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Noname manuscript No.

(will be inserted by the editor)

Smart Methods of Unconventional Optimization,


Modelling, and Simulation
for Geoscience, Shale Gas, Petroleum

Junzo Watada, Shing Chiang Tan,


Pandian Vasant, Eswaran Padmandhan,
Lakmi C. Jain

Received: date / Accepted: date

Editors:
Junzo Watada,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Department of Computer & Information Sciences, 32610
Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malysia
Tel.: +605-368-8787
H/P: +6013-598-0208 Fax: +605-368-8151
E-mail: junzo.watada@gmail.com
Shing Chiang Tan,
Multimedia University, Faculty of Information Science. Malaysia, E-mail:
junzo.watada@gmail.com
Pandian Vasant,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Department of Computer & Institute of Hydrocarbon
Recovery, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malysia
E-mail: pvasant@gmail.com
Eswaran Padmandhan,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Department of Computer & Institute of Hydrocarbon
Recovery, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malysia
E-mail: eswaran padmanabhan@utp.edu.my
Lakhmi C. Jain
E-mail: pvasant@gmail.com
Preface

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preface or foreword is distinct from the introduction, which deals with the subject of
the work.
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Place(s), Firstname Surname


month year Firstname Surname

v
Contents

1 Digitalization in the Oil and Gas Industray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


E. Padmanabhan, Thivyaadarshini, J., and Ranjith, PG

Part I Optimization

2 How to Best Apply Neural Networks in Geosciences: Towards


Optimal Averaging in Dropout Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Afshin GHOLAMY, Justin PARRA, Vladik KREINOVICH, Olac
FUENTES, and Elizabeth ANTHONY

3 A Coevolutionary Neural Network for Detecting Chemical Gas


Sensor Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Bee Yan Hiew, Shing Chiang Tan, and Junzo Watada
4 Enumeration Approach in Condensate Banking Study of Gas
Condensate Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Iqmal Irsyad M. F.1, , Jang H. L.1,Berihun M. N.1, and Nur Asyraf M.
A.1,
5 Estimating the Radius of Investigation and Drainage Area by
Reservoir Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Fadzli Sajali, Jang Hyun Lee and Naqiuddin Mahyuddin

6 Multi-Objective Optimal Power Flow Considering Wind Power Cost


and Emission by Stochastic Weight Trade-off Chaotic Mutation
Based NSPSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Anongpun Man-Im, Weerakorn Ongsakul, and J.G. Singh

7 Derivative Disproportion Functions for Pattern Recognition . . . . . . . 95


Viacheslav V. Kalashnikov, Viktor V. Avramenko, and Nataliya I.
Kalashnykova

vii
viii Contents

8 Two-level Simple Recourse Programming Problems with Two Kinds


of LR Fuzzy Random Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Hitoshi Yano

Part II Modeling

9 Seismic Waves Attributes in Determination of Mechanical and


Petrophysical Properties of Sandstone Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Ghareb M. HAMADA and Veronique JOSEPH
10 Fracture Conductivity Effect in DFN Modelling Using Carbonate
Outcrop Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Faisal Awad Aljuboori, Jang Hyun Lee, Khaled A. Elraies, Karl D.
Stephen, and Faraj Alsulaiman
11 The application of elastic wave properties and artificial neural
network for the prediction of petrophysical properties in reservoir
modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Teresa Ratnam, Deva Ghosh and Berihun Negash
12 Reconstruction of Flow Rate History Using Linear Regression . . . . . 149
Chee Him Poon, Berihun Mamo Negash, and Pandian M Vasant
13 The Impact of Contact Area and Fracture Surface Roughness on
Fluid Flow in Fractured Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Faisal Awad Aljuboori, Jang Hyun Lee, Khaled A. Elraies, and Karl D.
Stephen
14 Effect of Organic Carbon Content and Mineralogy on Methane
Adsorption & Desorption on Shales: Case Study, Two Shales from
Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Ahmed Mohammed Al-Mutarreb, Shiferaw Regassa Jufar, Hesham
Abdulelah,and Syed M. Mahmood

15 A Strategy of Optimization for Real Time Gas Kick Detection for


Offshore Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Dapeng Zhang

16 Numerical Prediction of Surge/Swab Pressure and Flow Profile in


Concentric and Eccentric Annuli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
T. N. Ofei and H. Husni
17 An integrated approach to locate fracture barriers and sweet-spots
for Hydraulic fracturing in Shale Gas reservoirs: Case study of
Roseneath and Murteree Formations, Cooper Basin, Australia. . . . . . 223
Omer Iqbal, Maqsood Ahmad, and Askury Abd Kadir
Contents ix

18 Fracture Characterization and Modelling of Shale Formations in


Miri, Sarawak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Wan Nur Athirah W ABD MUHAIMI, and Wan Ismail WAN YUSOFF

19 New Representations for Potential Failure Modes and Corrective


Actions in Failure Modes and Effects Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
Seng Kai Ngian and Kai Meng Tay
20 Comparative Study of Resistivity Models and Waxman Smits Model
in Cooper Basin South Australia-murteree Shale: Case Study . . . . . . 269
Waqas Ahmed, Maqsood Ahmad, and Gharib Hamada

21 Review of Early Kick Detection Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293


Mohd Haiqal Hashim, Moacyr Bartholomeu Laruccia, Belladonna
Maulinda, and Pandian M Vasant

22 Characterization of the dynamic IFT of Surfactant-in-


Brine/n-Heptane/Shale Systems; An Enhanced Oil Recovery
Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Mohammed A. Ayoub, Mysara Eissa Mohyeldinn, Nasreldin Abbas
Babiker, and Berihun Mamo Negash
23 Modelling of Fracturing Half-length and Spacing in Shale Gas
Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Mohammed A. Ayoub, Mohamed A. Ibrahim, Berihun Mamo Negash,
and Mysara Eissa Mohyeldinn

Part III Simulation

24 Growing Application of Artificial Intelligence in Optimising


Productivity and Efficiency in Oil and Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Deva Ghosh, Afiqah Zahraa Ahmad Zailani, and Chow Weng Sum
25 Simulation Study on Synergetic Effect of Low Saline Water and
Polymer Flooding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Berihun Mamo Negash, and Cheang Hoi Him

26 Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Air-Water Flow in a


Horizontal Bend Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
T. N. Ofei, P. Antony and H. K. Mahmud

27 Comparative Study of Shale Oil and Shale Gas Reservoirs Via


CMG-Black Oil Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393
Mostafa Ghasemi, Saleem, Muhammad Taufik Alhakim, and Afaque
Ahmed
x Contents

28 Pressure Transient Behavior of Horizontal Gas In-jection Well in


Low Permeable Reservoirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Teo Kai Wen, and Azeb Demisi Habte

29 Investigation of Thermal EOR via Cyclic Steam Injection in


Fractured Shale Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Ahmad Haziq Azmi, Juhairi Aris Muhamad Shuhli, and Muhammad
Luqman Hasan

30 Shale Gas Potential of the Blue Nile Formation in the Blue Nile
Bassin, Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Monera Adam Shoieb, Chow Weng Sum, Mohd Suhaili Ismail, and
Haylay Tsegab Gebretsadik

31 Simulation of Gas Kick and Well Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453


Ren Yi YAP, and Moacyr Bartholomeu LARUCCIA
32 Lab scale synthesis of shale Core Samples for the development of
Shale Gas Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467
Asif Zamir, Numair Ahmed Siddiqui, W Hasnul Rahman Bin W Mohd
Fauzi, and Hanor Natasha,
Chapter 1
Digitalization in the Oil and Gas Industray

E. Padmanabhan, Thivyaadarshini, J., and Ranjith, PG

Abstract .The oil and gas industry has a wealth of information accumulated over
an ex-tensive period of time. This huge information is now known as big data
and needs to be managed effectively in order that the industry remain sustainable.
Digital transformation provides many benefits including enhancing connectivi-ty
and even optimization of processes within the system. In the current situa-tion,
digitalization in the oil and gas industry would enable a faster solution provider
and at the same time provide value to the stakeholders. Challenges that have been
identified include the possibility of the benefits of digitalization not reaching those
who really need it and the increase in risk of compromising data privacy and security.
Several recommendations can be identified that will benefit the industry and society.
However, the successful implementation of digital transformation in the oil and gas
industry requires a strong collaboration between the industry, decision-makers and
the society..

Key words: Digitalization, digital transformation, oil and gas indus-try, decision
making.

E. Padmanabhanr
Institute of Hydrocarbon Recovery, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak,
Malaysia., e-mail: eswaran_padmanabhan@utp.edu.my
Thivyaadarshinir
Institute of Hydrocarbon Recovery, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak,
Malaysia.
Ranjith, PG
Room 140, 23 College Walk (B60), Department of Civil Engineering, Clayton Campus, Monash
University, Melbourne, Australia

1
Part I
Optimization
Chapter 2
How to Best Apply Neural Networks in
Geosciences: Towards Optimal Averaging in
Dropout Training

Afshin GHOLAMY, Justin PARRA, Vladik KREINOVICH, Olac FUENTES, and


Elizabeth ANTHONY

Abstract .The main objectives of geosciences is to find the current state of the
Earth i.e., solve the corresponding inverse problems and to use this knowledge
for predicting the future events, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In
both inverse and prediction problems, often, machine learning techniques are very
efficient, and at present, the most efficient machine learning technique is deep neural
training. To speed up this training, the current learning algorithms use dropout
techniques: they train several sub-networks on different portions of data, and then
average the results. A natural idea is to use arithmetic mean for this averaging,
but empirically, geometric mean works much better. In this paper, we provide a
theoretical explanation for the empirical efficiency of selecting geometric mean as
the averaging in dropout training.

Key words: geosciences, deep learning, dropout training, averaging, geometric


mean, optimization.

Afshin Gholamy and Elizabeth Anthony


Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, USA,
e-mail: afshingholamy@gmail.com, eanthony@utep.edu
Justin Parra, Vladik Kreinovich, Olac Fuentes
Department of Computer Science, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, USA,
e-mail: jrparra@miners.utep.edu, vladik@utep.edu, ofuentes@utep.edu

15
Chapter 3
A Coevolutionary Neural Network for Detecting
Chemical Gas Sensor Drift

Bee Yan Hiew, Shing Chiang Tan, and Junzo Watada

Abstract Sensor drift is a phenomenon which indicates unexpected variations in the


sensory signal responses beneath the same working conditions. In this paper, a com-
petitive co-evolutionary (ComCoE) Multilayer Perceptron artificial neural network
(MLPN) is applied to detect chemical gas sensor drift. The efficiency of the ComCoE
MLPN in detecting chemical gas sensor drift is evaluated as well as compared with
the performance of other classification methods from the literature. The proposed
ComCoE MLPN has shown promising preliminary results in this application.

Key words: Coevolutionary, Sensor Drift, Multilayer Perceptron Neural Net-work

Bee Yan Hiew, and Shing Chiang Tan


Faculty of Information Science & Technology, Multimedia University, Malaysia e-mail: vivian-
hby@yahoo.com; sctan@mmu.edu.my
Junzo Watada
Department of Computer & Information Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia
e-mail: junzo.watada@gmail.com

27
Chapter 4
Enumeration Approach in Condensate Banking
Study of Gas Condensate Reservoir

Iqmal Irsyad M. F.1, , Jang H. L.1,Berihun M. N.1, and Nur Asyraf M. A.1,

Abstract . This paper presents Enumeration Method in gas condensate reservoir


simulation to study the condensate banking complex physics phenomena. Initially,
coarse scale grid is commonly used for gas condensate reservoir simulation study.
Nevertheless, the coarse scale simulation disregards the condensate bank or it is not
able to demonstrate the precise distribution and effects. By introducing Local Grid
Refinement (LGR) in simulation model arguably brings a better representation of
the condensate bank effect near wellbore but significantly increases the run time.
This become severe especially in full field modeling with comingled production.
Therefore, enumeration initialization approach was developed to divide the simula-
tion explicitly in coarse scale simulation. During the stops, a region near wellbore
was designed where condensate bank parameters were modified based on the history
matching. Hence, the drastic change of well performance due to condensate banking
could be captured. This drastic change could not physically described in conven-
tional coarse scale simulation model, thus affect prediction accuracy. Comparison
between enumeration ways with conventional approach were then investigated. It
was found that enumeration method shows a better prediction in investigating the
behavior. This is due to its ability to predict mobility changes due to condensate
banking, consequently, improve the condensate bank characterization.

Key words: Gas condensate reservoir, Condensate, Condensate banking, Conden-


sate blockage, Skin, Pressure, Enumeration initialization

Iqmal Irsyad M. F, Jang H. L.1,Berihun M. N, and Nur Asyraf M. A.


Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar
Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia e-mail: {iqmal.irsyad_g03567; lee.janghyun, bmamo.negash;
asyraf.akhir}@utp.edu.my

39
Chapter 5
Estimating the Radius of Investigation and
Drainage Area by Reservoir Simulation

Fadzli Sajali, Jang Hyun Lee and Naqiuddin Mahyuddin

Abstract .T. The radius of investigation is still ambiguous and there is uncertainty
in radius of investigation calculation. Every changes of pressure in the reservoir will
change the radius of investigation. Thus, this variations will make the maximum
radius of investigation difficult to define. To analyze this uncertainty, the pressure
changes in a reservoir is evaluated by using the Ei-Function equation to plot the
pressure profile which is pressure versus distance of the well graph. Furthermore, the
pressure profile graph can be used to set a cut off of pressure difference at the end of
transient effect that can be defined as maximum radius of investigation. This project
required Matlab software for analytical approach and Eclipse Simulator software
for numerical approach. The numerical method are used to prove the analytical
method. The analytical method will provide the pressure profile which indicate the
pressure of reservoir reading further away from the well. Similarly, the numerical
method will generate the pressure of reservoir numerically to indicate the same as
analytical method. The homogeneous reservoir is used to analyze this ambiguity
where the manipulated variable is the flowrate and production time. The preliminary
interpretation showed that different flowrate will not affect the radius of investigation
while different production time will affect the radius of investigation.

Key words: Radius of investigation Pressure transient analysis Reservoir pressure


profile Homogeneous reservoir Drainage area Solution of diffusivity equation

Fadzli Sajali, Jang Hyun Lee and Naqiuddin Mahyuddin


Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610,
Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia e-mail: fadzlisajali@yahoo.com (F.S.);
lee.janghyun@utp.edu.my (J.H.L.); N_a_q_i@hotmail.com (N.M.)

51
Chapter 6
Multi-Objective Optimal Power Flow
Considering Wind Power Cost and Emission by
Stochastic Weight Trade-off Chaotic Mutation
Based NSPSO

Anongpun Man-Im, Weerakorn Ongsakul, and J.G. Singh

Abstract In this paper, a stochastic weight trade-off chaotic mutation based non-
dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (SWTCM_NSPSO) is proposed for
solving multi-objective optimal power flow considering generator fuel cost with
wind power cost and emission. The SWTCM_NSPSO algorithm improves the solu-
tion search capability by balancing between global best exploration and local best
utilization through the stochastic weight trade-off technique combining dynamistic
coefficients trade-off methods. The proposed algorithm cooperates with chaotic mu-
tation to enhance diversity and search capability and prevent premature convergence
problem. Non-dominated sorting and crowding distance techniques efficiently pro-
vide the optimal Pareto front. Fuzzy function is used to select the local best compro-
mise. Using a two stage approach, the global best compromise solution is selected
from many local best compromise trial solutions. Simulation results on the modi-
fied IEEE 30- test system indicate that SWTCM_NSPSO can provide a lower and
wider Pareto front than non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII), non-
dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (NSPSO), non-dominated sorting
chaotic particle swarm optimization (NS_CPSO), stochastic weight trade-off non-
dominated sorting particle swarm optimization (SWT_NSPSO) leading to saving
cost of operation fuel cost and pollutant emission and providing a better trade-off
solution.

Key words: Particle Swarm Optimization; multi-objective optimal power flow; wind
power; operation fuel cost; emission;

Anongpun Man-Im, Weerakorn Ongsakul, and J.G. Singh


Dept. of Energy, Environment and Climate Change, School of Environment, Resources and Devel-
oment, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand. e-mail: st113280@ait.ac.th;
ongsakul@ait.ac.th, jgsingh@ait.ac.th

75
Chapter 7
Derivative Disproportion Functions for Pattern
Recognition

Viacheslav V. Kalashnikov, Viktor V. Avramenko, and Nataliya I. Kalashnykova

Abstract .The aim of this chapter is twofold: (i) to develop a cryptographic system,
and (ii) to provide a pattern recognition technique to discern the form of a process
gov-erning function. Both problems (i) and (ii) are solved with the aid of derivative
disproportion functions. First, we present an algorithm for designing a cryptographic
system, in which the derivative disproportion functions (key functions) are used. The
symbols to be transmitted are encrypted by the sum of at least two of these functions
multi-plied by randomly generated coefficients. A new algorithm is proposed for
decoding the received messages making use of some important properties of the de-
rivative disproportion functions. Numerical experiments are reported to demonstrate
the algorithms reliability and robustness. Second, the same derivative disproportion
functions serve as a tool to recognize the form of a realvalued function governing
a dynamic process. This technique helps decide to which class of functions the
mapping in question belongs, independently of its (unknown) parameter values.

Key words: Pattern recognition, cryptographic systems, derivative disproportion


functions, decoding algorithms, recognition schemes.

Viacheslav V. Kalashnikov
Tecnológico de Monterrey (ITESM), Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur,
Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico 64849; e-mail: kalash@itesm.mx
Viacheslav V. Kalashnikov,
Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (CEMI), Nakhimovsky Prospekt 47, Moscow, Rus-
sian Federation 117418
Viacheslav V. Kalashnikov, Viktor V. Avramenko
Sumy State University (SumDU), Rimsky-Korsakov str. 7, Sumy, Ukraine 40007; e-mail:
avr@sumdu.edu.ua
Nataliya I. Kalashnykova
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), ave. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San
Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, Mexico 66455; e-mail: nkalash2009@gmail.com

95
Chapter 8
Two-level Simple Recourse Programming
Problems with Two Kinds of LR Fuzzy Random
Variables

Hitoshi Yano

Abstract In this paper, we focus on two-level simple recourse programming prob-


lems, in which continuous type LR fuzzy random variable coefficients and discrete
type ones are involved in equality constraints. In general, such problems cannot
be solved by applying the conventional methods, since simple recourses involving
fuzzy random variables have not been defined. To deal with such LR fuzzy random
variable coefficients, a concept of a possibility measure is introduced. Utilizing both
the two-level programming techniques and the simple recourse programming ones,
two kinds of two-level simple recourse programming problem with LR fuzzy ran-
dom variables are transformed into usual mathematical programming problems for
some fixed degrees of permissible possibility levels specified by the leader, and the
corresponding Stackelberg solution concept for the leader is introduced. A numer-
ical example illustrates the property of a Stackelberg solution for two-level simple
recourse programming problem with LR fuzzy random variables.

Key words: two-level programming; simple recourse programming; LR fuzzy ran-


dom variables; possibility measure.

Hitoshi Yano
Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya 467–8501
Japan, e-mail: yano@hum.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

105
Part II
Modeling
Chapter 9
Seismic Waves Attributes in Determination of
Mechanical and Petrophysical Properties of
Sandstone Reservoir

Ghareb M. HAMADA and Veronique JOSEPH

Abstract .In the petroleum reserve assessment, it is essential to determine the petro-
physical properties of reservoir rocks accurately where the reservoir subjected under
dif-ferent compaction conditions. The properties such as porosity and permeability
are influenced by various physical and mechanical properties which it can affects
drilling operations and reservoir management. This study is employing a simu-
lated natural and homogenous sandstone, with distinguished properties; physical
and petrophysical. The physical properties for instance grain size, cementation con-
centration and compaction pressure were also identified. Using the same simulated
sandstone core samples, sound wave velocity was quantified using the ultrasound
device. At different confining pressures which ranges between 11000 psi and 23000
psi, good relationships between sound wave velocity and physical and petrophysical
properties have been developed. Also, the sandstone cores have been categorized to
five groups according to its grain size which ranges between 45 and 300 µ m and
evaluated for different cementation concentration. The results of this study were of-
fered in graphs that consists of lithification factors, porosity and permeability against
the measured wave velocity of sound. Sonic logging data; compressional wave travel
time (∆tp) and shear travel time (∆ts) are employed to examine the reservoir fluids
types. The function of (∆tp/∆ts) or VP/VS ratio has revealed higher sensitivity to-
wards the change of reservoir fluids from water to oil and to gas. The ratio (∆tp/∆ts)
which depends on the different physical properties f reservoir fluids is used to identify
the type of reservoir fluids, oil, water and gas. Two field examples from sandstone
reser-voirs showed that sonic ratio (∆tp/∆ts) served to identify the reservoir fluids
types which are gas, oil and water. Outcomes of well testing data for studied wells
substantiated the capability of VP/VS cross-plot technique in identifying types of
reservoir fluids.

Ghareb M. HAMADA and Veronique JOSEPH


Petroleum Engineering Department, Faculty of Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering, Universiti
Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia

121
122 Ghareb M. HAMADA and Veronique JOSEPH

Key words: Sonic waves, porosity, permeability, compaction pressure, reservoir


fluids and sandstone reservoirs.
Chapter 10
Fracture Conductivity Effect in DFN Modelling
Using Carbonate Outcrop Data

Faisal Awad Aljuboori, Jang Hyun Lee, Khaled A. Elraies, Karl D. Stephen, and
Faraj Alsulaiman

Abstract Synthetic well testing is an important tool in understanding the fractures


influence on flow behaviour. Different fracture sets have been used to identify the
well per-formance and fracture network conductivity. Five models were built using
out-crop fracture data sets, and their flow performance was analysed using the well
test response to evaluate the outcrop related uncertainties. Although the statistical
properties are similar for the fracture sets, the obtained results have shown a variety
of pressure responses and significant differences re-lated to the degrees of fracture
conductivity in each fracture set. Moreover, the comparison between the fracture
properties and the pressure response results, have indicated that the higher fracture
density may not necessarily result in a higher fracture conductivity. The fracture
conductivity effect was also investigated for a producer complet-ed in a matrix block
trapped in the fractures. The results have referred that the dis-tance to the fracture and
the fracture conductivity have a considerable influence on the dual porosity signature,
which may mask the radial flow response of the matrix in the derivative plot when
the fractures are very close. The obtained results are very useful to understand the
outcrop related uncer-tainties before applying the outcrop statistics into the full field
fracture modelling and to adjusted the fracture conductivity at the well location to
obtain history matching. The results may also help in well test interpretations when
similar pattern of pressure response obtained from the test data.

Key words: Fracture Conductivity; DFN Modelling; Outcrop Modelling; Geo-


logical Well Testing; Dual Porosity; Outcrop Statistics.

Faisal Awad Aljuboori, Jang Hyun Lee, Khaled A. Elraies,


Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
Faisal Awad Aljuboori, Faraj Alsulaiman
North Oil Company, Iraqi Ministry of Oil, Kirkuk, Iraq e-mail: , faisal.aljuboori@yahoo.com
Karl D. Stephen
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, United Kingdom

123
Chapter 11
The application of elastic wave properties and
artificial neural network for the prediction of
petrophysical properties in reservoir modeling

Teresa Ratnam, Deva Ghosh and Berihun Negash

Abstract .Conventional reservoir modeling employs geostatistical tools such as var-


iograms to predict the spatial distribution of petrophysical properties. This method
of propagation most often does not conform to geology. This study aims to improve
property distribution by incorporating elastic wave properties. In this study, elastic
wave properties obtained from seismic inversion are used as input for an artificial
neural network to predict neutron porosity in between well locations. The method
employed in this study is supervised learning based on available well logs. This
method converts every seismic trace into a pseudo-well log, hence reducing the un-
certainty between well locations. By incorporating the seismic response, the reliance
on geostatistical methods for the distribution of petrophysical properties is reduced
drastically. The results of the artificial neural network show good correlation with
the neutron porosity log which gives confidence for spatial prediction in areas where
well logs are not available..

Key words: No key word is indicated

Teresa Ratnam, Deva Ghosh and Berihun Negash


Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

137
Chapter 12
Reconstruction of Flow Rate History Using
Linear Regression

Chee Him Poon, Berihun Mamo Negash, and Pandian M Vasant

Abstract .Long-term pressure and flow rate history are important for reservoir
characteriza-tion and reservoir management. However, a complete set of these data
are often not available due to numerous technical difficulties. Currently, datasets
with miss-ing information are omitted and not considered for further analysis. In
this study, we use machine learning algorithm via linear regression for flow rate
history re-construction. Only few studies have demonstrated the application of lin-
ear re-gression for well testing purposes. However, pressure and flow rate data in
a producing field are comparatively longer and more complex. A combination of
feature extraction and linear regression was applied for long term flow rate histo-ry
reconstruction. The dataset used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method
was obtained from a real producing field. This study indicated the high performance
of linear regression at estimating missing flow rate history using available pres-
sure readings in the dataset. Despite advantageous at high interpret-ability and fast
computation time, flow rate history reconstruction using linear re-gression under-
performed in the case where the degree of variation of flow rate and pressure data is
high.

Key words: Flow rate history reconstruction ů Reservoir management ů Linear


re-gression ů Machine learning ů Statistical learning

Chee Him Poon, Berihun Mamo Negash


Institute of Hydrocarbon Recovery and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi
PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Malaysia. e-mail: bmamo.negash@utp.edu.my
Pandian M Vasant
Institute of Hydrocarbon Recovery, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar,
Malaysia

149
Chapter 13
The Impact of Contact Area and Fracture
Surface Roughness on Fluid Flow in Fractured
Reservoirs

Faisal Awad Aljuboori, Jang Hyun Lee, Khaled A. Elraies, and Karl D. Stephen

Abstract .The estimation of effective fracture permeability depends mainly on the


geometry of the void space between the fracture surfaces. Sometimes, these void
spaces are closed partially or totally for various reasons, which create a contact area
between the fracture surfaces. These contact areas cause the fluid to follow a tortuous
path around them, which reduces the permeability magnitude significantly. In this
study, a digitised fracture network of Kef Eddour formation has used to investigate
the impact of contact areas and variable aperture width on the effective fracture
permeability by using a discrete fracture networks approach. Moreover, a statistical
analysis of the fracture width was used to build a stochastic aperture distribution
to test fluid flow behaviour. Where, the aperture histogram properties are the only
required parameters for aperture modelling, in addition to some advantages in the
current workflow compared to the previous approaches. The results represented by a
correction curve plotted from the 3D simulation results, which enable us to estimate
the reduction factor in fracture permeability by considering the impact of contact
areas in the fractures, to improve the matching process for a well or field behaviour.

Key words: Fracture Permeability, DFN Modelling, Fracture Surface Rough-ness,


Fracture Aperture, Fracture Contact Area.

Faisal Awad Aljuboori, Jang Hyun Lee, Khaled A. Elraies


Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia e-mail:
faisal.aljuboori@yahoo.com
Faisal Awad Aljuboori
North Oil Company, Iraqi Ministry of Oil, Kirkuk, Iraq
Karl D. Stephen
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, United Kingdom

159
Chapter 14
Effect of Organic Carbon Content and
Mineralogy on Methane Adsorption &
Desorption on Shales: Case Study, Two Shales
from Malaysia

Ahmed Mohammed Al-Mutarreb, Shiferaw Regassa Jufar, Hesham Abdulelah,and


Syed M. Mahmood

Abstract "
.Shale formations has recently gained a wide attention due to its huge potential to
store natural gas. It was estimated that large amount of original gas in place OGIP
is stored in adsorbed form in shales. Consequently, it is important to outline and
to investigate further major factors effecting the adsorption phenomena in shales.
In this study, we present the effects of some of the key elements influencing me-
thane adsorption on shales that are: total organic carbon content and mineralogical
composition. In parallel, we conducted some experimental measurements and mod-
elling on Malaysian’s shales as a case study to evaluate the effect of these factors on
methane adsorption behavior under methane sub-critical conditions. As shown from
Langmuir model fitting, the methane adsorption is slightly described as a monolayer
adsorption on the samples. It is also consistent that the organic matter is the core car-
rier of adsorbed natural gas on shales. However, while the organic matter content in
the samples is so significantly different (KH sample = 12.1 wt.%, and S =2.61 wt%),
the difference on methane uptakes is not as high. This is caused by the high quartz
and low clay content in KH which impact me-thane negatively the methane adsorp-
tion. Therefore, clay minerals may have significant influence on methane adsorption
capacity.
Abstract Shale formations has recently gained a wide attention due to its huge
potential to store natural gas. It was estimated that large amount of original gas in
place OGIP is stored in adsorbed form in shales. Consequently, it is important to
outline and to investigate further major factors effecting the adsorption phenomena in
shales. In this study, we present the effects of some of the key elements influencing
me-thane adsorption on shales that are: total organic carbon content and miner-
alogical composition. In parallel, we conducted some experimental measurements
and modelling on Malaysian’s shales as a case study to evaluate the effect of these

Ahmed Mohammed Al-Mutarreb, Shiferaw Regassa Jufar, Hesham Abdulelah, Syed M. Mahmood
Shale Gas Research Group (SGRG), Institute of Hydrocarbon Recovery, Petroleum Engineering
Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh 32610, Malaysia. e-mail:
shiferaw.jufar@utp.edu.my, mohammad.mahmood@utp.edu.my

187
188 Ahmed Mohammed Al-Mutarreb, et al.

factors on methane adsorption behavior under methane sub-critical conditions. As


shown from Langmuir model fitting, the methane adsorption is slightly described as
a monolayer adsorption on the samples. It is also consistent that the organic matter
is the core carrier of adsorbed natural gas on shales. However, while the organic
matter content in the samples is so significantly different (KH sample = 12.1 wt.%,
and S =2.61 wt.%), the difference on methane uptakes is not as high. This is caused
by the high quartz and low clay content in KH which impact me-thane negatively
the methane adsorption. Therefore, clay minerals may have significant influence on
methane adsorption capacity.
Chapter 15
A Strategy of Optimization for Real Time Gas
Kick Detection for Offshore Operations

Dapeng Zhang

Abstract .The early kick detection is becoming more and more important with
the growth in deepwater drilling. A variety of systems have been developed to
monitor the gas kick detectors. But the most rapid and reliable detection method is
flow rate measurement. Unfortunately, the flow rate value often become volatile as
gas reached the outlet. Some numerical models for eliminating noisy flow rate data
which include Bayesian probabilistic model and dynamic neural network model were
developed. But these numerical models are limited because of the need of learning
from past drilling events which could not be suitable for new situation. In this paper,
an accurate gas-oil based mud two phase model is established using interphase
change VOF method, the gas and oil-based mud phase transitions phenomenon is
also considered, which is expected to eliminate the flow rate data noises for EKD.
The CFD simulation method with creative gas-oil based mud two phase model is
applied for training and testing ANN (artificial neural net-works) for real time gas
kick detection purpose.

Key words: Early kick detection, Bubble point pressure, Gas-oil based mud flow,
VOF, ANN (Artificial neural networks)

Dapeng Zhang
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia emailpetrod-
pzhang@gmail.com

203
Chapter 16
Numerical Prediction of Surge/Swab Pressure
and Flow Profile in Concentric and Eccentric
Annuli

T. N. Ofei and H. Husni

Abstract .Accounting for the factors contributing to wellbore pressure is benefi-


cial to ensuring the stability of the wellbore. In this study, a computational fluid
dynamic (CFD) method was used to examine the effect of different fluid types and
pipe tripping velocity on surge/swab pressure and flow profiles in both concentric
and eccentric annular geometries. The model geometries were designed with AN-
SYS Workbench and meshed with tetrahedral elements for concentric annulus and
hexahedron elements for eccentric annulus. Mesh independent study was performed
to compute an optimum mesh size and reduce the computational time needed to run
the simulations. ANSYS CFX solver 15.0 was used to calculate the governing equa-
tions. The model was validated against experimental surge pressure loss gradient
data from literature using two different polymeric drilling fluids consisting of 1.00
wt.% and 0.75 wt.% polyanionic cellulose (PAC) concentration. Mean percentage
errors (MPE) of 3.2% and 16.1% for 1.00 wt.% PAC and 0.75 wt.% PAC fluids
respectively existed between the experimental data and simulated data for concen-
tric annulus, thus, confirming the validity of the model setup. Furthermore, it was
observed that as the pipe tripping velocity increased, more fluid near the inner pipe
boundary was dragged in a downward motion. It was also shown that when the pipe
tripping velocity increased, the yielded plug flow region decreased. The central part
of the annular flow profile yielded high fluid viscosity whereas a low viscosity was
observed near the vicinity of the inner and outer pipe walls. The study showed how
a CFD method can replicate the actual drilling operation especially in surge/swab
pressure and flow profile predictions.

Key words: Surge/swab pressure, annular flow profile, numerical simulation, power
law fluid.

T. N. Ofei
Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar,
32610, Perak Malaysia e-mail: titus.ofei@utp.edu.my; titusofei@hotmail.com
H. Husni
Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh

213
Chapter 17
An integrated approach to locate fracture
barriers and sweet-spots for Hydraulic
fracturing in Shale Gas reservoirs: Case study of
Roseneath and Murteree Formations, Cooper
Basin, Australia.

Omer Iqbal, Maqsood Ahmad, and Askury Abd Kadir

Abstract The Permian and lacustrine Roseneath and Murteree shales are typical
potential shale gas reservoirs in Cooper Basin. The multistage hydraulic fracturing
and modelling are required to exploit these ultra-low permeable rocks. However, cur-
rently no universal method exists for selection of sweet spots for fracturing in or-der
to enhance production. Therefore, an integrated geomechanical and Petro-physical
model has been designed to locate fracture barriers and sweet-spots for hydraulic
fracturing. The wire line logs with detail core analyses were used to es-timate
brittleness index based on mineralogy and elastic parameters. The correla-tions were
developed by calibrating dynamic and static parameters, particularly for Roseneath
and Murteree Shales. Fracture barriers were located based on high magnitude of
minimum horizontal stress and low brittleness index (> 0.4), whereas, layers with
less magnitude of minimum horizontal stress and high brit-tleness index (< 0.4) were
found as potential layer/sweet-spot for hydraulic frac-turing. Furthermore, there is
an increasing trend of Brittleness index were ob-served with an increase in quartz
and siderite contents. There is no direct relation-ship exists between brittleness index
and strength/failure parameter and pore pressure, which implies that a brittle rock
may/may not have high strength and pore pressure. Whereas, there is a significant
decrease in TOC, porosity and frac-turing/treating pressures were observed with an
increase in brittleness index. Based on essential Petrophysical and geomechanical
parameters, the design of hydraulic fracturing has been recommended for Roseneath
shale reservoir. The Roseneath shale fall in the region of less brittle-brittle in nature
where the initia-tion and propagation of induced fractures will be more efficient
compared to less ductile and ductile layers.

Omer Iqbal, Maqsood Ahmad,


Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia e-mail:
Omer.iqbal_g03384@utp.edu.my, omeriqbal006@gmail.com
Abd Kadir
Department of Petroleum Geoscience, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), Malaysia

223
224 Omer Iqbal, Maqsood Ahmad, and Askury Abd Kadir

Key words: Petrophysical and Mineral model, 1-D MEM, Shale Gas Reservoirs,
Hydraulic Fracturing, Brittleness Index.
Chapter 18
Fracture Characterization and Modelling of
Shale Formations in Miri, Sarawak

Wan Nur Athirah W ABD MUHAIMI, and Wan Ismail WAN YUSOFF

Abstract Studies on fractured reservoir is becoming vital especially in shale for-


mation due to the emerging of production for shale oil and gas globally, besides
awareness of disasters due to incorrect estimation of subsurface overpressure and
fracture pressure. Understanding the formation of fracture in relation to the structural
evolution and its behavior in various lithofacies is important. Another major factor
controlling the fracture development beside lithology and mineral composition, is
abnormal pressure. Therefore, a study on fracture characterization and modelling
of shale formations is still ongoing to characterize shale by evaluating lithofacies
and fracture characteristics. In addition, analysis of subsurface rock properties to
determine the fracture gradient in shales of gas wells and fracture models of selected
shale formations are in progress. In these research, the study of fractures will be
determined both by onshore and offshore data. In the onshore scale, the natural frac-
ture will be evaluated, taking into account the natural fractures network data includes
contribution of mineral composition and lithofacies in Miri region. While, offshore
data will be analyzed through well log data and initial relationships of Eatons method
in estimating fracture pressure along the wellbore. Outcrop studies was conducted
around Miri vicinity mainly at Beluru and Long Lama route. Lithofacies identifica-
tion was determined through X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)
and total organic carbon (TOC). Eminently, based on the XRD and XRF analysis,
there are two types of shale identified; where the shale with high quartz percentage
is classified as siliceous black shale and located nearby Long Lama whereas those
with prominent calcite percentage is categorized as calcareous grey shale, which are
found in the Beluru. In general, the type of shales around study area is referred as
grey shale with good level of fracture development. The range of TOC percentages
of the samples are from 2.03 to 2.28. Therefore, the result obtained from integration
of well log analysis and fracture gradient prediction can be compared with natural
fracture model in West Baram Delta.

Wan Nur Athirah W ABD MUHAIMI, and Wan Ismail WAN YUSOFF
Department of Geosciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia

245
246 Wan Nur Athirah W ABD MUHAIMI, and Wan Ismail WAN YUSOFF

Key words: shale, black shale, grey shale, fracture gradient, fracture model
Chapter 19
New Representations for Potential Failure Modes
and Corrective Actions in Failure Modes and
Effects Analysis

Seng Kai Ngian and Kai Meng Tay

Abstract Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a popular reliability tool in
petroleum engineering. In FMEA, potential failure modes or corrective actions are
evaluated, each assigned a Risk Priority Number (RPN) score, and prioritized for
decision making. FMEA is also known as Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality
Analysis (FMECA), while focuses on failure modes prioritization. Despite of the
popularity of FMEA and FMECA, it is not clear, how potential failure modes
and corrective actions could be represented systematically, for effective decision
making. In this paper, two new representations (i.e., a tree representation and a vector
representation), for potential failure modes and corrective actions, are proposed. The
tree representation for a potential failure mode allows its root cause(s), effect(s) and
corrective action(s), together with their severity, occurrence and detection rating(s),
to be represented as a three-layer tree model. The tree representation for a corrective
action with similar contents is outlined too. The RPN model, together with its
score, is represented as a node of the tree model. These tree models can also be
represented as their associated equivalence layered-vector representations. In this
paper, the usefulness of the proposed approaches is illustrated with benchmark
FMEA worksheets pertaining to petroleum engineering.

Key words: Corrective actions, FMEA, FMECA, Layered-vector representation,


Potential failure modes, Risk Priority Number, Tree models.

Seng Kai Ngian


Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, 94300 Sarawak, Malaysia
Kai Meng Tay
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, 94300 Sarawak, Malaysia
e-mail: kmtay@unimas.my, tkaimeng@yahoo.com

259
Chapter 20
Comparative Study of Resistivity Models and
Waxman Smits Model in Cooper Basin South
Australia-murteree Shale: Case Study

Waqas Ahmed, Maqsood Ahmad, and Gharib Hamada

Abstract Murteree organic shale are one of most rich unconventional gas reservoirs
in Cooper Basin, South Australia. In shale gas reservoirs, estimation of water satura-
tion and porosity are very erroneous when calculated from the well logs. In Roseneath
and Murteree shales of Copper Basin in South Australia, we investigated their flu-
ids contents using Archie model, Simandoux, Indonesian and Dual water model.
Later, brine estimation from Waxman-Smits was correlated with Archie, Simandox,
Indonesian and Dual water model results. Due to presence of high amount of clay
minerals, conductivity and clay bound water are very high, the changes in salinity
level of the brine due to post depositional features, followed by physical and chemical
changes effect the determination of water saturation consequently. High clay volume
in shale gas reservoirs cause over estimation of water saturation when determined by
Archie and other resistivity models. Waxman’s-Smiths equation gives more reliable
results because it accounts the cation exchange capacity and conductance of clay
minerals present in the formation. Also it is noticed that as the clay mineralogy
percentage, clay bound water also increases with same pattern respectively. In this
paper, description of Waxman’s-smith equation in determination of water saturation
has been presented and also relation between clay minerals and clay bound water
has been discussed. Form our analysis, it has been estimated that, Waxman’s-Smit
conductivity model gives estimation of water more reliable as compare to resis-
tivity models like Archie, Simandoux and Indonesian in unconventional shale gas
reservoir. Hydrocarbon potential are present with respect to water saturation and
resistivity logs.

Key words: Murteree shale, Petro physical properties, Water Saturation, Conduc-
tivity method, Resistivity methods.

Waqas Ahmed, Maqsood Ahmad, Gharib Hamada


Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Malaysia. e-mail:
waqaskhan1170@gmail.com

269
Chapter 21
Review of Early Kick Detection Methods

Mohd Haiqal Hashim, Moacyr Bartholomeu Laruccia, Belladonna Maulinda, and


Pandian M Vasant

Abstract The goal of this review is to provide a better understanding of theoret-ical


and practical aspects of EKD. EKD is the ability to detect the kick while it is still in
the initial stage and its accuracy must less than 25 gal/min or 5 bbl of losses/gains to
ensure the early kick detection. The traditional EKD method is mud pit monitoring
to detect the kick which require a considerable amount of influx observe the change
in pit level. New EKD methods such as delta flow, gas monitoring in the annulus and
down-hole pressure monitoring are intro-duced to compensate the low of traditional
EKD method. Some literature use Artificial Neural Network to solve data noise
due to sensitivity of new EKD methods to detect small changes in return mud flow
associated with the stand-ard drilling operation...

Key words: Drilling, parameters, probabilistic, blow out, mud circulation, and flow
out..

Mohd Haiqal Hashim, Moacyr Bartholomeu Laruccia, Belladonna Maulinda


Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia
Pandian M Vasant
Institutes of Hydrocarbon Recovery, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak, Malaysia e-mail:
{mohd_0009103, moacyr.bartholomeu, belladona.wahyudi, pandian_m}@utp.edu.my

293
Chapter 22
Characterization of the dynamic IFT of
Surfactant-in-Brine/n-Heptane/Shale Systems;
An Enhanced Oil Recovery Perspective

Mohammed A. Ayoub, Mysara Eissa Mohyeldinn, Nasreldin Abbas Babiker, and


Berihun Mamo Negash

Abstract The main goal of using surfactants as a fracture agent in tight shale gas
reservoirs is to minimize the capillarity and interfacial tension and to modify the
contact angle and reservoir wettability. Most of the recent studies conducted similar
experiments at ambient conditions. However, one of the limitations of different
previously laboratory studies is the lack of measurements with gas as they were done
using air or crude oil. The major component in shale gas is methane plus some lighter
hydrocarbon. In this chapter we will investigate the surfactant solution behavior with
some light hydrocarbons such as n-Heptane to better mimic reservoir hydrocarbon
behavior. All necessary laboratory experiments had been conducted plus phase
behavior for the selected surfactants. Anionic surfactants gave excellent aqueous
stability results however; the impact of the salinity was observed carefully. It has
been found that foamability and foam stability rein-forced as surfactant concentration
increases but decreases as salinity increases. An optimized formulation was achieved
that resulted in type III micro-emulsion.

Key words: Dynamic IFT, Surfactant-in-Brine, n-Heptane, Shale Systems, Oil Re-
covery, wettability

Mohammed A. Ayoub, Mysara Eissa Mohyeldinn1, Nasreldin Abbas Babiker1, and Berihun Mamo
Negash1,
Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32160
Perak, Malaysia, e-mail: abdalla.ayoub@utp.edu.my

305
Chapter 23
Modelling of Fracturing Half-length and
Spacing in Shale Gas Reservoirs

Mohammed A. Ayoub, Mohamed A. Ibrahim, Berihun Mamo Negash, and Mysara


Eissa Mohyeldinn

Abstract Shale gas reserv oirs are proven to be of increasing importance day after
another supported by the increase in the energy demand and the drop in the reserves
of conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. This chapter is intended to investigate the
effect of the fracture half-length and spacing in shale gas reservoir that are expressed
in production rates and pressure drop rates. The study focuses to understand the
factors that affect the flow behaviour in the shale gas reservoir such as Knudsen,
Klinkenberg effects and non-Darcy flow nonetheless the dual porosity due to frac-
tured system. By analysing different proposed mathematical models for shale gas
reservoir modelling, the most suitable mathematical model has been selected. Sim-
ilarly, suitable parameters for the reservoir system, simulation model are created to
investigate and model the suitable half-length and spacing for the shale gas reservoir.
The chapter aims to analyse the impact of matrix permeability and natural fracture
network permeability on the design of the fracture parameters. It has been found
that the design of the fracture spacing and fracture half-length is heavily dependent
on the reservoir parameters whereas the fracture spacing is sensitive to the natural
fracture permeability as well as the matrix permeability, while fracture half-length
is insignificantly dependent on the matrix permeability.

Key words: Shale gas reservoir, Unconventional, Simulation, Hydraulic fracturing,


and Fracking.

Mohammed A. Ayoub, Mohamed A. Ibrahim, Berihun Mamo Negash, and Mysara Eissa Mo-
hyeldinn
Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32160
Perak, Malaysia e-mail: abdalla.ayoub@utp.edu.my

325
Part III
Simulation
Chapter 24
Growing Application of Artificial Intelligence in
Optimising Productivity and Efficiency in Oil
and Gas

Deva Ghosh, Afiqah Zahraa Ahmad Zailani, and Chow Weng Sum

Abstract Machine learning through artificial intelligence have been successfully


applied in solving variety of problems in several disciplines. In the energy sector, oil
and gas industry there is potential and opportunities attract maximum investment.
The benefits are: Reduction of operational costs Improvement in Efficiency Reduc-
tion of cycle time span, Replacing knowledge and know how of experienced staff
Filling in Information Gap in Company A.I. Technology has tremendous potential
in streamlining many processes in oil and gas both upstream and downstream. The
key benefit would be optimization and efficiency in scheduling, maintenance and
product delivery. A.I. is also making inroads in Refinery Operations in cor-rosion
detection and mitigation.

Key words: Artificial intelligence, optimising, productivity, efficiency, oil, gas, ma-
chine learning, reduction of operational costs, cycle time span, information gap,
upstream, downstream..

Deva Ghosh, Afiqah Zahraa Ahmad Zailani, Chow Weng Sum


Geoscience Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia
e-mail: drdeva@utp.edu.my, afiqahzahraa@gmail.com, chow_wengsum@petronas.com.my

343
Chapter 25
Simulation Study on Synergetic Effect of Low
Saline Water and Polymer Flooding

Berihun Mamo Negash, and Cheang Hoi Him

Abstract .Low saline water and polymer injections are well established as effective
enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. However, the synergetic effect of combin-
ing the two methods is not fully studied and implemented yet. In this research, three
case studies are carried out by reservoir simulation to compare the incremental oil re-
covery during low saline water flooding, polymer flooding and combined low saline
and polymer flooding. The first two case studies employ different well patterns of the
same reservoir model. Reconfiguring the placement of injector(s) and producer wells
enabled to achieve this. In the first case, only one injector and one producer wells are
located in the two far corners of the model. In the second case, four injectors and one
producer wells are arranged in a 5-spot pattern. The numerical simulation results
show that low salinity and high polymer concentration flooding has the highest oil
recovery. It is also observed that the 5-spot well pattern has higher aerial sweep
efficiency, with incremental recovery up to 67.3%. The third case study involves
a heterogeneous reservoir model which is simulated using stochastically generated
permeability. In all the cases, the incremental oil recovery observed during com-
bined low salinity and polymer flooding is significantly higher than the incremental
oil recoveries observed when the two are injected independently. The improved oil
recovery is attributed to the synergy of the wettability alterations and better sweep
efficiency of low salinity water flooding and polymer flooding, respectively.

Key words: Low saline water injection; Polymer flooding; Reservoir simulation;
Synergetic effect; Enhanced oil recovery

Berihun Mamo Negash, Cheang Hoi Him


Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,32610 Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ri-dzuan, Malaysia e-mail:
bmamo.negash@utp.edu.my

363
Chapter 26
Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Air-Water
Flow in a Horizontal Bend Pipe

T. N. Ofei, P. Antony and H. K. Mahmud

Abstract .. Multiphase flow is commonly encountered in the oil and gas industry as
they are mostly transported through pipelines. Several flow patterns such as bubble
flow, plug flow, slug flow, stratified flow or annular flow are often observed and are
characterized by factors such as pipe diameter, flow velocity, pipe orientation and
shape. Slug flow has always been a cause of concern for the operating companies,
as they can cause momentous oscillations in pressure and can also create uneven
gas and liquid flows, which cause improper functioning of the processing facilities.
In this study, the computational fluid dynamics model, volume of fluid (VOF), was
employed to simulate the flow patterns of a transient two-phase air-water flow through
a horizontal bend pipe. A single set of momentum equations were solved and the
volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain was tracked. The VOF
model is assumed that the two-phase fluid flowing is immiscible, however, they can
intersperse on a scale defined by the volumetric size of the computational mesh,
within the computational domain. The model was validated using the Baker flow
pattern map for both slug and plug flows. The slug and plug flow velocity conditions
were imposed on the inlet boundary of the horizontal bend geometry. The observed
results showed that for a slug flow condition, the slug flow pattern increased in
length at time of 1.4s, 2.4, and 3.8s. Nonetheless, at 5.6s, the flow pattern in the
entire horizontal bend pipe had trans-formed into a stratified flow. Similarly, for a
plug flow condition, the flow initially exhibited plug flow pattern at time 1.8s, 3.2s,
and 5.5s. The flow pattern however remained stratified at 10s. The study has revealed
that horizontal bend pipes can eliminate uneven flow thereby lowering the pressure
in the flowlines during the transportation of oil and gas.

T. N. Ofei, P. Antony
Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar,
32610, Perak Malaysia e-mail: titus.ofei@utp.edu.my; titusofei@hotmail.com
H. K. Mahmud
Petroleum Engineering Department, Curtin University, Sarawak Malaysia, CDT 250, 98009 Miri,
Sarawak, Malaysia

381
382 T. N. Ofei, P. Antony and H. K. Mahmud

Key words: Volume of fluid model, slug flow, plug flow, two-phase gas-water flow,
oil and gas pipeline
Chapter 27
Comparative Study of Shale Oil and Shale Gas
Reservoirs Via CMG-Black Oil Simulator

Mostafa Ghasemi, Saleem, Muhammad Taufik Alhakim, and Afaque Ahmed

Abstract ..This work presents the detailed reservoir simulation studies to investigate
the comparative analysis of unconventional shale gas and shale oil simulation mod-
els. Petrophysical and geological data such as rock and fluid properties, boundary
conditions and PVT analysis was utilized as input of CMG software to simulate shale
oil and shale gas models using IMEX (black oil simulator). Results revealed that
reservoir pressure reduction was faster in the shale oil case and create shorter plateau
duration compared to shale gas. On the other hand, in shale gas, the production rate
and pressure can support the overall gas production. Hyperbolic curve was seen in
the cumulative oil production and high increment only occurred on the first year
of production. In gas cumulative production, straight line slope of cumulative gas
is observed for longer period and the increment for gas cumulative is longer than
oil cumulative. Shale gas was found to have stabilized production rat, relatively less
pressure declines and high cumulative gas and oil accumulation in initial phase as
compared to shale oil that could prove the potential of high shale gas recoveryes

Key words: Shale oil, shale gas, simulation model, CMG, black oil simulator.

Mostafa Ghasemi, Saleem, Muhammad Taufik Alhakim, and Afaque Ahmed


Petroleum Engineering Department, UniveritiTeknologi PETRONAS,Bandar Seri Iskander, 32610,
Perak, Malaysia e-mail: mostafa.baboli@utp.edu.my; mostafghasemi@gmail.com (M. Ghasemi)

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Chapter 28
Pressure Transient Behavior of Horizontal Gas
In-jection Well in Low Permeable Reservoirs

Teo Kai Wen, and Azeb Demisi Habte

Abstract ..This work addresses the pressure transient behavior of horizontal gas
injection well in low permeable reservoirs. Low permeable reservoirs such as shale
oil reservoirs have been receiving great attentions lately which normally require
hydraulic fracturing and horizontal well development to maximize the oil production.
However, the primary recovery factor of shale oil reservoirs is still low and has been
estimated to be below 10-15% due to tight nature of the shale formations. Enhanced
oil recovery method such as miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) injection is said to be one
of the most efficient and effective methods used to increase the oil recovery factor of a
low permeable shale oil reservoir. The objective of this paper is to study the pressure
transient behavior of the horizontal gas injection well in low permeable shale oil
reservoirs using numerical simulator, CMG-GEM. Flow regimes and its significant
reservoir parameters are investigated from the log-log plot of pressure-derivatives.
It is found that a unit-slope line is developed on pressure-derivative log-log plot at
early time due to the gas compressibility effect, followed by early radial flow and
early linear flow regimes. The effect of various parameters such as gas injection rate,
duration of gas injection, well location and well perforation length are studied and
analyzed on the changes of pressure transient characteristics. It is identified that gas
injection rate affects the pressure-derivative response significantly at middle time
due to gas mobility and viscosity; whereas well location and well perforation length
affect the late time pressure-derivative response which relate to dominant boundary
effect; however, duration of gas injection is not able to show or prove any impacts
on the pressure-derivative behavior due to numerical instability issue. Reservoir
characteristics such as average permeability and skin can be identified from the flow
regimes equations similar to the horizontal production well.

Key words: Pressure Transient Analysis; Low Permeable Reservoir; Horizontal Gas
Injection Well; CO2 Injection

Teo Kai Wen and Azeb Demisi Habte


Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar,
Perak, Malaysia e-mail: azeb.habte@utp.edu.my

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Chapter 29
Investigation of Thermal EOR via Cyclic Steam
Injection in Fractured Shale Formation

Ahmad Haziq Azmi, Juhairi Aris Muhamad Shuhli, and Muhammad Luqman
Hasan

Abstract .The oil and gas industry has a wealth of information accumulated over
an ex-tensive period of time. This huge information is now known as big data
and needs to be managed effectively in order that the industry remain sustainable.
Digital transformation provides many benefits including enhancing connectivi-ty
and even optimization of processes within the system. In the current situa-tion,
digitalization in the oil and gas industry would enable a faster solution provider
and at the same time provide value to the stakeholders. Challenges that have been
identified include the possibility of the benefits of digitalization not reaching those
who really need it and the increase in risk of compromising data privacy and security.
Several recommendations can be identified that will benefit the industry and society.
However, the successful implementation of digital transformation in the oil and gas
industry requires a strong collaboration between the industry, decision-makers and
the society..

Key words: Digitalization, digital transformation, oil and gas indus-try, decision
making.

Ahmad Haziq Azmi, Juhairi Aris Muhamad Shuhli, and Muhammad Luqman Hasan
Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610, Seri Iskandar,
Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia e-mail: haziqazmi94@gmail.com; juhairi.shuhli@utp.edu.my; luq-
man.hasan@utp.edu.my

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Chapter 30
Shale Gas Potential of the Blue Nile Formation
in the Blue Nile Bassin, Sudan

Monera Adam Shoieb, Chow Weng Sum, Mohd Suhaili Ismail, and Haylay Tsegab
Gebretsadik

Abstract .The heterogeneity and complexity of shale gas have become clear as
the development of unconventional resources has improved. The Blue Nile Basin,
located in South-East Sudan, 300 Km south east of Khartoum, and it is one of the
many Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan, associated with the Central African Rift System
(CARS). It has been the major focus for shale gas exploration due to the hydrocarbon
found in the basin. But so far no successful of discovery has been achieved because
the shale gas potential in the study area is still unknown. The objective of this study
is to evaluate the shale gas potential of the Blue Nile Formation within the Blue
Nile Basin, focused on mineralogical and organic geochemical assessments. Twenty
samples of shale cuttings from Farasha-1 and Tawakul-1 wells of the Blue Nile
Formation have been used to assess the minerals and the quantity of organic matter
present in the shale formation. Results of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) indicate that the
cutting samples present in the shale formation mainly comprised clay minerals such
as illite and kaolinite and quartz and pyrite as non clay minerals. Other minerals found
are calcite, chlorite, goethite and smectite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed the presence of these minerals. The
high abundance of clay minerals suggest that fractures and swelling clays are more
difficult to be formed in clay-rich shales compared to carbonate-rich and silica-rich
shales. The shale samples from the Blue Nile Formation in Tawakul-1 well has
TOC values ranging from 0.4 to 2.3 wt. %, and the average is 0.95 wt. % . FR-1
well has TOC values ranging from 0.8 to 1.6wt%. This means the TOC is reflective
of fair to good source generative potential. Plotting of risking parameters in the
polar plot illustrates that the spider net is near to the minimum line boundaries,
suggesting there is potential for shale gas exploration and exploitation in the basin.
From these findings, the combination of mineralogical and organic geochemical
studies suggests that the shales possess good potential for hydrocarbon generation
and shale gas exploration in the Blue Nile Basin.

Monera Adam Shoieb, Chow Weng Sum, Mohd Suhaili Ismail, and Haylay Tsegab Gebretsadik
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Department of Geoscience, Perak Darul Ridzuan 32610 Seri
Iskandar, Tronoh- Malaysia.

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438 Authors Suppressed Due to Excessive Length

Key words: Shale gas, Mineralogy, organic geochemistry, Blue Nile Formation,
hydrocarbon generation potential.
Chapter 31
Simulation of Gas Kick and Well Control
Procedures

Ren Yi YAP, and Moacyr Bartholomeu LARUCCIA

Abstract Kick refers to uninvited influx flow from the formation into the wellbore
during drilling operation. Undesired event such as non-productive time (NPT) and
blowout may occur if the engineers ignore the positive indications of kick. The well
should be shut-in immediately and well control procedures should take place after
the kick is detected. In this study, a base model has been created in the simulation
software, Drillbench. Besides, two types of shut-in methods have been evaluated
and studied to investigate the relationship of different shut-in methods affecting the
volume of pit gain using the software. Both shut-in methods have been simulated in
the case with water-based mud and oil-based mud. The results of the studies with
the quantitative difference in term of the volume of pit gain between two methods is
included in this paper.

Key words: Simulation; kick; well control; shut-in methods; Drillbench

Ren Yi YAP, Moacyr Bartholomeu LARUCCIA


Department of Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskander,
32610, Perak, Malaysia e-mail: renyi.yap@gmail.com

453
Chapter 32
Lab scale synthesis of shale Core Samples for the
development of Shale Gas Reservoir

Asif Zamir, Numair Ahmed Siddiqui, W Hasnul Rahman Bin W Mohd Fauzi, and
Hanor Natasha,

Abstract Reservoir natural shale samples are a well-preserved, difficult to obtain and
non-reusable samples after it had been crushed for laboratory research. Therefore,
this research project will investigate the effectiveness of compaction of synthetic
shale samples for laboratory use, for easy availability and reusability, with water
percentage as the controllability parameter to investigate the properties of shale core
sample. The synthetic shale core samples will be expected to compact physically
in the laboratory by following the process of interfusion and stuffing using primary
minerals exists in the shale formations, such as clay minerals, kerogen, carbonate,
and quartz, according to the major shale block in the world. The results from the
velocity distribution testing will indicate either the construction process was stable,
satisfactorily similar to natural shale or not depending on several identical synthetic
samples.

Key words: Synthetic shale; organic shale; ultrasonic velocity, shale gas reservoir.

Asif Zamir, Numair Ahmed Siddiqui, W Hasnul Rahman Bin W Mohd Fauzi, and Hanor Natasha
, Universiti Teknologi Petronas. Malaysia e-mail: asif.zamir@utp.edu.my; nu-
mair.siddiqui@utp.edu.my; hasnulrahman94@gmail.com

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