The principle of photovoltaic grid-connected
generation system is analyzed, and the research on PWM
control strategy is done based on the power output side of
photovoltaic grid-connected generation system. The direct
current control strategy of photovoltaic grid-connected
inverter is presented. The control fashion of applying fixed
switch frequency and the feedforward compensation control
of utility grid voltage is introduced. The current response
speed is proved to be faster, and the grid-conne

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The principle of photovoltaic grid-connected
generation system is analyzed, and the research on PWM
control strategy is done based on the power output side of
photovoltaic grid-connected generation system. The direct
current control strategy of photovoltaic grid-connected
inverter is presented. The control fashion of applying fixed
switch frequency and the feedforward compensation control
of utility grid voltage is introduced. The current response
speed is proved to be faster, and the grid-conne

© All Rights Reserved

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Shi-cheng Zheng, Pei-zhen Wang and Lu-sheng Ge

Anhui University of Technology school of electrical engineering and information

Ma’anshan China, 243002

e-mail:zsc108@ahut.edu.cn

Abstract—The principle of photovoltaic grid-connected grid which its frequency and phase is the same as utility

generation system is analyzed, and the research on PWM grid. Thus, the unity power factor and sine grid-connected

control strategy is done based on the power output side of current waveform are realized. The three phases inverter is

also named as current control voltage inverter, briefed as

photovoltaic grid-connected generation system. The direct

CCVI. The solar cell array is the DC power input of

current control strategy of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter, it is neither constant voltage source nor constant

inverter is presented. The control fashion of applying fixed current source, and its V-I character curve and P-V

switch frequency and the feedforward compensation control character curve have intense nonlinearity [1], varying as

of utility grid voltage is introduced. The current response the solar radiance and surroundings temperature, thus in

speed is proved to be faster, and the grid-connected current order to make the solar cell array work steadily and output

waveform is sine and the power factor is unity. its maximum power, its working voltage must be

stabilized firstly. Accordingly, its working voltage of

Keywords-photovoltaic grid-connected generation system; maximum power point is attained by the method of

direct current control strategy; feedforward compensation software searching.

control In main circuit, the aim of adopting the series-parallel

connection of the capacitor of C1, C2, R1and R2 is to

stabilize the DC high voltage and average voltage.

I. INTRODUCTION Resistance ( R ), Capacitor ( C ) and Diode ( D ) compose

the absorbing and snubber circuit of three phases inverter

When each country of world is developing the green and this circuit functions to reduce the di/dt and dv/dt

recyclable energy, the solar energy is valued uniformly by arising from the IGBTs when they are switched

its advantages, and the photovoltaic generator of using frequently. Thus the IGBTs will be protected effectively.

solar energy is transiting from the supplemental energy to The three phases transformer functioned as promoting

substituting energy gradually. Photovoltaic grid-connected voltage and isolating the main circuit from utility grid, so

generation system will be the trend of solar energy the reliability of system is improved. The filter inductance

application. At present, the USA and Germany have all is important component, and its value relates to DC

produced the large-scale roof photovoltaic grid-connected voltage, the voltage of utility grid, the switch frequency of

generation plan, and the law of recyclable energy is also system and the amplitude of grid-connected current. If its

brought into effect in China on January 1, 2006. The value is too small, the effect of filter is worse and the

recyclable energy generation will hold enormous waveform of grid-connected current will contains more

development space. This paper characterizes the harmonic components. Contrarily, if its value is too large,

photovoltaic grid-connected generation system, and the voltage drop of inductance will increase. Moreover,

researches the direct current control strategy based on the the damping and time-delay will increase also, and the

main circuit of three phases photovoltaic grid-connected power of feed-in utility grid will be influenced. According

generation system. The grid-connected current waveform to the calculations based on stabile model and

of system is improved effectively, and the faster dynamic experiments, the value of filter inductance is taken as

response speed is obtained. about 2.6mH.

II. MAIN CIRCUIT STRUCTURE AND PRINCIPLE III. CONTROL STRUCTURE OF SYSTEM

Fig.1 is main circuit structure of the system. Fig.2 is the control structure of system.

In Fig.1, the solar cell array (is also called as The double closed loop control structure is adopted in

photovoltaic array) converts the solar energy from the sun the system, the loop of voltage lies in outer loop and the

into DC power immediately, and the DC power is loop of current is inner loop. The outer loop functions to

connected to the input of the grid-connected inverter. stabilize the DC voltage of photovoltaic array. The aim of

Then, after energy conversion, the inverter outputs the inner loop is to track the given current signal. The output

high frequency SPWM waveform, and its fundamental of voltage loop is treated as the given reference amplitude

waveform is sine. After going through the filter signal If of inner loop, and the value of multiplied by that

inductance, the inverter feeds sine current into the utility discrete sine tables will be the given real-time signal of

inner loop. After the regulation of current loop, the track of photovoltaic array Vd*. In addition, intelligent control

control of grid-connected current is realized. By regulating of system is realized by judging the output power, DC

the parameters of current loop, tracking speed can be voltage of photovoltaic array and so on. In Fig.2, AVR is

advanced and tracking error can be reduced. The stability voltage regulator and its output is the input given of the

of working voltage of photovoltaic array must be attained. inner loop. ACR is current regulator, and its output added

Known from the characteristic of photovoltaic array, the by the feed-forward compensation output will be the real-

choice of working voltage may affect the output power of time modulating signal.

photovoltaic array. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (

MPPT )[2] control is used to get the best working voltage

three phases transformer. ea is A phase voltage amplitude

IV. CONTROL STRATEGY OF DIRECT CURRENT of utility grid. R is equal inner resistance of filter

inductance L, transformer and circuit etc.

In the grid-connected generation system, the load is When the switch frequency is higher, if the influence of

utility grid whose capacity is infinite, so the grid- time-delay and power devices and the nonlinear influence

connected fashion of current type is adopted to make the of deadtime are neglected, the inverter controlled by

grid-connected current waveform be ideal sine. Then the SPWM fashion may be approximated to be a

output side of inverter presents the characteristic of magnification part with coefficient Kpwm. That is

controlled current source. In previous current control expressed as

strategy, allowing for the speed influence of

microcomputer, the indirect current control strategy, G(s) = Kpwm

which is so called control of amplitude and phase, is (3)

taken. That is to say, the control of grid-connected current

is realized by controlling the amplitude and phase of

output voltage of voltage source type inverter. As the Based on the above details, the closed loop control

dynamic response speed of indirect current control is slow frame of grid-connected current may be shown as Fig.4.

and this method is sensitive to the parameters variation, it

is replaced by the direct current control strategy gradually

when many kinds of microprocessor of high speed and

high capability are produced. The advantages of direct

current control strategy are that the dynamic response

speed is fast and this kind of control strategy is insensitive

to the parameters variation. So, the output waveform of

grid-connected current is better and is easier to meet

national standards. The frame of direct current control

strategy is shown as Fig.3.

inverter is active inverter, and its load is utility grid. As

the voltage amplitude of common connection point can

change suddenly when other alternative loads vary,

accordingly, the current waveform of grid-connected may

distort. Analysis is as follow

From Fig.4, when the voltage of utility grid varies

suddenly (assuming from ea to ea ＋ ∆e a ), the variation

of output grid-connected current of system ( ∆ia ) will be

expressed as

∆ia = − (4)

A. Feedforward Compensation Control 1 + G 1 (s )G 2 (s )G 3 (s ) n

In Fig.2, taking the A phase as example, ia is assumed

as state parameter which flowing through filter inductance

L[3], the voltage equation of inverter output side from the That is to say, when the voltage of utility grid increases

Fig.2 is obtained as equation (1) suddenly, the grid-connected current amplitude will

reduce, then the deviation occurs. Two methods may be

ea dia adopted to restrain the disturbance influence to the grid-

Va= +L +iar connected current arising from the instantaneous variation

n dt of utility grid.

(1)

(1) From equation (4), if the following demands can be

met

After the transform of Laplas, I(S) is get as

G 1 (s )G 2 (s )G 3 (s ) 》1 and G 1 (s )G 2 (s ) ≥ G 3 (s )

(5)

1 ea ( s ) The influence of utility grid will vanish completely, in

Ia(s)= [Va(s)– ]

sL + r n other words, ∆ia = 0.

(2)

Therein, Va is the output SPWM waveform of A phase (2) Feedforward compensation control of utility grid

of inverter and it isn’t filtered. n is the transformer ratio of voltage is used.

Although the method (1) can eliminate the nonlinear 1 1

disturbance influence to the grid-connected current arising Gn ( s) = =

from the instantaneous variation of utility grid voltage, the G2 ( s ) Kpwm

open loop gain of circuit is higher, so the more EMI and (7)

noise will be brought to the system, and the system can be The disturbance influence from the utility grid may be

unstable. Based on the above analyses, in order to get the eliminated utterly. That is to say, when the given grid-

better effect of restraining the disturbance influence from connected current signal is zero, corresponding duty ratio

utility grid, the feedforward compensation control of to counteract the utility grid voltage is calculated out by

utility grid voltage is used to counteract the disturbance, the feedforward compensation control, and doing like so

and make the system be a passive tracking system. So the can make the system be a passive tracking system

control frame of system is simplified and the control effect completely.

is improved. From the control theory [4], the feedforward

compensation control is applying the open loop control

fashion to compensate the measurable disturbance signal

in practice. So the feedforward control fashion won’t B. SPWM control of fixed switch frequency

change the characteristic of system. From the effect of

restraining the disturbance, the feedforward control may In the direct current control strategy, there are mainly

lighten the burden of feedback control. Thus, the gain of two kinds of control fashions being used. One is the

feedback control may be reduced, and the stability of hysteresis loop current control, which can track the given

system will be better. The Fig.5 is the control frame of current signal at the fast speed. The other is SPWM

feedforward compensation. control applying fixed switch frequency and the

feedforward compensation control of utility grid

voltage[5].The hysteresis loop current control means to

treat the deviation of given current value subtracted by

feedback current value as the input of hysteresis loop

comparator. The output signal of hysteresis loop

comparator is isolated and amplified to drive the power

devices of main circuit, and the tracking control of grid-

connected current is realized. If the width of hysteresis

loop is wider, the harmonics components of grid-

connected current will be much. On the contrary, if the

width of hysteresis loop is narrower, the harmonic

components of grid-connected current are less, however

the switch frequency must be very high. In addition, the

switch frequency isn’t fixed and varies intensely during

the current tracking, so the spectrum of output grid-

connected current is very broad, thus, it is very difficult to

Fig.5 Control frame of feedforw and compensation design the filter. According to the above analyses, the

SPWM control fashion of applying the fixed switch

From Fig.5, the analogy analysis is expressed as frequency and the feedforward compensation control of

follows utility grid voltage in this system is adopted, and the real-

When the voltage of utility grid varies suddenly time tracking of grid-connected current is achieved.

(assuming from ea to ea ＋ ∆e a ), the variation of output

grid-connected current of system ( ∆ia ) will be shown as V. CONCLUSION

equation (6)

According to the above control strategy, the

∆ia = ∆ia1 + ∆ia 2 experiments of photovoltaic grid-connected generation

system are done. Its main circuit is shown as Fig.1. The

G3 (s) ∆ea G (s)Gn (s)G3 (s) ∆ea power devices are IGBTs produced by Mitsubishi

=− + 2

1 +G1 (s)G2 (s)G3 (s) n 1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)G3 (s) n Company and its drive circuit is made up of special chip

of M57962L produced by Mitsubishi Company too. The

switch frequency is 10KHz. The high speed and high

G3 (s )[G 2 (s )G n (s ) − 1] ∆e a capability chip of TMS320LF2407A is used as the control

= core of system [6]. This chip has 16 high speed A/Ds, and

1 +G 1 (s )G 2 (s )G 3 (s ) n its fastest conversion time is only 0.5 us. The processing

(6) speed of chip meets the function demands of system

completely. The experiments results are shown as Fig.6

and Fig.7. The waveforms of Fig.6 are grid-connected

From equation (6), when the transfer function of currents waveforms of A phase and B phase. The

feedforwrd compensation control part G n (s ) is shown as waveforms of Fig.7 are the grid-connected current

equation (7) waveform and utility grid voltage waveform of A phase.

From Fig.6, the phase difference between A phase current

and B phase current is 120o. From Fig.7, the phase of A

phase grid-connected current is synchronized with A

phase utility grid voltage’s and the power factor of grid- [6] Heping Liu.TMS320LF240X DSP structure, theory and

connected inverter equals unity. application. Beijing University of aeronautics and astronautics

press, April, 2002.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

foundation of Anhui Province Education Bureau under

Project 2001kj040zd.

REFERENCES

system of solar energy. Doctoral dissertation of Hefei University

of technology, April,2003.

[2] Bodur M, Ermis M. Maximum power point tracking for low

power photovoltaic solar panels. IEEE on Electronics Technical

Conference Proceedings,Feb,1994, p758～761.

[3] Shicheng Zheng. Study on photovoltaic generation system and its

control. Doctoral dissertation of Hefei University of technology,

Mar,2005.

[4] Dejin Xia. Automatic control theory. mechanical industry press,

July,2002.

[5] Chongwei Zhang, xing Zhang. PWM rectifier and its control.

Mechanical Industry Press, Oct, 2003, p06~08.

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