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Study on Pwm Control Strategy of Photovoltaic

Grid-connected Generation System


Shi-cheng Zheng, Pei-zhen Wang and Lu-sheng Ge
Anhui University of Technology school of electrical engineering and information
Ma’anshan China, 243002
e-mail:zsc108@ahut.edu.cn

Abstract—The principle of photovoltaic grid-connected grid which its frequency and phase is the same as utility
generation system is analyzed, and the research on PWM grid. Thus, the unity power factor and sine grid-connected
control strategy is done based on the power output side of current waveform are realized. The three phases inverter is
also named as current control voltage inverter, briefed as
photovoltaic grid-connected generation system. The direct
CCVI. The solar cell array is the DC power input of
current control strategy of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter, it is neither constant voltage source nor constant
inverter is presented. The control fashion of applying fixed current source, and its V-I character curve and P-V
switch frequency and the feedforward compensation control character curve have intense nonlinearity [1], varying as
of utility grid voltage is introduced. The current response the solar radiance and surroundings temperature, thus in
speed is proved to be faster, and the grid-connected current order to make the solar cell array work steadily and output
waveform is sine and the power factor is unity. its maximum power, its working voltage must be
stabilized firstly. Accordingly, its working voltage of
Keywords-photovoltaic grid-connected generation system; maximum power point is attained by the method of
direct current control strategy; feedforward compensation software searching.
control In main circuit, the aim of adopting the series-parallel
connection of the capacitor of C1, C2, R1and R2 is to
stabilize the DC high voltage and average voltage.
I. INTRODUCTION Resistance ( R ), Capacitor ( C ) and Diode ( D ) compose
the absorbing and snubber circuit of three phases inverter
When each country of world is developing the green and this circuit functions to reduce the di/dt and dv/dt
recyclable energy, the solar energy is valued uniformly by arising from the IGBTs when they are switched
its advantages, and the photovoltaic generator of using frequently. Thus the IGBTs will be protected effectively.
solar energy is transiting from the supplemental energy to The three phases transformer functioned as promoting
substituting energy gradually. Photovoltaic grid-connected voltage and isolating the main circuit from utility grid, so
generation system will be the trend of solar energy the reliability of system is improved. The filter inductance
application. At present, the USA and Germany have all is important component, and its value relates to DC
produced the large-scale roof photovoltaic grid-connected voltage, the voltage of utility grid, the switch frequency of
generation plan, and the law of recyclable energy is also system and the amplitude of grid-connected current. If its
brought into effect in China on January 1, 2006. The value is too small, the effect of filter is worse and the
recyclable energy generation will hold enormous waveform of grid-connected current will contains more
development space. This paper characterizes the harmonic components. Contrarily, if its value is too large,
photovoltaic grid-connected generation system, and the voltage drop of inductance will increase. Moreover,
researches the direct current control strategy based on the the damping and time-delay will increase also, and the
main circuit of three phases photovoltaic grid-connected power of feed-in utility grid will be influenced. According
generation system. The grid-connected current waveform to the calculations based on stabile model and
of system is improved effectively, and the faster dynamic experiments, the value of filter inductance is taken as
response speed is obtained. about 2.6mH.

II. MAIN CIRCUIT STRUCTURE AND PRINCIPLE III. CONTROL STRUCTURE OF SYSTEM

Fig.1 is main circuit structure of the system. Fig.2 is the control structure of system.
In Fig.1, the solar cell array (is also called as The double closed loop control structure is adopted in
photovoltaic array) converts the solar energy from the sun the system, the loop of voltage lies in outer loop and the
into DC power immediately, and the DC power is loop of current is inner loop. The outer loop functions to
connected to the input of the grid-connected inverter. stabilize the DC voltage of photovoltaic array. The aim of
Then, after energy conversion, the inverter outputs the inner loop is to track the given current signal. The output
high frequency SPWM waveform, and its fundamental of voltage loop is treated as the given reference amplitude
waveform is sine. After going through the filter signal If of inner loop, and the value of multiplied by that
inductance, the inverter feeds sine current into the utility discrete sine tables will be the given real-time signal of

1-4244-0449-5/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE IPEMC 2006


inner loop. After the regulation of current loop, the track of photovoltaic array Vd*. In addition, intelligent control
control of grid-connected current is realized. By regulating of system is realized by judging the output power, DC
the parameters of current loop, tracking speed can be voltage of photovoltaic array and so on. In Fig.2, AVR is
advanced and tracking error can be reduced. The stability voltage regulator and its output is the input given of the
of working voltage of photovoltaic array must be attained. inner loop. ACR is current regulator, and its output added
Known from the characteristic of photovoltaic array, the by the feed-forward compensation output will be the real-
choice of working voltage may affect the output power of time modulating signal.
photovoltaic array. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (
MPPT )[2] control is used to get the best working voltage

Fig.1 Main circuit structure of the system

Fig.2 Control structure of the system


three phases transformer. ea is A phase voltage amplitude
IV. CONTROL STRATEGY OF DIRECT CURRENT of utility grid. R is equal inner resistance of filter
inductance L, transformer and circuit etc.
In the grid-connected generation system, the load is When the switch frequency is higher, if the influence of
utility grid whose capacity is infinite, so the grid- time-delay and power devices and the nonlinear influence
connected fashion of current type is adopted to make the of deadtime are neglected, the inverter controlled by
grid-connected current waveform be ideal sine. Then the SPWM fashion may be approximated to be a
output side of inverter presents the characteristic of magnification part with coefficient Kpwm. That is
controlled current source. In previous current control expressed as
strategy, allowing for the speed influence of
microcomputer, the indirect current control strategy, G(s) = Kpwm
which is so called control of amplitude and phase, is (3)
taken. That is to say, the control of grid-connected current
is realized by controlling the amplitude and phase of
output voltage of voltage source type inverter. As the Based on the above details, the closed loop control
dynamic response speed of indirect current control is slow frame of grid-connected current may be shown as Fig.4.
and this method is sensitive to the parameters variation, it
is replaced by the direct current control strategy gradually
when many kinds of microprocessor of high speed and
high capability are produced. The advantages of direct
current control strategy are that the dynamic response
speed is fast and this kind of control strategy is insensitive
to the parameters variation. So, the output waveform of
grid-connected current is better and is easier to meet
national standards. The frame of direct current control
strategy is shown as Fig.3.

Fig.4 Closed loop control frame of grid-connected current

Differing from the passive inverter, the grid-connected


inverter is active inverter, and its load is utility grid. As
the voltage amplitude of common connection point can
change suddenly when other alternative loads vary,
accordingly, the current waveform of grid-connected may
distort. Analysis is as follow
From Fig.4, when the voltage of utility grid varies
suddenly (assuming from ea to ea + ∆e a ), the variation
of output grid-connected current of system ( ∆ia ) will be
expressed as

Fig.3 Frame of direct current control strategy G 3 (s ) ∆ea


∆ia = − (4)
A. Feedforward Compensation Control 1 + G 1 (s )G 2 (s )G 3 (s ) n
In Fig.2, taking the A phase as example, ia is assumed
as state parameter which flowing through filter inductance
L[3], the voltage equation of inverter output side from the That is to say, when the voltage of utility grid increases
Fig.2 is obtained as equation (1) suddenly, the grid-connected current amplitude will
reduce, then the deviation occurs. Two methods may be
ea dia adopted to restrain the disturbance influence to the grid-
Va= +L +iar connected current arising from the instantaneous variation
n dt of utility grid.
(1)
(1) From equation (4), if the following demands can be
met
After the transform of Laplas, I(S) is get as
G 1 (s )G 2 (s )G 3 (s ) 》1 and G 1 (s )G 2 (s ) ≥ G 3 (s )
(5)
1 ea ( s ) The influence of utility grid will vanish completely, in
Ia(s)= [Va(s)– ]
sL + r n other words, ∆ia = 0.
(2)

Therein, Va is the output SPWM waveform of A phase (2) Feedforward compensation control of utility grid
of inverter and it isn’t filtered. n is the transformer ratio of voltage is used.
Although the method (1) can eliminate the nonlinear 1 1
disturbance influence to the grid-connected current arising Gn ( s) = =
from the instantaneous variation of utility grid voltage, the G2 ( s ) Kpwm
open loop gain of circuit is higher, so the more EMI and (7)
noise will be brought to the system, and the system can be The disturbance influence from the utility grid may be
unstable. Based on the above analyses, in order to get the eliminated utterly. That is to say, when the given grid-
better effect of restraining the disturbance influence from connected current signal is zero, corresponding duty ratio
utility grid, the feedforward compensation control of to counteract the utility grid voltage is calculated out by
utility grid voltage is used to counteract the disturbance, the feedforward compensation control, and doing like so
and make the system be a passive tracking system. So the can make the system be a passive tracking system
control frame of system is simplified and the control effect completely.
is improved. From the control theory [4], the feedforward
compensation control is applying the open loop control
fashion to compensate the measurable disturbance signal
in practice. So the feedforward control fashion won’t B. SPWM control of fixed switch frequency
change the characteristic of system. From the effect of
restraining the disturbance, the feedforward control may In the direct current control strategy, there are mainly
lighten the burden of feedback control. Thus, the gain of two kinds of control fashions being used. One is the
feedback control may be reduced, and the stability of hysteresis loop current control, which can track the given
system will be better. The Fig.5 is the control frame of current signal at the fast speed. The other is SPWM
feedforward compensation. control applying fixed switch frequency and the
feedforward compensation control of utility grid
voltage[5].The hysteresis loop current control means to
treat the deviation of given current value subtracted by
feedback current value as the input of hysteresis loop
comparator. The output signal of hysteresis loop
comparator is isolated and amplified to drive the power
devices of main circuit, and the tracking control of grid-
connected current is realized. If the width of hysteresis
loop is wider, the harmonics components of grid-
connected current will be much. On the contrary, if the
width of hysteresis loop is narrower, the harmonic
components of grid-connected current are less, however
the switch frequency must be very high. In addition, the
switch frequency isn’t fixed and varies intensely during
the current tracking, so the spectrum of output grid-
connected current is very broad, thus, it is very difficult to
Fig.5 Control frame of feedforw and compensation design the filter. According to the above analyses, the
SPWM control fashion of applying the fixed switch
From Fig.5, the analogy analysis is expressed as frequency and the feedforward compensation control of
follows utility grid voltage in this system is adopted, and the real-
When the voltage of utility grid varies suddenly time tracking of grid-connected current is achieved.
(assuming from ea to ea + ∆e a ), the variation of output
grid-connected current of system ( ∆ia ) will be shown as V. CONCLUSION
equation (6)
According to the above control strategy, the
∆ia = ∆ia1 + ∆ia 2 experiments of photovoltaic grid-connected generation
system are done. Its main circuit is shown as Fig.1. The
G3 (s) ∆ea G (s)Gn (s)G3 (s) ∆ea power devices are IGBTs produced by Mitsubishi
=− + 2
1 +G1 (s)G2 (s)G3 (s) n 1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)G3 (s) n Company and its drive circuit is made up of special chip
of M57962L produced by Mitsubishi Company too. The
switch frequency is 10KHz. The high speed and high
G3 (s )[G 2 (s )G n (s ) − 1] ∆e a capability chip of TMS320LF2407A is used as the control
= core of system [6]. This chip has 16 high speed A/Ds, and
1 +G 1 (s )G 2 (s )G 3 (s ) n its fastest conversion time is only 0.5 us. The processing
(6) speed of chip meets the function demands of system
completely. The experiments results are shown as Fig.6
and Fig.7. The waveforms of Fig.6 are grid-connected
From equation (6), when the transfer function of currents waveforms of A phase and B phase. The
feedforwrd compensation control part G n (s ) is shown as waveforms of Fig.7 are the grid-connected current
equation (7) waveform and utility grid voltage waveform of A phase.
From Fig.6, the phase difference between A phase current
and B phase current is 120o. From Fig.7, the phase of A
phase grid-connected current is synchronized with A
phase utility grid voltage’s and the power factor of grid- [6] Heping Liu.TMS320LF240X DSP structure, theory and
connected inverter equals unity. application. Beijing University of aeronautics and astronautics
press, April, 2002.

Fig.6 Grid-connected currents waveforms of A phase and B phase

Fig.7 Waveforms of grid-connected current and utility grid voltage

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work is supported by the natural science


foundation of Anhui Province Education Bureau under
Project 2001kj040zd.

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