A) 1 (B) infinite (C) 0 (D) 2
(A) 10 (B) 12 (C) 6 (D) 4
Exercises 77

36. The domain of f ( x) = 1/ | x | - x is If f is to be a surjection, then A should be


(A) [0, 1) (B) (0, ¥) (C) (- ¥, 0) (D) (1, ¥) (A) é0, 1ù ( B) é - 1 , 0 ù
êë 3 úû êë 3 úû
37. The domain of the function defined by f (x) = min{1 + x,
1 - x} is (C ) é - 1 , 1ù (D) é - 1 , 2 ù
êë 3 úû êë 3 úû
(A) (1, ¥) (B) (-¥, ¥) (C) [1, ¥) (D) (- ¥, 1]
44. Let f : [0, 1] ®  be defined by f (x) = 1 + 2x. If g :
38. The domain of definition of the function f ( x) = y  ®  is an even function such that g( x) = f ( x) for
given by the equation 2x + 2y = 2 is all x Î[0, 1], then, for any x Î, g( x) is equal to
(A) (- ¥, 1) (B) (- ¥, 1) (C) (- ¥, 0) (D) (0, 1) (A) 1 - 2 x ( B) 2 x - 1
(C ) 1 - 2 | x | (D) 1 + 2 | x |
39. The function f : [1, ¥) ® [2, ¥) is defined by f (x) = x +
(1/x). Then f -1 ( x) is equal to 45. Let  be the set of natural numbers and  the set of
x 1 real numbers. Let f :  ®  be a function satisfying
(A) ( B) ( x + x2 - 4 )
1 + x2 2 the following:
(i) f (1) = 1
(C ) 1 ( x - x2 - 4 ) (D) 1 + x2 - 4
2 n

40. Let 0 ¹ a Î  and f ( x) = ax/( x + 1) for all -1 ¹ x Î .


(ii) å r f (r) = n(n + 1) f (n) for all n ³ 2
r =1
If f ( x) = f -1 ( x) for all x, then the value of a is
Then the integral part of f (2009) is
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) –1 (D) –2
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3
41. If f (x) = k (constant) for all real numbers x, then the
46. A school awarded 22 medals in cricket, 16 medals in
least period of f is
football and 11 medals in kho-kho. If these medals
(A) 1/6 ( B) 1/4 (C ) 1/3 (D) does not exist went to a total of 40 students and only two students got
medals in all the three games, then how many received
42. Let f ( x) = ( x + 1) for all x ³ - 1. If g( x) is the
2
medals in exactly two of the three games.
function whose graph is the reflection of the graph
(A) 7 (B) 6 (C) 5 (D) 4
of f ( x) with respect to the line y = x , then g( x) is
equal to
47. Let P( x) be a polynomial of degree 98 such that
(A) x + 1 ( B) x - 1 P(K) = 1/K for K = 1, 2, 3, … , 99 . Then (50)P (100)
(C ) x + 1 (D) 1 equals
( x + 1)2 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
43. Let f :  ® A is defined by
48. For any positive integer K, let f1 (K ) denote the
x-1
f ( x) = 2 square of the sum of the digits in K. For example
x - 3x + 3 f1 (12) = (1 + 2)2 = 9 . For n ³ 2, let fn (K ) = f1 ( fn - 1 (K )).
Then f2010 (11) is equal to
(A) 1005 (B) 256 (C) 169 (D) 201

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. Let Ã( X ) denote the power set of a set X. For any (C ) B = {a, b, x, y}
two sets A and B, if Ã( A) = Ã( B), then (D) A ´ B = {( x, a), ( x, b), ( y, a), ( y, b), (z, a), (z, c)}
(A) A È B = A D B ( B) A = B
(C ) A Ç B = f (D) A D B = f 3. Let A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {3, 4} and C = {1, 3, 5}. Then
(A) n( A ´ ( B È C )) = 12 ( B) n( A ´ ( B Ç C )) = 3
2. Let A and B be two sets such that the number of (C ) n( A ´ ( B - C )) = 3 (D) n ( B ´ ( A - C )) = 2
elements in A ´ B is 6. If three elements of A ´ B are
(x, a), (y, b) and (z, b) then 4. For any three sets A, B and C,
(A) A = {x, y, z} (A) A ´ ( B È C ) = ( A ´ B) È ( A ´ C )
( B) B = {a, b} ( B) A ´ ( B Ç C ) = ( A ´ B) Ç ( A ´ C )
78 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

(C ) A ´ ( B - C ) = ( A ´ B) - ( A ´ C ) Then R is
(D) A ´ ( B D C ) = ( A ´ B) D ( A ´ C ) (A) transitive
(B) an equivalence relation on  ´ 
5. Let A be the set of all non-degenerate triangles in (C ) symmetric
the Euclidean plane and (D) reflexive on  ´ 
R = {( x, y) Î A ´ A | x is congruent to y}
11. Let M2 be the set of square matrices of order 2 over
Then R is the real number system and
(A) reflexive on A R = {( A, B) Î M2 ´ M2 | A = PT BP for some
(B) transitive
(C ) symmetric non-singular P Î M }
(D) an equivalence relation on A Then R is
(A) symmetric
6. Let n be a positive integer and
(B) transitive
R = {(a, b) Î  ´  | n divides a - b} (C ) reflexive on M2
(D) not an equivalence relation on M2
Then R is
(A) transitive 12. Let L be the set of all straight lines in the space and
(B) reflexive on 
(C) symmetric R = {(l, m) Î L ´ L | l and m are coplanar}
(D) an equivalence relation on  Then R is
(A) reflexive on L
7. Let A be the set of all human beings in a particular
( B) not an equivalence relation on L
city at a given time and
(C ) symmetric
R = {( x, y) Î A ´ A | x and y live in the same locality} (D) transitive

Then R is 13. Let * be the set of all non-zero rational numbers and
(A) symmetric
(B) reflexive on A R = {(a, b) Î * ´ * | ab = 1}
(C) transitive Then R is
(D) not an equivalence relation
(A) reflexive on * ( B) not reflexive on *
8. For any integer n, let In be the interval (n, n + 1).
(C ) symmetric (D) not symmetric
Define
14. Let  be the set of all rational numbers,  the set of
R = {( x, y) Î  |both x, y Î In for some n Î } all integers and
Then R is R = {(a, b) Î  ´  | a - b Î }
(A) reflexive on  Then which of the following are true?
(B) symmetric
(A) ( x, 2 x) Î for all x Î
(C) transitive
( B)  ´  Í R
(D) an equivalence relation
(C ) (3 × 5, 4 × 5) Î
(D) (6 × 3, 7 × 2) Î
9. Let  be the set of all real numbers and S = {(a, b) Î
 ´  | a - b £ 0}. Then S is
15. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {5, 6, 7} and C = {a, b, c, d, e}.
(A) reflexive on  Define mappings f : A ® B and g : B ® C by
(B) transitive
(C) symmetric f = {(1, 5), (2, 6), (3, 5), (4, 7)} and g = {(5, b),
(D) an equivalence relation on  (6, c), (7, a)}

10. For any ordered pairs (a, b) and (c, d) of real numbers,
Then which of the following are true?
define a relation, denoted by R, as follows: (A) ( g f )(2) = c ( B) ( g f )(4) = b
(C ) ( g f )(3) = b (D) ( g f )(1) = a
(a, b) R (c, d) if a < c or (a = c and b ≤ d)
Exercises 79

16. Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and f : A ® A and g : A ® A 23. If f :  ®  is defined by f ( x) = ax + b, where a and


be mappings defined by f (1) = 2, f (2) = 3, f (3) = 4, b are given real numbers and a ¹ 0, then
f (4) = 1; g (1) = 1, g (2) = 3, g (3) = 4 and g (4) = 2. (A) f is an injection ( B) f is a surjection
Then which of the following are true? (C ) f is not a bijection (D) f is a bijection
(A) f is a bijection ( B) g is an injection
(C ) g is a surjection (D) f is an injection 24. If f : [0, ¥) ® [0, ¥) is the function defined by
x
17. Let f :  ®  and g :  ®  be mappings defined by f ( x) =
f ( x) = x2 + 3 x + 2 and g( x) = 2 x - 3 . Then which of x+1
the following are true? then
(A) ( f g )(1) = 0 ( B) ( g f )(1) = 9 (A) f is an injection but not a surjection
(C ) ( f g )(3) = 20 (D) ( g f )(3) = 20 ( B) f is a bijection
(C ) Each 0 £ y < 1 has an inverse image under f
18. Let f : ®  and g : ®  be mappings defined by (D) f is a surjection
f ( x) = x2 and g (x) = 2x + 1. If ( f g )( x) = ( g f )( x),
then x is equal to 25. Let f be a real-valued function defined on the inte-
1 rval [–1, 1]. If the area of the equilateral triangle with
(A) -2 + ( B) –2 (0, 0) and (x, f (x)) as two vertices is 3/4, then f (x)
2
is equal to
1
(C ) -2 - (D) 0
2 (A) 1 - x2 ( B) 1 + x2
19. Let f : [–1, ¥) ®  be defined by f (x) = (x + 1) – 1. If2

( f f )( x) = x , then the value of x is (C ) - 1 - x2 (D) - 1 + x2


(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) –1 (D) –2
26. Consider the equation x + y = 1 . Then
2 2

20. Let f :  ®  be a function such that f (x + y) = f (x) + (A) y in terms of x is a function with domain [–1, 1]
f (y) for all x, y Î. Then which of the following hold? (B) y = + 1 - x2 is a function with domain [–1, 1]
(A) f (0) = 0
( B) f is an odd function (C) y = + 1 - x2 is an injection of [0,1] into [0, 1]
(C ) f (n) = nf (1) for n Î (D) y = + 1 - x2 is a bijection of [0,1] onto [0, 1]
(D) f is an even function
27. Let f ( x) = x for all x Î[- 2, 2]. Then f is
2

21. If f :  ®  is a function such that f(0) = 1 and f(x + f(y)) =


(A) an even function
f(x) + y for all x, y Î , then
( B) not an even function
(A) 1 is a period of f (C ) a bijection
( B) f (n) = 1 for all integers n (D) not an injection
(C ) f (n) = n for all integers n
(D) f (–1) = 0

22. Let f, g :  ®  be functions defined by f(x) = ax + b


and g(x) = cx + d, where a, b, c, d are given real
numbers and c ¹ 0. If ( f g )( x) = g( x), then
(A) a = 1 ( B) b = 0
(C ) ab = 1 (D) f (4) = 4

Matrix-Match Type Questions


In each of the following questions, statements are given in matching with one or more statements in Column II. The
two columns, which have to be matched. The statements appropriate bubbles corresponding to the answers to
in Column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while these questions have to be darkened as illustrated in the
those in Column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and following example.
(t). Any given statement in Column I can have correct
80 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Example: If the correct matches are (A) ® (p), (s); where [x] is the largest integer £x. Then match the items
(B) ® (q), (s), (t); (C) ® (r); (D) ® (r), (t) that is if the given in Column I with those in Column II.
matches are (A) ® (p) and (s); (B) ® (q), (s) and (t); (C)
® (r); and (D) ® (r), (t) then the correct darkening of
bubbles will look as follows: Column I Column II

(A) ( g f ) æç ö÷
p q r s t 1 (p) 3
A è 2ø
(q) 0
( B) ( f g ) æç ö÷
B 3
C è 2ø (r) –1
D
(C ) ( f g f ) æç ö÷
3
è 4ø (s) 1
1. Let X be the universal set and A and B be subsets of X.
(D) ( g f g ) æç ö÷
2
Then match the items in Column I with Column II. (t) 2
è 3ø

Column I Column II 5. Let S be the set of all square matrices of order 3 over
(A) A - B = A Û A Ç B = (p) f the real number system. For A Î S, | A | is the determi-
(q) A = B nant value of A. Define f : S ®  by f ( A) = | A. for all
(B) ( A - B) Ç B = A Î S . Then match the items in Column I with those
(r) A – B
(C) ( A - B) È ( B - A) = in Column II.
(s) B Í A
(D) A D B = f Û (t) ( A È B) - ( A Ç B)
Column I Column II
2. Let A, B and C be sets. Then match the items in (A) If (p) 1
Column I with those in Column II.
éa b c ù
A = êêb c a úú
Column I Column II
êë c a búû
(A) A D B = C Û (p) A Ç B = f
with a + b + c = 0, then f (A) = (q) –1
(B) A - ( B È C ) = (q) ( A Ç B) - ( A Ç C )
(r) B D C = f (B) If w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity
(C) A Ç ( B - C ) =
(s) A = B D C é1 w w2 ù
(D) A D B = A È B Û (t) ( A - B) Ç ( A - C ) ê ú
and A= êw w2 1ú
êw2 1 w úû (r) 3abc - a3 -b3 - c3
3. Let A, B, C and D be sets. Then match the items in ë
Column I with those in Column II.
then f (A)=
(C) If
Column I Column II
é0 5 -7 ù
(A) A ´ ( B È C ) (p) ( A ´ B) Ç ( A ´ C )
A = ê -5 0 11 úú
ê (s) 2
( B) ( A È B) ´ (C È D) (q) ( A ´ C ) Ç ( B ´ D)
êë 7 -11 0 úû
(r) ( A ´ B) È ( A ´ C )
(C ) ( A Ç B) ´ (C Ç D)
(s) ( A ´ C ) È ( B ´ D) then f(A) =
(D) A ´ ( B Ç C ) (t) ( A ´ C ) È ( A ´ D) (D) If A Î S and AAT = I (the unit
È ( B ´ C ) È ( B ´ D) matrix) then f ( A) = (t) 0

4. Let f , g :  ®  be the functions defined by

f (x) = x2 + 1 and g(x) = 2[x] - 1


Exercises 81

6. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II


Column I Column II

æ k ö
1997
Column I Column II (p) 998.5
(A) å
k =1
f9 ç
è 1998 ÷ø
=
(A) If f is a function such (p) 4
1997
æ k ö (q) 994
that f (0) = 2, f (1) = 3 and
f ( x + 2) = 2 f ( x) - f ( x + 1), (B) å
k =1
f4 ç
è 1998 ÷ø
=

then f(5) is equal to (r) 993


æ k ö
2009

(B) If
(q) 3
(C) å
k =1
f16 ç
è 2010 ÷ø
=

ì x2 , for x ³ 0 (s) 1004


æ k ö
2008
f (x) = í
î x, for x < 0
(D) å
k =1
f25 ç
è 2009 ÷ø
=
(t) 1004.5
(r) 12
then f ( 13 ) =
(C) If f (x) + 2 f (1 - x) = x2 + 2 for 8. Consider the following graphs G1, G2, G3 and G4 and
all x Î, then f(5) is match the items in Column I with those in Column II.
(s) 11
x
4
(D) If f ( x) = for all Column I Column II
4 +2x

x Î , then å f æç k ö÷ =
6
(A) G1 (p) Does not represent a function
(t) 13
k =1
è 7ø (q) Represents an increasing function
(B) G2
(r) Represents an increasing injection
7. For any 0 < a Î  , let (C) G3
(s) Represents a periodic function
ax (D) G4 (t) Represents a bijection
fa ( x) =
ax + a
for all x Î . Then match the items in Column I with
those in Column II.

Y Y

(0,1)
X
X O
O

Group G1 Group G2

Y
Y

X X
O p 2p 3p 4p O 1 2

Group G3 Group G4
82 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Comprehension-Type Questions
1. Passage: f is a real-valued function satisfying the (ii) The sum of all positive possible values of x such
functional relation: that f(x) = 1 is
(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 8 (D) 5
æ 2 x + 29 ö
2 f ( x) + 3 f ç = 100 x + 80 for all x ¹ 2 (iii) The number of values of x such that f ( x) = 3 is
è x - 2 ÷ø
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 3 (D) 2
Answer the following questions:
4. Passage: Let f(x) = x + |x|. Answer the following ques-
(i) f (0) is equal to
tions.
(A) 754 (B) –754 (C) 854 (D) –854
(i) The range of f (x) is
(ii) f æç -29 ö÷ is equal to (A) [0, ¥) (B) (-¥, 0] (C) (0, ¥) (D) 
è 2 ø (ii) The number of values of x such that f ( x) = x is
(A) 659 (B) –596 (C) 596 (D) –659 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite
(iii) f (–4) is equal to (iii) The number of values of x such that f ( x) = 0 is
(A) 34 (B) –34 (C) 43 (D) –43 (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite
2. Passage: Let f :  - {0} ®  be a function satisfying 5. Passage: Let f :  ®  be a function satisfying the
functional relation
æ 1ö
f ( x) + 2 f ç ÷ = 3 x ( f ( x))y + ( f ( y))x = 2 f ( xy)
è xø
for all 0 ¹ x Î . Answer the following questions. for all x, y Î and it is given that f (1) = 1/ 2. Answer
the following questions.
(i) xf (x) =
(i) f ( x + y) =
(A) 2 - x2 (B) x2 - 2 (C) x2 - 1 (D) 1 - x2
(A) f ( x) + f ( y) ( B) f ( x) f ( y)
(ii) The number of solution of the equation f (x) =
f (-x) is
y x
(C ) f ( x y ) (D) f ( x)
(ii) f ( xy) = f ( y)
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0
(iii) The number of solutions of the equation f (-x) = (A) f ( x) f ( y) ( B) f ( x) + f ( y)
-f (x) is (C ) ( f ( x))y (D) ( f ( xy))xy
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) Infinite ¥

3. Passage: It is given that f ( x) = 2 - | 2 x - 5 | .


(iii) å f (k ) =
k =0

Answer the following questions. (A) 5/2 (B) 3/2 (C) 3 (D) 2
(i) The range of the function f is
(A) (-¥, - 1) (B) (-¥, 2)
(C) (-¥, 2] (D) (2, ¥)

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


Statement I and statement II are given in each of the drink both coffee and tea. Then the number of adults
questions in this section. Your answers should be as per who drink neither coffee nor tea is 380.
the following pattern:
Statement II: If A and B are two finite sets, then
(A) If both statements I and II are correct and II is a correct
reason for I n( A È B) + n( A Ç B) = n( A) + n( B)
( B) If both statements I and II are correct and II is not a 2. Statement I: In a class of 40 students, 22 drink Sprite,
correct reason for I 10 drink Sprite but not Pepsi. Then the number of
(C ) If statement I is correct and statement II is false students who drink both Sprite and Pepsi is 15.
(D) If statement I is false and statement II is correct Statement II: For any two finite sets A and B,
1. Statement I: In a survey of 1000 adults in a village, it n( A) = n( A - B) + n( A Ç B)
is found that 400 drink coffee, 300 drink tea and 80
Answers 83

3. Statement I: In a class of 60, each student has to enroll n( A È B È C )


for atleast one of History, Economics and Political
Science. 20 students have enrolled for exactly two of = n[ A - ( B È C )]
these subjects and 8 enrolled for all the three. Then + n[ B - (C È A)] + n[C - ( A È B)]
the number of students who have enrolled for exactly
one subject is 32. + n[( A Ç B) - C ] + n[( B Ç C ) - A]
Statement II: For any three finite sets A, B and C. + n[(C Ç A) - B] + n( A Ç B Ç C )

ANSWERS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. (D) 25. (A)
2. (B) 26. (B)
3. (D) 27. (B)
4. (C) 28. (A)
5. (A) 29. (D)
6. (B) 30. (B)
7. (A) 31. (C)
8. (C) 32. (C)
9. (D) 33. (D)
10. (C) 34. (A)
11. (B) 35. (B)
12. (A) 36. (C)
13. (C) 37. (D)
14. (D) 38. (A)
15. (A) 39. (B)
16. (B) 40. (C)
17. (C) 41. (D)
18. (D) 42. (B)
19. (C) 43. (C)
20. (B) 44. (D)
21. (A) 45. (A)
22. (B) 46. (C)
23. (D) 47. (A)
24. (D) 48. (C)

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. (B), (D) 15. (A), (C)
2. (A), (B), (D) 16. (A), (B), (C), (D)
3. (A), (B), (C), (D) 17. (A), (B), (C)
4. (A), (B), (C), (D) 18. (B), (D)
5. (A), (B), (C), (D) 19. (B), (C)
6. (A), (B), (C), (D) 20. (A), (B), (C)
7. (A), (B), (C) 21. (A), (B)
8. (B), (C) 22. (A), (B), (D)
9. (A), (B) 23. (A), (B), (D)
10. (A), (D) 24. (A), (C)
11. (A), (B), (C) 25. (A), (C)
12. (A), (B), (C) 26. (B), (C), (D)
13. (B), (C) 27. (A), (D)
14. (B), (C)
84 Chapter 1 Sets, Relations and Functions

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (t), (D) ®(q) 6. (A) ® (t), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (q)
2. (A) ® (s), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (p) 7. (A) ® (p), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (t), (D) ® (s)
3. (A) ® (r), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (p) 8. (A) ®(q), (r), (t), (B) ® (p), (C) ® (s),
4. (A) ® (s), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (t), (D) ® (p) (D) ® (s)
5. (A) ® (r), (t), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (t),
(D) ® (p), (q)

Comprehension-Type Questions
1. (i) (D); (ii) (C); (iii) (B) 4. (i) (A); (ii) (B); (iii) (D)
2. (i) (A); (ii) (B); (iii) (D) 5. (i) (B); (ii) (C); (iii) (D)
3. (i) (C); (ii) (D); (iii) (B)

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


1. (A) 3. (A)
2. (D)
Exponentials and
Logarithms 2
Contents
2.1 Exponential Function
2.2 Logarithmic Function
2.3 Exponential Equations
2.4 Logarithmic Equations
2.5 Systems of Exponential
Exponentials and Logarithms

and Logarithmic
Equations
2.6 Exponential and
Logarithmic
Inequalities

2×2×2=8 Worked-Out Problems


log (8) = 3 Summary
2
3 Exercises
Answers
base

23 = 8

Exponential Function: For


log (8) = 3 any positive real number a,
2
the function f(x) = ax for x Î 
is called exponential function
with base a.
Logarithmic Function: Let
a > 0 and a ¹ 1. Consider the
function g : + ®  defined
by g( y) = x Û y = ax for all
y Î + and x Î  . The func-
tion g is the logarithmic
function denoted by loga.
86 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

In this chapter, we will discuss various properties of exponential and logarithmic functions which are often used in
solving equations, systems of equations, and inequalities containing these functions.

2.1 | Exponential Function


For any positive real number a, we can define ax for all real numbers x. This function is called an exponential function,
whose domain is the set of all real numbers and codomain is also the set of real numbers.

DEF IN IT ION 2 . 1 Let a be any positive real number. Then the function f :  ® , defined by f(x) = ax for all real
numbers x, is called the exponential function with base a.

As usual, we simply say that ax is the exponential function with base a, with the idea that, as x varies over the set of
real numbers, we get a function mapping x onto ax. Note that a must be necessarily positive for ax to be defined for all
x Î. For example (-1)1 2 is not defined in ; for this reason, we take a to be positive.

Examples

(1) 2x is the exponential function with base 2. (4) The constant map which maps each x onto the real
(2) (0.02)x is the exponential function with base 0.02. number 1 is also an exponential function with base 1,
(3) (986)x is the exponential function with base 986. since 1x = 1 for all x Î.

The following theorems are simple verifications and give certain important elementary properties of exponential
function.

T H E O R E M 2.1 Let a be a positive real number. Then the following hold for all real numbers x and y:

1. ax ay = ax + y
2. ax > 0
3. ax / ay = ax - y
4. (ax )y = axy
1
5. a- x =
ax
6. a0 = 1
7. a1 = a
8. 1x = 1

T H E O R E M 2.2 1. If a > 1, then ax is an increasing function; that is, x £ y Þ ax £ ay.


2. If 0 < a < 1, then ax is a decreasing function; that is, x £ y Þ ax ³ ay.
3. If a > 0 and a ¹ 1, ax is an injection; that is, ax ¹ ay for all x ¹ y.
4. For any a > 0 and a ¹ 1, ax = 1 if and only if x = 0.
2.1 Exponential Function 87

Examples

(1) The function y = 2x is increasing and its graph is given in Figure 2.1.
(2) The function y = (1/ 2)x is decreasing and its graph is given in Figure 2.2.

Y=

y = 2x

(0,1)

X=
0

FIGURE 2.1 Graph of the function y = 2x.

Y=

x
æ 1ö
y =ç ÷
è 2ø

(0,1)

X=
0

FIGURE 2.2 Graph of the function y = (1/2)x.


88 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

2.2 | Logarithmic Function


We have observed in the previous section that, when a > 0 and a ¹ 1, the exponential function with base a is an injection
of  into  and its range is + = (0, + ¥). Therefore the function f :  ® (0, +¥), defined by f(x) = ax, is a bijection and
hence f has an inverse. This implies that there exists a function g : (0, +¥) ®  such that
f ( x) = y Û x = g( y) or y = ax Û g( y) = x
for any x Î and 0 < y Î . This function g is called the logarithmic function with base a. Formally, we have the
following definition.

DEF IN IT ION 2 . 2 Let 0 < a Î  and a ¹ 1. Then the function g : + ® , defined such that
g( y) = x Û y = ax

for all y Î + and x Î , is called the logarithmic function with base a and is denoted by log a.

It is a convention to write log a y instead of log a ( y). Note that log a y is defined only when a > 0, a ¹ 1 and y > 0
and that
loga y = x Û y = ax
for any y Î + and x Î .
The following are easy verifications and these are the working tools for solving exponential and logarithmic
equations and inequalities.

T H E O R E M 2 .3 Let 0 < a Î , a ¹ 1. Then the following hold for any y, y1, y2 Î + and x, x1, x2 Î :

1. aloga y = y
2. loga ax = x
3. loga y = x Û y = ax
4. log a ( y1 y2 ) = log a y1 + log a y2
5. log a (1/y) = - log a y
6. log a ( y1 /y2 ) = log a y1 - log a y2
7. log a ( yz ) = z log a y for all z Î 
8. log a a = 1 and log a 1 = 0

FORMULA FOR 1. For any a, b Î + - {1} and for any y Î +,


TRANSITION TO
A NEW BASE
loga y
logb y = or loga y = loga b logb y
loga b
1
2. logaa ( y) = loga y for any a ¹ 0.
a
PROOF 1. Let loga y = x, logb y = t and log a b = z. Then ax = y, bt = y and az = b and hence
azt = (az )t = bt = y

Therefore loga y = zt = loga b × logb y.


2. For a ¹ 0, (aa )(1/ a )loga y = aloga y = y and therefore
1
logaa ( y) = loga y
a ■
2.3 Exponential Equations 89

T H E O R E M 2 .4 1. If a > 1, then log a x is an increasing function.


2. If 0 < a < 1, then log a x is a decreasing function.
PROOF This is a consequence of Theorem 2.2 and the fact that, where two functions f and g are inverses to
each other and one function is increasing (decreasing), then so is the other. ■

T H E O R E M 2 .5 For any a > 0 and a ¹ 1, the function log a x is a bijection from the set  + onto .

PROOF This follows from the fact that ax and loga x are functions which are inverses to each other. ■

2.3 | Exponential Equations


It is known from the previous two sections that, for any a > 0, a ¹ 1, the equation ax = b possesses a solution for any
b > 0 and that the solution is unique. In general, the solution is written as x = loga b. If a = 1, then the equation 1x = b
has a solution for b = 1 only. Any real number x can serve as a solution for 1x = 1. Further, for any a > 0, a ¹ 1, the equa-
tion loga x = b has a solution for any b Î and the solution is unique and is written as x = a b. Since the exponential
function ax and the logarithmic function loga x are inverses to each other, the exponential function is often called the
antilogarithmic function.
We often make use of the two transformations, taking logarithms and taking antilogarithms for solving exponential
and logarithmic equations. Taking logarithms to the base a > 0, a ¹ 1 is a transition from the equality
x=y (2.1)
to the equality
loga x = loga y (2.2)
(x and y here can be numbers or the expressions containing the variables). If Eq. (2.1) is true and both sides are
positive, then Eq. (2.2) is also true. Taking antilogarithms to the base a > 0, a ¹ 1, is similar as transition from Eq. (2.2)
to Eq. (2.1). If Eq. (2.2) is true, then Eq. (2.1) is true as well.

Example 2.1

Solve the equation Put 5x-1 = t. The equation reduces to


5x -1 + 5(0.2)x - 2 = 26 t + 25t- 1 = 26
t2 - 26t + 25 = 0
Solution: First observe that
(t - 1)(t - 25) = 0
2
0.2 = = 5- 1 t = 1 or 25
10
and hence Since 5x - 1 = t. We get 5x - 1 = 1 or 52.
(0.2)x - 2 = 5- ( x - 2 ) = 52 - x Solving we get x = 1 or 3.
Therefore, the given equation reduces to
5x - 1 + 53 - x = 26

Example 2.2

Solve the equation which has the same solutions as the original equation.
Since log2 3 = (1/ 2) log2 9, we get that
4 ´ 9x - 1 = 3 22 x + 1
3
Solution: First note that both sides of the given equa- x(log2 9 - 1) = (log2 9 - 1)
2
tion are positive. Taking logarithms with base 2, we get the
equation Since log2 9 ¹ 1, it follows that x = 3 / 2.
1
2 + ( x - 1) log2 9 = log2 3 + (2 x + 1)
2
90 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Example 2.3

Find the solution(s) of the equation Then

5x ´ 2( 2 x - 1)/( x + 1) = 50 x=2
-1
Solution: The given equation is equivalent to or 1= log5 2
x+1
5x - 2 = 2[ 1-( 2 x - 1)/( x + 1)] 1
x + 1 = log5
5x - 2 = 2( 2 - x )/( x + 1) 2
1 1
By transforming this into logarithmic equation (taking x = log5 - log5 5 = log5
2 10
logarithms with base 5), we get
-( x - 2) Therefore the given equation has two solutions, namely,
x-2= log5 2 2 and log5(1/10).
x+1

2.4 | Logarithmic Equations


Transforming a given logarithmic equation into an exponential equation, we can find solutions of the equations. For
any a > 0, a ¹ 1, the logarithmic equation
loga x = loga y
is equivalent to x = y, where x and y are positive real numbers or expressions containing the variable. We simply write
log x for log10 x or loge x. One has to take it depending on the context. Since
1
log10 x = (loge x)
loge 10
it is easy to pass from logarithms with base 10 to those with base e.

Example 2.4

Find the solution(s) of the equation Note that this is meaningful for all x ¹ 0, whereas the
given equation is valid only when x > 0. It follows that
2 log(2 x) = log( x2 + 75) (2.3)
4 x2 = x2 + 75
Solution: The equation is meaningful only when x > 0. x2 = 25
The given equation can be transformed into
Therefore x = 5 or -5. Equation (2.3) has only 5 as a solu-
log(4 x2 ) = log( x2 + 75) (2.4) tion, whereas Eq. (2.4) has two solutions, namely 5 and –5.

Example 2.5

Find the solution(s) of the equation log2 x + log2 (x -1) = 1. or (x - 2) (x + 1) = 0


Now we have
Solution: The equation is meaningful only when x > 1.
Transforming the sum of logarithms to the logarithm of a x-2=0Þx=2
product, we have x + 1 = 0 Þ x = -1
log2 [ x( x - 1)] = 1 = log2 2
Therefore this has two solutions, namely, 2 and –1.
Therefore However, for the given equation to be meaningful, we
x( x - 1) = 2 should have x > 1. Therefore, 2 is the only solution of
the given equation.
or x2 - x - 2 = 0
2.5 Systems of Exponential and Logarithmic Equations 91

Example 2.6

Find the solution(s) of the equation This gives


log3 (3 - 8) = 2 - x
x 3x = 9 or 3x = - 1
The equation 3x = -1 has no solution and the equation
Solution: Taking antilogarithms with the base 3 of the
3x = 9 has unique solution, namely 2. Thus, 2 is the only
given equation, we get
solution of the given equation.
3x - 8 = 32 - x
32x - 8 ´ 3x - 9 = 0
(3x - 9)(3x + 1) = 0

Example 2.7

Find the solution(s) of the equation 1


log x = (- log 2 ± log2 2 + 4 log 5 )
2
xlog 2 x = 5
Since log 5 = 1 - log 2, we find that
Solution: By taking logarithms with base 10, we get an
equation log2 2 + 4 log 5 = (log 2 - 2)2
log 2 x ´ log x = log 5 and therefore,
log x(log 2 + log x) = log 5 1
This gives log x = [- log 2 ± (log 2 - 2)]
2
log2 x + log 2 ´ log x - log 5 = 0 Therefore, log x = -1 or 1 - log 2(= log 5). Thus 1/10 and
This is equivalent to the original equation and is mean- 5 are solutions of the given equation.
ingful only when x > 0. Also, the above equation is a
quadratic equation with respect to log x. Therefore

2.5 | Systems of Exponential and Logarithmic Equations


In this section we consider finding solutions simultaneously satisfying a given system of exponential and logarithmic
equations.

Example 2.8

Solve the simultaneous equations Therefore t = 2 or 1/2. Now


logx y + logy x = 2.5 t = 2 Þ logx y = 2 Þ y = x2

xy = 27 t = 1/ 2 Þ logy x = 2 Þ x = y2

Solution: We have to find a common solution to both From the equation xy = 27, it follows that when y = x2
the above equations. Note that 0 < x ¹ 1 and 0 < y ¹ 1. By we get
taking logx y = t in the first equation we get that x3 = 27 Þ x = 3
1 5
t+ = Substituting this value of x we get y = (3)2 = 9. Therefore
t 2 (3, 9) is one solution. Similarly (9, 3) is another solution.
2t2 + 2 = 5t Therefore, (3, 9) and (9, 3) are common solutions for the
given two equations.
(t - 2)(2t - 1) = 0
92 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Example 2.9

Solve the simultaneous equations From Eq. (2.6), we get

xlog3 y = 27 y (1 + log3 x) log3 x = 4 + log3 x

ylog3 x = 81x (log3 x)2 = 4


log3 x = ± 2
Solution: Taking logarithms with base 3, these equations
can be transformed into Now two situations occur:

log3 y log3 x = 3 + log3 y (2.5) (1) log3 x = 2 Þ x = 9, log3 y = 3 , y = 27


-2 1 1
log3 x log3 y = 4 + log3 x (2.6) (2) log3 x = -2 Þ x = 3 = , log3 y = -1, y =
9 3
Comparing Eqs. (2.5) and (2.6) we get Thus, (9, 27) and (1/ 9, 1/ 3) are the solutions of the given
3 + log3 y = 4 + log3 x system of equations.
log3 y = 1 + log3 x

Example 2.10

Solve the system of equations s + t = 3st


log8 ( xy) = 3 (log8 x × log8 y ) 4( s - t ) = s / t

æ x ö log8 x By solving these two equations, we get that t = 1/2 or 1/6.


4 log8 ç ÷ = Therefore, we have
è y ø log8 y
t = 1/ 2 Þ log8 y = 1/ 2 Þ y = 2 2
Solution: This system of equations can be transformed to
s = 1 Þ log8 x = 1 Þ x = 8
log8 x + log8 y = 3 log8 x ´ log8 y
t = 1/ 6 Þ log8 y = 1/ 6 Þ y = 81/ 6 = 2
log8 x
4(log8 x - log8 y) =
log8 y s = -1/ 3 Þ log8 x = -1/ 3 Þ x = 8- 1/ 3 = 2- 1 = 1/ 2

By putting s = log8 x and t = log8 y, we get Therefore, (8, 2 2 ) and (1/ 2, 2 ) are the solutions of the
given system of equations.

2.6 | Exponential and Logarithmic Inequalities


Let us recall that, if a > 1, the function ax increases and that, 0 < a < 1, the function ax decreases. Also, the function loga x
increases if a > 1, and decreases if 0 < a < 1. These properties can be used to solve some exponential and logarithmic
inequalities.

Example 2.11

Solve the inequality These expressions are meaningful only when 2x/(x + 1) > 0.
Also, the function log9 x is increasing and hence the inequ-
1 2x ality (2.7) is equivalent to the inequality
< log 9 (2.7)
2 x+1
2x
3< (2.9)
Solution: This can be written as x+1

2x Now x cannot be positive [for, if x > 0, then x + 1 > 0 and


log9 3 < log9 (2.8) hence, by Eq. (2.9), 3( x + 1) < 2 x and hence x + 3 < 0, a
x+1
Worked-Out Problems 93

contradiction to the fact that 2 x /( x + 1) > 0 ]. Therefore and therefore, x > - 3. Thus, the interval (-3, - 1) is the
x < 0. Then x + 1 < 0 and hence x < - 1. Again by Eq. (2.9) set of solutions of the given inequality.
3( x + 1) > 2 x

Example 2.12

Solve the inequality x2 - 2.5 x + 1 ³ 1üï


ý (2.12)
( x2 - 2.5 x + 1)x + 1 £ 1 (2.10) x + 1 £ 0 þï
The system Eq. (2.11) of inequalities has solutions
Solution: This is equivalent to the collection of two 0 £ x < 0.5 and 2 < x £ 2.5. The system Eq. (2.12) has
systems of inequalities solutions x £ - 1. Therefore, the set of solutions of the
0 < x2 - 2.5 x + 1 £ 1üï inequality Eq. (2.10) is
ý (2.11)
x + 1 ³ 0 þï éæ 1 ö æ 5 ö ù
[-¥, - 1] È êç 0, ÷ È ç 2, ÷ ú
ëè 2 ø è 2 ø û

Example 2.13

Solve the inequality This implies


1
2x < 31/ x x< log2 3
(2.13) x
x2 - log2 3
Solution: First note that both sides of this inequality <0 (2.15)
are positive for all x ¹ 0 and therefore, their logarithms x
are defined with respect to any base. In particular, since If x is a solution of Eq. (2.15) and x > 0, then x2 - log2 3 < 0
the function log2 x is increasing, the inequality (2.13) is and hence 0 < x < log2 3 . If x < 0 and is a solution of
equivalent to the inequality
Eq. (2.15), then x2 - log2 3 > 0 and hence x < - log2 3 .
log2 (2x ) < log2 31/ x (2.14) Therefore, the set of solutions of the inequality (2.13) is
(-¥, - log2 3 ) È (0, log2 3 )

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
log2.5 [( 1 / 3) + ( 1 / 32 ) + +¥ ] -2 log2.5 ( 2 ) log5/ 2 ( 4 )
1. (0.16) = æ 2ö æ 5ö
=ç ÷ =ç ÷ =4
è 5ø è 2ø
(A) 2 2 (B) 2 (C) 4 2 (D) 4
Answer: (D)
Solution: We know that, for any -1 < r < 1,
a 2. If log 12 27 = a, then log 6 16 =
a + ar + ar2 + + ¥ =
1- r æ3+aö æ3-aö
(A) 4 ç ÷ (B) 4 ç ÷
Therefore è3-aø è3+aø
1 1 1/ 3 1 æ3-aö æ3+aö
+ + + ¥ = = (C) 2 ç ÷ (D) 2 ç ÷
3 32 1 - 1/ 3 2 è3+aø è3-aø
Finally we have Solution:
2 log2.5 ( 1 / 2 )
2 æ 2ö log 6 16 = 4 log 6 2 =
4
=
4
(0.16)log2.5 [(1/ 3) + (1/ 3 ) + +¥ ]
=ç ÷ (2.16)
è 5ø log 2 6 1 + log 2 3
94 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Now, 5. If log3 2 + log3 (2 - 7 / 2) = 2 log3 (2 - 5), then the value


x x

of x is
3 3
a = log12 27 = 3 log12 3 = = (A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 4
log3 12 1 + 2 log3 2
Solution: First note that 2x > 7 / 2 and 2x > 5. Therefore
Therefore
x > 2. From the hypothesis, we have
a(1 + 2 log3 2) = 3
3 3-a 2(2x - 7 / 2) = (2x - 5)2
2 log3 2 = - 1 =
a a Therefore
2 3-a
= 2 ´ 2x - 7 = 22 x - 10 ´ 2x + 25
log2 3 a
2a Put a = 2x . Then 2a - 7 = a2 - 10a + 25 . Therefore
log2 3 =
3-a a2 - 12a + 32 = 0
Substituting in Eq. (2.16), we get that (a - 8)(a - 4) = 0
4 æ 3 - aö Now a = 4 or 8. That is
log6 16 = = 4ç
1 + [2a /(3 - a)] è 3 + a ÷ø
2x = 4 or 8
Answer: (B) x = 2 or 3

3. If log(a + c) + log(a - 2b + c) = 2 log(a - c), then But x > 2. Therefore x = 3.


(A) 2b = a + c (B) a2 + c2 = 2b2 Answer: (A)
2ac
(C) b2 = ac (D) =b 6. If log( 2 x + 3) (6 x2 + 23 x + 21) = 4 - log( 3 x + 7 ) (4 x2 + 12 x + 9),
a+c
then the value of -4x is
Solution:
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) -1/4
log[(a + c)(a - 2b + c)] = log(a - c) 2
Solution: First note that 2x + 3 > 0 and 2x + 3 ¹ 1, that
is, x > -3 / 2 and x ¹ -1. Also, 3 x + 7 > 0 and 3x + 7 ¹ 1,
(a + c)(a + c - 2b) = (a - c)2
that is, x > -7 / 3 and x ¹ -2. Suppose x > -3 / 2, x ¹ -1.
(a + c)2 - 2b(a + c) = (a - c)2 Then the given equation can be written as

2ac log[(2 x + 3)(3 x + 7)] 2 log(2 x + 3)


b= = 4-
a+c log(2 x + 3) log(3 x + 7)
Answer: (D) log(3 x + 7) 2 log(2 x + 3)
1+ = 4-
log(2 x + 3) log(3 x + 7)
4. The solution of the equation log7 log5( x + 5 + x ) = 0 is
Put
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 1
log(3 x + 7)
Solution: =y
log(2 x + 3)
log7 log5 ( x + 5 + x ) = 0 Then
log5 ( x + 5 + x ) = 7 = 10
2
1 1+ y = 4 -
x+5+ x = 5 = 5 y
x + 5 = 25 - 10 x + x Therefore
10 x = 20 2
y=3-
y
x=2
y2 - 3 y + 2 = 0
x=4
( y - 1)( y - 2) = 0
Therefore, x = 4 satisfies the given equation.
Answer: (C) This gives y = 1 or 2.
Worked-Out Problems 95

Case 1: Suppose that y = 1. Then Þ x ¹ 2, x ¹ 3 and [ x = 2 or 4 or ( x - 3)( x - 5) = 0]

log(3 x + 7) = log(2 x + 3) Þ x = 4 or x=5


3x + 7 = 2 x + 3 Therefore, the number of the solutions of the given
equation is 2.
x = -4
Answer: (B)
This is rejected because x > -3/2.
Alternative Method
Case 2: Suppose that y = 2. Then 2
- 8 x + 15)/( x - 2 )
| x - 3 |( x =1
log(3 x + 7) = 2 log(2 x + 3) = log(2 x + 3) 2
Þ x ¹ 2, x ¹ 3 and | x - 3 | = 1 or x2 - 8 x + 15 = 0
Therefore Þ x ¹ 2, x ¹ 3 and ( x = 4 or 2 or x = 3 or 5)
3 x + 7 = 4 x2 + 12 x + 9
Þ x = 4 or x=5
4 x2 + 9 x + 2 = 0
(4 x + 1)( x + 2) = 0 9. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are solutions of the system of
simultaneous equations
x = - 1/ 4 or - 2
log8 ( xy) = 3 log8 x × log8 y
Here x = -1 / 4 (since x > -3 / 2). So
æ x ö log8 x
-4x = 1 4 log8 ç ÷ =
è y ø log8 y
Answer: (B) then x1 x2 + y1 y2 equals to
(A) 4 (B) 6 (C) 2 (D) 8
7. The number of the solutions of the equation log(x2 -
6x + 7) = log(x - 3) is Solution: Clearly x > 0, y > 0 and y ¹ 1, so as to make
(A) 6 (B) 5 (C) 7 (D) 4 the equations meaningful. The given equations are
equivalent to
Solution: We have, for the term in parentheses on the
RHS of the given equation, log8 x + log8 y = 3 log8 x log8 y
4(log8 x - log8 y) = log8 x /log8 y
x2 - 6 x + 7 = ( x - 3)2 - 2 > 0 Û | x - 3 | > 2
Also, log(x - 3) is defined for all x > 3. From the given Put log8 x = m and log8 y = n ¹ 0. Then the equivalent
equation, x2 - 6 x + 7 = x - 3 , x > 3. Therefore system is
m + n = 3mn ü
x2 - 7 x + 10 = 0, x > 3 ý (2.17)
4(m - n) = m / n þ
( x - 2)( x - 5) = 0, x > 3
Multiplying both the equations of the equivalent system
x=5 we get
Answer: (B)
4(m2 - n2 ) = 3m2
8. The number of solutions of the equation Therefore

m2 = 4 n2 or m = ±2 n
2
- 8 x + 15)/( x - 2 )
| x - 3 |( x =1
is Putting m = 2 n in Eq. (2.17), we get that
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) 4
1
3n = 6 n2 or n = (since n ¹ 0) and m = 1
Solution: 2
2
- 8 x + 15)/( x - 2 )
| x - 3 |( x =1 Now

x2 - 8 x + 15 m = 1 Þ log8 x = 1 Þ x = 8
Þ x ¹ 3, x ¹ 2 and log | x - 3 | = 0
x-2 1 1
n= Þ log8 y = Þ y = 2 2
Þ x ¹ 2, x ¹ 3 and | x - 3 | = 1 or x - 8 x + 15 = 2
2
2 2
96 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Therefore Solution: The given inequality is meaningful for x > 0


and is equivalent to
x1 = 8, y1 = 2 2
2
1 é 1 ù
Again by taking m = -2 n, we get that log2 x - 2 ê - log2 x ú + 1 > 0
2 ë 2 û
n = 6 n2 or n = 1/ 6 and m = - 1/3 1 1
log2 x - (log2 x)2 + 1 > 0
1 2 2
-1/ 3 = m = log8 x Þ x = 8-1/ 3 = (23 )-1/ 3 =
2 (log2 x)2 - log2 x - 2 < 0
1/ 6 = n = log8 y Þ y = 81/ 6 = (23 )1/ 6 = 2 (log2 x - 2)(log2 x + 1) < 0

For x2 = 1/ 2 and x2 = 2 . Therefore - 1 < log2 x < 2


1
1 < x < 22
x1 x2 + y1 y2 = 8 ´ +2 2 ´ 2 = 4+4 = 8 2
2
Answer: (C)
Answer: (D)
12. If log3 x( x + 2) = 1, then x is equal to
10. If
(A) 3 or -1 (B) 1 or -4
æ 1 ö (C) -3 or -1 (D) 1 or -3
log10 ç x = x(log10 5 - 1)
è 2 + x - 1÷ø
Solution: log3 x( x + 2) = 1 is meaningful if x( x + 2) ¹ 0
then x is equal to and x( x + 2) > 0 . Also, this equation implies
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0 x( x + 2) = 3
Solution: Given equation is equivalent to x + 2x - 3 = 0
2

æ 1 ö ( x + 3)( x - 1) = 0
log10 ç x = x(log10 5 - log10 10)
è 2 + x - 1÷ø x = -3 or 1
æ 5ö Answer: (D)
= x log10 ç ÷
è 10 ø
13. A solution of the equation
1
= log10 x 1
2 log(2 x) = log( x - 15)4
4
Therefore is
(A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 2 (D) -15
1 1
= Solution: The given equation is meaningful if x > 0 and
2x + x - 1 2x
x ¹ 15. If x > 15, then the given equation is equivalent to
This gives x – 1 = 0 or x = 1 which satisfies the equation. log 2 x = log( x - 15)
Answer: (A)
and hence 2 x = x - 15 and therefore x = -15, which is
11. The set of all values of x satisfying the inequality false (since x > 0). Therefore 0 < x < 15. Then, from the
log2 x - 2(log1/ 4 x)2 + 1 > 0 is the interval given equation

(A) (0, 1) (B) (4, ¥) 1


log(2 x) = log(15 - x)4 = log(15 - x)
4
(C) æç , 4ö÷ (D) æç ,
1 1 1ö
è2 ø è4 ÷
2ø and hence 2 x = 15 - x, so that x = 5.
Answer: (B)
Worked-Out Problems 97

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. Which of the following are true? (C) 34 log3 5 + (27)log9 36 = 54 + (33 )(1/ 2 ) log3 ( 36 )
1 1 1
(A) + + + = logn (43)! = 625 + (36)3 / 2 = 625 + 216 = 841
log2 n log3 n log43 n
3 1/ 3
121 + ( 1/ 3) + 1/ 3]
(D) 8log2 = 23[log2 (121)
1 1 1
(B) + + =2
logxy ( xyz) logyz ( xyz) logzx ( xyz) = 2log2 121+ 1 = 121 ´ 2 = 242
(C) If n = (2009)!, then Answers: (A), (B), (D)

1 1 1 3. If x, y, z simultaneously satisfy the equations


+ + + =1
log2 n log3 n log2009 n log2 x + log4 y + log4 z = 2
loga n log3 y + log9 z + log9 x = 2
(D) = loga b - 1
logab n
log4 z + log16 x + log16 y = 2

Solution: then which of the following is (are) true?


43
1 43 43 (A) xy = 9 / 4 (B) yz = 36
(A) å log
k=2 n
= å logn k = å logn k = logn (43)!
k=2 k=2
(C) zx = 64 / 9 (D) x + y + z = xyz
k

1 1 1 Solution: First observe that


(B) + +
logxy ( xyz) logyz ( xyz) logzx ( xyz)
log2 x = log4 ( x2 )
= logxyz ( xy) + logxyz ( yz) + logxyz (zx)
log3 y = log9 ( y2 )
= logxyz ( xy × yz × zx) = 2
log4 z = log16 (z2 )
(C) By (A), the given sum is logn (2009)! = logn n = 1.
loga n logn ab logn a + logn b From log2 x + log4 y + log4 z = 2, we get that
(D) = =
logab n logn a logn a
log4 x2 yz = 2
logn b
= 1+ = 1 + loga b and hence
logn a
x2 yz = 42 = 16 (2.18)
Answers: (A), (B), (C)
Similarly,
2. Which of the following are correct?
y2 zx = 92 = 81 (2.19)
(A) logb a × logc b × logd c × loga d = 1
z2 xy = 162 = 256 (2.20)
4
(B) 22 × 2- log2 5 =
5 From Eqs. (2.18) – (2.20), we get that x y z = 16 ´ 81 ´ 256. 4 4 4

(C) 34 log3 5 + (27)log9 36 = 741 Therefore


3
121 + ( 1 / 3)
(D) 8log2 = 242 xyz = 2 ´ 3 ´ 4 = 24

Solution: Since x2 yz = 16 and xyz = 24, we get that


(A) logb a × logc b × logd c × loga d = logc a × logd c × loga d 16 2
x= =
= logd a × loga d = 1 24 3
-1 4 Similarly, y = 27 / 8 and z = 32 / 3 . Therefore, xy = 9 / 4, yz = 36
(B) 22 × 2- log2 5 = 4 × 2log2 ( 5 )
=
5 and zx = 64 / 9.
Answers: (A), (B), (C)
98 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II. Therefore

Column I Column II x = 2, 2-2, 2-1/ 3

(A) The number of real (p) 3 Answer: (B) Æ (p)


solutions of the equation (C)
log4 ( x - 1) = log2 ( x - 3) is
(q) 0 1
(B) The number of solutions of the log0.3( x - 1) < log0.09( x - 1) = log( 0.3)2 ( x - 1) = log0.3( x - 1)
equation 2
2
x[ 3/ 4(log2 x ) + log2 x - 5/ 4 ] = x 2 is (r) 2 Therefore
(C) The smallest positive 2 log10 ( x - 1) log10 ( x - 1)
integer x such that <
(s) 4 log10 (0.3) log10 (0.3)
log0.3 ( x - 1) < log0.09 ( x - 1) is
(D) The minimum value of (t) 1 2 log10 ( x - 1) > log10 ( x - 1)
loga x + logx a, where log10 ( x - 1) > 0
1 < a < x is
x - 1 > 1 or x>2
Solution:
(A) Therefore, the smallest integer x satisfying the given equa-
tion is 3.
log4 ( x - 1) = log2 ( x - 3)
Answer: (C) Æ (p)
1 (D)
Þ log2 ( x - 1) = log2 ( x - 3)
2
1 < a £ x Þ loga x > 0, logx a > 0
Þ x - 1 = ( x - 3)2
Therefore
Þ x2 - 7 x + 10 = 0
Þ x = 2 or 5 loga x + logx a ³ 2(loga x × logx a)1/2 = 2

But the given equation is defined for x > 3. and equality occurs if and only if x = a. Therefore mini-
Therefore x = 5. mum value is 2.
Answer: (A) Æ (t) Answer: (D) Æ (r)
(B)
2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.
[ 3 / 4 (log2 x )2 + log2 x - 5 / 4 ]
x = 2
Column I Column II
Taking logarithms on both sides to the base 2,
(A) log2 (log3 81) = (p) 0
é3 5ù 1
êë 4 (log2 x) + log2 x - 4 úû log2 x = 2
2
(q) 1
(B) 34 log9 7 = 7k , then k =
(r) 3
Put log2 x = t. Then (C) 2log3 5 - 5log3 2 = (s) 2
é3 2 5ù 1 (D) log3 [log2 (512)] = (t) 4
êë 4 t + t - 4 úû
t=
2
Solution:
Therefore
(A) log2 (log3 81) = log2 (log3 34 ) = log2 4 = 2
3t + 4t - 5t - 2 = 0
3 2
Answer: (A) Æ (s)
Clearly, t = 1 is root of this equation. Now, (B)

(t - 1)(3t2 + 7t + 2) = 0 34 log9 7 = 7k
t = 1, - 2, - 1/ 3 Þ 34 ´(1/ 2 ) log3 7 = 7k
Worked-Out Problems 99

Þ (3log3 7 )2 = 7k (D)

Þ 72 = 7k log 3 [log 2 (512)] = log 3 (log 2 2 9 )

Þ k= 2 = log 3 9 = 2
Answer: (B) Æ (s) Answer: (D) Æ (s)
(C)

2log3 5 - 5log3 2 = 2log2 5×log3 2 - 5log3 2


= (2log2 5 )log3 2 - 5log3 2
= 5log3 2 - 5log3 2 = 0
Answer: (C) Æ (p)

Comprehension-Type Questions
1. Passage: It is given that æ ö
(iii) logp ç logp p p p
p p ÷ (n radicals) =
loga (bc) = loga b + loga c, a ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 è ø
æbö (A) np (B) –n (C) –np (D) n
loga ç ÷ = loga b - loga c, a ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0
ècø
Solution:
n (i)
logam b = loga b, a ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, m ¹ 0
n

m
a2 + b2 = 7ab
loga b = logc b /logc a, a ¹ 1, c ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0, c > 0
(a + b)2 = 9ab
1
loga b = , a ¹ 1, b ¹ 1, a > 0, b > 0 2 log(a + b) = 2 log 3 + log(ab)
logb a

Answer the following questions: æ a + bö


2 log ç = log(ab)
è 3 ÷ø
(i) If a > 0, b > 0 and a2 + b2 = 7ab, then
æ a + bö Answer: (A)
(A) 2 log ç = log(ab)
è 3 ÷ø (ii) The given number can be written as
æ a + bö log3 (135) log3 (15) - log3 5 × log3 405
(B) log ç = log(ab)
è 3 ÷ø
2
= (log3 5 + 3)(1 + log3 5) - (log3 5)(log3 5 + 4) = 3
æ a + bö æ aö
(C) log ç = log ç ÷
è 3 ÷ø
Answer: (C)
è bø
æ ö
æ | a - b |ö
(iii) logp ç log p p p p p ÷ = logp logp ( p1/p )
n
(D) log ç = log a + log b
è 3 ÷ø ç p
 ÷
è n ø
(ii) log3 135 - log3 5 is equal to æ 1ö
log15 3 log405 3 = log p ç n ÷ = -n
èp ø
(A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 3 (D) 0
Answer: (B)

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


1. Statement I: If a, b, c are the sides of a right-angled Statement II: a2 = c2 - b2
triangle with c as the hypotenuse and both c + b and
(A) Both Statements I and II are correct and State-
c - b are not equal to unity, then
ment II is a correct explanation of Statement I.
logc + b a + logc - b a = 2 logc + b a ´ logc - b a
100 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

(B) Both Statements I and II are correct and loga (c + b) + loga (c - b)


Statement II is not a correct explanation of =
loga (c + b) loga (c - b)
Statement I.
(C) Statement I is true, but Statement II is false. loga (c2 - b2 )
=
(D) Statement I is false, but Statement II is correct. loga (c + b) loga (c - b)

Solution: In a right-angled triangle, it is known that loga a2


=
the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the loga (c + b) loga (c - b)
squares of the other two sides. Therefore Statement II is
correct. Also, = 2 logc + b a ´ logc - b a
1 1 Answer: (A)
logc + b a + logc - b a = +
loga (c + b) loga (c - b)

SUMMARY
2.1 Exponential function: For any positive real number a, 2.4 Properties of logarithmic function:
the function f(x) = ax for x Î is called exponential (1) a =y
loga y
function with base a.
(2) log a(ax) = x
2.2 Properties of ax: (3) loga y = x Û y = ax
(1) ax·ay = ax+y (4) loga(y1y2) = logay1 + logay2
x
(2) a > 0 (5) loga (1/ y) = - loga y
ax (6) loga( y1/y2) = logay1 - logay2
(3) y = ax - y
a (7) loga ( yz ) = z loga y for all z Î
(4) (ax)y = axy (8) logaa = 1 and loga1 = 0
(5) a-x = 1/ax
0
(6) a = 1 2.5 Some more important formulae:
1
(7) a = a (1) Change of base: If a, b are both positive and dif-
ferent from 1, and y is positive, then
(8) 1x = 1
x y
(9) For a > 1, if x ≤ y, then a ≤ a (i.e., a is an
x logay = logby × logab
increasing function). 1
(2) logb a ´ loga b = 1 or logba =
(10) If 0 < a < 1, then x ≤ y Þ ax ≥ ay (i.e., ax is a loga b
decreasing function). (3) logx y = log y /log x where both numerator and
(11) If a > 0, then ax is an infection. denominator have common base.
(12) For a > 0 and a ≠ 1, then ax = 1 Û x = 0.
1
(4) logan ( y) = loga y
2.3 Logarithmic function: Let a > 0 and a ≠ 1. Consider n
the function g: + ®  defined by g(y) = x Û y = ax (5) If 0 < a < 1, then loga x is a decreasing function.
for all y Î+ and x Î . This function g is denoted (6) If a > 1, then loga x is an increasing function.
by loga meaning that loga y = x Û y = ax. Note that
loga y is defined only 0 < a ≠ 1 and y > 0.

EXERCISES
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. If a > 0, b > 0 and a2 + 4b2 = 12ab, then log(a + 2b) - (A) log a + log b (B) 2(log a + log b)
2 log 2 is equal to 1
(C) 3(log a + log b) (D) (log a + log b)
2
Exercises 101

2. If 1 < a £ b, then (A) (- ¥, - 3) (B) (2, ¥)


(C) (-2, -1) (D) ( - 2, 0) È (0, 1)
2[ loga 4 ab + logb 4 ab
10. If |log2 ( x2 / 2)| £ 1, then x lies in
- loga 4 b / a + logb 4 a / b ] loga b = (A) (0, 1) (B) [ - 2, - 1] È [1, 2]
(C) (3, ¥) (D) (-¥, - 2)
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
11. The domain of the function
3. log3 2 × log4 3 × log5 4 × log6 5 × log7 6 × log8 7 =
log2 ( x + 3)
f ( x) =
(A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 1 (D) 2 x2 + 3 x + 2
2 3
is
logx (log2 x + 1) 1
4. log2(2x2) + (log2 x) × x + (log4 x4)2 + 2-3 log1/2 log2 x = (A)  - { - 1, - 2} (B) (-2, ¥)
2 (C)  - {- 1, - 2, - 3} (D) (- 3, ¥) - {- 1, - 2}
(A) (1 + log2 x)3 (B) 1 + log2 x
x ( x - 1)
(C) (1 + log2 x) 2
(D) (1 + log2 x)4 12. Let f : [1, ¥) ® [1, ¥) be defined by f ( x) = 2 .
Then f -1 ( x) is equal to
5. The number of pairs (x, y) satisfying the equations 1
(A) 2- x ( x - 1) (B) (1 + 1 + 4 log2 x )
logy x + logx y = 2 and x = 20 + y is
2 2
1
(A) Infinite (B) 2 (C) 0 (D) 1 (C) (1 - 1 + 4 log2 x ) (D) f -1 ( x) does not exist
2

6. The set of solutions of the inequality logx (2x - 3 / 4) > 13. Let f ( x) = x2 + x + log(1 + | x |) for 0 £ x £ 1. If F(x)
2 is is defined on [-1, 1] such that F(x) is odd and
æ 1ö æ 1 ö æ3 1ö æ 3ö F(x) = f(x) for 0 £ x £ 1, then
(A) ç 0, ÷ È ç , 1 ÷ (B) ç , ÷ È ç 1, ÷
è 2ø è2 ø è8 2ø è 2ø ì f ( x) for 0 £ x £ 1
æ 3ö æ 3ö æ 3ö (A) F ( x) = í 2
(C) ç 0, ÷ È ç 1, ÷ (D) (0, 1) È ç 1, ÷ î- x + x - log(1 + | x |) for - 1 £ x £ 0
è 8ø è 2ø è 2ø (B) F ( x) = x2 + x - log(1 + | x |) for -1 £ x £ 0
(C) F ( x) = - f ( x) for -1 £ x £ 0
7. The set of solutions of the inequality 2 log2 (x - 1) >
log2 (5 - x) + 1 is (D) F ( x) = - x2 + x + log(1 + | x |) for -1 £ x £ 0
(A) (1, 5) (B) (5, ¥)
14. Let W be the set of whole numbers and f : W ® W
(C) (3, 5) (D) (-¥, -3)
be defined by
8. If loga 2 = m and loga 5 = n, where 0 < a ¹ 1, then ìæ é x ùö [log10 x ] æ é x ùö
loga 500 = ïç x - 10 ê ú÷ø 10 + f ç ê ú÷ if x>0
f ( x) = íè ë 10 û è ë 10 ûø
(A) 2m + 3n (B) 3m + 2n ï
(C) 3m + 3n (D) 2m + 2n î0 iff x = 0
where [ y] denotes the largest integer £ y. Then
9. The domain of the function f (x) = [1 / log10 (1 - x)] + f (7752) =
x + 2 is
(A) 7527 (B) 5727 (C) 7257 (D) 2577

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. If logx (6 x - 1) > logx (2 x), then x belongs to x( y + z - x) y(z + x - y) z( x + y - z)
2. If = = then
log x log y log z
(A) æç ,

(B) æç , +¥ ö÷
1 1
è6 ÷ (A) xy yx = yz zy (B) yz zy = xz zx
4ø è6 ø
(C) xz zy = yz zx (D) xy yx = zx xz
(D) ç , +¥ ö÷
æ 1
(C) (1, + ¥)
è8 ø
102 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

3. A solution of the equation x


log 2 x
= 5 is 6. If f ( x) = log10 (3 x - 4 x + 5), then
2

(A) 0.2 (B) 0.1 (C) 5 (D) 4 (A) Domain of f is 


4. A solution of the system of equations
(B) Range of f is [log10 (11/ 3), + ¥)
(C) f is defined in (0, + ¥)
xx - y = yx + y and x ×y = 1
(D) Range of f is (-¥, log10 (11/ 3)]
is
g (x)
7. If e + e = e, then
x
(A) (1, 1) (B) (1, 3 3 )
(C) (1/ 3 9 , 1) (D) (1/ 3 9 , 3 3 ) (A) Domain of g is (-¥, 1)
(B) Range of g is (-¥, 1)
5. A solution of the inequality log0.2 ( x2 - 4) ³ - 1 satisfies
(C) Domain of g is (-¥, 0]
(A) 1 < x < 2 (B) 2 < x £ 3
(D) Range of g is (-¥, 1]
(C) 3 < x £ 4 (D) 1 < x £ 3

Matrix-Match Type Questions


In each of the following questions, statements are given in 2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.
two columns, which have to be matched. The statements in
Column I are labeled as (A), (B), (C) and (D), while those Column I Column II
in Column II are labeled as (p), (q), (r), (s) and (t). Any
given statement in Column I can have correct matching (A) The number of solutions of the
(p) 0
with one or more statements in Column II. The appropriate equation log10(3x2 + 12x + 19) -
bubbles corresponding to the answers to these questions log10(3x + 4) = 1 is
have to be darkened as illustrated in the following example. (q) 3
(B) log 5 (4x - 6) - log 5 (2x - 2) = 2 is
Example: If the correct matches are (A) ® (p), (s); satisfied by x whose number is
(B) ® (q), (s), (t); (C) ® (r), (D) ® (r), (t); that is if the (r) 2
matches are (A) ® (p) and (s); (B) ® (q), (s) and (t); (C) The number of solutions of the
(C) ® (r); and (D) ® (r), (t); then the correct darkening equation log3 (3x - 8) = 2 - x is
(s) 4
of bubbles will look as follows: (D) The number of values of
p q r s t x that satisfy the equation
A 2 log3 ( x - 2) + log3 ( x - 4)2 = 0 is (t) 1
B
C
D 3. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.

1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II. Column I Column II

Column I Column II log0.3 x - 2


(A) f ( x) = is defined for x (p) [1, 2)
x
(A) The number of solutions (p) 3 belonging to
of the equation (q) (–2, 1)
2 - x + 3 log5 2 = log5 (3x - 52 - x ) is (B) Domain of the function
(B) The number of values of (q) 1 f ( x) = log[1 - log10 ( x2 - 5 x + 16)] is (r) (2, 3)
x satisfying the equation
(log2 x)2 - 5(log2 x) + 6 = 0 is (r) 4 (C) f ( x) = ( log0.5 ( x2 - 7 x + 13))-1 is (s) (3, 4)
(C) The number of roots of the equation defined for x belonging to
1 (s) 0 (D) Domain of the function
log10 x - 1 + log10 (2 x + 15) = 1 is (t) (2, 3]
2 æ 4 - x2 ö
(D) The number of solutions of the (t) 2 f ( x) = log ç ÷ is
è 1- x ø
equation log7 ( x + 2) = 6 - x is
Exercises 103

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


Statement I and Statement II are given in each of the Statement II: aloga x = x where 0 < a ¹ 1 and x > 0
questions in this section. Your answers should be as per
the following pattern: 3. Statement I: The equation log(2 + x )-1 (5 + x2 ) =
(A) If both Statements I and II are correct and II is a log3 + x2 (15 + x ) has no solution.
correct reason for I
1
(B) If both Statements I and II are correct and II is not a Statement II: logbm a = logb a
m
correct reason for I
(C) If Statement I is correct and Statement II is false 4. Statement I: The equation 9log3(log2 x) = log2 x - (log2 x)2 + 1
(D) If Statement I is false and Statement II is correct. has only one solution.
Statement II: aloga x = x and logaxn = nlogax, where
1. Statement I: If a = x2, b = y2 and c = z2, where x, y, x > 0.
z are non-unit positive reals, then 8(loga x3)(logb y3)
(logc z3) = 27. 5. Statement I: If n is a natural number greater than 1
such that n = p1a1 p2a2 pkak, where p1 , p2 , ¼, pk are dis-
Statement II: logb a × loga b = 1 tinct primes and a 1 , a 2 ,… , a k are positive integers,
2
then log n ³ k log 2.
2. Statement I: If xlogx (1- x ) = 9, then x = 3.
Statement II: loga x > loga y when x > y and a > 1.

Integer Answer Type Questions


The answer to each of the questions in this section is a 3. The value of x satisfying the equation 62x+4 = (33x) (2x+8)
non-negative integer. The appropriate bubbles below the is .
respective question numbers have to be darkened. For 2
-1
example, as shown in the figure, if the correct answer to 4. The number of solutions of the equation | x - 2 |10 x =
the question number Y is 246, then the bubbles under Y | x - 2 |3 x is .
labeled as 2, 4, 6 are to be darkened.
5. The number of ordered pairs (x, y) satisfying the
X Y Z W
two equations 8( 2 )x - y = (0.5)y - 3 and log3 (x - 2y) +
0 0 0 0
log3 (3x + 2y) = 3 is .
1 1 1 1
6. If (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) are the solutions of the simultane-
2 2 2
ous equations x + y = 12 and 2(2 logy2 x - log1/ x y) = 5,
3 3 3 3
then x1 x2 - y1 y2 is equal to .
4 4 4
7. The number of solutions of the system of equations
5 5 5 5
y = 1 + log4 x, xy = 46 is .
6 6 6
7 7 7 7 8. The number of integers satisfying the inequality
8 8 8 8
3( 5 / 2 )log3 (12 - 3 x ) - 3log2 x > 83 is .
9 9 9 9 9. The number of integer values of x satisfying the
inequality 2 x + 1 < 2 log2 ( x + 3) is .

æ 4 ö æ 1 ö
1. 5log1/5 (1/ 2 ) + log 2 ç + log1/ 2 ç =
÷
è 3 + 7ø è 10 + 2 21 ÷ø
.

( 81)1/ log 9 + 3
5 3 / log 6
3

[( 7 )2 / log25 7 - ( 125)
log25 6
2. ]= .
409
104 Chapter 2 Exponentials and Logarithms

ANSWERS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. (D) 8. (A)
2. (B) 9. (D)
3. (C) 10. (B)
4. (A) 11. (D)
5. (D) 12. (B)
6. (B) 13. (A)
7. (C) 14. (D)

Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions


1. (A), (C) 5. (B), (D)
2. (A), (B), (D) 6. (A), (B), (C)
3. (B), (C) 7. (A), (B)
4. (A), (D)

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. (A) ® (q), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (q), (D) ® (q) 3. (A) ® (p), (r), (t); (B) ® (r),
2. (A) ® (r), (B) ® (t), (C) ® (t), (D) ® (t) (C) ® (s), (D) ® (q)

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


1. (A) 4. (A)
2. (D) 5. (A)
3. (A)

Integer Answer Type Questions


1. 6 6. 0
2. 1 7. 2
3. 4 8. 2
4. 2 9. 4
5. 1
Complex Numbers
3
Contents
3.1 Ordered Pairs of Real
Numbers
3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib
3.3 Geometric
Interpretation
3.4 The Trigonometric
Form
A: What do you mean?
B: Well, what if we make up a 3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem
number, say ‘i’, so that 3.6 Algebraic Equations
i × i = -1
A: Can we do that?
Worked-Out Problems
B: Why not!
A: But there is no such number Summary
that has that size. Exercises
B: I know, but the idea can exist in Answers
our imagination! I think we should
call it an imaginary number.
Complex Numbers

Any ordered pair (a, b) where


a and b are real numbers is
Firsts Lasts called a complex number.
The set of all complex num-
bers is denoted by  which is
(a+bi)(c+di)  ´ .
Inners
Outers
106 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

It is well known that there is no real number a for which a2 = -1. In other words, the equation x2 + 1 = 0 has no root
in the real number system . Likewise, the equation x2 + x + 1 = 0 has no root in . For this reason, the real number
system  is enlarged to a system  in such a way that every polynomial equation, with coefficients in , has a root in .
The members of  are called complex numbers. Infact, the system  of complex numbers is the smallest expansion of
the real number system  satisfying the above property. In this chapter we will discuss the construction and several
properties of the system of the complex numbers.

3.1 | Ordered Pairs of Real Numbers


A complex number can be defined as an ordered pair of real numbers. Let  denote the set of real numbers and
=´
That is,  is the set of all ordered pairs (a, b) such that a and b are real numbers. We will introduce all the
arithmetical concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division among members of . The members of  are
called complex numbers. First let us recall that two ordered pairs (a, b) and (c, d) are said to be equal if a = c and b = d.

Mathematical Operations on Complex Numbers


DEF IN IT ION 3 . 1 For any complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d), let us define

(a, b) + (c, d) = (a + c, b + d)
(a, b) - (c, d) = (a - c, b - d)
(a, b) + (c, d) is called the sum of (a, b) and (c, d) and the process of taking sum is called the
addition. Similarly (a, b) - (c, d) is called the difference of (c, d) with (a, b) and the process of
taking difference is called the subtraction.

Try it out Verify the following properties:


1. ((a, b) + (c, d)) + (s, t) = (a, b) + ((c, d) + (s, t))
2. (a, b) + (c, d) = (c, d) + (a, b)
3. (a, b) + (0, 0) = (a, b)
4. (a, b) + (-a, -b) = (0, 0)
5. (a, b) + (c, d) = (s, t) Û (a, b) = (s, t) - (c, d)
Û (c, d) = (s, t) - (a, b)

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 2 For any complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d), let us define

(a, b) × (c, d) = (ac - bd, ad + bc)


This is called the product of (a, b) and (c, d) and the process of taking products is called
multiplication.

Try it out Verify the following properties for any complex numbers (a, b), (c, d) and (s, t).
1. [(a, b) × (c, d)] × ( s, t ) = (a, b) × [(c, d) × ( s, t )]
2. (a, b) × (c, d) = (c, d) × (a, b)
3. (a, b) × [(c, d) + ( s, t )] = (a, b) × (c, d) + (a, b) × ( s, t )
4. (a, b) × (1, 0) = (a, b)
5. (a, 0) × (c, d) = (ac, ad)
6. (a, 0) × (c, 0) = (ac, 0)
7. (a, 0) + (c, 0) = (a + c, 0)
3.1 Ordered Pairs of Real Numbers 107

Properties 6 and 7 in “Try it out” suggest that, when we identify any real number a with the complex number
(a, 0), then the usual arithmetics of real numbers are carried over to the complex numbers of the form (a, 0). Further
one can easily observe that the mapping a  (a, 0) is an injection of  into . Therefore, we can identify  with the
subset  ´ {0} of . This also suggests that any real number a can be considered as a complex number (a, 0). Thus  is
an enlargement of  without disturbing the arithmetics in .

Examples

æ1 2ö æ 1 2ö
Let z1 = (2, 3) and z2 = ç , ÷ , then (3) z1 × z2 = (2, 3) × ç , ÷
è2 3ø è 2 3ø
æ 1 2 2 1ö
æ1 2ö æ 1 2 ö æ 5 11ö = ç2 ´ - 3 ´ , 2 ´ + 3 ´ ÷
(1) z1 + z2 = (2, 3) + ç , ÷ø = çè 2 + , 3 + ÷ =ç , ÷ è 2 3 3 2ø
è2 3 2 3ø è 2 3 ø
æ 4 3ö
= ç 1 - 2, + ÷
æ1 2ö æ 1 2ö æ 3 7ö è 3 2ø
(2) z1 - z2 = (2, 3) - ç , ÷ø = çè 2 - , 3 - ÷ =ç , ÷
è2 3 2 3ø è 2 3ø æ 17 ö
= ç -1, ÷
è 6ø

Zero and Unity in Complex Numbers

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 3 The complex numbers (0, 0) and (1, 0) are called the zero and unity, respectively, and are
simply denoted by 0 and 1. Note that these are the real numbers 0 and 1 also, since, for any
real number a, we identify a with the complex number (a, 0).

T H E O R E M 3 .1 For any non-zero complex number z, there exists a unique complex number s such that z × s = 1 [= (1, 0)].

PROOF Let z = (a, b) be a non-zero complex number; that is, z ¹ (0, 0) and hence either a ¹ 0 or b ¹ 0 so
that a2 + b2 is a positive real number. Put

æ a -b ö
s=ç 2 , 2
è a + b a + b2 ÷ø
2

Then
æ a -b ö
z × s = (a, b) × ç 2 , 2
è a + b a + b2 ÷ø
2

æ a2 b(- b) a(- b) ba ö
=ç 2 - 2 , 2 + 2
èa + b2
a +b a +b
2 2
a + b2 ÷ø
= (1, 0) = 1
If (c, d) is any complex number such that
(a, b) × (c, d) = (1, 0)
then ac - bd = 1 and ad + bc = 0. From these we can derive that
a -b
c= and d=
a + b2
2
a + b2
2

Thus, s is the unique complex number such that z × s = 1. ■

Multiplicative Inverse
DEF IN IT ION 3 . 4 The unique complex number s such that z × s = 1 is called the multiplicative inverse of z and
is denoted by 1/z or z-1. Also, z1 × (1/z2) will be simply expressed as z1/z2.
108 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

C O R O L L A RY 3.1 For any complex numbers z1 and z2,


z1 × z2 = 0 Û z1 = 0 or z2 = 0

Examples

(1) If z = (2, 3), then (3) If z = (0, 1), then


1 æ 2 -3 ö æ 2 -3 ö 1
=ç 2 , 2 =ç , ÷ = (0, - 1)
z è 2 + 3 2 + 32 ÷ø è 13 13 ø
2
z
(2) If z = (4, 0), then Infact, if z = (0, b), then
1 æ 4 -0 ö æ 1 ö 1 æ - 1ö
=ç 2 , 2 = ç , 0÷ = ç 0, ÷
z è 4 + 0 4 + 02 ÷ø è 4 ø
2
z è bø
Infact, if z = (a, 0), then (4) (0, 1) × (0, 1) = (-1, 0)
1 æ1 ö
= ç , 0÷
z èa ø

3.2 | Algebraic Form a + ib


Even though there is no real number a such that a2 = -1, there is a complex number z such that z2 (= z × z) = - 1; for
consider the complex number (0, 1). We have
(0, 1) × (0, 1) = (-1, 0) = -1
Also,
(0, -1) × (0, -1) = (-1, 0) = -1
Infact, (0, 1) and (0, -1) are the only complex numbers satisfying the equation z2 = -1. For if z = (a, b) and z2 = - 1, then
(-1, 0) = -1 = (a, b) × (a, b) = (a2 - b2 , 2ab)
and hence a2 - b2 = -1 and 2ab = 0. Since b ¹ 0 (for, if b = 0, then a is a real number such that a2 = -1), it follows that
a = 0 and b = ± 1 and hence z = (0, 1) or (0, -1).
Note: We will denote the complex number (0, 1) by the symbol i (indicating that it is an imaginary number). By the
above discussion, we have i2 = -1 = (-i)2. Recall that we are identifying a real number a with the complex number
(a, 0). With this notation, we have the following theorem.

T H E O R E M 3 .2 Any complex number z can be uniquely expressed as


z = a + ib
where a and b are real numbers and i = (0, 1). This expression is called the algebraic form of z.

PROOF Let z be a complex number. Then z = (a, b) where a and b are real numbers. Now consider
z = (a, b) = (a, 0) + (0, 1)(b, 0) = a + ib
Clearly a and b are unique real numbers such that z = a + ib. ■

Note: We can perform the algebraic operations addition and multiplication with much ease when we consider the
complex numbers in the form a + ib. We can sum or multiply as in the real number system by substituting -1 for i2.

DEFINITION 3.5 Let z be a complex number and z = a + ib, where a and b are real numbers. Then a is called the real
part of z and is denoted by Re(z). Also, b is called the imaginary part of z and is denoted by Im(z).
3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib 109

By the uniqueness of the real and imaginary parts of a complex number, it follows that, for any complex numbers
z1 and z2,
z1 = z2 Û Re(z1 ) = Re(z2 ) and Im(z1 ) = Im(z2 )

Example 3.1

Write (2 + 3i)2 (3 + 2i) in the form a + ib. = (-5 + 12i)(3 + 2i)

Solution: Consider = (-15 - 24) + (-10 + 36)i


= -39 + 26i
(2 + 3i)(2 + 3i)(3 + 2i) = (4 - 9 + 12i)(3 + 2i)

Example 3.2

Find the real and imaginary parts of = 21 - 20 + (21 + 20)i


z = (1 + i)(5 + 2i)2
= 1 + 41i

Solution: Consider Therefore, Re(z) = 1 and Im(z) = 41.

z = (1 + i)(5 + 2i)2 = (1 + i)(25 - 4 + 20i)


= (1 + i)(21 + 20i)

Example 3.3

Find the real and imaginary parts of 25 - 1 - 10i


=
(1 + i)(2 - 3i) 25 + 1
z=
(1 - i)(2 + 3i) 24 æ -10 ö 12 æ -5 ö
= +ç ÷ i= +ç ÷i
26 è 26 ø 13 è 13 ø
Solution: Consider
(1 + i)(2 - 3i) (2 + 3) + (2 - 3)i Therefore Re(z) = 12 / 13 and Im(z) = -5 / 13.
z= =
(1 - i)(2 + 3i) (2 + 3) + (- 2 + 3)i
5-i (5 - i)2
= =
5 + i (5 + i)(5 - i)

Example 3.4

Cube roots of unity


Þ z = 1 or (- 8a3 = 1 and b = ± 3a2 )
Compute all the complex numbers z such that z3 = 1.
æ -1 3ö
Solution: Let z = a + ib. Then Þ z = 1 or ç a = and b = ± ÷
è 2 2 ø
z3 = 1 Þ (a + ib)2 (a + ib) = 1
-1 3 -1 æ 3 ö
Þ z = 1; or z = + i; or z = - i
Þ (a2 - b2 + 2abi)(a + ib) = 1 2 2 2 çè 2 ÷ø
Þ (a2 - b2 )a - 2ab2 + (2a2 b + a2 b - b3 )i = 1
Therefore
ab2 ) + (3a2 b - b3 )i = 1 + 0i
Þ (a3 - 3a
Þ a3 - 3ab2 = 1 and 3a2 b - b3 = 0 -1 + 3i -1 - 3i
1, and
2 2
Þ a(a2 - 3b2 ) = 1 and b(3a2 - b2 ) = 0
Þ (b = 0 and a = 1) or [b2 = 3a2 and a(a2 - 3b2 ) = 1] are all the complex numbers z for which z3 = 1.
110 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Aliter: Now
z3 - 1 = 0 Û (z - 1)(z2 + z + 1) = 0 -1 + i 3 -1 - i 3
and
Ûz=1 or z + z+ 1= 0
2 2 2

-1 ± i 3 are having the property that each is the square of the


Ûz=1 or z= other. If we denote one of them as w, then the other will
2 be w2 and, further, 1 + w + w2 = 0.
Thus, cube roots of unity are

-1 ± i 3
1,
2

Example 3.5

Express the complex number 3+i


=
3+i 1 + 2 + i - 2i
z=
(1 + i)(1 - 2i) 3+i (3 + i)2
= =
3 - i (3 - i)(3 + i)
in the algebraic form.
9 - 1 + 6i 8 + 6i 4 + 3i
= = =
Solution: Consider 9+1 10 5
3+i =
4
+i
3
z=
(1 + i)(1 - 2i) 5 5

QUICK LOOK 1

Let us summarize and record the arithmetical opera- 1 a b


4. = -i 2
tions on the complex numbers in algebraic form. a + ib a2 + b2 a + b2
1. (a + ib) + (c + id) = (a + c) + i(b + d) a + ib 1
5. = (c - id)(a + ib)
c + id c2 + d2
2. (a + ib) - (c + id) = (a - c) + i(b - d)
1
3. (a + ib) × (c + id) = (ac - bd) + i(ad + bc) = [(ac + bd) + i(bc - ad)]
c2 + d 2

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 6 A complex number z is called purely real if Im(z) = 0 and is called purely imaginary if
Re(z) = 0.

Note: A complex number is both purely real and purely imaginary if and only if it is 0 (= 0 + i0).

Examples

(1) If x is a positive real number such that (x + i)2 is (2) If x is a real number such that (2x + i)2 is purely real,
purely imaginary, then then

0 = Re( x + i)2 = Re[ x2 - 1 + 2 xi] = x2 - 1 0 = Im(2 x + i)2 = Im[4 x2 - 1 + 4 xi] = 4 x


and hence x = 1 (since x > 0). and hence x = 0.
3.2 Algebraic Form a + ib 111

QUICK LOOK 2

Let us turn our attention to all the integral powers of i. Infact, for any integer n,
Recall that i [= (0, 1)] is a complex number such that
i2 = - 1. Now, ì 1 if n is a multiple of 4
ï i n - 1 is a multiple of 4
ï if
i 0 = 1, i 1 = i, i 2 = - 1, i 3 = - i, i 4 = 1 in = í
ï-1 if n - 2 is a multiple of 4
Also, ïî -i if n - 3 is a multiple of 4
æ 1ö
i -1ç = ÷ = - i, i -2 = - 1, i -3 = i, i -4 = 1, …
è iø

T H E O R E M 3 .3 The sum of any four complex numbers which are consecutive powers of i is zero.

PROOF Let z1, z2 , z3, z4 be any four consecutive powers of i. Then, there is an integer n such that

z1 = in, z2 = in + 1, z3 = in + 2 and z4 = in + 3
Among the powers of i, 1, i, -1, -i occur cyclically and hence z1 + z2 + z3 + z4 = 0. ■

Examples

(1) i2009 = i4( 502 ) + 1 = (i4 )502 × i1 = 1502 × i = i


å i = i + i2 + å n = 3 in = i - 1 + 0 = - 1 + i
2010 n 2010
(3) n=1

(2) i1947 + i1948 + i1949 + i1950 = i3 + i4 + i5 + i 6


å i n = å n = 1 i n - å n = 1 i n = i - (i + i 2 ) = 1
3005 3005 1002
(4)
= -i + 1 + i - 1 = 0 n = 1003

DE F IN IT ION 3 . 7 For any complex number z = a + ib (a and b are real numbers), the conjugate of z is defined as

z = a - ib

In the following theorem, whose proof is a straight forward verification, we list several properties of the conjugates of
complex numbers.

QUICK LOOK 3

The following hold for any complex numbers z, z1 and z2. 8. z1 × z2 = z1 × z2


1. (z ) = z
æz ö z
9. If z2 ¹ 0, ç 1 ÷ = 1
z+z è z2 ø z2
2. Re(z) =
2
10. z × z is a non-negative real number
z-z
3. Im(z) = 11. zz = 0 Û z = 0 Û z = 0
2i
4. z = z Û z is purely real 12. z1z2 + z1z2 = 2 Re(z1z2 ) = 2 Re(z1z2 )

5. z = - z Û z is purely imaginary 13. z1z2 - z1z2 = - 2i Im(z1z2 ) = 2i Im(z1z2 )


14. For any polynomial f(x) with real coefficients, f (z) =
6. z1 + z2 = z1 + z2
f (z )
7. z1 - z2 = z1 - z2
112 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

T H E O R E M 3 .4 For any complex numbers z and w, with w ¹ 0, there exists a complex number z1 such that
wz1 = z
This z1 is unique and is denoted by z/w.

PROOF Let z = a + ib and w = c + id, where a, b, c and d are real numbers such that c2 + d2 > 0. Put
1
z1 = zw
c2 + d 2
Then
1 1
wz1 = w × zw = [(c + id)(c - id)z] 2 =z
c +d
2 2
c + d2
Also, for any complex number z2,
wz2 = z Þ wwz2 = wz
1
Þ z2 = wz = z1
c2 + d 2 ■

Example 3.6

Find a complex number z such that (2 + 3i)z = 3 - i. Then


1
Solution: Take (2 + 3i)z = (2 - 3i)(2 + 3i)(3 - i)
2 + 32
2

1
z= (2 - 3i)(3 - i) 22 + 32
2 + 32
2
= (3 - i) = 3 - i
22 + 32

Example 3.7

4 + 3i 1
Express in the form a + ib. = (8 + 3 + 6 i - 4 i )
2+i 22 + 12
Solution: Consider 11 2
= + i
4 + 3i (4 + 3i) (2 - i) 5 5
=
2+i (2 + i) (2 - i)

3.3 | Geometric Interpretation


We have introduced the concept of a complex number as an ordered pair of real numbers that can be viewed as a point
in the plane with respect to a given coordinate system. Infact, given a coordinate system in the plane, there is a one-
to-one correspondence between the complex numbers and the points in the plane. This makes it possible to consider
a complex number a + ib as the point (a, b) in the coordinate plane. For this reason, the plane is called ARGAND’S
plane or complex plane. The abscissa axis is called the real axis or the axis of real numbers, containing the points
of the form (a, 0), where a is a real number. The ordinate axis is called the imaginary axis or axis of imaginaries,
containing the points of the form (0, b), where b is a real number. 
For any complex number z = a + ib, it is often convenient to represent z by the vector OM, where M is the point
(a, b) in the plane and O is the origin. Also, every vector in the plane begining at the origin O(0, 0) and terminating
at the point M(a, b) can be associated with the complex number a + ib. The origin O(0, 0) is associated with the zero
vector (Figure 3.1).
3.3 Geometric Interpretation 113

M
b z = a + ib

x
O a

FIGURE 3.1 Graphical representation of a complex number of the form z = a + ib.

Representation of complex numbers as vectors facilitates a simple geometrical interpretation of operations on


complex numbers. First, let us consider the addition of complex numbers. Let z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2 be two
complex numbers represented by the points M1 and M2 in the plane as shown in Figure 3.2.

z1 +z2 = (a1 +a2)+i(b1 +b2)


b1 +b2 M

b1 M1
z2 = a2 +ib2 z1 = a1 +ib1
M2 b2

x
a2 O a1 +a2 a1

FIGURE 3.2 Geometrical interpretation of operations on complex numbers.

When z1 and z2 are added, their real and imaginary parts are added up (see Figure 3.2). When adding up vectors
 
OM 1 and OM 2 corresponding to z1 and z2, their coordinates are added. Therefore, with the correspondence which we
have established between complex numbers and vectors, the sum z1 + z2 of the numbers z1 and z2 will be associated with
  
the vector OM which is equal to the sum of the vectors OM 1 and OM 2 . Thus, a sum of complex numbers can be inter-
preted in terms of geometry as a vector equal to the sum of the vectors corresponding to the complex numbers (in other
 
words, it also corresponds to the fourth vertex of the parallelogram
constructed
 with OM 1 and OM 2 as adjacent sides).
For any complex number z = a + ib, the length of the vector OM corresponding to z has special importance. This
is same as the distance of the point (a, b) from the origin O in the plane. This is termed as modulus of z and is denoted
by | z |. The concept of the modulus of a complex number plays a vital role in the analysis of complex numbers. By the
Pythagorean Theorem, it follows that the modulus of a + ib is a2 + b2 . The following is a formal definition of the
modulus of a complex number.

Modulus of z

DE FIN IT ION 3 . 8 Let z = a + ib be a complex number, where a and b are real numbers. The modulus of z is
defined as a2 + b2 , the non-negative square root of a2 + b2 and is denoted by | z |. That is,

| z |2 = a2 + b2 = [Re(z)]2 + [Im(z)]2
114 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Try it out It can be easily seen that zz = (a + ib)(a - ib) = a2 + b2 = | z | 2

In the following theorem, we list various properties of the modulus of a complex number and the proofs of these
are straight forward routine verifications.

QUICK LOOK 4

8. | z | = | z | for all integers n


n n
The following hold for any complex numbers z, z1 and z2:
1. | z | is a real number and | z | ³ 0 9. |z1 + z2 | 2 = (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 ) = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 + (z2 z1 + z2 z1)
2. | z | = 0 if and only if z = 0 = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 + 2 Re(z1z2 )
3. | z | = | -z | = | z | = | -z | 10. |z1 - z2 | = (z1 - z2 )(z1 - z2 ) = | z1 | + | z2 | + (z2 z1 + z2 z1)
2 2 2

4. | z1z2 | = | z1 || z2 | = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 - 2 Re(z1z2 )
5. | z | = zz
2
11. | z1 + z2 | 2 + | z1 - z2 | 2 = 2[| z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 ]
z1 | z1 |
6. = , if z2 ¹ 0 12. || z1 | - | z2 || £ | z1 ± z2 | £ | z1 | + | z2 |
z2 | z2 |
Note that || z1 | - | z2 || = | z1 - z2 | if and only if z1, z2 are
7. | z1 ± z2 | £ | z1 | + | z2 | collinear with the origin on the same side of the origin.
Note that | z1 + z2 | = | z1 | + | z2 | if and only if the points
z1, z2 are collinear with the origin and lie on the same
side of the origin.

Property 12 above says that | z1 | + | z2 | is the greatest possible value of | z1 ± z2 | and || z1 | - | z2 || is the least possible
value of | z1 ± z2 |.

Unimodular Complex Number

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 9 A complex number z is said to be unimodular if its modulus is 1, that is, | z | = 1.

Note that, for any non-zero complex number z, z / | z | is always unimodular and
z
z = | z|×
| z|

This implies that z can be expressed as


z = rw
where 0 < r Î  and | w | = 1. Moreover, this expression is unique, since
1 z
| z | = | rw | = | r || w | = r × 1 = r and w = z =
r | z|

Example 3.8

If z1 and z2 are non-zero complex numbers such that Therefore


(z1 - z2)/(z1 + z2) is unimodular, then prove that iz1/z2 is
a real number. (z1 /z2 ) - 1
=1
(z1 / z2 ) + 1
Solution: We are given that
2 2
æ z1 ö æ zö
z1 - z2
=1 çè z2 ÷ø - 1 = çè z2 ÷ø + 1
z1 + z2
3.3 Geometric Interpretation 115

By properties 9 and 10 of Quick Look 4, we have This implies

z1
2
æz ö z
2
æz ö z1
+ 1 - 2 Re ç 1 ÷ = 1 + 1 + 2 Re ç 1 ÷ = ia
z2 z z z2
è 2ø 2 èz ø 2
where a is a real number and
Therefore
z1
i = -a
æz ö z1 z2
Re ç 1 ÷ = 0 or
è z2 ø z2
which is a real number.
is purely imaginary

The complex numbers z having the same modulus | z | = r evidently correspond to the points of the complex plane
located on the circle of radius r with center at the origin. If r > 0, then there are infinitely many complex numbers with
the given modulus r. If r = 0, then there is only one complex number, namely z = 0, whose modulus is 0.

z = a+ib
b

q
x
O a r

FIGURE 3.3 Geometrical determination of z using the angle q and the modulus a2 + b2 .

From the geometrical point of view, it is evident that the complex number z ¹ 0 is not completely determined
by its modulus and depends on the direction also; for example, in Figure 3.3, z is determined by the angle q and the
modulus a2 + b2 . Next, we introduce another important concept which, together with the modulus, completely
determines a complex number.

Argument of z

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 10 Let z ¹ 0 be a complex number and OM be the vector in the plane representing z. Then the
argument of z is defined to be
the magnitude of the angle between the positive direction of
the real axis and the vector OM, measured in counterclockwise sense. The angle will be con-
sidered positive if we measure counterclockwise and negative if we measure clockwise.

Note: For the complex number z = 0 the argument is not defined, and in this and only this case the number is specified
exclusively by its modulus. Specification of the modulus and argument results in a unique representation of any
non-zero complex number.
Unlike the modulus, the argument of a non-zero complex number is not defined uniquely. For example, the
arguments of the complex number z = a + ib shown in Figure 3.4 are the angles q1, q2 and q3. Note that
q2 = 2p + q1 and q3 = q1 - 2p
In general, q is an argument of z if and only if q = q1 + 2np for some integer n, where q1 is also an argument of z;
that is, any two arguments of a complex number differ by a number which is a multiple of 2p. The set of all arguments
of z will be denoted by arg z or arg(a + ib). That is, if q is an argument of z, then
arg z = {q + 2 np | n is an integer}
116 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

y y y

M M M
b
(z =a +ib) (z =a +ib) (z = a + ib)

q1 q2
x x x
O a q3

FIGURE 3.4 Different arguments of the complex number z = a + ib.

However, there is a unique q such that -p < q £ p and arg z = {q + 2np | n is an integer}. This q is called the principal
argument of z and is denoted by Arg z (note that A here is uppercase). Note that
-p < Arg z £ p
Also arg z and Arg z are related to each other by the relation
arg z = {Arg z + 2 np | n is an integer}
Frequently, we denote arg z by Arg z + 2np, where Arg z is the principal argument of z.

Example 3.9

Find the arguments of the complex numbers z1 = -i, Therefore


z2 = 1 and z3 = -1 + i.
-p -p
Arg(- i) = and arg (- i) = + 2 np
Solution: From Figure 3.5, we have 2 2

-p 3p Arg (1) = 0 and arg (1) = 2np


q1 = , q2 = 0 and q 3 =
2 4 3p 3p
Arg (- 1 + i) = and arg (- 1 + i) = + 2 np
4 4

y y y
M3 (-1+i )
1

q3
q1
M2
x x x
1 -1

M1 -i

FIGURE 3.5 Example 3.9.

The real and imaginary parts of the complex number z = a + ib can be expressed in terms of the modulus | z | = r
and argument q as follows:
a = r cos q and b = r sin q
(see Figure 3.6) and hence
z = r(cosq + i sinq)
3.3 Geometric Interpretation 117

z =a +ib
b

q
r x
O a

FIGURE 3.6 Geometrical interpretation of z in polar form.

Therefore, the arguments q of a complex number a + ib can be easily found from the following system of equations:
a b
cos q = and sin q = (3.1)
a +b
2 2
a + b2
2

Example 3.10

Find the arguments of the complex number z = - 1 - i 3 . Solving these we find that
-2p
Solution: In this case, we have a = -1 and b = - 3. Arg z =
Equation (3.1) takes the form 3

-1 - 3 and hence
cos q = and sin q =
2 2 - 2p
arg z = + 2 np, n Î 
3

The arguments of a complex number can be found by another method. It can be seen from formula (3.1) that each
of the arguments satisfies the equation
b
tanq =
a
This equation is not equivalent to the system of equations (3.1). It has more solutions, but the selection of the required solu-
tions (the arguments of the complex number) does not present any difficulties since it is always clear from the algebraic
notation of the complex number in what quadrant of the complex plane it is located. This is elaborated in the following.

Key Points
Let z = a + ib and q = Arg z, the principal argument of z. Note that z is necessarily non-zero for the arg z to be
defined.
1. If a = 0 and b > 0, then
p p
Arg z = and arg z = + 2 np , n Î 
2 2
If a = 0 and b < 0, then
-p -p
Arg z = and arg z = + 2 np , n Î 
2 2
118 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

If b = 0 then z = a lies on the x-axis and hence


Arg z = 0 or p and arg z = 2 np or (2 n + 1)p , n Î 

y y

-p
q=
2
x x
-p
=q
2

2. Let (a, b) belong to the first quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a > 0 and b > 0. Then the principal argument of
z is given by

æ bö
Arg z = q = tan-1 ç ÷
è aø
where tan q = b/a. This is an acute angle 0 < q < p/2 and positive. Therefore,

æ bö
arg z = 2 np + tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î 
è aø
y

b z = a + ib

q
x
a a

3. Let (a, b) belong to the second quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a < 0 and b < 0. Then the principal argument
of z is given by
æ bö
Arg z = q = p - tan-1 ç ÷
è | a |ø

This is an obtuse angle and is positive. Therefore,


æ -bö
arg z = (2 n + 1)p - tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î 
è a ø
y
z = a +ib
M b

b q

x
a |a |
3.3 Geometric Interpretation 119

4. Let (a, b) lie in the third quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a < 0 and b < 0. Then the principal argument of z is
given by

æ bö
Arg z = q = -p + tan-1 ç ÷
è aø
This is an obtuse angle and negative. Therefore

æ bö
arg z = (2 n - 1)p + tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î 
è aø

2p -q
a
x

|b| q

|a|
M b
z =a +ib

5. Let (a, b) lie in the fourth quadrant of the complex plane, that is, a > 0 and b < 0. Then the principal argument of z
is given by

æ | b|ö
Arg z = q = - tan-1 ç ÷
è aø

This is an acute angle and negative. Therefore


æ | b|ö æ -bö
arg z = 2 np - tan-1 ç ÷ = 2 np - tan-1 ç ÷ , n Î 
è aø è a ø

a
x
q
|b|

b M
a z =a +ib

 
Note: Arg z is the smallest angle of rotation
 of OX (positive x-axis) to fall on the vector OM [M = (a, b)]. Arg z >
<0
according to whether the rotation of OX is anticlockwise or clockwise, respectively.

Example 3.11

Find the arguments of the complex number z = - 3 + i. æ bö æ 1 ö p 5p


Arg z = p - tan-1 ç ÷ = p - tan-1 ç ÷ =p - =
è | a |ø è 3ø 6 6
Solution: In this case z = a + ib, where a = - 3 and b = 1.
Therefore z lies in the second quadrant of the complex Therefore
plane and hence the principal argument is
5p
arg (- 3 + i) = + 2 np, n Î 
6
120 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Next we will discuss the geometrical constructions of difference, product and quotient of two complex numbers
z1 and z2.

Construction of z2 − z1
Let us construct the vector z2 - z1 as the sum of the vectors z2 and −z1 (Figure 3.7). By thedefinition
 of the modulus, the
real number | z 2 - z1 | is the length of the vector z2 - z1; that is, the length of the vector OM , where M , M 1 , M 2 and N1
represent the points in the complex plane corresponding to the complex numbers z2 - z1, z1, z 2 and -z1, respectively.
 
The congruence of the triangles OMN1 and M1 M2O yields |OM | = | M1 M2 |. Therefore the length of the vector z2 - z1 is
equal to the distance between the points z1 and z2. Thus we can say that the modulus of the difference of two complex
numbers is the distance between the points of the complex plane corresponding to those complex numbers. This important
geometrical interpretation of the modulus of the difference between two complex numbers makes it possible to use
simple geometrical facts in solving certain problems. See examples given in Section 3.3.
y
M1

z1 M2
z2

O
x
-z1
z2 -z1
M

N1

FIGURE 3.7 Construction the vector z 2 - z1 as the sum of the vectors z2 and −z1.

Before going to illustrate the construction of the product and quotient of complex numbers, we present the following
definition:

DEFIN IT ION 3 . 11 Two triangles ABC and A¢B¢C¢ are said to be directly similar if ÐA = ÐA¢, ÐB = ÐB¢ and
ÐC = ÐC¢ and the ratios of the sides opposite to equal angles are equal.

Note that directly similar triangles are similar and not vice-versa. For example, if D ABC and D A¢ B ¢C ¢ are directly
similar, then D ABC and D B ¢A¢C ¢ are not directly similar (unless they are equilateral triangle).

Construction of z1 z2 and z1/z2 (z2 π 0)


Step 1: Let z1 and z2 be complex  and P and Q the points representing them, respectively. Let O be the origin
 numbers
so that the vectors OP and OQ represent z1 and z2, respectively. Let A be the point (1, 0). Join A and P, and
on the base OQ, construct the triangle OQR directly similar to the triangle OAP (Figure 3.8). Then
ÐQOR = ÐAOP, ÐOQR = ÐOAP, ÐQRO = ÐAPO
and further,
OR OQ QR
= =
OP OA AP
Therefore
OR = OP × OQ (∵ OA = 1) (3.2)
Let ÐXOP = q1 and ÐXOQ = q2 . Then
ÐXOR = ÐXOQ + ÐQOR
= ÐXOQ + ÐAOP (3.3)
= q2 + q1 = q1 + q2
3.3 Geometric Interpretation 121

From Eqs. (3.2) and (3.3),

z1z2 = r1 r2 [cos(q 1 + q 2 ) + i sin(q 1 + q 2 )]

where r1 = OP and r2 = OQ. Therefore R represents z1 × z2.

y
R(z1z2)

Q(z2)

P(z1)
x
O A(1, 0)

FIGURE 3.8 Step 1.

Step 2: Draw a triangle OPR directly similar to the triangle OQA. By the above construction, if R is represented by z,

then z × z2 = z1 (Figure 3.9). Notice
 that Ð QOP = arg( z1 / z2 ) is the angle through which OQ must be rotated

in order that it may lie along OP and arg(z1 /z2 ) is positive or negative according as the rotation of OQ is
anticlockwise or clockwise.

y
P(z1)

z1
r1 R z
2

r2 Q(z2)
x
O A(1, 0)

FIGURE 3.9 Step 2.

In the following theorem, an important consequence of arg(z1/z2) is derived. This can help the reader in solving
many problems in the geometry of complex numbers.

T H E O R E M 3 .5 Let z1, z2 and z3 be three complex numbers represented by P, Q and R, respectively. If a is the angle
ÐPRQ , then
z2 - z3 RQ
= (cos a + i sin a )
z1 - z3 RP

PROOF Let the points A and B represent z1 - z3 and z2 - z3, respectively, so that RP = OA, RQ = OB
and PQ = AB (Figure 3.10). Therefore DPQR and DABO are congruent and hence ÐAOB = a.
By Step 2 above,
æ z2 - z3 ö
a = arg ç ÷
è z1 - z3 ø
Therefore
z2 - z3 | z2 - z3 |
= (cos a + i sin a )
z1 - z3 | z1 - z3 |
RQ
= (cos a + i sin a )
RP
122 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

y
Q(z2)

a P(z1)
R(z3)
B(z2 -z3)

a A(z1 -z3)
x
O

FIGURE 3.10 Theorem 3.5. ■

QUICK LOOK 5

æz -z ö  2. For any four points z1, z2, z3 and z4, the angle of
1. arg ç 2 3 ÷ is the angle of rotation of the vector RP inclination of the line joining z1 to z2 with the line
è z1 - z3 ø
 joining z3 to z4 is
to fall along RQ.
æz -z ö
z3 z1 arg ç 3 4 ÷
è z1 - z2 ø

3. The lines joining z1 to z2 and z3 to z4 are at right angles


if and only if
æz -z ö p
arg ç 3 4 ÷ = ±
è z1 - z2 ø 2
and hence
z2 z4
z3 - z4
= ±li
z1 - z2

where l > 0.

Example 3.12

Determine the sets of complex numbers defined by each (2) We can give a different formulation of the problem,
of the following conditions. using the geometrical interpretation of the modulus of
the difference between two complex numbers. We are
(1) | z - i | = 1
asked to determine the set of points in the complex
(2) | 2 + z | < | 2 - z| plane that are located closer to the point z = -2 than to
(3) 2 £ | z - 1 + 2 i | < 3 the point z = 2. It is clear that this property is possessed
by all the points of the plane that lie to the left of the
Solution: imaginary axis and only by those points. In the figure
given below, the shaded portion of the complex plane
(1) | z - i | = 1 is satisfied by those and only those points of the
represents the set of points satisfying | 2 + z | < | 2 - z |.
complex plane which are at a distance equal to 1 from
the point i. Therefore, the set of complex numbers z satis- y
fying the condition | z - i | = 1 is precisely the circle of unit
radius with center at the point i (see the figure below).

x
–2 O

x
O
3.3 Geometric Interpretation 123

(3) The given condition is y

2 £ | z - (1 - 2i)| < 3

A complex number z satisfies the given condition if x


and only if its distance from the point 1 - 2i is greater
than or equal to 2 but less than 3. Such points lie in
r =2
the interior and on the inner boundary of the ring
formed by two concentric circles with centers at the l =1-2i
point 1 - 2i and the radii r = 2 and R = 3. The required
R =3
set is indicated by the shaded portion of the figure at
the right side.

Next, we will turn our attention to general equations of certain geometrical figures in the complex plane, in terms
of a complex variable.

T H E O R E M 3 .6 The general equation of a straight line in the complex plane is


lz + lz + m = 0
where l is a non-zero complex number and m is a real number.
PROOF Let l = a + ib be a non-zero complex number and m a real number. Consider the equation
lz + lz + m = 0
Let z = x + iy be an arbitrary point on this curve. Then
(a + ib)( x + iy) + (a + ib)( x + iy) + m = 0
Therefore
(a - ib)( x + iy) + (a + ib)( x - iy) + m = 0
Solving we get
2 ax + 2 by + m = 0, a ¹ 0 or b ¹ 0 (since l ¹ 0)

This represents a straight line in the plane. Conversely, if px + qy + r = 0 is a straight line, where
p, q, r are reals and p ¹ 0 or q ¹ 0 and if z = x + iy is a point on this line, then
æz+zö æz-zö
pç ÷ + qç ÷+r=0
è 2 ø è 2i ø
Therefore
pz + pz - qiz + qi z + 2r = 0
( p - qi)z + ( p + qi) z + 2r = 0
By taking l = p + qi and m = 2r, the above equation takes the form

lz + lz + m = 0
Note that l ¹ 0, since p ¹ 0 or q ¹ 0. ■

T H E O R E M 3 .7 In the complex plane the equation of the line joining the points z1 and z2 is

z z 1
z1 z1 1 =0
z2 z2 1
124 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

PROOF Let the points z1 and z2 be A and B, respectively. Then P(z) is a point on the line AB if and only if
A, P and B are collinear which implies
æ z - zö
arg ç 1 = 0 or p
è z2 - z ÷ø
z1 - z
Û is pure real
z2 - z

z1 - z z1 - z
Û =
z2 - z z2 - z
Û (z1 - z)(z2 - z ) = (z2 - z)(z1 - z )
z z 1
Û z1 z1 1 =0
z2 z2 1 ■

QUICK LOOK 6

1. The complex number (z1 - z2 )/(z1 - z2 ) is called the and m is a real number), the complex number (z1 -
complex slope of the line joining z1 and z2. z2)/(z1 - z2 ) is equal to - l / l and hence - l / l is the com-
2. For any two points z1 and z2 on the straight line lz + plex slope of the line lz + lz + m = 0.
lz + m = 0 (where l is a non-zero complex number

T H E O R E M 3 .8 The equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining the points z1 and z2 is

(z1 - z2 )z + (z1 - z2 )z + z2 z2 - z1z1 = 0


PROOF Let A(z1) and B(z2) be the given points and L be the perpendicular bisector of the line segment
AB. Then P(z) is point on L. This implies
PA = PB
Û | z - z1 | = | z - z2 |
Û (z - z1 )(z - z1 ) = (z - z2 )(z - z2 )
Û (z1 - z2 ) z + (z1 - z2 ) z + z2 z2 - z1z1 = 0 ■

In the following theorem we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for two points in the complex plane to be
images of each other in a given straight line in the same plane.

T H E O R E M 3 .9 Two points z1 and z2 are images of each other in the line lz + lz + m = 0 (0 ¹ l Î  and m Î ) if
and only if lz1 + lz2 + m = 0.

PROOF Suppose that z1 and z2 are images of each other in the line lz + lz + m = 0. Then this line is the
perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining z1 and z2. By Theorem 3.7, the equation of the
perpendicular bisector is
(z1 - z2 )z + (z1 - z2 )z + z2 z2 - z1 z1 = 0

Therefore
l l m
= = = k (say)
z1 - z2 z1 - z2 z2 z2 - z1 z1
3.3 Geometric Interpretation 125

Now,
lz1 + lz2 + m = k(z1 - z2 )z1 + k(z1 - z2 )z2 + (z2 z2 - z1z1 )k
= k [z1z1 - z2 z1 + z1z2 - z2 z2 + z2 z2 - z1z1 ]
= k(0) = 0
Conversely, suppose that lz1 + lz2 + m = 0 . Let z be any point on the given line. Then
lz + lz + m = 0
and therefore
l (z - z1 ) + l(z - z2 ) = 0

which implies that


| l (z - z1 )| = | - l(z - z2 )|
and hence
| z - z1 | = | z - z2 | = | z - z2 |

That is, z is equidistant from both the points z1 and z2. Therefore the line lz + lz + m = 0 is the
perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining z1 and z2. ■

T H E O R E M 3 .10 The perpendicular distance of the straight line lz + lz + m = 0 (0 ¹ l Î  and m Î ) from a given
point z0 is
lz0 + lz0 + m
2l

PROOF Let z = x + iy, so that the equation of the given line is


( l + l ) x + i( l - l ) y + m = 0
which is a first degree equation in x and y with real coefficients. Therefore, the distance of the line
from the point z0 = a + ib is

( l + l )a + i( l - l ) b + m l (a + ib) + l(a - ib) + m


=
( l + l ) 2 - ( l - l )2 4l l
lz0 + z0 + m
=
2l ■

T H E O R E M 3 .11 The general equation of a circle in the complex plane is


zz + bz + bz + c = 0

where b is a complex number and c is a real number.

PROOF Let z0 be a fixed point in the complex plane and r a non-negative real number. Then the equation

| z - z0 | = r
represents the locus of the point z whose distance from the point z0 is the constant r. We know that
this locus is a circle with centre at z0 and radius r. This equation is equivalent to
(z - z0 )(z - z0 ) = r2
126 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

That is, zz + (- z0 )z + (- z0 )z + (z0 z0 - r2 ) = 0 which is of the form zz + bz + bz + c = 0, where


b = - z0 and c = zz0 - r2. On the other hand, any equation zz + b z + bz + c = 0 can be written as
(z + b)(z + b ) = bb - c
That is,
| z + b | = bb - c

which represents a circle with center at -b and radius bb - c . Note that bb and c are real
numbers and b b - c > 0 or = 0 or < 0. ■

QUICK LOOK 7

1. Note that the circle zz + bz + bz + c = 0 is real or mz2 + nz1


z=
point circle or imaginary circle according as bb - c m+n
is a positive real number or bb = c or negative real
number, respectively. 3. If A(z1), B(z2) and C(z3) are the vertices of a triangle,
then the complex number (z1 + z2 + z3) / 3 represents
2. If A(z1) and B(z2) are points in the complex plane
the centroid of the triangle ABC.
and P(z) is a point on the line joining A(z1) and
B(z2) dividing the line segment AB in the ratio
m : n (m + n ¹ 0), then

Example 3.13

Find the center and radius of the circle where b = -(2 + 3i) and c = -3. Therefore -b(= 2 + 3i) is
zz - (2 + 3i)z - (2 - 3i)z - 3 = 0 the center of the circle and bb - c [= (2 + 3i)(2 - 3i) + 3
= 16 = 4] is the radius.
Solution: This equation is of the form
zz + bz + bz + c = 0

Example 3.14

If 2 + i and 4 + 3i represent the extremities A and C, In Figure 3.11 DEAB is right angled at E. If z represents B,
respectively, of a diagonal of a square ABCD, described then
in counterclock sense, then find the other two vertices
z - (3 + 2i) p p
B and D. = cos + i sin = i
(2 + i) - (3 + 2i) 2 2
Solution: Let E be the intersection of the diagonals.
and therefore, z = i(-1 - i) + 3 + 2i = 4 + i. Similarly, from
Then E is represented by
DECD, if z¢ represents D, then
(2 + i) + (4 + 3i)
= 3 + 2i z¢ - (3 + 2i)
1+ 1 =i
(4 + 3i) - (3 + 2i)
D C
and hence z¢ = 2 + 3i .

A B

FIGURE 3.11 Example 3.14.


3.3 Geometric Interpretation 127

Example 3.15

If z1, z2, z3 and z4 are the vertices of a square described in z1 - z2 p p


the counterclock sense, then express z2 and z4 in terms of = cos + i sin = i
z3 - z2 2 2
z1 and z3, and z1 and z3 in terms of z2 and z4 (Figure 3.12).
z1 - z2 = i(z3 - z2 )
D(z4) C(z3)
z1 - iz3 = (1 - i)z2
90° 90° 1
z2 = [(1 + i)z1 + (1 - i)z3 ]
2
Similarly
90° 90°
1
A(z1) B(z2) z4 = [(1 - i)z1 + (1 + i)z3 ]
2
FIGURE 3.12 Example 3.15. 1
z3 = [(1 + i)z2 + (1 - i)z4 ]
2
Solution: Rotate BC about B through 90° in anticlock-
1
wise sense. Then z1 = [(1 - i)z2 + (1 + i)z4 ]
2

Example 3.16

Let l1 z + l 1 z + m1 = 0 and l2 z + l 2 z + m2 = 0 be two strai- and ( l2 + l 2 ) x + i( l2 - l 2 ) y + m2 = 0


ght lines in the complex plane. Then prove that
which are first degree equations with real coefficients
(1) the lines are parallel if and only if l1 l2 = l 2 l1 . [recall that z + z and i(z - z) are always real numbers
(2) the lines are perpendicular if and only if l1 l2 + l 2 l1 = 0. for all complex numbers z]. Therefore, we can use the
conditions for parallelness and perpendicularity as in
Solution: Writing z = x + iy ( x and y real) , the equa- two-dimentional geometry.
tions of the given straight lines are transformed into Calculations are left for students as an exercise.
( l1 + l 1 ) x + i( l1 - l 1 ) y + m1 = 0

Example 3.17

Let lz + lz + m = 0 be a straight line in the complex plane Solution: Let Q(z) be any point on the given line.
and P(z0) be a point in the plane. Then prove that
(1) We have
(1) the equation of the line passing through P(z0) and -l z - z0
parallel to the given line is = slope of the line =
l z - z0
l ( z - z0 ) + l ( z - z 0 ) = 0 which gives the required equation.
(2) the equation of the line passing through P(z0) and (2) If Q(z) is any line passing through P(z0) and is
perpendicular to the given line is perpendicular to the given line, then

l (z - z0 ) - l(z - z0 ) = 0 z - z0 l
= (see Example 3.16)
z - z0 l
which gives the required equation.

Example 3.18

Find the foot of the perpendicular drawn from a point Solution: The given line is
P(z0) onto to a line lz + lz + m = 0. lz + lz + m = 0 (3.4)
128 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

The line passing through P(z0) and perpendicular to the Eqs. (3.4) and (3.5), we have
given line is
lz0 - lz0 - m
l (z - z0 ) - l(z - z0 ) = 0 (3.5) z=
2l
The foot of the perpendicular from P(z0) satisfies which is the foot of the perpendicular.
both Eqs. (3.4) and (3.5). Therefore, eliminating z from

Example 3.19

Find the radius and the center of the circle This equation represents a circle with center at
zz + (2 - 3i) z + (2 + 3i) z + 4 = 0 -b (= -2 -3i) and radius bb - 4 (= 4 + 9 - 4 = 3).

Solution: If b = 2 + 3i, then the given equation is


zz + bz + bz + 4 = 0

Example 3.20

Prove that the equation | z + 1| = 2 | z + 1| represents a That is,


circle and find its center and radius.
zz + (-3)z + (-3)z + 1 = 0
Solution: The given equation is equivalent to which represents a circle with centre at 3 [= (3, 0)] and
(z + 1)(z + 1) = 2(z - 1)(z - 1) radius 32 - 1 = 2 2 .

3.4 | The Trigonometric Form


In the previous section, we have noted that the real and imaginary parts of a complex number z = a + ib can be
expressed in terms of the modulus | z | = r and argument q as
a = r cos q and b = r sin q
Therefore, any non-zero complex number z can be expressed as
z = r (cos q + i sin q )
where r is the modulus of z and q is an argument of z. This expression of a complex number is called the trigonometric
notation or trigonometric form or polar form of z.
Let us recall that the expression z = a + ib, where a and b are real numbers and i2 = -1, is called the algebraic form
of z. To pass from algebraic form to trigonometric form, it is sufficient to find the modulus of a complex number and
one of its arguments. Let us consider certain examples.

Example 3.21

Express the following complex numbers in trigonometric é æ -3p ö æ -3p ö ù


z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç
form:
ë è 4 ø è 4 ÷ø úû
(1) z1 = -1 - i
(2) | z2 | = 2 and Arg z2 = p and hence
(2) z2 = -2
z2 = 2(cos p + i sin p )
(3) z3 = i
(3) | z3 | = 1 and Arg z3 = p / 2 and hence
Solution:
æpö æpö
z3 = cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷
(1) | z1 | = 2 and Arg z1 = -3p / 4 and hence è 2ø è 2ø
3.4 The Trigonometric Form 129

Example 3.22

Express the following complex numbers in trigonometric Now, we have


form: é æ -p ö æ -p ö ù
z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç
æ 7p ö æpö ë è 4 ø è 4 ÷ø úû
(1) z1 = 2 cos ç ÷ - 2 i sin ç ÷
è 4 ø è 4ø
æpö æpö
z2 = - cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷
æpö æpö è 17 ø è 17 ø
(2) z2 = - cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷
è 17 ø è 17 ø æ pö æ pö
= cos ç p - ÷ + i sin ç p - ÷
Solution: Note that in these cases, we need not find the è 17 ø è 17 ø
modulus and arguments, although it is easy to find these. æ 16p ö æ 16p ö
= cos ç + i s in ç
Instead, we will make use of the facts that è 17 ÷ø è 17 ÷ø
æ 7p ö æ pö æ -p ö
cos ç ÷ = cos ç 2p - ÷ = cos ç
è 4 ø è 4ø è 4 ÷ø

æpö æ -p ö
and - sin ç ÷ = sin ç
è 4ø è 4 ÷ø

The operations of multiplication and division of complex numbers can be easily performed by transforming the given
complex numbers into trigonometric form. We have already noted that the modulus of the product (quotient) of any
two complex numbers is the product (quotient) of their moduli.
Now, let us turn our attention to the arguments of products and quotients.

T H E O R E M 3.1 2 The following hold for any two non-zero complex numbers z1 and z2.
1. z1 = z2 Û | z1 | = | z2 | and arg z1 = arg z2

2. arg(z1 z2 ) = Arg z1 + Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î 

æ 1ö
3. arg ç ÷ = - Arg z2 + 2np , n Î 
è z2 ø
æ z1 ö
4. arg ç ÷ = Arg z1 - Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î 
è z2 ø

PROOF First let us express the given non-zero complex numbers z1 and z2 in trigonometric form. Let
z1 = r1 (cos q 1 + i sin q 1 ), r1 > 0, -p < q 1 £ p and z2 = r2 (cos q 2 + i sin q 2 ), r2 > 0, -p < q 2 £ p . That is, |z1| =
r1, | z2 | = r2 , Arg z1 = q 1 and Arg z2 = q 2 .

1. This part is clear since arg z1 = Arg z1 + 2 np , n Î  .


2. Consider the product,

z1 z2 = r1 (cos q 1 + i sin q 1 )r2 (cos q 2 + i sin q 2 )


= r1 r2 [(cos q 1 cos q 2 - sin q 1 sin q 2 ) + i(cos q 1 sin q 2 + sin q 1 cos q 2 )]
= r1 r2 [cos(q 1 + q 2 ) + i sin(q 1 + q 2 )]

and therefore
| z1 z2 | = r1 r2 and arg(z1 z2 ) = q 1 + q 2 + 2 np = Arg z1 + Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î 
130 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

3. This follows from the fact that


1 cos q - i sin q
=
cos q + i sin q (cos q + i sin q )(cos q - i sin q )
cos q - i sin q
=
cos 2 q + sin 2 q
= cos(-q ) + i sin(-q )

Therefore,
æ 1ö
arg ç ÷ = -Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î 
è z2 ø

4. It follows from (2) and (3). ■

Example 3.23

Let Therefore
é æ 11p ö æ 11p ö ù é æ - 7p ö æ - 7p ö ù
z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ø + i sin çè ÷ z1z2 = 4 êcos ç ÷ø + i sin çè
ë è 4 4 ø úû ë è 8
÷
8 ø úû
é æ 3p ö æ 3p ö ù é æ 7p ö æ 7p ö ù
and z2 = 8 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = 4 êcos ç ÷ - i sin ç ÷ ú
ë è 8ø è 8 øû è ø è 8 øû
ë 8
Find z1z2 and z1/z2.
Also,
Solution: First note that
11p 3p z1 z1 2 1
= 2p + = = =
4 4 z2 z2 8 2

Now, | z1 | = 2 and | z2 | = 8 , therefore æ z1 ö


arg ç ÷ = Arg z1 - Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î 
3p 3p è z2 ø
Arg z1 = and Arg z2 =
4 8 3p 3p
= - + 2 np , n Î 
4 8
Therefore, | z1z2 | = | z1 || z2 | = 2 8 = 4. Now
3p
= + 2 np , n Î 
arg (z1 z2 ) = Arg z1 + Arg z2 + 2 np , n Î  8
3p 3p Therefore,
= + + 2 np , n Î 
4 8 æ z1 ö 3p
9p Arg ç ÷ =
= + 2 np , n Î  è z2 ø 8
8
and hence
-7p
= + 2(n + 1)p , n Î 
8 z1 1 é æ 3p ö æ 3p ö ù
= cos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú
-7p z2 2 êë è 8ø è 8 øû
= + 2 mp , m Î 
8
and hence
-7p
Arg(z1 z2 ) =
8
3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem 131

3.5 | De Moivre’s Theorem


In the previous section, we have derived formulas for the product and quotient of two complex numbers in
trigonometric form. The formula for the product of two complex numbers can be extended to the case of n factors by
mathematical induction. As a special case, we have the following.

T H E O R E M 3.13 For any real number q and any positive integer n,


(D E M O I V R E ’ S
THEOREM) (cos q + i sin q ) n = cos(n q ) + i sin (n q )

PROOF We prove this by induction on n. If n = 1, this is trivial. Now, let n > 1 and assume that

(cos q + i sin q ) n - 1 = cos[(n - 1) q ] + i sin[(n - 1) q ]

Now, consider
(cos q + i sin q ) n = (cos q + i sin q ) n - 1 (cos q + i sin q )
= [cos{(n - 1)q } + i sin {(n - 1)q }](cos q + i sin q )
= [cos{(n - 1) q }cos q - sin {(n - 1) q }sin q ]
+ i[cos{(n - 1) q }sin q + cos q sin{(n - 1) q }]
= cos[(n - 1) q + q ] + i sin[(n - 1) q + q ]
= cos(n q ) + i sin(n q ) ■

C O R O L L A R Y 3 .2 For all real numbers q and for all integers n,

(cos q + i sin q ) n = cos(n q ) + i sin(n q )

PROOF For n = 0, this is obvious. Let n < 0. First observe that


1 cos q - i sin q
=
cos q + i sin q (cos q + i sin q )(cos q - i sin q )
cos(- q ) + i sin(- q )
=
cos 2 q + sin 2 q
= cos(- q ) + i sin(- q )
Now,

(cos q + i sin q ) n = [(cos q + i sin q ) - n ]- 1


1
=
(cos q + i sin q ) - n
1
=
cos(- n q ) + i sin(- n q )
= cos(n q ) + i sin(n q )

since -n > 0 and by Theorem 3.13. ■

In the following we demonstrate the use of De Moivre’s Theorem in expressing certain powers of complex numbers
with natural exponents in algebraic form.
132 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Example 3.24

Express the number z = (i - 3 )13 in algebraic form. é æ 65p ö æ 65p ö ù


= 213 ê cos ç ÷ + i sin ç
ë è 6 ø è 6 ÷ø úû
Solution: First we write the given number in trigonomet-
ric form and then pass to the algebraic form. Let w = i - 3. é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù
= 213 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú
Then | w | = 1 + 3 = 2 and Arg w = 5p / 6. Therefore ë è 6 ø è 6 øû

é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù Thus
w = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú
ë è 6 ø è 6 øû æ 3 1 ö
(i - 3 )13 = 2 13 ç - + i÷ = - 2 12 3 + 2 12 i
and hence è 2 2 ø

é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù
z = w 13 = 2 13 êcos ç 13 × ÷ + i sin ç 13 × ÷ ú
ë è 6 ø è 6 øû

Next, let us find the root of a given degree of a complex number.

Roots of Degree n

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 12 If z and w are complex numbers and n a positive integer such that zn = w, then z is called a
root of degree n or nth root of the number w and is denoted by n w . Roots of degree 2 or 3
are called square roots or cube roots, respectively.

For example, i and -i are both square roots of -1. In general, to extract a root of degree n of a complex number w, it
is sufficient to solve the equation zn = w. If w = 0, then the equation zn = w has exactly one solution, namely z = 0. The
case w ¹ 0 is dealt with in the following.

T H E O R E M 3 .14 Let w be a non-zero complex number and n a positive integer. Then the equation zn = w has n
solutions.

PROOF First we represent z and w in the trigonometric form. Let


z = r (cos q + i sin q ) and w = s (cos a + i sin a )
The equation z = w takes the form
n

rn (cos(n q ) + i sin (n q )) = s (cos a + i sin a )


Two complex numbers are equal if and only if their moduli are equal and argument differ by an
integral multiple of 2p. Therefore,

rn = s and n q = a + 2 mp , m Î 
a 2p
or r=ns and q = + n m, m Î 
n
Thus, all the solutions of the equation zn = w can be written as follows:

é æ a 2p ö æ a 2p ö ù
zm = n s êcos ç n + m÷ + i sin ç n + n m÷ ú , m Î 
ë è n ø è øû

It can be easily seen that zm for m = 0, 1, … , n - 1 are different. For m ³ n, we cannot obtain any
other complex numbers different from z0 , z1 , … , zn - 1. For example, for m = n, we get
3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem 133

é æa ö æa öù
zn = n s êcos ç + 2p ÷ + i sin ç n + 2p ÷ ú
ë è n ø è øû

é æaö æaöù
= n s êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç n ÷ ú = z0
ë è ø
n è øû
It can be seen that zn + k = zk for all k ³ 0. Thus, these are exactly n roots of degree n of the number
w and they are all obtained from the formula
é æ a 2p ö æ a 2p ö ù
zm = n s êcos ç + m÷ + i sin ç + m÷ , for m = 0, 1, 2, …,, n - 1
ë è n n ø èn n ø úû ■

It can be seen from the above formula that all the roots of degree n of the number w have one and the same
moduli but distinct arguments differing from each other by (2p / n)m, where m is some integer.

QUICK LOOK 8

1. All the roots of degree n of the complex number w - 1 is understood to be the set consisting of
correspond to the points of the complex plane lying
two complex numbers i and -i. Sometimes, n w is
at the vertices of a regular n-gon inscribed in a circle
understood as a root of degree n of w. In such
of radius n | w | with centre at the point z = 0.
cases, it must be indicated what value of the root
2. Usually the expression n w is to be understood as is meant.
the set of all roots of degree n of w. For example,

Theorem 3.13 paves a way to formulate and prove the most general version of the De Moivre’s Theorem in the
following. If z0 is a solution of the equation zn = w, then let us agree to write z0 as w1/n. Therefore w1/n has n values. In
particular, if w is any complex number and r = m/n, where m and n are integers and n > 0, then w1/n has n values.

T H E O R E M 3 .15 For any real number q and any rational number r,


(DE MOIVRE’S
THEOREM FOR (cos q + i sin q ) r = cos(r q ) + i sin (r q )
R AT I O N A L
INDEX)
PROOF Let q be a real number and r = n/m, where n and m are integers and m > 0. Then
m
é æn ö æ n öù
[cos(r q ) + i sin(r q )]m = êcos ç q ÷ + i sin ç m q ÷ ú
ë è m ø è øû
= cos(n q ) + i sin (n q ) (by Theorem 3.13)
= (cos q + i sin q ) n (by Corollary 3.2)

Therefore cos(r q ) + i sin(r q ) is the mth root of (cos q + i sin q ) n or is a value of [(cosq + i sinq )n]1/m.
Thus cos(r q ) + i sin(r q ) is a value of (cos q + i sin q ) r. ■

Example 3.25

Find all the squares of the roots of the equation root of unity; that is, z = (- 1)1/ 7 or z = (1)1/ 4. Therefore,
x11 - x7 + x4 - 1 = 0 z2 = (- 1)2 / 7 or z2 = (1)2 / 4 = (1)1/ 2 = 1 or -1. That is
z2 = 1 or -1 or (1)1/ 7
Solution: We have x11 - x7 + x4 - 1 = x7 ( x4 - 1) + x4 - 1 =
( x7 + 1)( x4 - 1). If z is a root of x11 - x7 + x4 - 1 = 0, This implies that z2 is either a square root of 1 or a
then z must be either a seventh root of –1 or a fourth seventh root of 1.
134 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Example 3.26

Find all the values of 6 - 64 . é æ 3p ö æ 3p ö ù


z4 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = - 2i
ë è 2 ø è 2 øû
Solution: First, we should express w = - 64 in trigono-
é æ 11p ö æ 11p ö ù
metric form: z5 = 2 ê cos ç ÷ø + i sin çè ÷ = 3 -i
ë è 6 6 ø úû
w = - 64 = 64(cos p + i sin p )
These lie on the circle of radius 2 with center at z = 0 and
Now, if zm are the values of 6 - 64 , then form vertices of a regular hexagon.

é æ p 2p ö æ p 2p ö ù y
zm = 6 64 êcos ç + m÷ + i sin ç + m÷
ë è 6 6 ø è6 6 ø úû z1

for m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Therefore,


z2 z0 = √3 +i
æp pö
z0 = 2 cos ç + i sin ÷ = 3 + i
è6 6ø
é æpö æpöù x
z1 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = 2 i
ë è 2 ø è 2øû O

é æ 5p ö æ 5p ö ù z5
z2 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = - 3 + i z3
ë è 6 ø è 6 øû

é æ 7p ö æ 7p ö ù
z3 = 2 êcos ç ÷ + i sin ç ÷ ú = - 3 - i z4
ë è 6 ø è 6 øû
FIGURE 3.13 Example 3.27.

In the following, we express the square roots of a given complex number and nth roots of unity in algebraic form.
These are straight forward verifications.

Square Root of a Complex Number


The square roots of z = a + ib are given as
é | z| + a | z| - a ù
±ê +i ú if b > 0 (3.6a)
êë 2 2 úû
é | z| + a | z| - a ù
and ±ê -i ú if b < 0 (3.6b)
êë 2 2 úû

QUICK LOOK 9

1. The square roots of i are ± (1 + i / 2 ) 3. The square roots of -7 -24i are


é 25 - 7 25 + 7 ù
2. The square roots of - i are ± (1 - i / 2 ) ±ê -i ú = ± (3 - 4 i)
ë 2 2 û

Cube Roots of Unity


The cube roots of unity (solutions of z3 = 1) are
-1 + i 3 -1 - i 3
1, and
2 2
Usually (- 1 + i 3 )/ 2 is denoted by w. Note that 1, w, w are the cube roots of unity.
2
3.5 De Moivre’s Theorem 135

Properties of Cube Roots of Unity


Let w ¹ 1 be a cube root of unity; that is
1
w = (- 1 ± i 3 )
2
Then the following properties are satisfied by w.

QUICK LOOK 10

1. 1 + w + w2 = 0 5. The values 1, w, w2 represent the vertices of an equi-


lateral triangle inscribed in a circle of radius 1 with
2. w3 n = 1, w3 n + 1 = w and w3 n + 2 = w2 for any integer n
center at z = 0, one vertex being on positive real axis.
3. w = w2
6. For any real numbers a, b and c,
4. (w)2 = w
a + bw + cw2 = 0 Û a = b = c

In the following we list certain important relations concerning the cube roots 1, w and w2 of unity.

Relations Concerning the Cube Roots of Unity


Let w ¹ 1 be a cube root of unity. The following relations hold good. Here x is any real or complex variable.
1. 1 + x + x2 = ( x - w)( x - w2 )
2. 1 - x + x2 = ( x + w)( x + w2 )
3. x2 + xy + y2 = ( x - yw)( x - yw2 )
4. x2 - xy + y2 = ( x + yw)( x + yw2 )
5. x3 + y3 = ( x + y)( x + yw)( x + yw2 )
6. x3 - y3 = ( x - y)( x - yw)( x - yw2 )
7. x2 + y2 + z2 - xy - yz - zx = ( x + yw + zw2 )( x + yw2 + zw)
8. x3 + y3 + z3 - 3 xyz = ( x + y + z)( x + yw + zw2 )( x + yw2 + zw)

Example 3.27

If a , b and g are roots of x3 - 3 x2 + 3 x + 7 = 0 , then find x-1


= 1, w, w2
the value of -2
a -1 b -1 g -1 which are the cube roots of unity. Therefore -1, 1 - 2w,
+ +
b -1 g -1 a -1 1 - 2w2 are the roots of the given equation. Let a = -1,
b = 1 - 2w and g = 1 - 2w2. Then a - 1 = -2, b - 1 = -2w
in terms of a cube root of unity. and g - 1 = -2w2. Hence

Solution: The given equation x3 - 3 x2 + 3 x + 7 = 0 can a -1 b -1 g -1 -2 -2w -2w2


be expressed as + + = + +
b - 1 g - 1 a - 1 -2w -2w2 -2
( x - 1)3 + 8 = 0
1 1
That is, = + + w2
w w
( x - 1)3 = (-2)3 = w2 + w2 + w2 = 3w2
3
æ x - 1ö
çè ÷ =1
-2 ø
136 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Properties of nth Roots of Unity


Let n be a positive integer and
2p 2p
a = cos + i sin
n n
Then all the properties in “Quick Look 11” hold.

QUICK LOOK 11

1. 1, a , a 2 ,… , a n- 1 are all the nth roots of unity and and hence


n-1
é æ 2p ö æ 2p öù
r æ 2p
a = cos ç
ö æ 2p
r ÷ + i sin ç
ö
r÷ for 0 £ r < n å êëcos çè n r ÷ + i sin ç n
ø è
r÷ ú = 0
øû
è n ø è n ø r =0

1 - an and therefore
2. 1 + a + a 2 + + a n - 1 =
1-a n-1
æ 2p ö
n
æ 2p ö
1 - [cos(2p ) + i sin(2p )]
å cos çè
r =0
r = 0 = å sin ç
n ÷ø r =0
r
è n ÷ø
=
1-a
4. The terms 1, a , a 2 , … , a n- 1 represent the vertices of a
and therefore regular n-gon inscribed in the unit circle with center
at the origin, one vertex being on the positive real
1 + a + a 2 + + a n-1 = 0 axis.
3. The summation
n-1

åa
r =0
r
=0

Example 3.28

If 1, w, w2, …, wn-1 are all the nth roots of unity, find the Therefore
value of the product
xn - 1
(5 - w)(5 - w2 ) (5 - wn - 1 ) = ( x - w)( x - w2 ) ( x - wn - 1 )
x-1
Solution: The polynomial xn - 1 has n roots, namely This is true for all numbers x ¹ 1. Substituting x = 5, we
1, w, w2 , … , wn - 1 and hence get that
xn - 1 = ( x - 1)( x - w)( x - w2 ) ( x - wn - 1 ) 5n - 1
(5 - w)(5 - w2 ) (5 - wn - 1 ) =
4

3.6 | Algebraic Equations


Most gratifying fact about complex numbers is that any polynomial (algebraic) equation with complex numbers as
coefficients has a solution. We will discuss the same in this section.

DEF IN IT ION 3 . 13 Let f (z) = a0 + a1z + a2 z2 + + an zn, an ¹ 0 and a0 , a1 , … , an complex numbers. Then
f(z) = 0
is called an algebraic equation of degree n. Any algebraic equation of degree 2 is called a
quadratic equation. A complex number z0 is called a solution or root of the equation f(z) = 0 if
f(z0) = 0; that is,
a0 + a1z0 + a2 z02 + + an z0n = 0
3.6 Algebraic Equations 137

QUICK LOOK 12

1. 2 + i + z = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree 1 and 4. 32(1 - i)z + iz7 = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree
z0 = -2 -i is the only root of this. 7 and z0 = 0 is a root of this equation. In addition to
z0 = 0, any root of the equation z6 = 32(1 + i) must be
2. z2 - 1 = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree 2 and z0 = 1
a root of the given equation and hence there must be
and z1 = -1 are the roots of the equation z2 - 1 = 0. six more roots for the given equation.
3. i + iz2 + z3 + z5 = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree
5 and z0 = i is a root of this equation.

The general form of an algebraic equation of the first degree is

a0 + a1z = 0, a1 ¹ 0

Such an equation possesses exactly one solution z0 = -a0/a1. An equation of the second degree is generally written as
a0 + a1z + a2 z2 = 0, a2 ¹ 0
To solve this, we transform the equation as follows:

æ a a ö
a2 ç z2 + a1 z + a0 ÷ = 0
è 2 2ø

éæ a ö
2
a a2 ù
a2 êç z + 1 ÷ + 0 - 1 2 ú = 0
êëè 2a2 ø a2 4a2 ú
û
éæ a ö
2
a2 - 4a0 a2 ù
a2 êç z + 1 ÷ - 1 ú=0
êëè 2a2 ø 4a22 úû

and find the roots of


2
æ a1 ö a12 - 4a0 a2
çè z + =
2a2 ÷ø 4a2

as

-a1 a12 - 4a0 a2


z= +
2a2 2a2
that is,

-a1 + D
z=
2a2

where D = a12 - 4a0 a2 . D is called the discriminant of the equation a0 + a1z + a2z2 = 0. D is to be understood as all the
values of the square root of D. The formula

-a1 + D
z=
2a2
for the roots of a quadratic equation has the same form as in the case when the coefficients of the equation are real
numbers and the solutions are thought in the set of real numbers. But in as much as in the set of complex numbers the
operation of extracting a square root is meaningful for any complex number, the restriction D > 0 becomes superflu-
ous. Moreover, the restriction loses sense since the discriminant D may prove to be not a real number, and the concepts
of “greater than” and “less than” are not defined for such numbers. Thus, in the set of complex numbers, any quadratic
equation is always solvable. If the discriminant D is zero, then the equation has one root. If D ¹ 0, the equation has two
roots that are given by the formula
138 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

-a1 + D
z0 =
2a2
This is known as the standard formula for the roots of a quadratic equation.

Example 3.29

Solve the equations: are the solutions of the given equation. To find all
the values of 3 - 4i, we can use the formula given
(1) z2 + 3z + 3 = 0
in Eqs. (3.6a) and (3.6b). But another technique is
(2) z2 - 8z - 3iz + 13 + 13i = 0 much simpler. Let us put

Solution: 3 - 4i = x + iy

(1) By the formula for the roots of a quadratic equation, Then 3 - 4i = x2 - y2 + i(2 xy) and therefore
the roots of z2 + 3z + 3 = 0 are given by x2 - y2 = 3 and xy = - 2
-3 + 9 - 12 -3 + -3 x and y being real numbers. This system of simultane-
z= =
2 2 ous equations has two real solutions, x = 2, y = -1 and
x = -2, y = 1. Therefore
Since -3 = ± i 3 , it follows that
3 - 4i = 2 - i or - 2 + i
-3 + i 3 -3 - i 3
z1 = and z2 = Thus,
2 2
8 + 3i + 2 - i
are the solutions of the equation z2 + 3z + 3 = 0. z1 = =5+i
2
(2) The given equation can be written as
8 + 3i - 2 + i
(13 + 13i) + (-8 - 3i)z + z2 = 0 and z2 = = 3 + 2i
2
By the standard formula for the roots of a quadratic
equation, we get that are the solutions of the given quadratic equation.

8 + 3i + (8 + 3i)2 - 4(13 + 13i) 8 + 3i + 3 - 4i


z= =
2 2

Solving algebraic equations of degree n > 2 is much more difficult. However, the great German mathematician
Carl Gauss proved the following celebrated theorem in 1799. In view of its importance and in honor of Gauss, the
theorem is named after Gauss and is popularly known as the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Its proof is beyond
the scope of this book and hence not given here.

Fundamental Theorem of Algebra


Every algebraic equation has atleast one root in the set of complex numbers.
The following theorem is an important consequence of the fundamental theorem of algebra.

T H E O R E M 3 .16 Every algebraic equation of degree n has exactly n roots, including the repeatitions (multiplicities)
of the roots, in the set of complex numbers.
PROOF Let
f (z) = a0 + a1z + a2 z2 + + an zn , an ¹ 0
where a0 , a1 , a2 , … , an are all complex numbers. Then f(z) = 0 is an algebraic equation of degree n.
It can be proved that, for any complex number w,
f (z) = (z - w) g(z)
3.6 Algebraic Equations 139

for some polynomial g(z) with complex coefficients if and only if w is a root of the equation
f(z) = 0; that is, f(w) = 0. This, together with the fundamental theorem of algebra, gives us that
f (z) = an (z - z1 )r1 (z - z2 )r2 (z - zk )rk

where z1, z2, ¼, zk are distinct complex numbers and r1, r2, ¼, rk are positive integers such that
r1 + r2 + + rk = n
Therefore, if follows that z1, z2, ¼, zk are all the distinct roots of the equation f(z) = 0. Here we
say that zi is a root of multiplicity ri. If we agree to count the root of the equation as many
times as is its multiplicity, then we get that the equation f(z) = 0 has r1 + r2 + + rk (= n) roots in
the set of complex numbers. ■

Theorem 3.16 and the fundamental theorem of algebra are both typical theorems of existence. They both present
a comprehensive solution of the problem on the existence of roots of an arbitrary algebraic equation; but, unfortu-
nately they do not say how to find these roots. The root of the first-degree equation
a0 + a1z = 0
is determined by the formula
a0
z=-
a1
and the roots of the second-degree equation
a0 + a1z + a2 z2 = 0
are determined by the formula

-a1 + D
z=
2a2
where D is the determinant defined by
D = a12 - 4a0 a2

The analogous formulae for the roots of third- and fourth-degree equations are so cumbersome that they are avoided.
There is no general method for finding the roots of algebraic equations of degree greater than 4. The absence of a
general method does not prevent us, of course, from finding all the roots in certain special cases, depending on the
specific nature of the equation. For example, in Theorem 3.14, we discussed a method to find all the roots of the
equation
a0 + an zn = 0
The following theorem often helps us in solving algebraic equations with integral coefficients.

T H E O R E M 3 .17 Let f (z) = a0 + a1z + a2 z2 + + an zn , an ¹ 0, where a0, a1, a2, ¼, an are all integers. If k is an integer
and is a root of f(z) = 0, then k is a divisor of a0.

PROOF Let k be an integer and f(k) = 0. That is, a0 + a1k + a2 k 2 + + an k n = 0, and hence a0 = k(-a1 -
a2k - - ankn-1). Since k and a1, a2, ¼, an are integers, so is -a1 - a2 k - - an k n - 1. Therefore k is a
divisor of a0. ■

Example 3.30

Solve the equation Solution: Note that all the coefficients are integers. By
considering the divisors of the constant term -6 and by
z3 - z - 6 = 0
140 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

using Theorem 3.17, we get that 2 is the only integral root are
of z3 - z - 6 = 0. By the usual division of z3 - z - 6 by
z - 2, we get that -2 ± 4 - 12
2
(z - 2)(z2 + 2z + 3) = z3 - z - 6
Thus, z1 = 2, z2 = - 1 + 2i and z3 = - 1 - 2i are all the
Therefore, the roots of z3 - z - 6 = 0 are precisely the
roots of the equation z3 - z - 6 = 0.
roots of z2 + 2z + 3 = 0 and 2 . The roots of z2 + 2z + 3 = 0

Example 3.31

Solve the equation f (z) = (z2 - 4)(-18 + 9z + 2z2 - z3 )


72 - 36z - 26z2 + 13z3 + 2z4 - z5 = 0 Again –3 and 3 are roots of -18 + 9z + 2z2 - z3 and
-18 + 9z + 2z2 - z3 = (z2 - 9)(z - 2). Therefore,
Solution: Let f (z) = 72 - 36z - 26z2 + 13z3 + 2z4 - z5. Note
that all the coefficients are integers. Consider the constant f (z) = (z - 2)(z + 2)(z - 3)(z + 3)(z - 2)
term 72. Testing the divisors of the constant term 72, we find = (z - 2)2 (z + 2)(z - 3)(z + 3)
that z1 = 2 and z2 = -2 are roots of the given equation. By
dividing f (z) with (z - 2)(z + 2) = z2 - 4, we get that Thus the roots of f (z) = 0 are 3, - 3, - 2 and 2 and the
root 2 is of multiplicity 2.

WORKED-OUT PROBLEMS
Single Correct Choice Type Questions
1. If 4 1
= =
8-4 3 2- 3
3+i a+i
= Answer: (D)
2 a-i
and a is a real number, then a is 2. If z1, z2 are complex numbers such that Re(z1 ) = | z1 - 2|,
(A) 1/2 + 3 (B) 1/2 - 4 3 Re(z2 ) = | z2 - 2| and arg (z1 - z2 ) = p / 3, then Im(z1 - z2 ) =
(C) 2 - 3 (D) 1/2 - 3 (A) 2 / 3 (B) 4 / 3 (C) 2 3 (D) 3
Solution: The equation Solution: Let z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 . Then

3+i a+i x12 = ( x1 - 2)2 + y12 and x22 = ( x2 - 2)2 + y22


=
2 a-i Therefore
implies that 4 x1 = y12 + 4 and 4 x2 = y22 + 4
( 3 + i)(a - i) = 2a + 2i On subtraction we get
that is, a( 3 - 2 + i) = ( 3 + 2)i - 1. Therefore 4( x1 - x2 ) = y12 - y22 = ( y1 + y2 )( y1 - y2 )
( 3 + 2)i - 1 Hence
a=
3-2+i 4( x1 - x2 )
y1 + y2 = (3.7)
[( 3 + 2)i - 1][( 3 - 2) - i] y1 - y2
=
[( 3 - 2) + i][( 3 - 2) - i] Also arg (z1 - z2 ) = p / 3. Therefore
(3 - 4))i - 3 + 2 + i + 3 + 2 p y1 - y2
= tan =
( 3 - 2) + 1
2 3 x1 - x2
y1 - y2
3= (3.8)
x1 - x2
Worked-Out Problems 141

From (3.7) and (3.8), we have Û 12 < 4 x

Im (z1 + z2 ) = y1 + y2 =
4 Û3< x
3 Answer: (D)
Answer: (B)
6. If
3. The smallest positive integer n for which [(1 + i)/
3
(1 - i)]n = 1 is x + iy =
2 + cos q + i sin q
(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 7
Solution: We have then x2 + y2 =
(A) 4x - 3 (B) 3x - 4 (C) 4x + 3 (D) 3x + 4
1 + i (1 + i)2
= = i and in = 1 for n = 4, 8, 12, … Solution:
1- i 2
3(2 + cos q - i sin q )
Therefore, the smallest positive integer n for which x + iy =
(2 + cos q )2 + sin2 q
n
æ 1 + iö
çè 1 - i ÷ø = 1 is 4 =
3(2 + cos q ) + i(-3 sin q )
5 + 4 cosq
Answer: (B)
Comparing the real and imaginary parts we get
4. Let C be the set of all complex numbers and 3(2 + cos q ) -3 sin q
x= , y=
ì z -z ü 5 + 4 cos q 5 + 4 cos q
R = í(z1 , z2 ) ÎC ´ C : 1 2 is real ý
î z1 + z2 þ Squaring and adding values of x and y, we get
Then, on C, R is a 9(2 + cos q )2 + 9 sin2 q
(A) reflexive relation (B) symmetric relation x2 + y2 =
(5 + 4 cos q )2
(C) transitive relation (D) equivalence relation
9(5 + 4 cos q ) 9
Solution: Since (0, 0) ÏR, R is not reflexive, we have = =
(5 + 4 cos q )2
5 + 4 cosq
z1 - z2
(z1 , z2 ) Î R Þ is real Also
z1 + z2
z -z 12(2 + cos q ) 9
Þ 2 1 is real 4x - 3 = -3=
z1 + z2 5 + 4 cos q 5 + 4 cos q
Þ (z2 , z1 ) Î R Therefore
Therefore R is symmetric. x2 + y2 = 4 x - 3
Since (0, z) Î R and (z, 0) Î R, but (0, 0) Ï R, there-
fore R is not transitive. Hence R is not an equivalence Answer: (A)
relation.
7. If
Answer: (B)
3+i
5. If z = x + iy is such that z - 4 < z - 2 , then x + iy =
1 + 3i
(A) x > 0, y > 0
(B) x < 0, y > 0 then ( x2 + y2 )2 equals
(C) x > 2, y > 3 (A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 1
(D) x > 3 and y is any real number Solution:
Solution: We have 3 + i (3 + i)(1 - 3i)
x2 - y2 + 2ixy = =
2 2 1 + 3i 1+ 9
z-4 < z-2 Û z-4 < z-2
Comparing the real and imaginary parts we get
Û ( x - 4)2 + y2 < ( x - 2)2 + y2
6 -8
x2 - y2 = and 2 xy =
10 10
142 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Now is equal to
(x + y ) = (x - y ) + 4x y
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A) 1 (B) –1 (C) 0 (D) 1/2
2 2 Solution: We have
æ 6 ö æ -8 ö 9 16
=ç ÷ +ç ÷ = + =1
è 10 ø è 10 ø 25 25 (k - w)(k - w2 ) = k 2 + k + 1
Answer: (D) Therefore

8. If a is a positive real number, z = a + 2i and z| z | - æ 10 p ö æ 10 p ö


cos ç å (k - w)(k - w2 ) ÷ = cos ç å (k 2 + k + 1)
az + 1 = 0, then è k =1 450 ø è k =1 450 ÷ø
(A) z is pure imaginary æ p ö
= cos ç 450 × ÷
(B) a2 = 2 è 450 ø
(C) a2 = 4 = cos p = - 1
(D) no such complex number exists Answer: (B)
Solution:
11. If a = - 1 + i 3 and n is a positive integer which is
z | z | - az + 1 = 0 not a multiple of 3, then
(a + 2i) a2 + 4 = a(a + 2i) - 1 a 2 n + 2n a n + 2 2 n =
(A) 1 (B) −1 (C) 0 (D) a 2
= a2 - 1 + 2ai
Solution: We have
This implies
éæ a ö 2 n æ a ö n ù
a a2 + 4 = a2 - 1 and 2 a2 + 4 = 2a a 2 n + 2n a n + 22 n = 22 n êç ÷ + ç ÷ + 1ú
êëè 2 ø è 2ø úû
which gives a2 = a2 - 1, which is absurd.
Answer: (D) é a -1 i 3 æaö
3
ù
= 22 n (w2 n + wn + 1) ê∵ = + and ç ÷ = 1ú
êë 2 2 2 è 2ø úû
9. If | z1 + z2 | = | z1| + | z2 |, then one of the values of
arg(z2/z1) is = 22 n (0) = 0 (since 3 does not divide n)
(A) 0 (B) p (C) p/2 (D) 3p Answer: (C)
Solution: If z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 , then z1, z2 and origin
12. If arg (z) < 0, then arg ( - z) - arg(z) =
are collinear and z1, z2 lie on same side to origin and
hence arg(z2/z1) = 2np. Then 0 is one of the values of (A) p (B) -p (C) p/2 (D) -p/2
arg(z2/z1). Solution: Let arg (z) = q < 0. Then -p < q < 0 and there-
Answer: (A) fore 0 < q + p < p. Hence
Alternate Method:
arg ( - z) = p + q
Let z1 = r1(cosq1 + i sinq1) and z2 = r2(cosq2 + i sinq2). Then
z1 + z2 = z1 + z2 implies arg ( - z) - arg (z) = p
Answer: (A)
(r1 cos q1 + r2 cos q2 )2 + (r1 sin q1 + r2 sin q2 )2 = (r1 + r2 )2
13. Let w ¹ 1 be a cube root of unity and
That is
E = 2(1 + w)(1 + w2 ) + 3(2w + 1)(2w2 + 1)
cos(q1 - q2 ) = 1
+ 4(3w + 1)(3w2 + 1) +
Therefore
+ (n + 1)(nw + 1)(nw2 + 1)
q1 - q2 = 2 np
Then E is equal to
10. If w is a cube root of unity and w ¹ 1, then n2 (n + 1)2 n2 (n + 1)2
(A) (B) +n
4 4
æ 10 p ö
cos ç å (k - w)(k - w2 ) n (n + 1)2
2
n2 (n + 1)2
è k =1 450 ÷ø (C) -n (D) - (n + 1)
4 4
Worked-Out Problems 143

  
Solution: We have by a + b + c and hence by z1 + z2 + z3. Note that the origin
(k + 1)(kw + 1)(kw2 + 1) = (k + 1)(k 2 - k + 1) = k 3 + 1 is the circumcenter.
Answer: (B)
Therefore,
n n
n2 (n + 1)2 16. If z1, z2 and z3 are the vertices of an equilateral triangle
E = å (k 3 + 1) = å k3 + n = +n
k =1 k =1 4 and z0 be its orthocenter, then z12 + z22 + z32 = kz 02 , where
k is equal to
Answer: (B)
(A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 6 (D) 9
14. If z - 3 + 2i £ 4, then the absolute difference between Solution: In an equilateral triangle, the circumcenter,
the maximum and minimum values of | z | is the centroid and the orthocenter are one and the same
(A) 2 11 (B) 3 11 (C) 2 13 (D) 3 13 point. Therefore

Solution: Let C = 3 - 2i be the center of the circle z1 + z2 + z3


z0 =
z - 3 + 2i = 4. Join the origin to C and let it meet the 3
circle in A and B (see figure). 9z 02 = z12 + z22 + z32 + z(z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 )
Least value of | z | = OB = 3(z 12 + z 22 + z 23)
[since z1 + z2 + z3 = å z1 z2 (by Problem 7 of Multiple
2 2 2
= CB - OC
Correct Choice Type Questions in Worked-Out Problems
= 4 - 32 + 22 section)]. Therefore
= 4 - 13 z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02 and k = 3
Maximum value of | z | = OA = 4 + 13 Answer: (A)
The absolute difference between the maximum and 17. Let z1 = 10 + 6i and z2 = 4 + 6i. If z is any complex
minimum values of | z | is 2 13. number such that the argument of (z - z1)/(z - z2) is
p/4, then | z - 7 - 9i | is equal to
(A) 2 3 (B) 3 2 (C) 3 (D) 2
B
3
O Solution: Let z = x + iy, x, y Î  . Then z - z1 = ( x - 10) +
2
C i( y - 6) and z - z2 = ( x - 4) + i( y - 6). Therefore
z - z1 ( x - 10) + i( y - 6)
A =
z - z2 ( x - 4) + i( y - 6)

Answer: (C) [( x - 10) + i( y - 6)][( x - 4) - i( y - 6)]


=
( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2
15. If z1, z2 and z3 represent the vertices of a triangle
whose circumcenter is at the origin, then the complex Therefore
number representing the orthocenter of the triangle is z - z1 ( x - 10)( x - 4) + ( y - 6)2
1 1 1 Real part of =
(A) + + (B) z1 + z2 + z3 z - z2 ( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2
z1 z2 z3
z - z1 ( x - 4)( y - 6) - ( x - 10)( y - 6)
1 1 1 Imaginary part of =
(C) + + (D) z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 z - z2 ( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2
z1z2 z2 z3 z3 z1
6( y - 6)
Solution: It is known that every complex number can =
( x - 4)2 + ( y - 6)2
be represented by means of a vector in the Argand’s
plane. If A and B represent the complex numbers z1 Now,
and z2, respectively, then the vector AB represents the
complex number z2 - z1 . (These matters will be discussed p æ z - z1 ö é 6( y - 6) ù
   = arg ç ÷ = tan-1 ê 2 ú
in detail later in Volume II) Correspondingly, if a, b, c 4 è z - z2 ø ë ( x - 10)( x - 4) + ( y - 6) û
are the position vectors of the points A(z1 ), B(z2 ), C (z3 ),
then the orthocenter of the triangle ABC is represented
144 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Therefore (A) 27 (B) 18 (C) 54 (D) -27


( x - 10)( x - 4) + ( y - 6)2 = 6( y - 6) Solution: x + x + 1 = 0 Þ x is a non-real cube root of
2

unity. Let x = w ¹ 1 be a cube root of unity. Then w3 = 1


x + y - 14 x - 18 y + 112 = 0
2 2
and 1 + w + w2 = 0. The given equation, thus, becomes
Now, 2 2 2 2
æ 1ö æ 2 1 ö æ 3 1 ö æ 27 1 ö
| z - 7 - 9 i | = ( x - 7) + ( y - 9 )
2 2 2 çè w + ÷ø + çè w + 2 ÷ø + çè w + 3 ÷ø + çè w + 27 ÷ø
w w w w
2 2
= x2 - 14 x + y2 - 18 y + 130 æ w2 + 1ö æ w4 + 1ö æ 1ö
2

=ç ÷ +ç ÷ + (1 + 1)2 + ç w + ÷ +
= - 112 + 130 = 18 è w ø è w ø è wø
+ (1 + 1)
2
Therefore

| z - 7 - 9i | = 18 = 3 2 éæ -w ö 2 æ -w2 ö 2 ù
= 9 êç ÷ + ç 2 ÷ + (1 + 1)2 ú
Answer: (B) êëè w ø è w ø úû
= 9(1 + 1 + 4) = 54
18. If x = cos a + i sin a and y = cos b + i sin b, then(x − y)/
(x + y) is equal to Answer: (C)

æa - bö æa - bö 21. If z is a complex number and i = -1, then the


(A) i tan ç (B) - i tan ç
è 2 ÷ø è 2 ÷ø minimum possible value of | z | 2 + | z - 3 | 2 + | z - 6i | 2 is
æa + bö æa + bö (A) 15 (B) 30 (C) 20 (D) 45
(C) i tan ç (D) -i tan ç
è 2 ÷ø è 2 ÷ø Solution: Let z = x + iy. Then
Solution: We know that
| z2 | + | z - 3 | 2 + | z - 6i | 2 = x 2 + y 2 + ( y - 3)2 + y2 + x2 + ( y - 6)2
x - y (cos a - cos b ) + i(sin a - sin b ) = 3( x2 + y2 ) - 6 x - 12 y + 45
=
x + y (cos a + cos b ) + i(sin a + sin b ) = 3[( x - 1)2 + ( y - 2)2 ] + 30 ³ 30
- 2 sin[(a + b )/ 2]sin[(a - b )/ 2] (equality holds when z = 1 + 2i). Therefore, the minimum
+ 2i cos[(a + b )/ 2]sin[(a - b )/ 2] value is 30.
=
2 cos[(a + b )/ 2]cos[(a - b )/ 2] Answer: (B)
+ 2i sin[(a + b )/ 2]cos[(a - b )/ 2]
22. The curve in the complex plane given by the equa-
i sin[(a - b ) / 2]{cos[(a + b )/ 2] + i sin[(a + b )/ 2]} tion Re(1/z) = 1/4 is a
=
cos[(a - b )/ 2]{cos[(a + b )/ 2] + i sin[(a + b )/ 2]} (A) vertical line intersecting with the x-axis at (4, 0)
æa - bö (B) a circle with radius 2 and centre at (2, 0)
= i tan ç
è 2 ÷ø (C) circle with unit radius
Answer: (A) (D) straight line not passing through the origin
Solution: Let z = x + iy, where x and y are reals. Then
19. If | z1 - 1 | < 1, | z2 - 2 | < 2 and | z3 - 3 | < 3, then | z1 +
z2 + z3 | æ 1ö 1 æ x - iy ö 1
Re ç ÷ = Þ Re ç 2 =
(A) is less than 6 (B) is greater than 6 è zø 4 è x + y2 ÷ø 4
(C) is less than 12 (D) lies between 6 and 12 x 1
Þ =
Solution: We have x +y
2 2
4

| z1 + z2 + z3 - 6 + 6 | £ | z1 + z2 + z3 - 6 | + 6 Þ x2 + y2 = 4 x
= |(z1 - 1) + (z2 - 2) + (z3 - 3)| + 6 Þ ( x - 2)2 + y2 = 4 = 22
£ | z1 - 1| + | z2 - 2 | + | z3 - 3 | + 6 This is the equation of the circle with radius 2 and center
< 1 + 2 + 3 + 6 = 12 at (2, 0).
Answer: (C) Answer: (B)

20. If x2 + x + 1 = 0 then the value of 23. The origin and the points represented by the roots of
2 2 2 2
the equation z2 + mz + n = 0 form the vertices of an
æ 1ö æ 2 1 ö æ 3 1 ö æ 27 1 ö equilateral triangle if and only if
çè x + ÷ø + çè x + 2 ÷ø + çè x + 3 ÷ø + + çè x + 27 ÷ø is
x x x x
Worked-Out Problems 145

(A) m2 = 3n (B) n2 = 3m Then | z1 + z2 | is equal to


(C) 3m2 = n (D) 3n2 = m æ 2ö æ 2ö
(A) 2 cos ç 20 cos-1 ÷ (B) 2 sin ç 10 cos-1 ÷
è 3ø è 3ø
Solution: The points z1, z2 and z3 are the vertices of an
equilateral triangle if and only if æ 2ö æ 2ö
(C) 2 cos ç 10 cos-1 ÷ (D) 2 sin ç 20 cos-1 ÷
z + z + z = z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1
2 2 2 è 3ø è 3ø
1 2 3

(see Problem 7 of Multiple Correct Choice Type Questions Solution: Adding the two we get
in Worked-Out Problems section). Let z1 and z2 be the
(2 + i 5 ) 20 + (2 - i 5 ) 20
roots of z2 + mz + n = 0 . Therefore z1 + z2 = - m, z1 z2 = n . z1 + z2 =
Now z1, z2 and the origin form an equilateral triangle if 9 10
and only if Suppose 2 + i 5 = r (cos q + i sin q ), so that r = 22 + 5 = 3,
z12 + z22 = z1 z2 r cos q = 2 and r sin q = 5. Therefore

Û (z1 + z2 )2 = 3z1 z2 2 5
cos q = and sin q =
3 3
Û (- m)2 = 3n
Answer: (A) In this case
1 20
24. Let z = x + iy, where x and y are real. The points z1 + z2 = [r {cos(20 q ) + i sin(20 q )
910
(x, y) in the plane, for which (z + i)/(z - i) is purely + cos(20 q ) - i sin(20 q )}]
imaginary, lie on
r20 320 é æ 2ö ù
(A) a straight line = 2 cos(20 q ) = 10 2 cos ê 20 cos-1 ç ÷ ú
910
9 ë è 3ø û
(B) a circle
é æ 2ö ù
(C) a curve whose equation is of the form = 2 cos ê 20 cos-1 ç ÷ ú
ë è 3ø û
x2 y2
+ = 1, a ¹ 1, b ¹ 1 Answer: (A)
a2 b2
(D) a curve whose equation is of the form 26. If (1 + z)n = a0 + a1z + a2z2 + + anzn, where a0, a1,
a2, …, an, are real, then
x2 y2
- =1 (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + )2 + (a1 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )2 =
a2 b2
(A) 2n (B) a02 + a12 + a22 + + an2
Solution: We have 2
(C) 2n (D) 2 n2
z + i x + i( y + 1)
= Solution: Substitute z = i on both sides. Then
z - i x + i( y - 1)
[ x + i( y + 1)][ x - i ( y - 1)] (1 + i)n = (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + ) + i(a1 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )
=
x2 + ( y - 1)2 Therefore
This is pure imaginary if and only if | 1 + i |2 n = (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + )2 + (a4 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )2
æ z + iö 2n = (a0 - a2 + a4 - a6 + ))2 + (a1 - a3 + a5 - a7 + )2
Re ç =0
è z - i ÷ø Answer: (A)
x + ( y - 1)
2 2
Û =0 27. Let z1 and z2 be roots of the equation z + pz + q = 0,
2
x2 + ( y - 1)2
where p, q may be complex numbers. Let A and B
Û x2 + y2 = 1 represent z1 and z2 in the complex plane. If ÐAOB = a ¹ 0
and OA = OB, where O is the origin, then
Therefore (x, y) lie on the circle | z | = 1.
æaö æaö
Answer: (B) (A) p2 = 4 q cos2 ç ÷ (B) p2 = 4 q sin2 ç ÷
è 2ø è 2ø
25. Let z1 and z2 be given by æaö æaö
(C) p2 = - 4 q cos2 ç ÷ (D) q2 = 4 p sin2 ç ÷
10 10 è 2ø è 2ø
æ 2 + i 5ö æ 2 - i 5ö
z1 = ç ÷ and z2 = ç ÷ Solution: z1 and z2 are roots of z2 + pz + q = 0. This
è 2 - i 5ø è 2 + i 5ø
implies z1 + z2 = -p and z1z2 = q. Now
146 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

z2 - 0 OB Therefore
= (cos a + i sin a )
z1 - 0 OA é æ pö 3 æ p ö 3ù
z3 / 4 = 23 / 8 êcos ç 2kp + ÷ + i sin ç 2kp + ÷ ú
y ë è ø
4 4 è 4ø 4û
for k = 0, 1, 2, 3. The product of the values of this is equal
B(z2)
to

é æ p 9p 17p 25p ö 3ù æ 52p 3 ö


A(z1) 23 / 2 êcis ç + + + ÷ = 23 / 2 cis ç ×
ë è4 4 4 4 ø 4 úû è 4 4 ÷ø
a
39p
x = 23 / 2 cis
O 4
æ 3p ö
= 23 / 2 cis ç 9p + ÷
è 4ø
Therefore
æ pö
z2 = 23 / 2 cis ç 10p - ÷
= cos a + i sin a è 4ø
z1
z2 - z1 é æ pö æ pöù
= - 1 + cos a + i sin a = 23 / 2 êcos ç 10p - ÷ + i sin ç 10p - ÷ ú
z1 ë è 4 ø è 4øû

This gives é p pù
= 23 / 2 êcos - i sin ú
2 ë 4 4û
é a a aù
(z2 - z1 )2 = z12 ê -2 sin2 + 2 i sin cos ú
ë 2 2 2û æ 1 i ö
= 23 / 2 ç - ÷
è 2 2ø
2 2
æ aö é a aù
= z12 ç 2i sin ÷ êcos + i sin ú = 2(1 - i)
è 2ø ë 2 2û
Answer: (B)
a
= - 4z sin (cos a + i sin a )
2
1
2

2 29. If z1, z2 and z3 are the vertices of a right-angled isos-


celes triangle, right-angled at the vertex z2 (see
z2 a a figure), then z12 + 2z22 + z32 = kz2 (z1 + z3 ), where the value
= - 4z12 sin2 = - 4q sin2
z1 2 2 of k is
Hence, (A) 0 (B) 1 (C) -2 (D) 2
p2 = (z1 + z2 )2 = (z1 - z2 )2 + 4z1 z2 A(z1)
a
= - 4q sin2 + 4q
2
æ aö æaö
= 4q ç 1 - sin2 ÷ = 4q cos2 ç ÷
è 2 ø è 2ø
Answer: (A)
90°
28. The continued product of all the four values of the
complex number (1 + i)3 / 4 is B(z2) C(z3)
(A) 2 (1 + i)
3
(B) 2(1 - i) Solution: Let A, B and C represent z1, z2 and z3, respec-
(C) 2(1 + i) (D) 23(1 - i) tively, described in counterclock sense. Therefore
Solution: Let z1 - z2 BA æ p ö
= cis ç ÷ = i
æ p pö z3 - z2 BC è 2 ø
z = 1 + i = 2 ç cos + i sin ÷
è 4 4ø (z1 - z2 )2 = - (z3 - z2 )2
Worked-Out Problems 147

z12 + z22 - 2z1z2 = - z32 - z22 + 2z2 z3 æz ö æz -z ö


arg ç 3 ÷ = 2q = 2 arg ç 3 1 ÷
z + 2z + z = 2z2 (z1 + z3 )
2
1
2
2
2
3
è z2 ø è z2 - z1 ø
This gives k = 2. Therefore k = 2.
Answer: (D) Answer: (C)

30. Let z1, z2 and z3 be vertices of a triangle and | z1 | = a, 31. Let z = ( 3 / 2) - (i / 2). Then the smallest positive
| z2 | = b and | z3 | = c such that integer n such that (z95 + i 67 )94 = zn is
a b c (A) 12 (B) 10 (C) 9 (D) 8
b c a =0 Solution: From the hypothesis we have
c a b
Then 3 i æ 1 i 3ö
z= - = iç- - = iw
æz ö æz -z ö 2 2 è 2 2 ÷ø
arg ç 3 ÷ = k arg ç 3 1 ÷
è z2 ø è z2 - z1 ø where w = (- 1/ 2) - (i 3 / 2) which is a cube root of unity.
where k is Now, z95 = (iw)95 = -iw2 (since w3 = 1) and i67 = i3 = -i.
Therefore,
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3
Solution: We have z95 + i67 = - i(1 + w2 ) = (- i)(- w) = iw
(z95 + i67 )94 = (iw)94 = i2 w = - w
a b c
b c a =0 Now
c a b - w = zn = (iw)n

Þ 3abc - a3 - b3 - c3 = 0 Þ in × wn - 1 = - 1
Þ n = 2, 6, 10, 14, … and n - 1 = 3, 6, 9, …
Þ a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc = 0
Therefore n = 10 is the required least positive integer.
Þ (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ca) = 0
Answer: (B)
1
Þ (a + b + c) ((a - b)2 + (b - c)2 + (c - a)2 ) = 0
2 32. The number of complex numbers z satisfying the
conditions |(z / z ) + (z / z)| = 1, | z| = 1 and arg z Î(0, 2p) is
Therefore (a - b)2 = 0 = (b - c)2 = (c - a)2 and hence a = b = c
(since a, b, c are positive). This implies that z1, z2 and z3 rep- (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 4 (D) 8
resent points on a circle with center at the origin. Suppose Solution: It is given that | z | = 1 which implies that z =
A, B and C represent z1, z2 and z3, respectively, described cosq + i sinq, 0 £ q < 2p :
in counterclock sense (see figure). If ÐBAC = q , then
ÐBOC = 2q. In such case z z
+ =1
z z
Þ 2 |cos 2q | = 1
B(z2)
1 -1
Þ cos 2q = or cos 2q =
2 2
q A(z1)
Now
O
1 p 5p 7p 11p
cos 2q = Þq = , , ,
2 6 6 6 6
1 p 2p 4p 5p
and cos 2q = - Þq = , , ,
C(z3) 2 3 3 3 3
1 Answer: (D)
148 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Multiple Correct Answer Type Questions


1. The complex number z that satisfies simultaneously z1 z2 and z1/z2 are pure imaginary.
the equations is Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)
z - 4i z - 8 + 3i 3
= 1 and = 3. If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers, then
z - 2i z + 3i 5
(A) 2(| z1 |2 + | z2 |2 ) = | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2
(A) 3 + 8 i (B) 8 + 3 i (C) 3 + 17 i (D) 17 + 3 i
(B) | z1 + z12 - z22 | + | z1 - z12 - z22 | = | z1 + z2 | + | z1 - z2 |
Solution:
z1 + z2 z +z
z - 4i (C) + z1z2 + 1 2 - z1 z2 = | z1 | + | z2 |
= 1 Þ | z - 4i | = | z - 2i | 2 2
z - 2i
(D) | z1 + z2 | 2 - | z1 - z2 | 2 = 2(z1z2 + z1z2 )
Therefore, the point representing z in the Argand’s plane
Solution: | z1 + z2 | 2 = (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 )
is equidistant from the points (0, 2) and (0, 4). Hence, z
lies on the line y = 3 and so = | z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 + z1z2 + z1z2
z = x + yi = x + 3i and | z1 - z2 | 2 = (z1 - z2 )(z1 - z2 )
Substituting z = x + 3i in the second equation, we get that Therefore
x + 3i - 8 + 3i 3 | z1 + z2 | 2 + | z1 - z2 | 2 = 2(| z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 ) (A is true)
=
x + 3i + 3i 5
| z1 + z2 | - | z1 - z2 | = 2(z1z2 + z1z2 )
2 2
(D is true)
x - 8 + 6i 3
= Now
x + 6i 5
Therefore (| z1 + z12 - z22 | + | z1 - z12 - z22 |) 2

25 [( x - 8)2 + 36] = 9( x2 + 36) = | z1 + z12 - z22 | 2 + | z1 - z12 - z22 | 2 + 2 | z12 - (z12 - z22 )|

16 x2 - 400 x + 2176 = 0 = 2(| z1 |2 + | z12 - z22 |) + 2 | z2 |2


x2 - 25 x + 136 = 0 = 2(| z1 |2 + | z2 |2 ) + 2 | z12 - z22 |
( x - 8)( x - 17) = 0 = | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 + 2 | z1 + z2 || z1 - z2 |
x = 8, 17 = (| z1 + z2 | + | z1 - z2 |)2
Hence
Therefore
z = 8 + 3i, 17 + 3 i
Answers: (B), (D) | z1 + z12 - z22 | + | z1 - z12 - z22 | = | z1 + z2 | + | z1 - z2 |

Hence (B) is true. Also


2. If z1 and z2 are complex numbers such that | z1 + z2 |2 =
| z1 | 2 + | z2 | 2 , then z1 + z2 z +z
+ z1z2 + 1 2 - z1z2
(A) z1z2 is pure imaginary (B) z1z2 + z1z2 = 0 2 2
æz ö p æz ö p 1 1
(C) Arg ç 1 ÷ = ± (D) Arg ç 1 ÷ = ± = | z1 + z2 | 2 + | z1 - z2 | 2
è 2ø
z 2 z
è 2ø 2 2 2
Solution: 1
= [2 | z1 | 2 +2 | z2 | 2 ]
2
| z1 + z2 |2 = | z1 |2 + | z2 |2
= | z1 | + | z2 |
(z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 ) = z1z1 + z2 z2
z1z2 + z2 z1 = 0 Therefore (C) is true.
z1 æz ö Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)
= - ç z1 ÷
z2 è 2ø
Worked-Out Problems 149

4. If x and y are real numbers and Solution: Let

(1 + i) x - 2 i (2 - 3i) y + i [sin( x / 2) + cos( x / 2)] + i tan x


+ =i
3+ i 3-i 1 + 2i sin( x / 2)
then Then
(A) x = 3 (B) y = 1 (C) y = -1 (D) x = -3 [sin( x / 2) + cos( x / 2) + i tan x][1 - 2i sin( x / 2)]
z=
Solution: From the given equation, we get that 1 + 4 sin2 ( x / 2)
(3 - i)[(1 + i) x - 2 i] + (3 + i)[(2 - 3i) y + i] = 10i Suppose that z is real. Then Im(z) = 0. Therefore
Therefore x é æ xö æ xö ù
tan x - 2 sin êsin çè 2 ÷ø + cos çè 2 ÷ø ú = 0
4 x - 2 + i(2 x - 6) + 9 y - 1 + i (3 - 7 y) = 10i 2 ë û
4 x + 9 y - 3 + (2 x - 7 y - 13)i = 0 x æ x xö
sin x - 2 sin cos x ç sin + cos ÷ = 0
4 x + 9 y = 3 an nd 2 x - 7 y = 13 2 è 2 2ø
The two equations give x = 3 and y = -1. æ xö
sin x - sin x cos x - 2 sin2 ç ÷ cos x = 0
Answers: (A), (C) è 2ø
sin x(1 - cos x) - (1 - cos x)cos x = 0
5. The complex number(s) satisfying the equations
(1 - cos x)(sin x - cos x) = 0
z - 12 5 z- 4
= and = 1 is (are) cos x = 1 or tan x = 1
z - 8i 3 z-8
(A) 6 - 8i (B) 6 + 17i (C) 6 + 8i (D) 6 - 17i Therefore

Solution: Let z = x + iy p
x = 2 np , x = np + , n is an integer
4
z-4
=1 Since 0 £ x £ 2p , x = 0, p /4, 2p , 5p /4 .
z-8
Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)
( x - 4)2 + y2 = ( x - 8)2 + y2
x=6 7. If z1, z2 and z3 represent the vertices A, B and C, respec-
Therefore tively, of a triangle (see figure), then the triangle ABC
is equilateral if and only if
z = 6 + iy
(A) z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1
Now 1 1 1
(B) + + =0
z - 12 5 z1 - z2 z2 - z3 z3 - z1
=
z - 8i 3 (C) | z1 + z2 + z3 | = 3
9(36 + y ) = 25 [36 + ( y - 8) ]
2 2
(D) | z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 | = 3
( y - 8)( y - 17) = 0
y = 8, 17 A(z1)

Therefore
60°
z = 6 + 8i, 6 + 17i
Answers: (B), (C)
60°
6. If x is a real number such that 0 £ x £ 2p and B(z2) C(z3)

[sin( x / 2) + cos( x / 2)] + i tan x Solution: Suppose that triangle ABC is equilateral.
1 + 2i sin( x / 2) Then
is real, then the possible value(s) of x is (are) z3 - z1 p p z1 - z2 p p
= cos + i sin and = cos + i sin
(A) 0 (B) 2p (C) p /4 (D) 5p /4 z2 - z1 3 3 z3 - z2 3 3
150 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Therefore Then
(z3 - z1 )(z3 - z2 ) = (z2 - z1 )(z1 - z2 ) a+b 1
=-
z - z3 z2 - z1z3 + z1z2 = z2 z1 - z22 - z12 + z1z2
2
3 ab g
z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 Therefore
Conversely, suppose that - g 2 = - ab (since a + b = - g )
z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 g 3 = abg
Then, Similarly
z1 (z1 - z2 ) + z2 (z2 - z3 ) + z3 (z3 - z1 ) = 0 b 3 = abg = a 3
Therefore This gives a3 = b 3 = g 3 and therefore | a | = | b | = | g |. That is,
z1 (z1 - z2 ) + z2 (z2 - z1 + z1 - z3 ) + z3 (z3 - z1 ) = 0
| z1 - z2 | = | z2 - z3 | = | z3 - z1 |
(z1 - z2 )2 - (z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 ) = 0
Therefore DABC is equilateral.
That is Answers: (A) and (B)
(z1 - z2 )2 = (z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 )
8. If c ³ 0, then the equation | z | - 2iz + 2c (1 + i) = 0
2
(z1 - z2 )3 = (z1 - z2 )(z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 )
(z is complex) has
Similarly, (A) infinitely many solutions if c < 2 - 1
(z2 - z3 )3 = (z1 - z2 )(z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 ) (B) has unique solution if c = 2 - 1
(C) finite number of solutions if c > 2 - 1
and (z3 - z1 )3 = (z1 - z2 )(z2 - z3 )(z3 - z1 )
(D) no solutions if c > 2 - 1
Therefore
Solution: Let z = x + iy. Then
(z1 - z2 )3 = (z2 - z3 )3 = (z3 - z1 )3
( x2 + y2 ) - 2i( x + iy) + 2c(1 + i) = 0
| z1 - z2 | = | z2 - z3 | = | z3 - z1 |
Therefore
Therefore AB = BC = CA. That is DABC is equilateral.
x2 + y2 + 2 y + i(2c - 2 x) + 2c = 0
Answer: (A)
x2 + y2 + 2 y + 2c = 0 (3.9)
We will prove that (B) is also correct. Suppose that
DABC is equilateral. Then and 2c - 2 x = 0 or x=c (3.10)
| z1 - z2 | = | z2 - z3 | = | z3 - z1 | = k (say) Substituting x = c in Eq. (3.9), we get that
Let a = z1 - z2 , b = z2 - z3 and g = z3 - z1. Then a + b + g = 0 c2 + y2 + 2 y + 2c = 0 (3.11)
and hence a + b + g = 0. That is Equation (3.11) has solutions if 4 - 4 (c2 + 2c) ³ 0 , that is
k2 k2 k2 1 - c2 - 2c ³ 0. Therefore
+ + = 0 (since aa = |a |2 = k2 )
a b g (c + 1)2 £ 2 or - 2 £ c + 1 £ 2
Therefore - 2 - 1£ c £ 2 -1
1 1 1 It is given that c ³ 0. Therefore 0 £ c £ 2 - 1.
+ + =0
a b g (i) If c < 2 - 1, then z = c + (- 1 ± 1 - 2c - c2 )i.
1 1 1 (ii) If c = 2 - 1, then z = ( 2 - 1) - i.
+ + =0
z1 - z2 z2 - z3 z3 - z1 (iii) If c > 2 - 1, the equation has no solutions.
Conversely, suppose that Answers: (B), (D)
1 1 1
+ + =0 9. If z1, z2, z3 are complex numbers such that
a b g z12 z2 z2
| z1 | = | z2 | = | z3 | = 1 and + 2 + 3 = -1
z2 z3 z3 z1 z1z2
Worked-Out Problems 151

then the value of | z1 + z2 + z3 | can be 10. If


(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3/2
arg (z3 / 8 ) = (1/ 2) arg (z2 + zz1 / 2 )
Solution: Let z = z1 + z2 + z3. Then
then which of the following is (are) true?
1 1 1 z z + z2 z3 + z3 z1 (A) | z | = 1 (B) z is real
z = z1 + z2 + z3 = + + = 1 2
z1 z2 z3 z1z2 z3 (C) z is pure imaginary (D) z1/2 = 1
Therefore zb= z1z2 + z2z3 + z3z1, where b = z1z2z3. Hence Solution: The given relation is
2 2 2
z z z
+
1
+ 2
= - 1 Þ z13 + z23 + z33 = - z1z2 z3
3
2 arg (z3 / 8 ) = arg (z 2 + zz1 / 2 )
z2 z3 z3 z1 z1z2
æ z3 / 4 ö
Þ z13 + z23 + z33 - 3z1z2 z3 = - 4b Þ arg ç 2 =0
è z + zz1/ 2 ÷ø
Now
z3/ 4
(z1 + z2 + z3 ) [(z1 + z2 + z3 )2 - 3(z1z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 )] = - 4b Þ is purely real
z + zz1/ 2
2

That is z2 + zz1/ 2
Þ is purely real
z(z - 3zb) = - 4b
2
z3/ 4
Therefore Þ z 5 / 4 + zz - 1/ 4 is purely real
z - 3 | z | b + 4b = 0
3 2
Þ z5 / 4 + zz-1/ 4 = z5 / 4 + zz - 1/ 4
z = (3 | z | - 4)b
3 2
Þ ((z )5 / 4 + z(z ) - 1/ 4 ) = z5 / 4 + zz - 1/ 4
| z | = | 3 | z | - 4 | (since | b | = | z1z2 z3 | = 1)
3 2
(z ) 5 / 4 - z5 / 4
Þ (z )5 / 4 - z5 / 4 = zz - 1/ 4 - z(z ) - 1/ 4 =
Case 1: Suppose that 3 | z | ³ 4. Then 2
(zz )1/ 4
| z|3 = 3| z|2 - 4 é 1 ù
Þ [(z )5 / 4 - z5 / 4 ] ê1 - =0
| z| - 3| z| + 4 = 0
3 2
ë ( zz )1/ 4 úû
(| z| - 2)(| z |2 - | z | - 2) = 0 1
Þ z = z or =1
(| z | - 2)(| z | - 2)(| z | + 1) = 0 | z|2
| z| = 2 Þ z = z or | z | = 1

Case 2: Suppose that 3 | z |2 < 4 . Then Answers: (A) and (B)

| z|3 = | 3| z|2 - 4 | = 4 - 3| z|2 11. The vertices A and C of a square ABCD (see figure)
| z| + 3| z| - 4 = 0
3 2 are 2 + 3i and 3 - 2i, respectively. If z1 and z2 repre-
sent the other two vertices B and D respectively,
(| z | - 1)(| z | + 4 | z | + 4) = 0
2
then
(| z | - 1)(| z | + 2) 2 = 0 (A) z1 = 0 (B) z2 = 5 - i
| z| = 1 (C) z1 = 1 + i (D) z2 = 5 + i
Answers: (B) and (C)
B (z1) A (2+ 3i )
Note that, in case 2, z, z1, z2, and z3 lie on the circle with
radius 1 and center at the origin. Therefore, origin is the
circumcenter of the triangle with z1, z2 and z3 as verti-
ces. Hence, z1 + z2 + z3 (= z) represents the orthocenter. 90°
Thus z1, z2 and z3 form a right-angled triangle because
M
the distance between the orthocenter and circumcenter
is equal to the radius of the circumcircle. Hence two of
z1, z2, and z3 are the reflections of each other, through the
center of the circle. Since z1, z2, z3 satisfy the condition
å z12 / z2 z3 = -1, it implies that two are real and the third is C (3-2i ) D
the reflection of them in the origin.
152 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Solution: Let M be the center of the square. Then (C) D is the reflection of the orthocenter in the
side BC
5 i
M= + (D) If H is the orthocenter, then HD is perpendicular
2 2
to the side BD
Let z1 denote the point B. Then ÐCMD = 90°. Therefore
A(z1)
z1 - (5 + i)/ 2
=i
2 + 3i - (5 + i)/ 2
5+i æ 5 + iö
z1 = + i ç 2 + 3i - ÷
2 è 2 ø 90°
C(z3)
5+i æ - 1 + 5i ö B(z2)
= + iç
2 è 2 ÷ø
5+i-i-5
= =0
2
Therefore, D(z)

D = 3 - 2i + 2 + 3i - 0 Solution: AD is perpendicular to BC and therefore


z2 = 5 + i
Answers: (A) and (D) æ z - z1 ö p
arg ç =±
è z3 - z2 ÷ø 2
12. For any complex number z = x + iy, define
This implies that (z - z1)/(z3 - z2) is pure imaginary.
(z) = | x | + | y | Therefore
If z1 and z2 are any complex numbers, then
z - z1 æ z - z1 ö
(A) (z1 + z2 ) £ (z1 ) + (z2 ) = -ç
z3 - z2 è z3 - z2 ÷ø
(B) (z1 + z2 ) = (z1 ) + (z2 )
(1/z) - (1/z1 ) æ z - z1 ö
(C) (z1 + z2 ) ³ (z1 ) + (z2 ) = -ç
(1/z3 ) - (1/z2 ) è z3 - z2 ÷ø
(D) |(z1 + z2 )| £ |(z1 )| + |(z2 )|
æ z1 - z ö æ z2 z3 ö æ z - z1 ö
Solution: Let z1 = x1 + iy1 and z2 = x2 + iy2 . Then z1 + z2 = çè z - z ÷ø çè zz ÷ø = - çè z - z ÷ø
2 3 1 3 2
( x1 + x2 ) + i( y1 + y2 ). Now
z2 z3 -z z
= - 1 or z = 2 3
(z1 + z2 ) = | x1 + x2 | + | y1 + y2 | zz1 z1
£ | x1 | + | x2 | + | y1 | + | y2 |
This implies (A) is correct.
= (z1 ) + (z2 ) Also, since the orthocenter H is z1 + z2 + z3, we have
|(z1 + z2 )| = || x1 + x2 | + | y1 + y2 || BH = | z1 + z2 + z3 - z2 | = | z1 + z3 |
= | x1 + x2 | + | y1 + y2 |
£ | x1 | + | x2 | + | y1 | + | y2 | z2 z3 | z2 |
and BD = z2 + = | z1 + z3 | = | z1 + z3 |
z1 | z1 |
= |(z1 )| + |(z2 )|
Answers: (A) and (D) (since | z1 | = 1 = | z2 |)
Therefore, B is equidistant from H and D. Similarly, C
13. Let z1, z2 and z3 be complex numbers representing is equidistant from H and D. This gives that BC is the
three points A, B and C, respectively, on the unit perpendicular bisector of HD and so H, D are reflections
circle | z | = 1 (see figure). Let the altitude through A of each other through the side BC.
meet the circle in D(z). Then Answers: (A) and (C)
- z2 z3 - z1
(A) z = (B) z =
z1 z2 z3
Worked-Out Problems 153

14. Let a, b be real numbers such that | b | £ 2a2 . Let æ 5p 5p ö


III. z2 - z1 = (z3 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷
è 3 3ø
X = {z : | z - a | = 2a2 + b }
æ 2p 2p ö
Y = {z : | z + a | = 2a2 - b } IV. z1 + z2 ç cos + i sin ÷
è 3 3ø
S = {z : | z2 - a2 | = | 2az + b |}
æ 4p 4p ö
+ z3 ç cos + i sin ÷ = 0
Then which of the following is (are) true? è 3 3ø
(A) X is a subset of S (B) Y is a subset of S Then which one is correct:
(C) S = X È Y (D) S = X Ç Y (A) I Þ II (B) II Þ III
Solution: Let z Î S. Therefore | z2 - a2 | = | 2az + b |. This (C) III Þ IV (D) IV Þ I
relation is equivalent to
Solution:
| z2 - a2 |2 = | 2az + b|2 
I. Suppose D ABC is equilateral (see figure). Rotating AB
(z2 - a2 )(z 2 - a2 ) = (2az + b)(2az + b) about A through the angle p/3 in anticlocksense, we get
| z|4 - a2 (z2 + z 2 ) + a4 = 4a2 | z|2 + 2ab (z + z ) + b2 z3 - z1 p p
= cos + i sin
| z|4 - a2 [(z + z )2 - 2 | z|2 ] + a4 = 4a2 | z|2 + 2ab (z + z ) + b2 z2 - z1 3 3
| z|4 - 2a2 | z|2 + a4 = a2 (z + z )2 + 2ab (z + z ) + b2
Therefore, I Þ II. This implies (A) is true.
Hence, (| z | 2 - a2 ) 2 = [a(z + z ) + b] 2 . Therefore C(z3)
| z|2 - a2 = ± [a(z + z ) + b]
p
Therefore 3

| z|2 - a2 - a(z + z ) - b = 0 p p
3 3
or | z|2 - a2 + a (z + z ) + b = 0
A(z1) B(z2)
This is equivalent to II. Assume that
(z - a)(z - a) = 2a + b 2
æ p pö
z3 - z1 = (z2 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷
or (z + a)(z + a) = 2a - b 2
(3.12) è 3 3ø

Hence, Therefore
| z - a | = 2a + b or | z + a | = 2a - b
2 2 z3 - z1 p p
= cos + i sin
z2 - z1 3 3
Since | b | £ 2a2 , both 2a2 + b and 2a2 - b are non-negative.
From Eq. (3.12), if we retrace the steps backwards, then p
| z3 - z1 | = | z2 - z1 | and ÐBAC =
we get z satisfying the relation 3
| z2 - a2 | = | 2az + b | This implies DABC is equilateral. Therefore, II Þ I.

Therefore Now rotate AC about A through angle 5p /3 in anti-
clock sense so that
S = X ÈY
Answers: (A), (B), (C) æ 5p 5p ö
z2 - z1 = (z3 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷
è 3 3ø
15. Let z1, z2, z3 be the complex numbers representing
the vertices A, B, C of a triangle described in coun- This means II Û III.
terclocksense. Consider the following statements. Similarly we can see that III Û IV and IV Û I.
I. D ABC is equilateral Answers: (A), (B), (C), (D)
æ p pö
II. z3 - z1 = (z2 - z1 ) ç cos + i sin ÷
è 3 3ø
154 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

Matrix-Match Type Questions


1. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3 = z2 - 2z + 3
= (z - 1)2 + 2 = i2 + 2 = 1
Column I Column II
4(z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) = 4
(A) If z = x + iy, z1/ 3 = a - ib and (p) 10
x y Answer: (D) Æ (s)
- = l (a2 - b2 ), then l is
a b (q) 14
2. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II.
(B) If | z - i | < 1, then the value of In the following, w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity.
| z + 12 - 6i | is less than (r) 1
(C) If | z1 | = 1 and | z2 | = 2, then (s) 4 Column I Column II
| z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 is equal to
(A) The value of the determinant (p) 3w (1 - w )
(D) If z = 1 + i, then (t) 5
4 (z4 - 4z3 + 7z2 - 6z + 3) is equal to 1 1 1
1 - 1 - w2 w2 is
Solution: 1 w2 w4 (q) 3w(w - 1)
(A) x + iy = z = (a - ib)3 = a3 - 3a2 bi + 3a(ib)2 - i3 b3
(B) The value of 4 + 5w2002 + 3w2009
= (a3 - 3ab2 ) + i(b3 - 3a2 b) is
(r) -i 3
Comparing the real parts we get (C) The value of the determinant
x = a3 - 3ab2 = a(a2 - 3b2 ) 1 1 + i + w2 w2
x 1- i -1 w2 - 1 is (s) i 3
= a2 - 3b2
a -i -i + w 2 + 1 -1
Comparing the imaginary parts we get (D) w2 n + wn + 1 (n is a positive integer (t) 0
y = b - 3a b = b(b - 3a )
3 2 2 2 and not a multiple of 3) is
y
= b2 - 3a2 Solution:
b
(A) 1 1 1 3 1 + w + w2 1 + w2 + w
Therefore 1 - 1 - w2 w2 = 1 w w2
x y 1 w2 w4
1 w2 w
- = 4(a2 - b2 )
a b
3 0 0
l=4
= 1 w w2
Answer: (A) Æ (s)
1 w2 w
(B) | z - 12 - 6i | = |(z - i) + (12 - 5i)|
= 3(w2 - w4 ) = 3w(w - 1)
£ | z - i | + | 12 - 5i | < 1 + 13 = 14 Answer: (A) Æ (q)
Answer: (B) Æ (q) (B) 4 + 5w 2002
+ 3w
2009
= 4 + 5w + 3w 2
(∵ w3 = 1)
(C) | z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 - z2 |2 = 2(| z1 |2 + | z2 |2 ) = 2(1 + 4) = 10 = 1 + 2w + 3 (1 + w + w2 )
Answer: (C) Æ (p) = 1 + 2w
(D) If z = 1 + i, then Since
(z - 1) = i
4 4

-1 i 3
Therefore w= ±
2 2
z4 - 4z3 + 6z2 - 4z + 1 = 1 we get
(z - 4z + 7z - 6z + 3) - z + 2z - 2 = 1
4 3 2 2

æ -1 i 3 ö æ -1 i 3 ö
4 + 5w2002 + 3w2009 = 1 + 2 ç + or 1 + 2 ç -
è 2 2 ÷ø è 2 2 ÷ø
Worked-Out Problems 155

= 1 - 1 + i 3 or 1 - 1 - i 3 Solution: We have w3 = 1 and 1 + w + w2 = 0.


=±i 3 (A) We have
Answers: (B) Æ (r), (s) 1 1
(1 - w)(1 - w2 )(1 - w4 )(1 - w8 ) = (1 - w)2 (1 - w2 )2
3 3
(C) 1 1+ i + w 2
w 2
1 -w + i w 2

1- i -1 w2 - 1 = 1 - i -1 w2 - 1 1
= [(1 - w)(1 - w2 )]2
3
-i -i + w - 1 -1 -i -i + w -1 -1
1
1 -w + i -1 = (1 - w - w2 + w3 )2
3
= 0 0 0 =0 1
-i -i + w - 1 -1 = (1 + 1 + 1)2 = 3
3
Answer: (C) Æ (t) Answer: (A) Æ (t)
(B) We have
(D) Let n > 0 and n ¹ 3m for all integers m. Then
n = 3m + 1 or 3m + 2 w(1 + w - w2 )7 = w(-w2 - w2 )7
n = 3m + 1 Þ w2 n + wn + 1 = w6 m + 2 + w3 n + 1 + 1 = w[2(-w2 )]7
= w2 + w + 1 = 0
-27 w15 = -128
6 m+ 4 3m+ 2
n = 3m + 2 Þ w + w + 1 = w
2n n
+w +1 Answer: (B) Æ (p)
=w + w + 1= 02 (C) We have
Answer: (D) Æ (t) (1 + w2 )n = (1 + w4 )n
3. Match the items in Column I with those in Column II. (1 + w2 )n = (1 + w)n
w ¹ 1 is a cube root of unity.
(-w)n = (-w2 )n

Column I Column II wn = w2 n
(A) The value of (p) -128 The least such positive n is 3.
1 Answer: (C) Æ (t)
(1 - w)(1 - w2 )(1 - w4 )(1 - w8 ) is (q) 6
3 (D) We have
(B) w (1 + w - w2 )7 is equal to (r) 0
1 1 1 1 1+ w - 2 - w
+ - = +
(C) The least positive integer n such that 1 + 2w 2 + w 1 + w 1 + 2w (2 + w)(1 + w)
(1 + w2 )n = (1 + w4 )n is (s) 128
1 1
1 1 1 = -
(D) + - is equal to (t) 3 1 + 2w 2 + 3w + w2
1 + 2w 2 + w 1 + w 1 1
= - =0
1 + 2w 1 + 2w
Answer: (D) Æ (r)

Comprehension-Type Questions
1. Passage: A complex number z is pure real if and only (A) 8 x - 17 y = 16 (B) 8 x + 17 y = 16
if z = z and is pure imaginary if and only if z = - z.
(C) 17 x - 8 y = 16 (D) 17 x - 8 y = - 16
Answer the following questions:
(ii) If
(i) If x and y are real numbers and the complex
number 3 + 2i sin q æ pö
z= çè 0 < q £ ÷ø
1 - 2i sin q 2
(2 + i) x - i (1 - i) y + 2i
+
4+i 4i is pure imaginary, then q is equal to
is pure real, the relation between x and y is (A) p/4 (B) p/6 (C) p/3 (D) p/12
156 Chapter 3 Complex Numbers

(iii) If z1 and z2 are complex numbers such that 3


Û sinq = ±
z1 - z2 2
=1 p æ pö
z1 + z2 Ûq = çè since 0 < q £ ÷ø
3 2
then Answer: (C)
(A) z1/z2 is pure real
(iii) | z1 - z2 | = | z1 + z2 |
(B) z1/z2 is pure imaginary
(C) z1 is pure real Þ (z1 - z2 )(z1 - z2 ) = (z1 + z2 )(z1 + z2 )
(D) z1 and z2 are pure imaginary Þ z1z2 = - z1z2
Solution: z1 z æz ö
Þ = - 1 = -ç 1 ÷
(i) Let z2 z2 è z2 ø
(2 + i) x - i (1 - i) y + 2i z1
z= + Þ is pure imaginary
4+i 4i z2
2 x + ( x - 1)i y + (2 - y)i
= + Answer: (B)
4+i 4i
(2 x + ( x - 1))i)(4 - i) -iy + (2 - y) 2. Passage: Consider z = a + ib and z = a - ib, where a and
= +
17 4 b are real numbers, are conjugates of each other. Answer
8 x + x - 1 + i(4 x - 4 - 2 x) (2 - y) - iy the following three questions:
= +
17 4 (i) If the complex numbers -3 + i(x2y) and x2 + y + 4i,
9 x - 1 + i(2 x - 4) 2 - y - iy where x and y are real, are conjugate to each
= +
17 4 other, then the number of ordered pairs (x, y) is
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
Now
(ii) Let z = x 2
- 7 x - 9 yi such that z = y i + 20i - 12,
2

z is real Û z = z then the number of ordered pairs (x, y) is


Û Im z = 0 (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
2x - 4 y (iii) The number of real values of x such that sin x +
Û - =0 i cos 2x and cos x - i sin 2x are conjugate to each
17 4
other is
Û 8 x - 16 = 17 y (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) >2 (D) 0
Û 8 x - 17 y = 16 Solution:
Answer: (A) (i) -3 + ix2 y = x2 + y - 4i implies
3 + 2i sin q x2 + y = -3 and x2 y = - 4 (3.13)
(ii) z =
1 - 2i sin q
Therefore
(3 + 2i sin q )(1 + 2i sin q ) 4
= x2 - = -3
1 + 4 sin2 q x2
(3 - 4 sin2 q ) + i(8 sin q ) x4 + 3 x2 - 4 = 0
=
1 + 4 sin2 q
( x2 + 4)( x2 - 1) = 0
Now,
This gives x2 = 1 (since x2 ¹ -4). Therefore x = ±1 and
z is pure imaginary Û z = - z y = -4. Hence the ordered pairs are (1, -4) and (-1, -4).
Û Re(z) = 0 Answer: (B)
3 - 4 sin2 q (ii) We have
Û =0
1 + 4 sin2 q z = x2 - 7 x - 9 yi
3 Þ z = x2 - 7 x + 9 yi
Û sin2 q =
4
Þ x2 - 7 x + 9 yi = y2 i + 20i - 12
Summary 157

This implies that (iii) sin x + i cos 2 x = cos x + i sin 2 x


x2 - 7 x = - 12 (3.14) Þ sin x = cos x and cos 2 x = sin 2 x
and 9 y = y + 20
2
(3.15) Þ 2 cos2x - 1 = cos 2 x = sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x = 2 cos2x
Solving Eq. (3.14) we get
Þ - 1 = 0, which is absurd
x = 3, 4
Therefore, there are no such real numbers x.
Solving Eq. (3.15) we get
Answer: (D)
y2 - 9 y + 20 = 0 Þ y = 4, 5
Therefore, the required ordered pairs are (3, 4), (3, 5),
(4, 4) and (4, 5).
Answer: (D)

Assertion–Reasoning Type Questions


In the following set of questions, a Statement I is given Let z = x + iy. Then
and a corresponding Statement II is given just below it.
æ z - zö p
Mark the correct answer as: arg ç 1 = Þ ( x - 9)( x - 3) + ( y - 5)2 = 6 y - 30
è z2 - z ÷ø 4
(A) Both I and II are true and II is a correct reason for I
(B) Both I and II are true and II is not a correct reason for I Þ x2 + y2 - 12 x - 16 y + 82 = 0
(C) I is true, but II is false Now
(D) I is false, but II is true
| z - 6 - 8i | 2 = ( x - 6) 2 + ( y - 8)2
1. Statement I: If z1 = 9 + 5i, z2 = 3 + 5i and arg [(z−z1)/
= x2 + y2 - 12 x - 16 y + 100
(z − z2)] = p / 4, then the values of | z - 6 - 8i | is 3 2 .
Statement II: In a circle, the angle made by a chord at = ( x2 + y2 - 12 x - 16 y + 82) + 18
the center is double the angle subtended by the same
= 0 + 18
chord on the circumference.
Solution: Let z be a point such that Therefore

æ z - zö p z - 6 - 8i = 3 2
arg ç 1 =
è z2 - z ÷ø 4 Answer: (B)

SUMMARY
Complex Number
3.1 Complex number: Any ordere