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Cheryl Tatano Beck: Postpartum Depression Theory(产

后抑郁理论)

Theorist

Cheryl Tatano Beck

Education:

Bachelors of Science in Nursing from Western Connecticut University 1970

Master’s Degree in Maternal-Newborn Nursing from Yale University 1972

Certified Nurse-Midwife from Yale University 1972

Doctor of Nursing Science from Yale University 1982

Background Of Theory

Beck’s theory was born from an extensive study of postpartum depression in wo

men who were discharged from hospitals early. She believed that due to the ea

rly release, these women were at greater risk of developing "maternity blues" at

home, as these symptoms generally developed within a week postpartum. Beck

believed that observing for signs of "maternity blues" should routinely be part of

the nurse’s assessment of mothers during home visits. Beck then began to diffe

rentiate between postpartum psychosis, postpartum depression and maternity blu

es.
贝克的理论源于对早期出院的女性产后抑郁症的广泛研究。她认为,由于早期出院,

这些女性在家中发生“产妇忧郁症”的风险更大,因为这些症状通常在产后一周内发生。

贝克认为,观察“产妇忧郁症”的迹象通常应该成为护士在家访期间对母亲进行评估的

一部分。然后,贝克开始区分产后精神病,产后抑郁症和产妇忧郁症。

Metaparadigm

Person - Persons are described in terms of wholeness with biological, sociologic

al, and psychological components. Further there is a strong commitment to the i

dea that persons or personhood is understood within the context of family and c

ommunity.

人被描述为具有生物学、社会学和心理学成分的整体。此外,还有一种坚定的信念,即

人或人格是在家庭和社区的范围内得到理解的。

Nursing - Beck describes nursing as a caring profession with caring obligations t

o persons we care for, students, and each other. In addition, interpersonal intera

ctions between nurses and those for whom we care are the primary ways nursin

g accomplishes goals of health and wholeness.

贝克将护理描述为一种有爱心的职业,对我们所关心的人、学生和彼此负有爱心义务。

此外,护理人员与护理对象之间的人际交往是护理实现健康和整体目标的主要途径。

Health - Beck does not define health explicitly. However, her writings include tra

ditional ideas of physical and mental health. Health is the consequence of wome
n’s responses to the contexts of their lives and their environments. Contexts of h

ealth are vital to understanding any singular issue of health.

Beck 没有明确地定义健康。然而,她的著作包括传统的身心健康观念。健康是妇女对

其生活环境作出反应的结果。健康背景对于理解任何单一的健康问题都是至关重要的。

Environment - Beck writes about the environment in broad terms that include ind

ividual factors as well as the world outside of each person. The outside environ

ment includes events, situations, culture, physicality ecosystems, and sociopolitic

al systems. In addition, there is an acknowledgment that women in the childbeari

ng period receive care within a health care environment structured in the medica

l model and permeated with patriarchal ideology.

贝克从广义上描述环境,包括个人因素以及每个人的外部世界。外部环境包括事件、情

境、文化、物质生态系统和社会政治系统。此外,有一种认识是,育龄妇女是在一种以

医疗模式为结构并充满父权意识形态的保健环境中接受保健的。

Critical Elements

The critical element of the Postpartum Depression Theory is loss of control. Fro

m that core element came four stages of attempted coping. 产后抑郁症理论的关

键因素是失去控制。从这个核心要素出现了四个尝试应对的阶段。

The four stages are:

1. Encountering Terror – Horrifying anxiety, obsessive thinking and enveloping fo

gginess
遭遇恐怖——令人恐惧的焦虑、强迫性思维和笼罩在迷雾中的状态

2. Dying of Self – Alarming “unrealness”, isolation of self, contemplating self-dest

ruction

自我死亡——警惕“不真实”、自我孤立、自我毁灭

3. Struggling to Survive – battling the system, praying for relief, seeking solace

挣扎求生——与体制作斗争,祈求解脱,寻求慰藉

4. Regaining Control – making transitions, mounting lost time, and attaining a gu

arded recovery

重新获得控制权——进行过渡,增加损失的时间,并实现谨慎的恢复

Application

All nurses and health care professionals need to get in the habit of screeni

ng for PPD using Beck's Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory. The most

common fields involved are; Labor and Delivery, Postpartum, Antepartum, Nurser

y, NICU, Pediatrics, Mental Health, and those working in both Pediatric and OB

GYN offices. APRNs should ensure that all students and/or staff under their guid

ance are aware of all risk factors and warning signs to screen for when interacti

ng with women before or after delivery.

所有的护士和医护人员都需要养成使用 Beck 的产后抑郁症预测量表筛查产后抑郁症的

习惯。最常见的领域是;分娩、产后、产前、托儿所、新生儿重症监护室、儿科、心理健康
,以及儿科和妇产科办公室的工作人员。APRNs 应确保所有学生和/或在其指导下的工

作人员都了解所有的危险因素和警告信号,以便在分娩前后与女性接触时进行筛查。