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Contents
Table of contents 1 Nomenclature...................................................................6
2 Pump Types .................................................................8–9
3 Selection for Pumping Water...........................................10
3.1 Pump Data................................................................................10
3.1.1 Pump Flow Rate.......................................................................10
3.1.2 Developed Head and Developed Pressure of the Pump..............10
3.1.3 Efficiency and Input Power.......................................................10
3.1.4 Speed of Rotation.....................................................................11
3.1.5 Specific Speed and Impeller Type...............................................11
3.1.6 Pump Characteristic Curves......................................................13
3.2 System Data..............................................................................16
3.2.1 System Head ............................................................................16
3.2.1.1 Bernoulli’s Equation..................................................................16
3.2.1.2 Pressure Loss Due to Flow Resistances......................................18
3.2.1.2.1 Head Loss in Straight Pipes.......................................................18
3.2.1.2.2 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings...............................................22
3.2.2 System Characteristic Curve......................................................26
3.3 Pump Selection..........................................................................28
3.3.1 Hydraulic Aspects.....................................................................28
3.3.2 Mechanical Aspects...................................................................29
3.3.3 Motor Selection........................................................................29
3.3.3.1 Determining Motor Power........................................................29
3.3.3.2 Motors for Sealless Pumps.......................................................31
3.3.3.3 Starting Characteristics.............................................................31
3.4 Pump Performance and Control................................................34
3.4.1 Operating Point........................................................................34
3.4.2 Flow Control by Throttling.......................................................34
3.4.3 Variable Speed Flow Contol......................................................35
3.4.4 Parallel Operation of Centrifugal Pumps...................................36
3.4.5 Series Operation........................................................................38
3.4.6 Turning Down Impellers...........................................................38
3.4.7 Underfiling of Impeller Vanes...................................................39
3.4.8 Preswirl Control of the Flow....................................................39
3.4.9 Flow Rate Control or Change by Blade Pitch Adjustment.........39
3.4.10 Flow Control Using a Bypass....................................................40
3.5 Suction and Inlet Conditions.....................................................41
3.5.1 The NPSH Value of the System: NPSHa ...................................41
3.5.1.1 NPSHa for Suction Lift Operation............................................43
3.5.1.2 NPSHa for Suction Head Operation..........................................44
3.5.2 The NPSH Value of the Pump: NPSHr......................................44
3.5.3 Corrective Measures.................................................................45
3.6 Effect of Entrained Solids..........................................................47
4 Special Issues when Pumping Viscous Fluids...................48
4.1 The Shear Curve.......................................................................48
4.2 Newtonian Fluids......................................................................50
4.2.1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics.......................................50
4.2.2 Influence on the System Characteristics.....................................54
4.3 NonNewtonian Fluids.............................................................54
4.3.1 Influence on the Pump Characteristics.......................................54
4.3.2 Influence on the System Characteristics.....................................55
Contents
5 Special Issues when Pumping Gasladen Fluids...............56
1 Nomenclature
1 A m2 Area
Nomenclature A m Distance between measuring point and pump
flange
a m, mm Width of a rectangular elbow
B m, mm Vertical distance from suction pipe to floor
Cv gpm Flow coefficient for valves, defined as the flow
of water at 60 °F in US gallons/minute at a
pressure drop of 1 lb/in2 across the valve
cD Resistance coefficient of a sphere in water flow
cT (%) Solids content in the flow
D m (mm) Outside diameter; maximum diameter
DN (mm) Nominal diameter
d m (mm) Inside diameter; minimum diameter
ds m (mm) Grain size of solids
d50 m (mm) Mean grain size of solids
F N Force
f Throttling coefficient of an orifice
fH Conversion factor for head (KSB system)
fQ Conversion factor for flow rate (KSB system)
fη Conversion factor for efficiency (KSB system)
g m/s2 Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2
H m Head; discharge head
Hgeo m Geodetic head
Hs m Suction lift
Hs geo m Vertical distance between water level and pump
reference plane for suction lift operation
Hz geo m Vertical distance between pump reference plane
and water level for positive inlet pressure
operation
HL m Head loss
H0 m Shutoff head (at Q = 0)
I A Electric current (amperage)
K Dimensionless specific speed, type number
k mm, µm Mean absolute roughness
k Conversion factors kQ, kH, kη (HI method)
3
kv m /h Metric flow factor for valves, defined as the
flow of water at 20 °C in cubic metres per hour
at a pressure drop of 1 bar
L m Length of pipe
Ls m Straight length of airfilled pipe
M Nm Moment
NPSHr m NPSH required by the pump
NPSHa m NPSH available
Ns Specific speed in US units
n min–1 (rpm) Speed of rotation
s–1 (rev/s)
nq min–1 Specific speed in metric units
P kW (W) Power; input power
Nomenclature
1
pe Pressure in suction or inlet tank Indices, Subscripts
PN (bar) Nominal pressure a At outlet crosssection of
∆p bar (Pa) Pressure rise in the pump; pressure differential the system; branching off
(Pa ≡ N/m2) Bl Referring to orifice bore
p bar (Pa) Pressure (Pa ≡ N/m2 = 10–5 bar) d On discharge side; at dis
pb mbar (Pa) Atmospheric pressure (barometric) charge nozzle; flowing
pL bar (Pa) Pressure loss through
pv bar (Pa) Vapour pressure of fluid pumped dyn Denoting dynamic com
Q m3/s, m3/h Flow rate / capacity (also in litre/s) ponent
qair % Air or gas content in the fluid pumped E At the narrowest cross
Qoff m3/h Flow rate at switchoff pressure section of valves (Table 5)
3
Qon m /h Flow rate at startup pressure E At suction pipe or bell
R m (mm) Radius mouth inlet
Re Reynolds number e At inlet crosssection of
S m Submergence (fluid level above pump); system, e. g. in suction
immersion depth or inlet tank
s mm Wall thickness f Referring to carrier fluid
s’ m Difference of height between centre of pump im H Horizontal
peller inlet and centre of pump suction nozzle in Referring to inlet flow
T Nm Torque K Referring to curvature
t °C Temperature L Referring to losses
U m Length of undisturbed flow m Mean value
U m Wetted perimeter of a flow section max Maximum value
3
VB m Suction tank volume min Minimum value
VN m3 Useful volume of pump sump N Nominal value
v m/s Flow velocity opt Optimum value; at best
w m/s Settling velocity of solids efficiency point (BEP)
y mm Travel of gate valve; distance to wall P Referring to pump
Z 1/h Switching cycle (frequency of starts) p Referring to pressure
z Number of stages r Reduced, for cutdown im
zs,d m Height difference between pump discharge and peller or impeller vanes
suction nozzles s On suction side; at suc
tion nozzle
α ° Angle of change in flow direction; opening angle s Referring to solids
δ ° Angle of inclination stat Static component
ζ Loss coefficient sys Referring to system /
η (%) Efficiency installation
η Pa s Dynamic viscosity t Referring to impeller
λ Pipe friction factor prior to trimming
m2/s Kinematic viscosity V Vertical
kg/m3 Density w Referring to water
τ N/m2 Shear stress z Referring to viscous fluid
τf N/m2 Shear stress at yield point 0 Basic position, referred
ϕ Temperature factor; opening angle of a butter to individual sphere
fly valve; cos ϕ: power factor of asynchronous 1, 2, 3 Consecutive numbers;
motors items
ψ Head coefficient (dimensionless head generated I, II Number of pumps oper
by impeller) ated
2 Pump Types (Examples)
Impeller entries 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1
Motor type, Fig. 1..
Dry (standardized)
motor a b c d e f g h
Magnetic drive i
Submerged dry rotor
motor (See 3.3.2) j k l m
Wet rotor motor
(See 3.3.2) n o p
Pump Types (Examples) 2
c d e
f g h
i j k
l m n
Fig 1 (a to p):
o p Centrifugal pump classification
acc. to Table 1
3 Flow Rate · Head · Efficiency · Input Power
10
Efficiency · Input Power · Speed · Specific Speed 3
·g·Q·H ·g·Q·H ·Q·H viscous than water (see sec
P = in W = in kW = in kW tion 4) or have high concentra
η 1000 · η 367 · η
(2) tions of entrained solids (see
section 6) will require a higher
where
input power. This is, for ex
Density in kg/m3 in kg/m3 in kg/dm3
ample, the case when pumping
Q Flow rate in m3/s in m3/s in m3/h
sewage or waste water, see sec
g Gravitational constant = 9.81 m/s2
tion 3.6.
H Total developed head in m
η Efficiency between 0 and <1 (not in %) The pump input power P is
linearly proportional to the
The pump efficiency η is given teristic curves (see section 3.1.6) fluid density . For highdensity
with the characteristic curves for density = 1000 kg/m3. fluids the power limits of the
(see section 3.1.6). For other densities , the input motor (section 3.3.3) and the
power P must be changed in torque limits (for the loading on
The pump input power P can
proportion. coupling, shaft and shaft keys)
also be read with sufficient ac
must be considered.
curacy directly from the charac Pumping media which are more
11
3 Specific Speed
dimensionless characteristic the definition in the righthand Using Fig. 3 it is possible to de
parameter while retaining the version of the following equa termine nq graphically. Further
same numerical value by using tion [2]: types of impellers are shown in
Fig. 4: Star impellers are used in
√ Qopt/1 √ Qopt selfpriming pumps. Periph
nq = n · = 333 · n · (3)
(Hopt/1)3/4 (g · Hopt)3/4 eral impellers extend the speci
fic speed range to lower values
where Qopt in m3/s Qopt in m3/s = Flow rate at ηopt down to approximately nq = 5
Hopt in m Hopt in m = Developed head at ηopt (peripheral pumps can be de
n in rpm n in rev/s = Pump speed signed with up to three stages).
nq in metric units nq Dimensionless parameter For even lower specific speeds,
g Gravitational constant 9.81 m/s2 rotary (for example progressive
cavity pumps with nq = 0.1 to 3)
For multistage pumps the devel “mixed flow” (diagonal) and or reciprocating positive dis
oped head Hopt at best efficiency eventually axial exits (see Fig. 2). placement pumps (piston
for a single stage and for double The diffuser elements of radial pumps) are to be preferred.
entry impellers, the optimum pump casings (e.g. volutes) be The value of the specific speed
flow rate Qopt for only one im come more voluminous as long is one of the influencing para
peller half are to be used. as the flow can be carried off meters required when convert
As the specific speed nq in radially. Finally only an ing the pump characteristic
creases, there is a continuous axial exit of the flow is possible curves for pumping viscous or
change from the originally (e. g. as in a tubular casing). solidsladen media (see sections
radial exits of the impellers to 4 and 6).
In Englishlanguage pump lit
Approximate reference values: erature the true dimensionless
nq up to approx. 25 Radial high head impeller specific speed is sometimes des
up to approx. 40 Radial medium head impeller ignated as the “type number K”.
up to approx. 70 Radial low head impeller In the US, the term Ns is used,
up to approx. 160 Mixed flow impeller which is calculated using gal
approx. from 140 to 400 Axial flow impeller (propeller) lons/min (GPM), feet and rpm.
The conversion factors are:
K = nq / 52.9
Ns = nq / 51.6 (4)
12
Specific Speed · Impeller Types · Characteristic Curves 3
3.1.6
Pump Characteristic Curves
Unlike positive displacement
pumps (such as piston pumps),
Radial impeller *)
Radial doubleentry impeller*) centrifugal pumps deliver a var
iable flow rate Q (increasing
with decreasing head H) when
operating at constant speed.
Closed (shrouded) mixed flow impeller *) They are therefore able to ac
Star impeller for side channel pump commodate changes in the
(selfpriming)
system curve (see section 3.2.2).
The input power P and hence
the efficiency η as well as the
Open (unshrouded) mixed flow impeller
NPSHr (see section 3.5.4) are
dependent on the flow rate.
Peripheral pump impeller for very low
specific speed (nq ≈ 5 to 0)
Fig. 4:
Axial flow propeller *) Plan view shown without front shroud
Impeller types for clear liquids
13
3 Characteristic Curves
11OPT 11OPT
90 24 20
n = 2900 min–1 22 n = 1450 min–1 18 n = 980 min–1
80 20 16
18
Head H [m]
Head H [m]
14
Head H [m]
70 16 12 Operating limit
60 14
10
12
8
50 10
8 6
40 6 4
80 90 2
70 80 90
Efficiency H [%]
Efficiency H [%]
60 70 80
Efficiency H [%]
60 70
50
60
40 50
50
30 40
40
20 30
30
10 15
15
NPSHr [m]
NPSHr [m]
NPSHr [m]
10
5 10
5
5
0
0 100
17
30
Power P [kW]
80
Power P [kW]
Power P [kW]
16
60
20 15 40
14 20
10 13 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 100 200 300 400 500 550 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Flow rate Q [m3/h] > Flow rate Q [m3/h]
L Flow rate Q [m3/h] V
Fig. 6: Three examples of characteristic curves for pumps of differing specific speeds.
a: radial impeller, nq ≈ 20; b: mixed flow impeller, nq ≈ 80; c: axial flow impeller, nq ≈ 200.
(For NPSHr see section 3.5.4)
14
Characteristic Curves 3
is unstable (shown by the dash
line in Fig. 7). This type of
pump characteristic curve need
3TEEPCHARACTERISTICCURVE only be avoided when two
&LATCHARACTERISTICCURVE intersections with the system
curve could result, in particular
(EAD(
(
parallel operation at low flow
1STEEP rates (see section 3.4.4) or when
5NSTABLE
it is pumping into a vessel which
REGION
can store energy (accumulator
1FLAT
filled with gas or steam). In all
&LOWRATE1 other cases the unstable curve is
just as good as the stable charac
Fig. 7: Steep, flat or unstable characteristic curve teristic.
Unless noted otherwise, the
H/Q characteristics normally creases. For low specific speeds, characteristic curves apply for
have a stable curve, which the head H may – in the low the density and the kinematic
means that the developed head flow range – drop as the flow viscosity of cold, deaerated
falls as the flow rate Q in rate Q decreases, i. e., the curve water.
15
3 System Head · Bernoulli
PA PA
A A VA A VA
VA
! " #
(GEO
VD
ZSD
VS
(SGEO
PE
E E
VE VE
$ %
Fig. 8: Centrifugal pump system with variously designed vessels in suction lift operation
A = Open tank with pipe ending below the water level
B = Closed pressure vessel with free flow from the pipe ending above the water level
C = Closed pressure vessel with pipe ending below the water level
D = Open suction/inlet tank
E = Closed suction/inlet tank
va and ve are the (usually negligible) flow velocities at position a in tanks A and C and at position e
in tanks D and E. In case B, va is the nonnegligible exit velocity from the pipe end at a .
3.2 static pressure and kinetic and discharge sides. If the dis
System Data energy form. The system head charge pipe ends above the
3.2.1 Hsys for an assumed frictionless, liquid level, the centre of the
System Head inviscid flow is composed of the exit plane is used as reference
3.2.1.1 following three parts (see Figs. for the height (see Figs 8B and
Bernoulli’s Equation 8 and 9): 9B).
Bernoulli’s equation expresses • Hgeo (geodetic head) is the • (pa  pe)/( · g) is the pressure
the equivalence of energy in difference in height between head difference between the
geodetic (potential) energy, the liquid level on the inlet inlet and outlet tank, applic
16
System Head · Bernoulli 3
PA PA
A A VA A VA
VA
! " #
(GEO
PE
E VE E VE
$ %
(ZGEO
VD
ZSD
VS
Fig. 9: Centrifugal pump system with variously designed vessels in suction head (positive inlet pressure)
operation. Legend as in Fig. 8.
able when at least one of the piping, valves, fittings, etc in is referred to as the system pres
tanks is closed as for B, C or the suction and discharge lines sure loss.
E (see Figs. 8B, C, E, 9B, C, as well as the entrance and exit The sum of all four components
E). losses, see section 3.2.1.2), and yields the system head Hsys:
• (va2ve2)/2g is the difference in
the velocity heads between the
tanks. Hsys = Hgeo + (pa – pe) / ( · g) + (va2ve2)/2g + ∑HL (5)
17
3 System Head · Pressure Loss · Head Loss
Fig. 10: Pipe friction factor λ as a function of the Reynolds number Re and the relative roughness d/k
(enlarged view on p. 81)
DK
L 2E
&ULLYROUGHK
,IM
ITIN
G
CU
RVE
0IPEFRICTIONFACTORL
18
Head Loss in Straight Pipes 3
For pipes with noncircular or plastic pipes made of poly clean water or for fluids with
crosssections the following ethylene (PE) or polyvinyl chlor the same kinematic viscosity, for
applies: ide (PVC)) or for laminar flow, completely filled pipes and for an
λ can be calculated: absolute roughness of the pipe
d = 4A/U (10) In the laminar flow region inner surface of k = 0.05 mm,
(Re < 2320) the friction factor is i.e., for new seamless or longi
where tudinally welded pipes. (For
independent of the roughness:
A Crosssectional flow area the pipe inside diameters, see
in m2 Table 4).
λ = 64/Re (12)
U Wetted perimeter of the
The effect of an increased
crosssection A in m; for
For turbulent flow (Re > 2320) surface roughness k will be de
open channels the free fluid
the test results can be repre monstrated in the following
surface is not counted as part
sented by the following empiri for a frequently used region in
of the perimeter.
cal relationship defined by Eck Fig. 11 (nominal diameter 50
Recommended flow velocities (up to Re < 108 the errors are to 300 mm, flow velocity 0.8
for cold water smaller than 1%): to 3.0 m/s). The darkshaded
Inlet piping 0.7 – 1.5 m/s region in Fig. 11 corresponds
Discharge piping 1.0 – 2.0 m/s 0.309 to the similarly marked region
λ=
Re 2 (13) in Fig. 10 for an absolute rough
for hot water (lg )
7 ness k = 0.05 mm. For a rough
Inlet piping 0.5 – 1.0 m/s
ness increased by a factor 6
Discharge piping 1.5 – 3.5 m/s In Fig. 10 it can be seen that
(slightly incrusted old steel pipe
The pipe friction factor λ has the pipe friction factor depends
with k = 0.30 mm), the pipe
been determined experimentally on another dimensionless para
friction factor λ (proportional
and is shown in Fig. 10. It varies meter, the relative roughness of
to the head loss HL) in the
with the flow conditions of the the pipe inner surface d/k; k is
lightly shaded region in Fig. 10
liquid and the relative rough the average absolute roughness
is only 25% to 60% higher than
ness d/k of the pipe surface. The of the pipe inner surface, for
before.
flow conditions are expressed which approximate values are
given in Table 3. Note: both d For sewage pipes the increased
according to the affinity laws
and k must be expressed in the roughness caused by soiling
(dimensional analysis) using the
same units, for example mm! must be taken into considera
Reynolds’ number Re. For cir
tion (see section 3.6). For pipes
cular pipes, this is: As shown in Fig. 10, above a
with a large degree of incrusta
limiting curve, λ is dependent
tion, the actual head loss can
Re = v · d/ (11) only on the relative roughness
only be determined experimen
d/k. The following empirical
tally. Deviations from the no
where equation by Moody can be used
minal diameter change the head
v Flow velocity in m/s in this region:
loss considerably, since the pipe
(= 4Q/πd2 for Q in m3/s)
3 inside diameter enters Eq. (9) to
d Pipe inside diameter in m λ = 0.0055 + 0.15/ (d/k) (14)
the 5th power! (For example, a
Kinematic viscosity in m2/s
5% reduction in the inside dia
(for water at 20 °C exactly For practical use, the head
meter changes the head loss by
1.00 · (10)–6 m2/s). losses HL per 100 m of straight
30%). Therefore the nominal
For noncircular pipes, Eq. 10 is steel pipe are shown in Fig. 11
diameter may not be used as
to be applied for determining d. as a function of the flow rate Q
the pipe inside diameter for the
and pipe inside diameter d. The
For hydraulically smooth pipes calculations!
values are valid only for cold,
(for example drawn steel tubing
19
3 Head Loss in Straight Pipes · Dimensions and Weights of Steel Pipes
*«iÊ>ÌiÀ>Ê
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i`
Ê Ê ÜÌ
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ÊVVÀiÌiÃÊ ÕÃi`]Ê ÜÌ
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iÌ>Ê««iÃÊ Ê `À>Ü
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7`Ê iÜ
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>ÃÀÞ
ÊÊ ä°ää£ÊÊ ä°ääx ä°ä£ ä°äx ä°£ ä°x £ x £ä
Table 4: Inside diameter d and wall thickness s in mm and weight of typical commercial steel pipes and their
water content in kg/m to ENV 10 220 (formerly DIN ISO 4200). D = outside diameter, s = wall thickness
All dimensions in mm Seamless pipe Welded pipe
Seamless Welded weight in kg/m weight in kg/m
DN D s * d s ** d Pipe Water Pipe Water
15 21.3 2.0 17.3 1.8 17.7 0.952 0.235 0.866 0.246
20 26.9 2.0 22.9 1.8 23.3 1.23 0.412 1.11 0.426
25 33.7 2.3 29.1 2.0 29.7 1.78 0.665 1.56 0.692
32 42.4 2.6 37.2 2.3 37.8 2.55 1.09 2.27 1.12
40 48.3 2.6 43.1 2.3 43.7 2.93 1.46 2.61 1.50
50 60.3 2.9 54.5 2.3 55.7 4.11 2.33 3.29 2.44
65 76.1 2.9 70.3 2.6 70.9 4.71 3.88 5.24 3.95
80 88.9 3.2 82.5 2.9 83.1 6.76 5.34 6.15 5.42
100 114.3 3.6 107.1 3.2 107.9 9.83 9.00 8.77 9.14
125 139.7 4.0 131.7 3.6 132.5 13.4 13.6 12.1 13.8
150 168.3 4.5 159.3 4.0 160.3 18.2 19.9 16.2 20.2
200 219.1 6.3 206.5 4.5 210.1 33.1 33.5 23.8 34.7
250 273.0 6.3 260.4 5.0 263.0 41.4 53.2 33.0 54.3
300 323.9 7.1 309.7 5.6 312.7 55.5 75.3 44.0 76.8
350 355.6 8.0 339.6 5.6 344.4 68.6 90.5 48.3 93.1
400 406.4 8.8 388.8 6.3 393.8 86.3 118.7 62.2 121.7
500 508.0 11.0 486.0 6.3 495.4 135 185.4 77.9 192.7
600 610.0 12.5 585.0 6.3 597.4 184 268.6 93.8 280.2
* above nominal diameter DN 32 identical to DIN 2448 ** above nominal diameter DN 25 identical to DIN 2458
20
Head Loss in Straight Pipes 3
.EWUNTREATEDSTEELPIPE
mm
M
15
M V
d=
20
M
25
S
32
40
50
2E
65
80
0
10
3PECIFICHEADLOSS(,
5
12
0
15
5
17
0
20
0
25
0
30
0
35
0
40
0
50
0
60
0
70
0
80
10 0
90
00
00
00
mm
12
d = 180 0
14
0
20 0
16
00
Fig. 11: Head losses HL for new steel pipes (k = 0.05 mm) (enlarged view on p. 82)
0LASTICPIPEANDDRAWNMETALTUBING
M
M
M
2E
V
M
M
D
S
3PECIFICHEADLOSS(,
M
HL correction
#
Temperature t
MH
Fig. 12: Head losses HL for hydraulically smooth pipes (k = 0) (enlarged view on p. 83). For plastic pipe
when t = 10 °C multiply by the temperature factor j.
21
3 Head Loss in Straight Pipes · Valves and Fittings
16 17 18 19
22
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Loss Coefficients for Valves
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3
3 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings · Loss Coefficients for Fittings
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,
A
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7i`i`
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Li`
viÀiÌ>ÊÜi`ÃÊ qÊ qÊ qÊ qÊ ÓÊ qÊ ÎÊ qÊ ÎÊ q
A
pL = ζ · · v12/2 (16)
where
pL Pressure loss in Pa
ζ Loss coefficient £°{ £°È £°n
Density in kg/m3
Ý«>ÃÊÌÃ\
v Flow velocity in m/s
iÜÃÌÞ«iÊiÝ«>ÃÊÌÊ
and the reversible pressure ÊÊÊÜÌ
ÉÜÌ
ÕÌÊ}Õ`iÊ««iÊ ZÊzÊä°ÎÉÓ°ä
change of the frictionless flow
«iÃ>ÌÊÌÕLiÊLi`Ê ZÊzÊä°ÈÊÌÊä°n
Ài>Ãi`ÊV«iÃ>ÌÊÌÕLiÊLi`Ê ZÊzÊ£°ÎÊÌÊ£°È
according to Bernoulli’s equa iÜÃÌÞ«iÊV«iÃ>ÌÊÌÕLiÊLi`Ê ZÊzÊÎ°ÓÊÌÊ{
tion (see 3.2.1.1):
iÌÊ««iÊvÌÌ}Ã\
24
Head Loss in Valves and Fittings · Loss Coefficients for Fittings and Flow Meters 3
Table 8: Loss coefficients ζ for adapters ficient ζ when calculating the
Expansion Contraction pressure loss for water in valves:
v v v v
d D d α D D d D α d pL = (Q / kv)2 . /1000 (18)
v
D d α D
v
D d D ζ ≈ 16 · d4/kv2 (19)
where
ζ is referred to the velocity v at diameter D. d Reference (nominal) diameter
Diameter ratio d/D = 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 of the valve in cm (!)
Area ratio m = (d/D)2 = 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.49 0.64
Short Venturi tube ζ ≈ 21 6 2 0.7 0.3 0.2
Standard orifice ζ ≈ 300 85 30 12 4.5 2
Water meters (volume meters) ζ ≈ 10
For domestic water meters, a max. pressure drop of 1 bar is specified for the
rated load. In practice, the actual pressure loss is seldom higher.
Branch fittings (of equal diameter)
Note:
The loss coefficients ζa for the branchedoff flow Qa or ζd for the main flow
Qd = Q – Qa refer to the velocity of the total flow Q in the branch. On the
basis of this definition, ζa or ζd may have negative values; in this case, they
A 2+
,OSSCOEFFICIENTZ
are indicative of a pressure gain instead of a pressure loss. This is not to be 2ADIUSONOUTERCORNER
25
3 Head Loss in Valves · System Characteristic Curve
V
J
,OSSCOEFFICIENTZ
Fig. 15:
Loss coefficients
ζ of butterfly
valves, globe
valves and gate
10 valves as a
function of the
opening angle
V V or degree of
J A
Y
J opening (The
numbers desig
nate the types
2ELATIVEOPENINGANGLEJnJ J Degree of opening y/a or relative lift y/DN
illustrated in
Fig. 13)
3.2.2 Fig. 16: System characteristic curve Hsys with static and dynamic
System Characteristic Curve components
The system characteristic curve
plots the head Hsys required by
the system as a function of the
flow rate Q. It is composed of
the socalled “static” and
“dynamic” components (see
Fig. 16)3.
3YSTEMHEAD(SYS
3
One must be careful to distinguish
between this use of “static” and PAnPE
3TATICCOMPONENT(GEO
“dynamic” components and the pre qG
cisely defined “static head” and “dy
namic head” used in fluid dynamics,
since the “dynamic component” of
the system head curve consists of both
“static head” (i.e. pressure losses)
and “dynamic head” (i.e. velocity or &LOWRATE1
kinetic energy head).
26
System Characteristic Curve · Selection Chart 3
n
n n n n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
n
n
n n n n
(
M
1MH
1LS
Fig. 17: Selection chart for a volute casing pump series for n = 2900 rpm
(First number = nominal diameter of the discharge nozzle, second number = nominal impeller diameter)
and outlet tanks, which are in the heads for each flow rate are
dependent of the flow rate. The added to obtain the total system
pressure head difference is zero curve Hsys = f(Q).
when both tanks are open to the For branched piping systems the
atmosphere. system curves Hsys1, Hsys2, etc.
The dynamic component con of the individual branches be
sists of the head loss HL, which tween the flow dividers are each
increases as the square of the calculated as functions of Q.
flow rate Q (see section 3.2.1.2), The flow rates Q1, Q2, etc. of
and of the change in velocity all branches in parallel for each
head (va2ve2)/2g between the given head Hsys are then added
inlet and outlet crosssections of to determine the total system
the system. Two points are suffi curve Hsys = f(Q) for all the
cient to calculate this parabola, branches together. The sections
one at Q = 0 and one at any before and after the flow
point Q > 0. dividers must be added as for a
For pipe systems connected series connection.
one after the other (series con
nection) the individual system
curves Hsys1, Hsys2 etc. are
plotted as functions of Q, and
27
3 Hydraulic Aspects of Pump Selection
3.3
Pump Selection
M
3.3.1
Hydraulic Aspects
H
(EAD
)MPELLER
MM
and the head H of the desired
operating point are assumed
to be known from the system
characteristic curve; the electric
MH
mains frequency is also given. ,S
With these values it is possible
Fig. 18: Complete characteristics MH
&LOWRATE
of a centrifugal pump
100
10
9 7
H 8 10 6
m 7 5
9
6 8
50 7 4 4
5
40 6
4 3 3
5
30
3 4
2 2
20 3
2
2
10
6
1 2 3 4 5 10 Q m3/h 20 30
0.3 0.4 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 Q l/s
Fig. 19: Selection chart for a multistage pump series for n = 2900 rpm
28
Hydraulic Aspects of Pump Selection · Motor Selection 3
the individual characteristic
curve (for example see Fig. 18).
conditions in %
and Qmax (for example due to
vibration behaviour, noise emis
sion as well as radial and axial K7
forces) are given in the product 0UMPINPUTPOWERUNDERRATEDCONDITIONS
literature or can be determined Fig. 20: Drive power as a function of rated pump input power at the
by inquiry [1]. operationg point
To conclude the selection, the Example as per ISO 9905, 5199 and 9908 (Class I, II and III)
NPSH conditions must be
checked as described in section 3.3.2 3.3.3
3.5. Mechanical Aspects Motor Selection
A multistage pump is chosen us When selecting a pump the me 3.3.3.1
chanical aspects require atten Determining Motor Power
ing the same general procedure;
its selection chart shows the tion in addition to the hydrau Operation of a centrifugal pump
number of stages in addition to lics. Several examples are: is subject to deviations from
the pump size (Fig. 19). – the effects of the maximum rated speed and fluctuations
For pumps operating in series discharge pressure and tem in the flow volume handled,
(one after the other) the devel perature of the fluid pumped and, consequently, changes in
oped heads H1, H2, etc. of the on the operating limits, the operating point (see section
individual characteristic curves 3.4.1). In particular if steep
– the choice of the best shaft
must be added (after subtracting power curves are involved (see
sealing method and cooling
any head losses which occur be Figs. 5 and 6), this may result
requirements,
tween them) to obtain the total in a higher required pump input
– the vibration and noise emis power P than originally speci
characteristic H = f(Q).
sions, fied. For practical purposes, a
For pumps operating in parallel,
– the choice of the materials of safety allowance is therefore
the individual characteristics H1,
construction to avoid corro added when the appropriate
H2, etc. = f(Q) are first reduced
sion and wear while keeping motor size is selected. Safety
by the head losses occurring up
in mind their strength and allowances may be specified
to the common node (head loss
temperature limits. by the purchaser, or laid down
HL calculation according to sec
in technical codes, see Fig. 20.
tion 3.2.1.2) and plotted versus These and other similar re
The safety allowances stipulated
Q. Then the flow rates Q of quirements are often specific to
by individual associations are
the reduced characteristics are certain industries and even to
shown in the relevant type series
added to produce the effective individual customers and must
literature [1] or the customer’s
characteristic curve of a “vir be addressed using the product
specification.
tual” pump. This characteristic literature [1] or by consulting
interacts with the system curve the design department. When energysaving control
Hsys for the rest of the system methods are used (e. g., speed
through the common node. control systems), the maximum
29
3 Motor Selection
power peaks which may pos Table 9: Types of enclosure for electric motors to EN 60 529 and
DIN/VDE 0530, Part 5
sibly occur must be taken into
The type of protective enclosure is indicated by the IP code as follows:
account. Code letters (International Protection) IP
First digit (0 to 6 or X if not applicable) X
If a pump is selected for a Second digit (0 to 8 or X if not applicable) X
product with a density lower Alternatively letters A, B, C, D and H, M, S, W – for special purposes only.
than that of water, the motor Key to Protection of electrical Protection of persons against
power required may have to be digits: equipment against ingress of accidental contact by
solid objects
determined on the basis of the
First 0 (not protected) (not protected)
density of water (for example, digit 1 > 50 mm in dia. back of the hand
during the performance test or 2 > 12.5 mm in dia. finger
acceptance test in the test bay). 3 > 2.5 mm in dia. tool
4 > 1.0 mm in dia. wire
Typical efficiencies h and power 5 protected against dust (limited wire
ingress permitted, no harmful
factors cos ϕ of standardized IP deposits)
54 motors at 50 Hz are shown 6 totally protected against dust wire
in Fig. 21, and the curves of ef Protection against ingress of water with harmful consequences
ficiency h and power factor Second 0 (not protected)
digit 1 vertical dripwater
cos ϕ as a function of relative 2 dripwater up to 15° from the vertical
motor load P/PN in Fig. 22. 3 sprays (60° from the vertical)
4 sprays (all directions)
Table 9 lists types of enclosure 5 lowpressure jets of water
6 strong jets of water (heavy sea)
that provide protection of elec 7 temporary flooding
tric motors against ingress of 8 permanent flooding
foreign objects or water, and
of persons against accidental
contact.
H
The specific heat buildup in
both electric motors and flexi POLES
COSJ
ble couplings during startup
0OWERFACTORCOSJ
30
Motors for Sealless Pumps · Starting Characteristics 3
• The vapour pressure of the
K7 fluid pumped must be known,
H
so as to avoid bearing damage
caused by dry running when
the fluid has evaporated. It is
K7
advisable to install monitoring
0OWERFACTORCOSJ
COSJ • Data on specific fluid proper
ties such as its solids content
and any tendency to solidify
or polymerize or form incrus
tations and deposits, need to
K7
2ATEDPOWER00. be available at the time of se
lection.
Fig. 22: Curve of efficiency η and power factor cos ϕ of standardized
IP 54 motors plotted over relative motor power P/PN
3.3.3.3
Starting Characteristics
Submersible borehole pumps, The primary component in
which are mostly used for ex turn is coupled to a commercial The pump torque Tp transmit
tracting water from wells, are dry driver. The impeller of a ted by the shaft coupling is
another type of readyassembled canned motor pump is mounted directly related to the power P
units whose motors need not be directly on the motor shaft, so and speed of rotation n. Dur
selected individually (Fig. 1p). that the rotor is surrounded by ing pump startup, this torque
On these pumps, the rotor and the fluid pumped. It is separated follows an almost parabolical
the windings are immersed in from the stator windings by the curve as a function of the speed
water [7]. Their electrical char can [7]. of rotation [10], as shown in
acteristics and permissible fre Fig. 23. The torque provided
Sealless pump sets are generally
quency of starts are indicated in by the asynchronous motor
selected with the help of compu
the type series literature [1]. must, however, be higher so as
terized selection programs, tak
to enable the rotor to run up to
ing into account the following
duty speed. Together with the
considerations:
3.3.3.2 voltage, this motor torque has a
Motors for Sealless Pumps • The rotor is surrounded by direct effect on the motor’s cur
Sealless pumps are frequently the fluid pumped, whose kine rent input, and the latter in turn
used for handling aggressive, matic viscosity υ (see section on heat buildup in the motor
toxic, highly volatile or valu 4.1) must be known, as it windings. The aim, therefore, is
able fluids in the chemical and influences friction losses and to prevent unwanted heat build
petrochemical industries. They therefore the motor power up in the motor by limiting the
include magneticdrive pumps required. runup period and/or current
(Fig. 1f) and canned motor • Metal cans or containment inrush [2] (see also Table 11).
pumps (Figs. 1n and 1o). A shrouds (for example made
magdrive pump is driven by a of 2.4610) cause eddy current
primary magnetic field rotating losses, resulting in an increase
outside its flameproof enclosure in the motor power required.
and running in synchronization Nonmetal shrouds in mag
with the secondary magnets in drive pumps do not have this
side the enclosure [12]. effect.
31
3 Starting Methods
In the case of d.o.l. starting lowvoltage grids (380 V), the For startup, however, the wind
(where the full mains voltage regulations laid down by the en ings are starconnected, so that
is instantly applied to the mo ergy supply companies for d.o.l. the voltage at the windings is
tor once it is switched on), the starting of motors of 5.5 kW reduced by a factor of 0.58 rela
full starting torque is instantly and above must be complied tive to the mains voltage. This
available and the unit runs up with. If the grid is not suitable reduces the starting current and
to its duty speed in a very short for d.o.l starting, the motor can torque to one third of the values
period of time. For the motor be started up with reduced volt of d.o.l. starting, resulting in a
itself, this is the most favour ages, using one of the following longer startup process.
able starting method. But at up methods: The motor runs up in star con
to 4 – 8 times the rated current,
Stardelta starting is the most nection beyond pullout torque
the starting current of the d.o.l.
frequent, since most inexpen up to the maximum speed of
method places a high load on
sive, way of reducing the start rotation at point B’ in Fig. 23.
the electricity supply mains,
ing current. During normal Then, switchover to delta is ef
particularly if large motors are
operation, the motor runs in fected and the motor continues
involved, and may cause prob
delta, so that the full mains to accelerate up to rated speed.
lematic voltage drops in electri
voltage (for example 400 V) is During the switchover period of
cal equipment in their vicinity.
applied to the motor windings. approx. 0.1 s, the current sup
For motor operation on public
ply to the motor is interrupted
32
Starting Methods 3
and the speed drops. On pump An autotransformer also serves of the values for d.o.l. starting.
sets with a low moment of in to reduce voltage at the motor The fact that current supply is
ertia (canned motors and sub windings and – unlike stardelta never interrupted is another ad
mersible motors), this speed re starting – allows selection of vantage of autotransformers.
duction may be so pronounced the actual voltage reduction. A Soft starters are used for elec
that switchover to delta may 70% tapping of the transformer, tronic continuous variation of
result in almost the full starting for instance, will bring down the voltage at the motor wind
current being applied after all, the startup torque and current ings in accordance with the
same as with d.o.l. starting. supplied by the mains to 49% dimmer principle. This means
that the startup time and start
ing current can be freely selected
within the motor’s permissible
)
operating limits (heat losses due
to slip!). Special constraints re
garding the frequency of starts
(contrary to Table 10) have to
be heeded [1].
$gg
#URRENT)
4
4ORQUE4
"
"g
40
OFNSYNCHR
OTORSPEEDN
33
3 Pump Performance · Operating Point · Throttling
• for pumps with mixed flow Fig. 24: Change of the operating point and power saved by
impellers, by installing or throttling a pump whose power curve has a positive slope
34
Orifice Plate · Variable Speed 3
g Gravitational constant
9.81 m/s2
ΔH Head difference to be
throttled in m
Since the area ratio (dBl/d)2
must be estimated in advance,
an iterative calculation is neces
D"L sary (plotting the calculated vs.
D the estimated diameter dBl is
4HROTTLINGCOEFFICIENTF
recommended so that after two
iterations the correct value can
be directly interpolated, see
example calculation 8.20).
3.4.3
Variable Speed Flow Control
At various speeds of rotation n,
a centrifugal pump has differ
ent characteristic curves, which
are related to each other by the
affinity laws. If the characteris
!REARATIOD"LD
tics H and P as functions of Q
are known for a speed n1, then
Fig. 25: Orifice plate and its throttling coefficient f all points on the characteristic
curve for n2 can be calculated
pump discharge side) the origi The same is principally true by the following equations:
nal system curve Hsys1 becomes of the installation of a fixed,
steeper and transforms into sharpedged orifice plate in the Q2 = Q1 . n2/n1 (21)
Hsys2. For a constant pump discharge piping, which can be
H2 = H1 · (n2/n1)2 (22)
speed, the operating point B1 on justified for low power or short
the pump characteristic moves operating periods. The neces P2 = P1 · (n2/n1)3 (23)
to B2 at a lower flow rate. The sary hole diameter dBl of the
pump develops a larger head orifice is calculated from the Eq. (23) is valid only as long
than would be necessary for head difference to be throttled as the efficiency η does not de
the system; this surplus head is ΔH, using the following equa crease as the speed n is reduced.
eliminated in the throttle valve. tion: With a change of speed, the op
The hydraulic energy is irrevers erating point is also shifted (see
ibly converted into heat which dBl = f · Q/ g · ∆H (20) section 3.4.1). Fig. 26 shows the
is transported away by the flow. H/Q curves for several speeds of
This loss is acceptable when where rotation; each curve has an in
the control range is small or dBl Hole diameter of the orifice tersection with the system char
when such control is only sel in mm acteristic Hsys1. The operating
dom needed. The power saved f Throttling or pressure drop point B moves along this system
is shown in the lower part of coefficient acc. to Fig. 25 curve to smaller flow rates when
the figure; it is only moderate Q Flow rate in m3/h the speed of rotation is reduced.
compared with the large surplus
head produced.
35
3 Variable Speed · Parallel Operation
piping system, each with its
own nonreturn valve (Fig. 27).
Parallel operation of pumps is
1;= easier when their shutoff heads
H0 are all equal, which is the
Fig. 26: Operation of a variable speed pump for different system case for identical pumps. If the
characteristic curves Hsys1 and Hsys2 shutoff heads H0 differ, the low
(Power savings ΔP1 and ΔP2 at half load each compared with simple est shutoff head marks the point
throttling) on the common H/Q curve for
the minimum flow rate Qmin,
If the system curve is a parabola tion with it and hence, that no below which no parallel opera
through the origin as for Hsys1 operating point results; the low tion is possible, since the non
in the example, the developed er speed range is then of no use return valve of the pump with
head H according to Eq. (22) is and could be eliminated. The smaller shutoff head will be held
reduced to one fourth its value potential power savings ΔP2 shut by the other pump(s).
and the required driving power at a given flow rate Q are less During parallel pumping it
in Eq. (23) to one eighth its than for the system curve Hsys1 must be kept in mind that after
value when the speed is halved. as shown in the lower part of stopping one of two identical
The lower part of Fig. 26 shows the diagram [4]. The improve centrifugal pumps (Fig. 27),
the extent of the savings ΔP1 ment compared with throttling the flow rate Qsingle of the re
compared with simple decreases as the static head maining pump does not fall
throttling. component Hsys,stat increases to half of Qparallel, but rather
If the system curve is a parabola (i.e., for a lower dynamic head increases to more than half. The
with a large static head compo component Hsys,dyn). remaining pump might then
nent as for Hsys2, it is possible Variation of the speed usually immediately run at an operat
that the pump characteristic at means varying the electrical ing point Bsingle above its design
reduced speed has no intersec driving frequency, which must point, which must be considered
36
Parallel Operation 3
when checking the NPSH values
(see section 3.5) and the drive
(
power (see section 3.1.3). The #HARACTERISTICOFPUMP)PUMP))
reason for this behaviour is the
#HARACTERISTICOF
parabolic shape of the system PUMP)ORPUMP))
(
characteristic Hsys. For the same "PARALLEL
4OTALDEVELOPEDHEAD(
reason, the reverse procedure of
3YSTEMCHARACTERISTIC(SYS "SINGLE
taking a second identical pump
on line does not double the flow 
rate Qsingle of the pump that 1SINGLE
37
3 Series Operation · Impeller Diameter Reduction
3.4.5 but not the shrouds of the im of the impeller outer diameter
Series Operation pellers are cut back. It is some and index r the condition after
times possible to simply remove the reduction. The required
In series operation, the pumps
the impeller and diffuser of one (average) reduced diameter re
are connected one after the
stage of a multistage pump and sults as:
other so that the developed
replace them with a blind stage
heads can be added for a given
(two concentric cylindrical cas Dr ≈ Dt · (Qr/Qt) ≈ Dt · (Hr/Ht)
flow rate. This means that the
ings to guide the flow) instead (27)
discharge pressure of the first
of cutting back the impeller
pump is the inlet pressure for
vanes. Impellers with a non The parameters needed to deter
the second pump, which must
cylindrical exit section are either mine the reduced diameter can
be considered for the choice of
turned down or have only their be found as shown in Fig. 30:
shaft seal and for the strength
blades cut back as specified in in the H/Q curve (linear scales
of the casing. For this reason
the characteristic curve litera required!) a line is drawn con
multistage pumps are usually
ture (for example, as shown in necting the origin (careful: some
used for such applications (ex
Fig. 29). scales do not start at zero!) and
cept for the hydraulic transport
If the impeller diameter only the new operating point Br . The
of solids, see section 6). They
needs to be reduced slightly, a extension of the line intersects
do not pose these shaft sealing
rule of thumb can be applied. the characteristic curve for full
problems.
An exact calculation cannot be diameter Dt at the point Bt. In
made, since the geometrical sim this way the values of Q and H
3.4.6 with the subscripts t and r can
ilarity of the vane angle and exit
Turning Down Impellers width are not preserved when be found, which are used with
turning down the impeller. The Eq. (27) to find the desired re
If the flow rate or developed
following approximate relation duced diameter Dr.
head of a radial or mixed flow
centrifugal pump are to be ship exists between Q, H and The ISO 9906 method is more
reduced permanently, the out the impeller diameter D to be accurate, but also more involved
side diameter D of the impeller found (averaged, if required): through the consideration of
should be reduced. The reduc the average diameter D1 of the
tion should be limited to the (Dt/Dr)2 ≈ Qt/Qr ≈ Ht/Hr (26) impeller leading edge (sub
value for which the impeller script 1), valid for nq < 79 and
vanes still overlap when viewed where subscript t designates the for a change of diameter < 5%,
radially. The documentation of condition before the reduction as long as the vane angle and
the pump characteristics (Fig. the impeller width remain con
18) usually shows curves for stant. Thus using the nomen
several diameters D (in mm). clature of Figs. 29 and 30:
Impellers made from hard ma
terials, such as those used for
Dr
solidshandling pumps, or from
stainless steel sheet metal, as
well as single vane impellers
(Fig. 43) and star or periph Dt
D1
eral pump impellers cannot be
turned down. (The same is true
for underfiling as described in
Fig. 29: Contour for cutting
section 3.4.7). For multistage
back the vanes of an impeller
pumps, usually only the vanes
with a mixed flow exit
38
Impeller Diameter Reduction · Underfiling · Preswirl · Blade Pitch Adjustment 3
3.4.8
PreSwirl Control of the Flow
28
E q.
$T 6
.2 For tubular casing pumps with
Eq
ng
g
sin
usi
"T u mixed flow impellers, the pump
(T
characteristic can be influenced
Total developed head H
"R
(R
$R
by changing the prerotation
in the impeller inlet flow. Such
preswirl control equipment is
Fig. 30: often fitted to control the flow
Determination rate. The various characteristic
of the reduced curves are then shown in the
1R 1T
impeller dia product literature labelled with
Flow rate Q
meter Dr the control setting (Fig. 32).
HHOPT
n
0RE
SWIRLCONTROLSETTING
2ELATIVEFLOWRATE11OPT
Fig. 31: Underfiled vanes of a Fig. 32: Characteristic curve set of a centrifugal pump with preswirl
radial impeller control equipment, nq ≈ 160
39
3 Blade Pitch Adjustment · Bypass
2ELATIVEDEVELOPEDHEAD((OPT
3.4.10
Flow Control Using a Bypass HHOPT
The system characteristic curve
can be made steeper by closing
a throttle valve, but it can also
be made flatter by opening a
bypass in the discharge piping
as shown in Fig. 34. The pump
"LADEPITCHSETTING
operating point moves from B1
to a larger flow rate B2. The
1;=
40
Suction and Inlet Conditions · NPSH Available 3
3.5
Suction and Inlet Conditions
e
[3] lp hid
isu
o nd
NPSH = Net Positive Suction Ca
rb
OL
IDE
NZ
N IA
NE "E
IOX
Head
MO
TO
D
E
!C
!M
UR
LP H
NE
3U
TA
E
"U
E
ID
AN
R
LO
%TH
3.5.1
CH
TRA
TE
N
The NPSH Value of the BAR
O
RB
L
NO
#A
System: NPSHa
A
%TH
R
THE
IDE
LE
in the centre of the pump inlet
LPH
THY
ISU
$IE
and the vapour pressure pv,
ND
LO
RBO
EN
expressed as a head difference
E
#A
0H
PAN
in m. It is in certain respects a
0RO
OL
OL
U
4OL
Z
vaporization at that location
"EN
TANE
I
"U
tem and the type of fluid. The
MIC
IN
CER
&OR
CID
'LY
vapour pressure of water and
L
TICA
HANO
!NI
ET
TONE
12 and in Fig. 35 as a function
!CE
ZOL
of the temperature.
"EN
n #
4EMPERATURET
41
3 NPSH Available · Data for Water
Table 12: Vapour pressure pv , density and kinematic viscosity of water at saturation conditions as a
function of the temperature t
t pv n t pv n t pv n
°C bar kg/m3 mm2/s °C bar kg/m3 mm2/s °C bar kg/m3 mm2/s
0 0.00611 999.8 1.792 61 0.2086 982.6 145 4.155 921.7
1 0.00656 999.9 62 0.2184 982.1 150 4.760 916.9
2 0.00705 999.9 63 0.2285 981.6
3 0.00757 1000.0 64 0.2391 981.1 155 5.433 912.2
4 0.00812 1000.0 65 0.2501 980.5 160 6.180 907.4 0.1890
5 0.00872 1000.0 66 0.2614 980.0
6 0.00935 999.9 67 0.2733 979.4 165 7.008 902.4
7 0.01001 999.9 68 0.2856 978.8 170 7.920 897.3
8 0.01072 999.8 69 0.2983 978.3
9 0.01146 999.7 70 0.3116 977.7 0.413 175 8.925 892.1
10 0.01227 999.6 1.307 180 10.027 886.9 0.1697
71 0.3253 977.1
11 0.01311 999.5 72 0.3396 976.6 185 11.234 881.4
12 0.01401 999.4 73 0.3543 976.0 190 12.553 876.0
13 0.01496 999.3 74 0.3696 975.4
14 0.01597 999.2 75 0.3855 974.8 195 13.989 870.3
15 0.01703 999.0 76 0.4019 974.3 200 15.550 864.7 0.1579
16 0.01816 998.8 77 0.4189 973.7
17 0.01936 998.7 78 0.4365 973.0 205 17.245 858.7
18 0.02062 998.5 79 0.4547 972.5 210 19.080 852.8
19 0.02196 998.4 80 0.4736 971.8 0.365
20 0.02337 998.2 1.004 215 21.062 846.6
81 0.4931 971.3 220 23.202 840.3 0.1488
21 0.02485 997.9 82 0.5133 970.6
22 0.02642 997.7 83 0.5342 969.9 225 25.504 834.0
23 0.02808 997.5 84 0.5557 969.4 230 27.979 827.3
24 0.02982 997.2 85 0.5780 968.7
25 0.03167 997.0 86 0.6010 968.1 235 30.635 820.6
26 0.03360 996.7 87 0.6249 967.4 240 33.480 813.6 0.1420
27 0.03564 996.4 88 0.6495 966.7
28 0.03779 996.1 89 0.6749 966.0 245 36.524 806.5
29 0.04004 995.8 90 0.7011 965.3 0.326 250 39.776 799.2
30 0.04241 995.6 0.801
91 0.7281 964.7 255 43.247 791.8
31 0.04491 995.2 92 0.7561 964.0 260 46.944 784.0 0.1339
32 0.04753 994.9 93 0.7849 963.3
33 0.05029 994.6 94 0.8146 962.6 265 50.877 775.9
34 0.05318 994.2 95 0.8452 961.9 270 55.055 767.9
35 0.05622 993.9 96 0.8769 961.2
36 0.05940 993.5 97 0.9095 960.4 275 59.487 759.4
37 0.06274 993.2 98 0.9430 959.8 280 64.194 750.7 0.1279
38 0.06624 992.9 99 0.9776 959.0
39 0.06991 992.6 100 1.0132 958.3 0.295 285 69.176 741.6
40 0.07375 992.2 0.658 290 74.452 732.3
102 1.0878 956.8
41 0.07777 991.8 104 1.1668 955.5 295 80.022 722.7
42 0.08198 991.4 106 1.2504 954.0 300 85.916 712.5 0.1249
43 0.08639 991.0 108 1.3390 952.6
44 0.09100 990.6 110 1.4327 951.0 305 92.133 701.8
45 0.09582 990.2 310 98.694 690.6
46 0.10085 989.8 112 1.5316 949.6
47 0.10612 989.3 114 1.6361 948.0 315 105.61 679.3
48 0.11162 988.9 116 1.7465 946.4 320 112.90 667.1 0.1236
49 0.11736 988.5 118 1.8628 944.8
50 0.12335 988.0 0.553 120 1.9854 943.1 0.2460 325 120.57 654.0
330 128.64 640.2
51 0.12960 987.7 122 2.1144 941.5
124 2.2503 939.8 340 146.08 609.4 0.1245
52 0.13613 987.2
53 0.14293 986.7 126 2.3932 938.2 350 165.37 572.4
54 0.15002 986.2 128 2.5434 936.5
55 0.15741 985.7 130 2.7011 934.8 360 186.74 524.4 0.1260
56 0.16509 985.2 370 210.53 448.4
57 0.17312 984.7 132 2.8668 933.2
58 0.18146 984.3 134 3.0410 931.4 374.2 225.60 326.0 0.1490
59 0.19015 983.7 136 3.2224 929.6
138 3.4137 927.9 Density of sea water
60 0.19920 983.2 0.474
140 3.614 926.1 0.2160 = 1030 ÷ 1040 kg/m3
42
NPSHa for Suction Lift Operation 3
3.5.1.1
NPSHa for Suction Lift
Operation
For suction lift operation (Fig.
8) the pump is installed above
2EFERENCEPLANE Sg
the suctionside water level. The
value of NPSHa can be calcu
/PENSUMP #LOSEDTANK (SGEO
lated from the conditions in the PB
suction tank (index e) as follows PE PBPE
PVTVE PVTVE
Fig. 36: Calculation of the NPSHa for suction lift operation for
horizontally or vertically installed pumps
43
3 NPSHa for Suction Head Operation · NPSH Required
Sg
The comments on s’ as outlined
2EFERENCEPLANE in section 3.5.1.1 apply analog
ously.
Fig. 37: Calculation of the NPSHa for suction head operation for
horizontally or vertically installed pumps 3.5.2
The NPSH Value of the Pump:
3.5.1.2 head operation”), the pump is NPSHr
NPSHa for Suction Head installed below the liquid level. When the inlet pressure drops,
Operation Eqs. (29) and (30) change by cavitation bubbles start to de
For operation with positive inlet replacing Hs geo with +Hz geo velop in the pump long before
pressure (also called “suction and then read: their effects become apparent in
the hydraulic performance. One
NPSHa = (pe + pb – pv)/( ·g) + ve2/2g – HL,s + Hz geo ± s’ (31) must therefore accept the pres
ence of a small amount of cavi
where tation bubbles in order to oper
Hz geo Height difference between the fluid level in the inlet tank and ate economically. The permis
the centre of the pump inlet in m sible amount of cavitation can
be defined with certain criteria.
Often a head drop of 3% result
(
(NON
CAVITATING ing from cavitation is accepted.
Fig. 38 shows how this point
&IRSTAPPEARANCEOF
CAVITATIONBUBBLES is identified: At a constant flow
rate and constant speed of rota
tion, the NPSHa of the test loop
is reduced until the pump’s dis
charge head has fallen by 3%.
1CONST
Other criteria for the cavitation
NCONST
limit can also be used, such as
the increase in sound level due
to cavitation, the amount of
material erosion or a certain
reduction in pump efficiency.
To avoid impermissible cavita
tion conditions, a minimum
.03(R .03( NPSH value is required, which
Fig. 38: Experimental determination of the NPSHr for the criterion is shown (in units of m) in the
ΔH = 0.03 Hnoncavitating NPSHr curves below the H/Q
44
NPSH Required · Corrective Measures 3
characteristics (see Fig. 18). The
0Sg
reference plane is the centre
of the impeller inlet (Fig. 39),
which can vary by the height s’
from the reference plane of the 0Sg 0Sg
0Sg
NPSHa > NPSHr (33)
0Sg 0Sg
Fig. 40 shows this graphically
at the intersection of the NPSHa
and NPSHr curves. If the NPSH
requirement is not fulfilled, the
developed head will quickly de
crease to the right of the inter
Fig. 39: Position of the reference point Ps’ for various impellers
section (i.e. at larger flow rates),
which produces a “cavitation
breakdown curve”. Prolonged 3.5.3 a subsequent improvement of
operation under these condi Corrective Measures the NPSHa > NPSHr condi
tions can damage the pump. The numerical values of tion in an installed centrifugal
NPSHa and NPSHr are based pump system is only possible
on the fixed design geometry with major design and financial
of the system and of the pump, expenditure for the pump or
which cannot be changed after the system. Options include:
the fact, and on the particular increasing Hz geo or reducing
operating point. It follows that Hs geo (by mounting the tank at
(
.03( (1CURVE
"
Fig. 40: “Cavitation breakdown
curves” A1 and A2 of the H/Q
(SYS ! ! curve in the case of insufficient
NPSHa: An NPSH deficit exists
.03(A
in the singly hatched (case 1)
and crosshatched regions
.03(A (case 2). After increasing
NPSHa(1) to NPSHa(2), the
pump’s useful operating range
.03(R is increased from Q1 to Q2 and
1 1 1 the operating point B can now
be reached.
45
3 NPSH Required · Corrective Measures
0UMPCHARACTERISTICCURVE
$EVELOPEDHEAD(OFTHEPUMP
.03(VALUEOFTHEPUMP
.03(RWITHOUTINDUCER
46
Effect of Entrained Solids · Impeller Types for Pumping Waste Water 3
3.6 Since single vane impellers can up to 7.5 kW approx. 30%
Effect of Entrained Solids not be turned down to adjust (1kW)
If the water to be pumped (for the operating point (see section from 11 – 22 kW approx. 20%
example, domestic waste water, 3.4.6), this type of pump is from 30 – 55 kW approx. 15%
rainwater or mixtures) contains often driven using a belt drive above 55 kW approx. 10%
small amounts of entrained (see Fig. 59g).
solids, special impeller and When assessing the head losses
Allowances added to the drive
pump types are used (for ex in the piping (see section 3.2.1.2),
power are not shown in Fig.
ample with cleaning covers or adequate allowances have to be
20, but rather in the product
special shaft seals) [1]. added [1].
literature [1], since they depend
Fig. 43 shows the most common not only on the drive rating but To avoid blockages in the pipes
impeller designs for these types also on the impeller design and for waste water with high solids
of waste water. For pumping specific speed. For example, for concentrations, a minimum flow
sludge, nonclogging channel single vane impellers pumping velocity of 1.2 m/s in horizon
impellers can be used up to domestic waste water or sewage tal pipes and 2 m/s in vertical
3% solids content, single vane the following power reserves are pumps should be maintained.
impellers up to 5%, free flow recommended: (Exact values can only be de
impellers up to 7% and worm termined experimentally!). This
type impellers for even higher is of particular importance for
concentrations. variable speed drives [1].
Fig. 43a: Closed single vane Fig. 43b: Closed nonclogging Fig. 43c: Free flow impeller
impeller for waste water con channel impeller for sludge or for fluids with coarse or stringy
taining solid or stringy sub nongassing liquids containing solids and gas content
stances solids without stringy compo
nents
Fig. 43d: Worm type impeller Fig. 43e: Diagonal impeller for
for waste water containing coarse, waste water containing solid,
solid or stringy substances or for stringy or coarse substances
sludge with up to 5 to 8% solids
content
47
4 Pumping Viscous Fluids · Shear Curve
48
Pumping Viscous Fluids 4
ships it is defined as the kine
matic viscosity Values required to
DIN 51 507 (transformer oils)
DIN 51 603 (fuel oils)
DIN 51 601 (Diesel fuel)
= η/ (35) Lubricating
oils BC
ISO viscosity classification
to DIN 51 519
where MMS
(= kg/sm)
+INEMATICVISCOSITYN
Density in kg/m3 (for numeri oil
s
Fu
ar
el
Ge
o
cal values see Fig. 48)
ils
Lubricating
s
oil
S
oils BA
tor
Mo
For water at 20°C, ν = 1.00 ·
Su uper
s
oil
pe
P
HL ar
rh eate
10–6 m2/s. For further numerical L, ge
ea
sH bil
e
Su
oil
ted
o
h
pe
uli
c tom ils
ste am
ro
rhe
dra Au so L,
values see Table 12. The units
am
Hy res , VD
ate
ste
p L
cy lind
L
ds
m
Co C, VC B, VB
lin
tea
centistokes = mm2/s, degrees
de
cy
V V
r o ils Z
cy
ils
er
lin
ZD
ne
o
de
Engler °E, Saybolt seconds S" rbi
ro
Tu s TD
Fu
B
oil
ils
el
g
tin C
oil
ZA
Tra
(USA) and Redwood seconds era s K
s
Fue
frig oil
nsf
M
Re hine
l oi
orm
c
R" (UK) are no longer used and ma rating A
ls L
er
e sK AN
frig oil
Fue
oils
Re hine sL P
oil CL
can be converted to m2/s using
l oi
a c t i ng s CL ils
l go
ls E
m c a o i
bri ing cat
in
Lu sC
L
t
bri
c a oil bri
Fig. 46. Lu
ric
ati
ng Lu
fuel Lu
b
sel
Independently of the discussion Die
Fig. 46: Conversion between Fig. 47: Kinematic viscosity of various mineral oils as a function of
various units of kinematic vis the temperature (enlarged view on page 85)
cosity
temperature: at higher tempera
tures almost all liquids become
“thinner”; their viscosity de
creases (Figs. 47 and 48).
%NGLER3AYBOLTS2EDWOODS"ARBEYCMH
CO
DS
measured for all liquids using a
SE
ON
D
OO
EC
OL
2E
YB
tates with a freely chosen speed
+INEMATICVISCOSITYN
R
G LE
%N
RE
EG
"A required driving torque is meas
RB
EY
C
M
ured at various speeds along
H
with the peripheral speed, the
size of the wetted area and the
distance of the cylinder from the
wall.
n n n n n
M
+INEMATICVISCOSITYNIN S
49
4 Newtonian Fluids · Viscosity and Pump Characteristics
t = –100 °C
N = 2.01 mm2/s
t = –92.5 °C t = –98.3 –84.2 –72.5 –44.5 °C t =18.3 50 70 °C
N = 2.35 mm2/s N = 15.8 7.76 4.99 2.33 mm2/s N = 11.87 3.32 1.95 mm2/s
#A MM
RBO
0 HE NO L
NTE S
TRAC
3U HLO
LPH RIDE
URI
CA
&ORMID
CID
AC
#ARB
OND
IC
ISULP
!NILIN
HIDE
E
ETHA
KG Form
ic
!CETO
DM acid
NOL
(EAVYWA
+INEMATICVISCOSITYN
TER
NE
0HENO
L
"EN
!NILINE !CETIC
$ENSITY
"ENZOL ACID
!CETO
ZOL
NE 4OLUOL
4OL
U
OL
%THYL
ALCOHO
LMET
N
"UTANE HYLALC
!MM OHOL
ONIA $IETH
YLETH
ER
!C
%THAN
ET
E I
"UT
ANE
IC
AC
ID
0ROP
ANE
!M
M
#
AR
ON
BO
IA
ND
ISUL
PH IDE Fig. 48: Density
$IETHYLETHER
and kinematic vis
cosity ν of various
fluids as a function
of the temperature
n #
4EMPERATURET t (enlarged view
on p. 86)
50
Viscosity and Pump Characteristics · Conversion Factors 4
Conversion factorkH
K(
1
1
1
1
#ONVERSIONFACTORSK1KH
K1
KH
(
EAD
(
q
n
q
S
n
M
q
N
SITY
n
O
V ISC
TIC
A
q
+INEM
q
n
n
&LOWRATE1
Fig. 49: Determination of the conversion factors k using the Hydraulic Institute method. Example
shown for Q = 200 m3/h, H = 57.5 m, = 500 ·10–6 m2/s
51
4 Viscosity and Pump Characteristics · Conversion Factors
F1
NQ7
F(
FH
F(
NQ7
FH
NQW
#URVE.O
400 #URVE.O
300
200
150
100
80
60
50
40
3P
30
EE
20
D
IN
(EAD(7OPTINM
15
RP
200
M
10
8 250
6
5 300
4
3 +INEMATICVISCOSITYNZIN MM 400
2 S
1.5 500
1 600
800
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
4000
1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 MH 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000 5000 10000
0.3 0.4 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 LS 20 30 40 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000
&LOWRATE17OPT
Fig. 50: Determination of the conversion factors f using the KSB method. Example shown for
Q = 200 m3/h, H = 57.5 m, n = 1450 rpm, = 500 · 10–6 m2/s, n = 2900 rpm, nq = 32.8
52
Viscosity and Pump Characteristics · Conversion Factors · Conversion 4
ficiency η, which are known for
a singlestage centrifugal pump (OWTO&INDTHE/PERATING0OINT
operating with water (subscript
'IVEN
w), can be converted to the val
&LOWRATE 1W MH
ues for operation with a viscous
4OTALDEVELOPEDHEAD (W M
medium (subscript z) as follows:
3PEEDOFROTATION N MIN
+INEMATICVISCOSITY NZ MS
Qz = fQ · Qw (36)
$ENSITY Z KGM
Hz = fH · Hw (37) 'RAVITATIONALCONSTANT G MS
ηz = fη · ηw (38)
#ALCULATION
11OPT n
The factors f are designated
1W FROMTHE MH
with k in the HI method; both PUMPCHA
(W M
are shown graphically in Figs. RACTERISTIC
HW FORPOINTS n
49 and 50. In Fig. 50 the speed
NQW FROMSECTION n n n 1/min
of rotation n of the pump must
be considered in the diagram F1W FROM&IG n n
and the specific speed nq of the F(W n n
pump impeller must be known, FHW n n
for example from Fig. 3 or
1Z1WqF1W MH
Eq. 3.
(Z = Hw = Hw ∙ fH, w ∙ 1,03 Hw ∙ fH, w Hw ∙ fH, w
With these factors the known 1) M 2)
performance for water can be
HZHWqFHW
converted to reflect operation
ZqGq(Zq1Z
with a viscous fluid. The con 0Z K7
HZqq
version is valid for the range
)F(ZBECOMESLARGERTHAN(WITSHOULDBESETTO(W
2)4HESEAREFOURVALUESONTHE(Z1AND1HZCURVEANDTHREEPOINTSONTHE
0.8 Qopt < Q < 1.2 Qopt (39) 10ZCURVE0LOTVERSUS1
A simple calculation can thus be Fig. 51: Spreadsheet for calculating the pump characteristics for a
done for three flow rates, with a viscous fluid using the KSB method (enlarged view on p. 87)
single exception:
At Q = 0.8 Qopt, all the characteristic curves can
Pz = z · g · Hz · Qz / 1000 ηz
Hz = 1.03 · fH · Hw applies be plotted over Qz using the 3
(but Hz never is > Hw!). (40) or 4 calculated points, as shown
in Fig. 52 on page 54.
At flow rate Q = 0, simply set
where
Hz = Hw and ηz = ηw = 0. A For the inverse problem, i.e.
z Density in kg/m3
worksheet or spreadsheet calcu when the operating point for the
Qz Flow rate in m3/s
lation as shown in Fig. 51 can viscous fluid is known and the
g Gravitational constant
simplify the conversion. values for water are to be found
9.81 m/s2
(for example when choosing a
After the power is calculated at Hz Total developed head in m
suitable pump for the requested
the three flow rates (in the flow ηz Efficiency between 0 und 1
operating point), the water val
range according to Eq. 39) using Pz Power in kW (!)
ues are estimated and the solu
53
4 Viscosity and Pump/System Characteristics · NonNewtonian Fluids: Pump Characteristics
1WOPT
1ZOPT
of the wall roughness can now
often be ignored because of the
11OPT larger boundary layer thickness
MH 1 in the flow.) All of the pressure
losses in the pipes, valves and
H HWOPT fittings calculated for water in
accordance with section 3.2.1.2
HW
are to be increased by the ratio
λz/λw.
HZOPT
Fig. 53 is also suitable for
HZ
general practical use: the dia
gram provides a fast way of de
termining the pipe friction fac
tor λz as a function of the flow
rate Q, pipe inside diameter d
MH 1 and kinematic viscosity νz. It
must be kept in mind, however,
0Z that the coefficient λw for water
0 0ZOPT 0W in this diagram is only valid for
0WOPT
K7 hydraulically smooth pipes (i.e.
not for roughsurfaced pipes)!
The corresponding λw can be
used to calculate the ratio λz/λw.
MH 1 Since the static component of
the system characteristic curve
Fig. 52: Conversion of the pump characteristics for water to that for Hsys (Fig. 16) is not affected by
a viscous fluid viscosity, the “dynamic” com
ponent of the system character
istic for water can be redrawn
tion is approached iteratively 4.2.2
Influence on the System as a steeper parabola for a vis
using fQ, fH and fη in two (or
Characteristics cous fluid.
sometimes three) steps.
For specific speeds above nq ≈ 20 Since the laws of fluid dynam
the more realistic KSB method ics retain their validity for all 4.3
Newtonian fluids, the equations NonNewtonian Fluids
results in smaller power require
ments; below this limit the cal and diagrams for calculating 4.3.1
the pipe friction factor and the Influence on the Pump
culated required driving power
loss coefficients for valves and Characteristics
according to HI is too small [9]!
fittings are also applicable to Since the local velocity gradients
viscous media. One must simply in all the hydraulic components
substitute the kinematic viscos of a pump are not known, a cal
54
NonNewtonian Fluids · Pump/System Characteristics 4
4.3.2
Influence on the System
Characteristics
When the shear curves are not
M
H
straight lines of constant linear
viscosity, one must divide them
1
E
R AT into sections and determine the
0IPEINSIDEDIAMETERD
W
LO
& coefficient (= stiffness number)
on doublelogarithmic scales).
MM
gous to Fig. 10), which shows
the pipe friction factors λz as a
D
TER
ME function of the generalized
DIA
N S I DE
P E I Reynolds number Ren for vari
0I
ous exponents n, the value of
λz can be read and the system
7A
TE
curve Hsys determined for a par
RIN
HY ticular flow rate Q. Since this
0IPEFRICTIONFACTORLZ
DR
AU
LIC
ALL process is very laborious, in par
YS
MO ticular because of the need for
4URBULENTFLOW
OTH
PI
PE multiple iterations, it cannot be
n
recommended for general use.
Just as for the pump character
istics, in most cases diagrams
with a narrow range of applica
+INEMATICVISCOSITYN
tion based on experience with
n a particular fluid are used to
find the head loss HL. The more
the application differs from the
particular conditions of the dia
0IP
,A EFRI gram, the more uncertain will
MI C
NA TION the head loss analysis become,
RFL
OW FACTO n
RL so that in such cases the experi
Z
M S
n ence of the design department
must be tapped.
Fig. 53: Finding the pipe friction factor λz for viscous liquids
Example: Q = 200 m3/h; d = 210 mm; z = 5 · 10–4 m2/s
55
5 Pumping Gasladen Fluids
2.8% 0%
4.1% • In the pump, open impellers
5.5%
6.9% 11% (see Fig. 4) with few vanes are
8.3% advantageous, as is the instal
9.6%
lation of an inducer (Fig. 41).
Without any special precau
Q,2.8%
0OWER0
56
Pumping Solidsladen Fluids · Settling Speed 6
6
Special Issues When Pumping
7ATER
Solidsladen Fluids T#
2E
S
6.1
Settling Speed 00 000 00 000
80
WSO;MS=
7 60 5
Solids (which are heavier than
water) are most easiest to pump
0
when their settling speed is low 250 0
3
200 kg/
m
est and their flow velocity high 50 0
s
=1 D
est. Because of the large number
00
40
of influencing parameters, the
0 0
35
settling speed can only be calcu 0
0
30
lated based on simplifying as
sumptions: the settling speed of
a single sphere in an unlimited DS;MM=
space (subscript 0) results from Fig. 55: Settling speed ws0 of individual spherical particles (spherical
force equilibrium as diameter d ) in still water
s
ASSFRACTION
where
f Kinematic viscosity of the
liquid in Pa s
The settling speed ws0 is shown
graphically in Fig. 55.
D
57
6 Pumping Solidsladen Fluids · Pump Characteristics
particle sizes ds plotted logarith ds, the concentration cT and the empirical relationship for the
mically for the portion which density s of the solids as well relative head reduction ∆H/H is
passed through a sieve of a given as the specific speed nq. The approximately
mesh size. Transported solids
are almost always composed of 3
∆H/H = cT / ψ · Res · (11.83/nq)3 · (s/f – 1) (45)
particles of various sizes, so that
the size distribution has a more
where
or less distinct Sshape. To sim
cT Transport concentration according to Eq. 43
plify the analysis, it can be as
ψ Head coefficient of the pump; here approx. = 1
sumed that the particle size for
Res Reynolds number of the solids flow according to Eq. 42
50% mass fraction, designated
nq Specific speed of the pump according to Eq. 3
d50, is representative of the
s Density of the solid in kg/m3
mixture. This assumption is the
f Density of the fluid in kg/m3
most important source of dis
parities in the planning phase.
When conveying solids hydrau
After all these assumptions m = cT · s + (1 – cT) · w
lically, the pump characteristic
and gross approximations, no
curve needs to be shown as de (47)
exact predictions of the effects
veloped pressure ∆p versus flow
of solids on the flow behaviour, where
rate Q, not as developed head
the system curve, the total de m Average density in kg/m3
H, since the average density m
veloped head and the efficiency s Density of the solid in
of the solids / water mixture (in
of pumps are to be expected. kg/m3
contrast to pumping clean wa
The design and selection of w Density of water in kg/m3
ter) is not constant. As simpli
pumps for solids transport must cT Transport concentration ac
fications, the geodetic head dif
therefore be left to experts who cording to Eq. 43
ference zs,d between the pump
have sufficient experience with Since the pressure rise in the
inlet and discharge as well as
similar cases. Even then, ex pump is the product of the
the velocity head difference
periments are often necessary density and the developed head
(cd2 – cs2)/2 g are ignored, i.e.,
to attain a measure of certainty. (which is reduced when trans
the static head is set to equal the
Only certain general tendencies porting solids), two independent
total head (Hp ≈ H):
can be stated. influences are at work in Eq. 46:
the increased average density
∆p = m · g · (H – ∆H) (46)
6.2 due to the presence of the sol
Influence on the Pump where ids, and the reduced developed
Characteristics m Average density of the solids / head (H – ∆H). Both changes
The solids behave differently water mixture given by are caused by the solids concen
under the influence of the cen Eq. 47 in kg/m3 tration, but they have opposite
trifugal force field in an impeller g Gravitational constant effects, since the density raises
than the carrier fluid (usually 9.81 m/s2 the pressure while the head defi
water) does. The solids cross the H Total developed head in m cit decreases it. Therefore, no
streamlines or collide with and ∆H Head reduction according general prediction can be made
rub against the walls of the flow to Eq. 45 in m as to whether the pump pres
passages. They thus reduce the ∆p Pressure in N/m2 sure rise will be higher or lower
head H produced in the impeller (to convert to bar: than the water curve when the
by the difference ∆H. 1 bar = 100 000 N/m2) solids concentration increases.
Heavy, smallgrained solids
Experimental data exist on the The average density of the mix
(for example ores) are likely to
effects of the particle diameter ture is given by
58
Pump Characteristics · System Characteristics · Operating Performance · Stringy, Fibrous Solids 6
produce an increase, while light, will soon be clogged. The curve method for the hydraulic trans
large solids (for example coal) minimum is therefore generally port of solids. Speed control has
and low specific speeds tend to considered to be the lower limit an additional advantage: when
decrease the pressure. of operation. Exact predictions the head developed by the pump
are only possible with sufficient impeller drops as the impeller
experience or by experiment. wears, it is possible to compen
6.3
Influence on the System sate by merely increasing the
Characteristics 6.4 speed.
When the flow velocity drops, Operating Performance In vertical pipes, the settling of
solids tend to settle to the bot Fig. 57 shows the typical be the solids poses much greater
tom of horizontal pipe runs and haviour of a centrifugal pump risk, since the pipe can suddenly
collect on the pipe wall. The transporting solids through a become plugged if the flow falls
flow resistance increases and horizontal pipe: with increasing below the minimum required,
the free flow passage becomes concentration, the intersection even if only due to stopping the
smaller, so that despite the of the pump and system charac pump.
decreasing flow rate, the flow teristic curves shifts to ever low The high erosion rates when
resistance can actually increase. er flow rates, so that the lower pumping granular solids are
This results in the unusual limit of operation could be ex the decisive parameter for the
shape of the system curves as ceeded. To avoid this, a control design of the pumps used. An
shown in Fig. 57. The minimum system must intervene promptly. example of their typical robust
in the curves measured at vari Throttle valves would be subject design is shown in Fig. 58. The
ous concentrations is a sure sign to high wear, however, so only risk of erosion also limits the
that a solids accumulation is a change of rotational speed permissible operating range to
taking place and that the pipes remains as a feasible control near Qopt.
High solids concentrations put
C4!
constraints on the use of centri
fugal pumps; the limit values can
only be found by experience.
$EVELOPEDPRESSURE$P0OFTHEPUMP
0RESSURELOSS$PSYSINTHESYSTEM
6.5
Stringy, Fibrous Solids
"3TEADY
STATEOPERATINGPOINTS
If long, stringy solids are present
&LOWRATE1 in the flow, problems can oc
cur, in particular for axial flow
Fig. 57: Pressure developed by the pump ∆pP and pressure losses of (propeller) pumps, when these
the system ∆psys for various solids concentrations (concentrations materials (plant fibres, plastic
cTsys, cTP) of the flow Q. The developed pressure ∆pP = f(cT) can sheets and rags for example) are
also increase with increasing concentration cTP for solids with high caught on the propeller blade
density (here shown decreasing for 10 and 20%). leading edge and accumulate
59
7 Solidsladen Fluids · Operating Performance · Stringy, Fibrous Solids
a b c
f g h
k l m
60
Periphery · Pump Installation Arrangements · Intake Structures · Pump Sump 6
7 • the position of the shaft, i. e. • the arrangement of the dis
The Periphery horizontal or vertical (see charge nozzle on tubular cas
7.1 Figs. a and b, also i and c or h ing pumps (see Figs. k, l, m
Pump Installation and f), and n),
Arrangements
• the arrangement of the feet, • the environment of the pump
Pump installation arrangements i. e. underneath or shaft casing, i. e. dry or wet (see
are design features in which centreline (see Figs. d and e), Figs. b and o).
pumps of the same type (in
• the mode of installation of the
general of the same series) may
pump set, i. e. with or without 7.2
differ. Figures 59 a to o provide
foundation (see Figs. b and f), Pump Intake Structures
typical examples of the most
• the arrangement of the drive, 7.2.1
frequent installation arrange
Pump Sump
ments for horizontal and verti i. e. on its own or a common
cal centrifugal pumps [1]. baseplate or flanged to the Pump sumps (or suction tanks)
pump (see Figs. g, a, h and i), are designed to collect liquids
The major parameters classify
and be intermittently drained
ing the pump installation ar • the weight distribution of the
if the mean inlet flow is smaller
rangement are: pump and drive,
than the pump flow rate. The
sump or tank size depends on
the pump flow rate Q and the
permissible frequency of starts
Z of the electric motors, see sec
tion 3.3.3.1.
The useful volume VN of the
pump sump is calculated using:
d e Q – Qin
VN = Qin · m (48)
Qm · Z
where
Z Max. permissible frequency
of starts per hour
Qin Inlet flow in m3/h
Qm = (Qon + Qoff) / 2
Qon Flow rate at switchon
pressure in m3/h
i j Qoff Flow rate at switchoff
pressure in m3/h
VN Useful volume of pump
sump including potential
backwash volume in m3
The maximum frequency of
starts occurs when the flow rate
Qm is twice the incoming flow
Qin. The max. frequency of
starts per hour is therefore:
n o
61
7 Periphery · Pump Sump · Suction Piping
62
Suction Piping · Minimum Submergence 7
3UCTIONPIPE
≥ dE S
7RONG dE
vE
)NLET ≥ 6 dE B ≥ 5.5 dE
PIPE
3UCTION
TANK
0.5 dE
S
dE
vE
B
DN B
0OSITIVEDEFLECTOR mm
65 80
Fig. 65: Piping arrangement in the suction tank / 80 80
100 100
pump sump to prevent air entrainment 150 100
200 150 S
Fig. 66: Clearances between wall and suction pipe in 250 150 ≥ dE
vE
300 200
the suction tank or pump sump according to relevant 400 200 B
German regulations. Smin, as shown in Fig. 67. 500 200
2 suction pipes arranged side by side require a
distance of ≥ 6 dE.
2.0 30
00
20
00
S S S 15
1.5 00
dE Q
=1
00
0m
m 3
80 /h
0
Minimum submergence Smin
60
0
50
1.0 0
40
0
30
0
0.8
20
0
15
s 0
m/
0.6 =3 10
vs 0
80
60
0.5 2 50
40
30
0.4
dE S S S
20 1
15
5
0.3 0.
10
Fig. 67: Minimum submergence Smin of horizontal and vertical suction pipes (with and without entry
nozzle) required for suction tanks to avoid hollow vortices (to Hydraulic Institute standards)
63
Suction Piping · Airentraining Vortex · Minimum Submergence · Intake Structures 7
of immersion) is specified in Fig.
67, the minimum clearance be
tween suction pipes and walls /
sump floor in Fig. 66. (Special Raft
measures must be taken for tu
Suction pipe
bular casing pumps, see 7.2.3).
Fig. 68: Raft to
The minimum submergence Smin
prevent air
can be read from Fig. 67 as a
entraining hol
function of the intake diameter
low vortices
dE (this is the pipe inside dia
meter of straight, flangeless
At flow velocities of 1 m/s, the tate. For this reason baffles as
pipes) or, where available, the
minimum submergence levels illustrated in Fig. 70 should be
inlet diameter of the entry
specified by the relevant Ger provided.
nozzle and the flow rate Q. It
man regulations agree well with
can also be calculated according
the data given above [13]. 7.2.3
to the following equation given
Wherever the required mini Intake Structures for Tubular
by the Hydraulic Institute:
Casing Pumps [1]
mum submergence cannot or
not always be ensured, meas For tubular casing pumps, the
dE ures as shown in Figs. 68 and minimum submergence and the
Smin = dE + 2.3 · vs · (50)
g 69 have to be taken to prevent design of the intake chamber
airentraining vortices. Irrespec are of particular importance
where tive of the aspects mentioned because impellers with high spe
Smin Minimum submergence in m before, it should be checked cific speeds react very sensitively
vs Flow velocity whether the submergence levels to uneven inlet flows and air
= Q/900 π dE2 in m/s, also meet the NPSHa require entraining vortices.
recommended 1 to 2 m/s ments laid down in 3.5.2. Fig. 71 shows the arrangement
but never exceeding 3 m/s
Round tanks with tangential of suction pipes in intake
Q Flow rate in m3/h
inlet pipes are special cases but chambers of tubular casing
g Gravitational constant
used frequently. The liquid dis pumps.
9.81 m/s2
charged via the inlet pipe causes Refer to Fig. 72 for the mini
dE Inlet diameter of suction
the contents of the tank to ro mum water level required for
pipe or entry nozzle in m
open, unlined intake chambers
Radial splitter
Axial splitter
To pump
Baffle
Radial
Suction pipe splitter
To pump Tangential
Tangential inlet
Axial splitter inlet
To pump
Fig. 69: Use of swirl preventers Fig. 70: Use of swirl preventers in cylindrical
tanks to ensure smooth flow to pump
64
Intake Structures · Priming Devices 7
Lined or covered intake
chambers or Kaplan intake
elbows are more expensive, but
allow pump operation at lower
submergence levels [1].
ds
Irrespective of the aspects
mentioned before, it should be
checked whether the submer
S gence levels also meet the
NPSHa requirements laid down
dE in 3.5.2.
(0.3 ÷ 0.5) dE
7.2.4
Priming Devices
Most centrifugal pumps are not
selfpriming; i. e. their suction
pipes and suctionside cas
ings must be deaerated prior
to startup unless the impeller
≥ 0.75 dE is arranged below the liquid
Entry cone level. This often inconvenient
procedure can be avoided by
(2 ÷ 2.5) dE
65
7 Priming Devices · Suction Tank
30
where 0.2
VB Suction tank volume in m3 20
3UCTIONTANK 0RIMINGPIPE
6ENTHOLE
3HUT
OFFVALVE
,IQUIDLEVELIN
OPERATION
.ON
RETURNVALVE
(SGEO 3TRAINER
#ONNECTBARRIERFLUIDSUPPLYLINE
DS
3UCTIONGATEVALVE
WITHWATERCUP
Fig. 73: Foot valve (cup valve) Fig. 74: Suction tank arrangement
with suction strainer
66
Suction Tank · Measurement Points 7
Hs = Hs geo + HL,s (53) 4 Suction tank volume
0.03 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 5 10 15 20 30 60 m3
2
water level and pump ref
Str
]
s [m
aig
erence plane for suction
ft H
t le
lift operation in m, see
n li
ng
tio
th
Fig. 36
suc
of
pip
HL,s Head loss in the suc
1
ax.
3
ing
5
3 M
tion piping in m (refer to
7
0
Ls
2
4
20
[m
6
3.2.1.1).
15
10
]
8
6
4
As HL,s is in most cases notably
17 5
12
2
.5
9
.
7
smaller than Hs geo, Eq. 53 can
5
3
be neglected and Hs equated
1
7.3
Arrangement of Measure
ment Points
In order to achieve a certain
accuracy in pressure and veloc 600 400 300 200 150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 mm
ity measurement, the flow must 1 Inside diameter of suction pipe
Relevant German regulations VdS 2092‑S 0.5 1.0 2.5 2.5 Inservice measurement
(VdS – Association of German ISO 9906 2.0 2.0 5+nq/53 – Acceptance test measurement
67
7 Measurement Points · Shaft Couplings
Ud
D and rubberelastic spring ele
Ad
7.4
Shaft Couplings
In centrifugal pump engineer
ing, both rigid and flexible shaft
couplings are used. Rigid coupl
ings are mainly used to connect Fig. 78: Pump with spacer coupling compared with normal coupling
68
Pump Nozzle Loading · Standards and Codes 7
7.5 missible nozzle loading [1]. grouted baseplate, broken line
Pump Nozzle Loading for pumps on nongrouted base
As the loading profile for each
A centrifugal pump mounted pump nozzle is made up of three plates).
on the foundation should not different forces and moments, it
be used as an anchorage point is not possible to specify theo 7.6
for connecting the piping. Even retical nozzle loading limits for National and International
if the piping is fitted to the noz all conceivable combinations. Standards and Codes
zles without transmitting any Therefore, operators either need A series of national standards
stresses or strains, forces and to check whether the nozzle and other technical codes have
moments, summarized as nozzle loading imposed by the system been introduced in Germany
loading, will develop under is still within the pump’s permis since the early sixties which
actual operating conditions sible limits, or have to contend govern the dimensions, manu
(pressure and temperature) and with the considerably reduced facture, design, procurement
as a result of the weight of the general limits specified in sev and use of centrifugal pumps.
liquidfilled piping. These cause eral national and international Many of the requirements laid
stresses and deformation in the standards and codes (EURO down have been included in
pump casings, and above all PUMP brochure “Permissible European and international
changes in coupling alignment, flange forces and moments for standards and codes. Drawn up
which, in turn, may affect the centrifugal pumps”, 1986; API by both operators and manu
pump’s running characteristics, 610; ISO 5199). facturers, these are now well
the service life of the flexible established in virtually all sec
Fig. 79 shows the permissible
elements in the shaft coupling, tors of industry using or pro
nozzle loading for singlestage
as well as the bearings and me ducing pumps. The most impor
volute casing pumps to ISO
chanical seals. For this reason tant standards are tabulated in
5199 (solid line for pumps on
limits have been defined for per Fig. 80 on page 70.
Permissible moments Mmax at the flange reference plane
Y
Z AX
0ERMISSIBLEFORCES&(MAXAND&6MAX
/UTLET M
&(
X MA
X
Z
Y & 6 AX .M
M
AX
& 6
X M
)NLET AX
M
AX
M
& (
KG
$ISCHARGENOZZLEDIA
0UMPWEIGHTX
)MPELLEROUTERDIA
69
7
70
Scope of Application
Dimensional Standards: Pumps and Accessories Codes and Specifications
and Responsibilities
DIN DIN 24251 DIN 242591 DIN 242991 DIN EN 12756 DIN EN ISO DIN EN 24250 DIN EN 12723 DIN EN 12639 DIN 24273 DIN 24296 DIN ISO 9905 DIN 19885 DIN 244201 DIN 1989 DIN EN 12262 DIN 1986
German 9906 Liquid Liquid (Class I) Technical spe Spare parts Rainwater Centrifugal Drainage
Multistage centrifugal Pumps; Pump name Mechanical Rotodynamic Centrifugal pumps – Ge pumps and Pumps and Pumps and DIN ISO 5199 cifications for lists; General harvesting pumps; systems for
Europe
Coordination main dimen main dimen for hydro ment; tems and quirements ciples
Committee sions, sions static test Test clas service water
TC 197 designation ing ses 2 and 3 heating sys
Pumps system tems for
domestic
use – Re
quirements, American Petroleum Institute
ISO ISO 2858 ISO 3661 ISO 3069 ISO 9906 ISO 5198 testing, ISO 9905 ISO 5199 ISO 9908
International
marking API 682 API 610
Inter End suction End suction End suction Rotodynamic Centrifugal Technical Technical Technical
Shaft Sealing Centrifugal
national centrifugal centrifugal centrifugal pumps – mixed flow specifica specifica specifica Systems for Pumps for
Organiza pumps (rat pumps – pumps – Hydraulic and axial tions for tions for tions for Centrifugal Petroleum,
tion for ing 16 bar) – Baseplate Dimensions performance pumps – centrifugal centrifugal centrifugal
and Rotary Petrochemical
Standardi Designation, and installa of cavities acceptance Code for pumps – pumps – pumps –
Pumps and Natural
zation rated per tion dimen for mechani tests – hydraulic Class I Class II Class III
Gas Industries
Techn. formance sions cal seals Grades 1 performance
and dimen and for soft and 2 tests;
Worldwide
Comm.
TC 115/ sions packing Precision
Pumps grade
Standards · Codes · Specifications
Fig. 80: National and international standards and codes for centrifugal pumps (last update: 2005)
Calculation Examples 8
8. The consecutive numbers of the in the text. For example, the ap
Calculation Examples calculation examples in this plication dealt with in exercise
chapter are identical to the num 8.3 refers to Equation (3).
bers of the respective equations
8.2
Input Power
Given: The data as per exercise According to Eq. (2) the input power is:
8.1. P = · g · Q · H / η
Sought: The input power P. = 998.2 · 9.81 · (200 / 3600) · 57.5 / 0.835
= 37 462 W = 37.5 kW
71
8 Calculation Examples
72
Calculation Examples 8
8.15 Given:
Head Loss in Valves and The suction pipe described in 8.9, including
Fittings a slide disc valve DN 200,
a 90° elbow with smooth surface and R = 5 d,
a foot valve DN 200
and a reducer DN 200 / DN 100 according to Table 8,
type IV with an opening angle of α = 30°.
Sought: The head losses HL.
According to Table 5, the loss coefficient of the slide disc
valve is ζ = 0.20
Acc. to Table 6, the loss coefficient of the 90° elbow is ζ = 0.10
Acc. to Table 5, the approx. loss coefficient of
the foot valve is ζ = 2.0
Acc. to Table 5, the loss coefficient of the reducer is ζ = 0.21
The total of all loss coefficients is ∑ ζ = 2.51
Eq. (15) then gives the following head loss:
HL = ∑ζ · v2 / 2 g = 2.51 · 1.602 / (2 · 9.81) = 0.328 m
d d
ate d
m te Second estimate dBl = 68 mm; (dBl / d)2 = 0.670; f = 12.9;
E sti cula
X Ca l
Result: dBl = 12.9 · 5.34 = 68.9 mm
X
Third estimate dBl = 68.4; (dBl / d)2 = 0.679; f = 12.8;
Result: dBl = 12.8 · 5.34 = 68.4 mm
For a faster solution, it is recommended to plot the calculated versus
X
the corresponding estimated diameters in a diagram so that the third
%STIMATEDDIAMETERD"L;MM= estimate already provides the final result in the intersection of con
necting line and diagonal, see adjacent diagram.
73
8 Calculation Examples
8.21 Sought: The data for flow rate Q2, discharge head H2 and driving
Change of Speed power P2 after change of speed.
Given: Eq. (21) gives
The pump speed as per 8.1 (op Q2 = Q1 · (n2/n1) = 200 (1450 / 2900) = 100 m3/h
erating data with index 1) is to
Eq. (22) gives
be reduced from n1 = 2900 rpm
H2 = H1 · (n2/n1)2 = 57.5 · (1450 / 2900)2 = 14.4 m
to n2 = 1450 rpm.
Eq. (23) gives
P2 = P1 · (n2/n1)3 = 37.5 · (1450 / 2900)3 = 4.69 kW,
on the assumption that the efficiency is the same for both speeds.
8.27 Sought: The reduced diameter Dr and the discharge head Hr at BEP
Turning Down Impellers after turning down the impeller (Ht = 57.5 m).
Given: Eq. (27) gives
The flow rate of the pump at Dr ≈ Dt · (Qr / Qt) = 219 · (135 / 200) = 180 mm
BEP described in 8.1, i.e. Qt =
Eq. (26) gives
200 m3/h, is to be reduced to
Hr ≈ Ht · (Qr / Qt) = 57.5 · 135 / 200 = 38.8 m
Qr = 135 m3/h by turning down
the original impeller diameter
Dt = 219 mm.
74
Calculation Examples 8
8.31 Question: Is NPSHa sufficient?
NPSHa for Suction Head
According to Eq. (31)
Operation
NPSHa = (pe + pb – pv) / ( · g) + ve2/ 2g – HL,s + Hz geo ± s’
Given: The pump system de where
scribed in exercise 8.29 is be op Gauge pressure in
erated in suction head operation suction tank pe = – 0.40 bar = – 40 000 Pa
with a closed tank as shown in Atmospheric pressure pb = 955 mbar = 95 500 Pa acc. to Table 13
Fig. 37. The system data are as Vapour pressure pv = 0.02337 bar = 2337 Pa acc. to Table 12
follows: place of installation Density = 998.2 kg/m3 acc. to Table 12
500 m above M. S. L.; HL,s (re
(pe + pb – pv) / ( · g)
fer to exercises 8.9 and 8.15) =
= (– 40 000 + 95 500 – 2337) / (998.2 · 9.81) = 5.43 m
0.39 m; Hz geo = 2.00 m; ve ≈ 0. 2
ve /2g =0
The pump described in 8.1 is
HL,s = 0.39 m
installed horizontally with a
Hz geo = 2.00 m
closed suction tank, as shown
s’ = 0, as the centre of the impeller inlet is at
in Fig. 37. According to Fig. 18,
the same height as the centre of the pump inlet.
the pump’s NPSHr is 5.50 m at
NPSHa = 7.04 m
a flow rate of Q = 200 m3/h.
With an NPSHr of 5.50 m,
NPSHa is larger than NPSHr in this case and therefore sufficient.
75
8 Calculation Examples
8.48 Sought: The useful volume VN of the pump sump according to equa
Pump Sump tion (48) (all flow rates in m3/h):
Given: The pump sump for a
pump as per 8.1 with the fol VN = Qin · (Qm – Qin) / (Qm · Z)
lowing data:
Inlet flow Qin = 120 m3/h where
Flow rate at switchon pressure Qm = (Qon + Qoff) / 2 = (220 + 150) / 2 = 185 m3/h
Qon = 220 m3/h and
Flow rate at switchoff pressure VN = 120 · (185 – 120) / (185 · 10) = 4.22 m3/h
Qoff = 150 m3/h
The maximum permissible
number of startups of a pump
unit is given in Table 10 (section
3.3.3.1, dry motor with P
> 30 kW, in this case Z = 10/h).
76
Calculation Examples 8
8.50 Sought: The minimum submergence Smin in the open suction tanks.
Minimum Submergence The flow velocity vs in the suction pipe inlet is
Given: The vertical unflanged vs = Q/A = (Q/3600)/(p · dE2/4) = (200 / 3600) · (p · 0.21012/4) = 1.60 m/s
suction pipe according to 8.9
Eq. (50) gives the minimum submergence as
and Fig. 8D, inside pipe diame
ter d = dE = 210.1 mm at a flow Smin = dE + 2.3 · vs · dE / g
rate of Q = 200 m3/h. = 0.2101 + 2.3 · 1.60 · 0.2101 / 9.81
= 0.75 m.
The same result can be obtained faster from the diagram in Fig. 67.
Fig. 66 provides the required distance to the wall with > 0.21 m,
the channel width with > 1.26 m and the distance to the floor with
> 0.150 m.
8.52 Sought: The volume of the suction tank according to Eq. (52):
Suction Tank Volume VB = (ds2 p /4) · Ls · pb / (pb – · g · Hs)
Given: A centrifugal pump sys The suction lift Hs is defined by Eq. (53):
tem, data according to 8.1 and Hs = Hs geo + HL,s
8.9, including a suction tank as Given is Hs geo = 2.60 m, the suction pipe head loss HL,s is to be cal
per Fig. 74. The straight length culated from HL,s1 and HL,s2 as follows:
of the airfilled suction pipe
1) Head loss HL,s of the pipe as per 8.9:
DN 200 (inside diameter ds =
210.1 mm according to Table HL,s1 = λ · (L / ds) · vs2 / 2g
4) is Ls = 3.00 m, with Hs geo where
= 2.60 m (= vertical distance λ = 0.016 from 8.9
between pump reference plane L = Hs geo = 2.6 m (not 3.0 m because the elbow length is taken
and water level for positive inlet into account in HL,s2)
pressure operation). The atmos ds = 0.2101 m.
pheric pressure pb = 989 mbar = vs = 1.60 m from exercise 8.9.
98900 Pa; density of the water HL,s1 = 0.016 · (2.60 / 0.2101) · 1.602 / (2 · 9.81) = 0.026 m
at 20° C = 998.2 kg/m3, vapour
HL,s2 covers the 180° elbow (2 x 90° elbow according to Table 6 as
pressure pv = 2337 Pa.
in 8.15) and inlet pipe fittings according to Table 7.
Loss coefficient ζ of 180° elbow (factor 1.4) = 1.4 · 0.10 = 0.14
Loss coefficient ζ of inlet pipe fitting (broken inlet edge) = 0.20
HL,s2 = Sζ · vs2 / 2g = (0.14 + 0.20) · 1.602 / (2 · 9.81) = 0.044 m
3) The total head loss HL,s = Hvs1 + HL,s2 = 0.026 + 0.044 = 0.070
m
and therefore
Hs = Hs geo + HL,s = 2.60 + 0.07 = 2.67 m
The example shows that the head loss HL,s (= 0.070) can be neglect
ed for short suction pipes, since Hs geo (2.60 m) is considerably high
er. This simplifies the calculation. The volume of the suction tank VB
can be calculated using Eq. (52) or can simply be determined using
the graphs of Fig. 75 (provided the head loss HL,s is neglected).
77
8 Calculation Examples
78
Additional Literature 9
9. [1] Product literature (KSB sales literature)
Additional Literature
[2] KSB Centrifugal Pump Lexicon
[3] Cavitation in Centrifugal Pumps. KSB publication No.
0383.051
[4] Gebäudetechnik von KSB. Pumpenregelung und Anlagenau
tomation. Planungshinweise. (Building Services Products from
KSB. Pump Control and Plant Automation. Planning Informa
tion). KSB publication No. 2300.024 (2005)
[5] Bernauer J., M. Stark, W. Wittekind: Improvement of Propeller
Blades Used for Handling Liquids Containing Fibrous Solids.
KSB Technische Berichte 21e (1986), pp. 16 – 21
[6] Bieniek K., Gröning N.: Controlling the Output of Centrifugal
Pumps by Means of Electronic Speed Control. KSB Technische
Berichte 22e (1987), pp. 16 – 31
[7] Bieniek K.: Submersible Motors and Wet Rotor Motors for
Centrifugal Pumps Submerged in the Fluid Handled. KSB Tech
nische Berichte 23e (1987), pp. 9 – 17
[8] Holzenberger K., Rau L.: Parameters for the Selection of
Energy Conserving Control Options for Centrifugal Pumps.
KSB Technische Berichte 24e (1988), pp. 3 – 19
[9] Holzenberger K.: A Comparison of Two Conversion Methods
Applied to the Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps While
Pumping Viscous Liquids. KSB Technische Berichte 25e (1988),
pp. 45 – 49
[10] Holzenberger K.: How to Determine the Starting Torque Curve
of Centrifugal Pumps by Using Characteristic Factors. KSB
Technische Berichte 26 (1990), pp. 3 – 13
[11] Kosmowski I., Hergt P.: Förderung gasbeladener Medien
mit Hilfe von Normal und Sonderausführungen bei Kreisel
pumpen (Pumping Gasladen Fluids by Standard and Special
Design Centrifugal Pumps). KSB Technische Berichte 26
(1990), pp. 14 – 19
[12] Schreyer H.: Glandless Chemical Pump with Magnetic Drive.
KSB Technische Berichte 24e (1988), pp. 52 – 56
79
10 Specific Speed
10.
Technical Annex
80
DK
L
&ULLYROUGHK
Pipe Friction Factor λ
2E
,IM
ITIN
G
CU
RVE
0IPEFRICTIONFACTORL
(Y
DRA
ULIC
ALLYS
MO
OTH
K
2ECRIT
81
Fig. 10: Pipe friction factor λ as a function of the Reynolds number Re and the relative roughness d/k
10
10
82
.EWUNTREATEDSTEELPIPE
mm
5
M
=1
M
V
d
20
M
25
S
32
40
50
2E
65
80
0
10
5
12
15
17
20
0
25
0
30
35
40
0
50
0
3PECIFICHEADLOSS(,
0
60
0
70
80
90
00
10 0
00
m
00
12
0
14
0m
16
0
20 0
d = 180 0
MH
M
M
M
2E
M
V
M
D
S
Head Loss for Hydraulically Smooth Pipes
M
M
3PECIFICHEADLOSS(,
HL correction
for plastic pipe
D
Temperature factor J
#
Temperature t
MH
83
For plastic pipe when t = 10 °C multiply by the temperature factor j
10
10
84
6APOURPRESSUREP6
BAR
n
0RO
PAN
I
"U E
TANE %TH
A NE
!CE
TONE
"EN ET
ZOL HANO
L
&OR !M
MI #A $IE MO
CA RBO THY NIA
CID LE
!CE ND TH E
TICA "EN ISU R 3U
CID ZOL LPH LPH
IDE UR
D
4OL
U N
IO
OL " XID
UT
AN E
E
!N
ILIN
E
%TH
A NO
L
#
4EMPERATURET
AR
BO
N
TE
RI D
TO
E
NE
'LY
C
#
Ca
ERI
N
rb
"E
on
N
dis
ZO
L
ulp
h
ide
Vapour Pressures
Kinematic Viscosity 10
Values required to
DIN 51 507 (transformer oils)
DIN 51 603 (fuel oils)
DIN 51 601 (Diesel fuel)
Lubricating ISO viscosity classification
oils BC to DIN 51 519
MMS
Lubricating
oils BB
+INEMATICVISCOSITYN
oil
s
Fu
ar
el
Ge
oil
Lubricating
sS
s
r oil oils BA
M oto
Su per
s
oil
pe
P
HL ear
Su
rh
L, g
ea ted
H e
bil
Su
s
oil
ted
mo
he
pe
lic s
o oil
a
t
ste
u
rhe
dra Au s or L,
am
y s
ate
H re VD L
ste
mp L,
cy lind
ds
a
Co C, VC B, VB
lin
tea
de r oil
cy
V V
m
ro
cy
ils
e
lin
ZD
ne
rbi de
sZ
Tu s TD ro
Fu
B
oil ils
el
g
tin C
oil
ZA
Tra
era ils K
sM
Fue
i g
nsf
fr o
Re hine
l oi
orm
a c g
ls L
m tin A
er
era ils K N
g LA
Fue
i
oils
fr o ils P
Re hine o CL
l oi
L
ma
c ing sC ils
cat oil go
ls E
r i g in
Lu
b in sC cat
L
ª#
4EMPERATURET
Fig. 47: Kinematic viscosity of various mineral oils as a function of the temperature t
85
10 Density and Kinematic Viscosity
t = –100 °C
N = 2.01 mm2/s
t = –92.5 °C t = –98.3 –84.2 –72.5 –44.5 °C t =18.3 50 70 °C
N = 2.35 mm2/s N = 15.8 7.76 4.99 2.33 mm2/s N = 11.87 3.32 1.95 mm2/s
#A MM
RBO
0HENOL
NTE S
TRAC
3U HLO
LPH RIDE
URI
CA
&ORMID
CID
AC
#ARB
OND
IC
ISULP
!NILIN
HIDE
E
ETHA
KG Form
ic
!CETO
DM acid
NOL
(EAVYWA
+INEMATICVISCOSITYN
TER
N
E
0HENO
L
"EN
!NILINE !CETI
$ENSITY
"ENZOL CACID
!CETO
ZOL
NE 4OLUOL
4OL
U
OL
%THYL
ALCOHO
LMET
N
"UTANE HYLALC
!MM OHOL
ONIA $IETH
YLETH
ER
!C
%THAN
ET
E I
"UT
ANE
IC
AC
ID
0ROP
ANE
!M
M
#
AR
ON
BO
IA
ND
ISUL
PH IDE $IETHYLETHER
n #
4EMPERATURET
Fig. 48: Density and kinematic viscosity ν of various fluids as a function of the temperature t
86
Viscous Fluids · Pump Characteristics 10
(OWTO&INDTHE/PERATING0OINT
'IVEN
&LOWRATE 1W MH
4OTALDEVELOPEDHEAD (W M
3PEEDOFROTATION N MIN
+INEMATICVISCOSITY NZ MS
$ENSITY Z KGM
'RAVITATIONALCONSTANT G MS
#ALCULATION
11OPT n
1W FROMTHE MH
PUMPCHA
(W M
RACTERISTIC
HW FORPOINTS n
NQW FROMSECTION n n n 1/min
F1W FROM&IG n n
F(W n n
FHW n n
1Z1WqF1W MH
(Z = Hw = Hw ∙ fH, w ∙ 1,03 Hw ∙ fH, w Hw ∙ fH, w
1) M 2)
HZHWqFHW
ZqGq(Zq1Z
0Z K7
HZqq
)F(ZBECOMESLARGERTHAN(WITSHOULDBESETTO(W
2)4HESEAREFOURVALUESONTHE(Z1AND1HZCURVEANDTHREEPOINTSONTHE
10ZCURVE0LOTVERSUS1
Fig. 51: Spreadsheet for calculating the pump characteristics for a viscous fluid using the KSB method
87
10
Flow rate Q
88
Velocity head
Velocity head
Flow rate Q
2
Velocity Head
Flow rate Q
89
Velocity head differential ∆ (v2/2 g) as a function of flow rate Q and inside pipe diameters d1 and d2
10
11
11. Excerpt of Important Units for Centrifugal Pumps
Physical Sym Units Units not Recom Comments
dimension bol SI units Other units to be used mended
(not complete) any longer units
Length l m Metre km, dm, cm, m Base unit
mm, µm
Volume V m3 dm3, cm3, mm3, cbm, cdm… m3
litre (1 l = 1 dm3)
Flow rate, capac Q, m3/s m3/h, l/s l/s and
·
ity, volume flow V m3/s
Time t s Second s, ms, µs, ns,… s Base unit
min, h, d
Speed of rotation n 1/s 1 /min (rpm) 1 /s, 1 /min
Mass m kg Kilogram g, mg, µg, Pound, kg Base unit
metric ton hundred The mass of a commercial
(1 t = 1000 kg) weight commodity is described as
weight.
Density kg/m3 kg/dm3 kg/dm3 The term
und “spezifice gravita” must no
kg/m3 longer be employed, because
it is ambiguous
(see DIN 1305).
Mass moment of J kg m2 kg m2 Mass moment, 2. order
inertia
·
Mass rate of flow m kg/s t/s, t/h, kg/h kg/s and t/s
Force F N Newton kN, mN, µN,… kp, Mp,… N 1 kp = 9.81 N. The weight
(= kg m/s2) force is the product of the
mass m by the local gravi
tational constant g.
Pressure p Pa Pascal bar kp/cm2, at, bar 1 at = 0.981 bar
(= N/m2) (1 bar=105 Pa) m w.c., = 9.81 · 104 Pa
Torr, … 1 mm Hg = 1.333 mbar
1 mm w.c. = 0.098 mbar
Mechanical σ, τ Pa Pascal N/mm2, N/cm2… kp/cm2, N/mm2 1 kp/mm2 = 9.81 N/mm2
stress (= N/m2)
(strength)
Bending mo M, N m kp m, … N m 1 kp m = 9.81 N m
ment, torque T
Energy, work, W, J Joule kJ, Ws, kWh, … kp m J und kJ 1 kp m = 9.81 J
quantity of heat Q (= N m 1 kW h = kcal, cal, 1 kcal = 4.1868 kJ
= W s) 3600 kJ WE
Total head H m Metre m l. c. m The total head is the work
done in J = N m applied to
the mass unit of the fluid
pumped, referred to the
weight force of this mass
unit in N.
Power P W Watt MW, kW, kp m/s, PS kW 1 kp m/s = 9.81 W
(= J/s 1 PS = 736 W
= N m/s)
Temperature T K Kelvin °C °K, deg. K Base unit
difference
Kinematic n m2/s St (Stokes), m2/s 1 St = 10–4 m2/s
viscosity °E, … 1 cSt = 1 mm2/s
Dynamic η Pas Pascal P (Poise) Pa s 1 P = 0.1 Pa s
viscosity second
(= N s/m2)
Specific speed nq 1 1 Qopt
nq = 333 · n ·
(g Hopt)3/4
Sl units (m und s)
90
91
e 46,–
ISBN 3000178414
KSB Aktiengesellschaft
D67225 Frankenthal (Pfalz) / Germany
Telephone +49 6233 860 • Fax +49 6233 863401 • www.ksb.com
92
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