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EEE338 Power Electronics

Power Electronics
EEE-338

Lab Manual

Name

Registration Number

Class

Instructor’s Name

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EEE338 Power Electronics

Introduction
This is the Lab Manual for EEE – 338 Power Electronics. The labs constitute 25 %
of the total marks for this course.

During the labs you will work in groups (no more than three students per group).
You are required to complete the ‘Pre-Lab’ section of the lab before coming to the
lab. You will be graded for this and the ‘In-Lab’ tasks during the in-lab viva. You
will complete the ‘Post-Lab’ section of each lab before coming to the next week’s lab.

You are not allowed to wander in the lab or consult other groups when performing
experiments. Similarly the lab reports must contain original efforts. CIIT has a zero
tolerance anti-plagiarism policy.

Apart from these weekly labs you will complete two projects. One mini-project that
will count towards your Lab Sessional II score and a Final Project which will be
graded as Lab Final Exam. The grading policy is already discussed in the Course
Description File.

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EEE338 Power Electronics

Acknowledgement
The labs for EEE-338 Power Electronics were designed by Mr. Raheel Ahmed. The
first version was completed in Session Spring 2016, The second version was
completed during the summer break of 2016. Typesetting and formatting of this
version was supervised by Dr. Omar Ahmad and was carried out by Mr. Abdul
Rehman, Mr Suleman & Mr Baqir Hussain.

History of Revision
Date of Issue Team Comments
Dec. 01, Mr. Raheel Ahmed This is the first editable draft of EEE-338 lab
2014 manual.

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EEE338 Power Electronics

Safety Precautions
 Be calm and relaxed, while working in lab.

 First check your measuring equipment.

 When working with voltages over 40 V or current over 10 A, there must be at least two

people in the lab at all time.

 Keep the work area neat and clean.

 Be sure about the locations of fire extinguishers and first aid kit.

 No loose wires or metals pieces should be lying on the table or neat the circuit.

 Avoid using long wires, that may get in your way while making adjustments or changing

leads.

 Be aware of bracelets, rings, and metal watch bands (if you are wearing any of them). Do

not wear them near an energized circuit.

 When working with energize circuit use only one hand while keeping rest of your body

away from conducting surfaces.

 Always check your circuit connections before power it ON.

 Always connect connection from load to power supply.

 Never use any faulty or damage equipment and tools.

 If an individual comes in contact with a live electrical conductor.

o Do not touch the equipment, the cord, the person.

o Disconnect the power source from the circuit breaker and pull out the plug using

insulated material.

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EEE338 Power Electronics

Table of Contents
Introduction (To be written by the course instructor) ..................................................................... 2
Acknowledgement (Edit) ................................................................................................................ 2
History of Revision (Kindly edit according to your course)........................................................... 3
Safety Precautions ........................................................................................................................... 4
LAB-01: Introduction to Lab Equipment ....................................................................................... 8
Pre Lab: ....................................................................................................................................... 8
Introduction: ................................................................................................................................ 8
Pre Lab Tasks:........................................................................................................................... 15
Lab Tasks: ................................................................................................................................. 15
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 15
LAB # 02: Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier .............................................................................. 23
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 23
Objective: .................................................................................................................................. 23
Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 23
Pre Lab Task: ............................................................................................................................ 25
Lab Task: .................................................................................................................................. 27
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 27
LAB # 03: Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier............................................................................... 34
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 34
Objective: .................................................................................................................................. 34
Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 34
Pre Lab Task: ............................................................................................................................ 36
Lab Task: .................................................................................................................................. 37
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 37
Lab Task: .................................................................................................................................. 41
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 41
LAB # 04: Three phase Half wave Rectifier ................................................................................ 48
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 48
Objective: .................................................................................................................................. 50
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EEE338 Power Electronics

Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 50


Pre Lab Task: ............................................................................................................................ 50
Lab Task: .................................................................................................................................. 50
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 50
LAB # 05: Three phase full wave Rectifier .................................................................................. 57
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 57
Objective: .................................................................................................................................. 58
Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 58
Pre Lab Task: ............................................................................................................................ 58
Comparison to half wave case .................................................................................................. 59
Lab Task: .................................................................................................................................. 59
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 59
LAB # 06: Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification ...................................................... 66
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 66
Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 70
Pre Lab Task: ............................................................................................................................ 71
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 72
LAB # 07: Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification ...................................................... 79
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 79
Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 80
Pre Lab Task: ............................................................................................................................ 80
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 81
LAB # 08: Three phase Half wave Controlled Rectification ........................................................ 88
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 88
Objective: .................................................................................................................................. 89
Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 89
Pre Lab Task: ............................................................................................................................ 90
Lab Task-01: ............................................................................................................................. 90
LAB # 09: Three phase Full wave Controlled Rectification ........................................................ 97
Introduction: .............................................................................................................................. 97

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EEE338 Power Electronics

Objective: .................................................................................................................................. 98
Pre Lab: ..................................................................................................................................... 98
Pre Lab Task: .......................................................................................................................... 101
Lab Task-01: ........................................................................................................................... 102
LAB # 10: Single Phase Half Controlled Rectification .............................................................. 109
Introduction: ............................................................................................................................ 109
Objective: ................................................................................................................................ 110
Pre Lab: ................................................................................................................................... 110
Pre Lab Task: .......................................................................................................................... 110
Lab Task: ................................................................................................................................ 111
Lab Task-01: ........................................................................................................................... 111
LAB # 11: Three Phase Half Controlled Rectification ............................................................... 118
Introduction: ............................................................................................................................ 118
Objective: ................................................................................................................................ 119
Pre Lab: ................................................................................................................................... 119
Pre Lab Task: .......................................................................................................................... 119
Lab Task: ................................................................................................................................ 120
Lab Task-01: ........................................................................................................................... 120
LAB # 12: AC Control ................................................................................................................ 127
Introduction: ............................................................................................................................ 127
Objective: ................................................................................................................................ 129
Pre Lab: ................................................................................................................................... 129
Pre Lab Task: .......................................................................................................................... 129
Lab Task: ................................................................................................................................ 130
Lab Task-01: ........................................................................................................................... 130
Lab Task-02: ........................................................................................................................... 134

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

LAB-01: Introduction to Lab Equipment

Pre Lab:

Introduction:
This section is designed to familiarisewith the layoutand functions of the units forming the 70-
002 as shown in Figure A-1-1. The 60-132 power supply unit will already have been

Figure- 1-1: Layout of the 70-002 System

The measuring instruments are grouped in the top left of the frame, the load units are in the
top right, the 70-220 firing and bridge circuits are in the center and the power supply and
storage bin are at the bottom.
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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Configuring the 60-132 three phase powersupply:


The power supply provides three phase outputs from the transformer secondaries which may be
configured in two ways, to give either 100 or 200 Volts output.

 Configuration Agiving 100V output should be used for three phase experiments.
 Configuration B giving 200V output should be used for single phase experiments.
This will ensure that the currents through the load are within the rated values.

Configuration A. 100V connection of transformer secondaries at 2 amp rating

Figure 1-2: 60-132 patched for Configuration A

The output voltage from neutral to any of these sockets the voltage will be 100Vac.Ensure that
the 60-132 power supply unit is set to stopon the circuit breaker set the links shown in black in
Figure A-1-2 using the 6 links supplied.

Configuration B. Secondaries linked in series to give 200 volts at 1 amp for


each secondary.

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Figure 1-3: 60-132 patched for Configuration B

Ensure that the 60-132 power supply unit is set to stop on the circuit breaker

In the event that 3 phase is selected in error, the over current circuit breaker will trip to
the stop position, turning the power off to the primaries.

Set the primary selection switch to off, press the start button and then select the 1 ph setting on
the primary selection rotary switch to regain the output supply.

Note that the output will be available between socket A (L1) and neutral on the 70-220 front
panel.

NOTE

This configuration is not used for the 3 phase supply. as the output line voltage would be too
high at 346V. The 200 V connection is for 1 phase only. The three secondaries are in parallel to
provide 200V at 3 amp on socket A only.

Load units:
The resistive, capacitive and inductive load units are connected in the same way for all
assignments for the 70-002.

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Capacitive loads are connected in parallel with the resistive load, whilst the inductive load is
connected in series with the resistive load.

Resistive Load

The 67-142 resistive load panel is shown in the figure.

It consists of three sets of three resistors each. The three


resistors in each set can be switched in or out in parallel. Each
set of three can be wired in series or parallel using the patch
leads supplied. In the assignments in this manual we shall only
use the parallel configuration.

The individual resistors in each set have values 950Ω,1950Ω,


3770Ω so that each set can provide multiple resistances.

When all three sets are joined in parallel, the total minimum resistance is 182Ω.

Inductive load

The 67-300 inductive load is shown in the adjacent figure. It consists


of a solenoid coil, into which may be inserted a magnetisable core. The
inductance of the unit depends on the depth to which the core is
inserted.

For reference purposes a scale is attached to the core for setting the
inductance. In all the assignments however we shall only use the
maximum inductance setting.

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Capacitive Load

The 67-201 capacitive load is shown in the adjacent figure. Three capacitors
are linked in-parallel, with switches which can provide total capacitance loads
of 10uF, 20uF, 30uF, 40uF, 50uF.

The capacitance is provided to the show the effect of reactive loads on the
magnitude and phase of the rectified voltage and current and their waveforms.
It is placed in parallel with the resistive load.

Interconnection of load units:


Connect the load units as shown in Figure A-1-4. To select the appropriate load, set the units up
as detailed below.

Figure 1-4: Load units

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

70-220 Firing and Bridge Circuits:

Figure 1-5: The 70-220 Front Panel Layout

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

70-220 Unit:
This unit contains the main diode and thyristorcontrolcircuitry and all the connections to
demonstrate controlled and uncontrolled, single and three phase, half and full wave rectification.

Figure A-1-5 shows the layout of the 70-220 front panel, whose components are arranged into
four main functional groups:

Power Outlet sockets


3 phase power outputs and neutral socket, which can be patched to drive the diodes and
thyristors. When using single phase the power supply should be taken between phase
L1 (Red) and neutral. For full wave three phase rectification with star connected supply
the neutral is not used, since the common star point is at neutral potential already.

Diode and thyristor array


This array consists of 6 diodes and 6 thyristors, which may be patched by means of the
leads supplied, into multiple configurations

Monitoring Circuitry and oscilloscopeconnections


The two oscilloscope leads are connected between Voutand 0V and Ioutand 0V
respectively for voltage and current measurements.

Thyristor Gate trigger control


The triggering of the thyristor gates requires two controls:
 Reference Voltage Control for setting the conduction angle in the range 0º to +180º.
Rotating this clockwise increases the conduction angle thus increasing the mean rectified
voltage. There is a linear relation between the reference voltage and the conduction angle.
 Firing Sector Control to set a group of thyristors to trigger either in the 0º to +180º or
+180º to +360º sector or with overlap.
The 0º to +180º or +180º to +360º firing sequence is designed for firing control with half
wave rectification, whilst the overlap sequence is designed for full wave three phase
rectification.
This is required because for full wave rectification a set of thyristors is required to be
triggered in pairs, witheach different pair conducting at a different stage of the waveform.
The firing circuitry is powered directly by the same input power supply which is applied
across the thyristor array. This is to ensure that there is exact synchronization between the
voltage to be controlled and the point at which the thyristor gates aretriggered.
Normally each pulse output from the triggering circuit is directly connected to its
corresponding thyristor by the patch leads supplied, as shown below:

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

P1 is patched to T1g P2 is patched to T4g P3 is patched to T3g

P4 is patched to T6g P5 is patched to T5g P6 is patched to T2g

However different thyristor triggering sequences can be set up and these are discussed in
the section on advanced firing circuits.

Pre Lab Tasks:

Lab Tasks:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Press the stop button on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Use the patch leads provided to connect the units according to Figure A-1-6 and the circuit
diagram shown in Figure A-1-8.

Ensure that the switches on the capacitive load are all in the ‘off’ position and that the shorting
link across the variable inductance terminals is fitted.

Connect the two oscilloscope leads between Vout and 0V and Iout and 0V respectively on the
70-220 front panel.

Patch the power supply as for configuration B (series secondaries), as shown in Figure A-1-7.

Turn the rotary primary selection switch to the 1 ph position, and press the 60-132 start button on

the circuit breaker. Press the green power on button on the 70-220

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Figure 1-6: The 70-220 Front Panel Layout

Figure 1-7: 60-132 Configuration B

Figure 1-8: Lab Tak01-Patching Diagram

Calibration of oscilloscope

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

The assignments in this manual require the peak voltages and currents to be measured
from the vertical intercepts on the oscilloscope graticule. The gains of the voltage to
voltage and current to voltage converters are:
 Input Voltage 100 Volts. Output to Oscilloscope 2Volts
 Input current1Amp. Output to Oscilloscope 1Volt

Resistive load
The circuit in Figure 8 shows the inductance shorted out and the capacitor on open
circuit. The load is therefore purely resistive.
Firstly observe the readings on the rms and digital voltmeters and the rms ammeter.
Ensure that the digital voltmeter is switched to ac measurement. Observe the
waveforms on the oscilloscope and measure the peak load voltage and current using
the relationships in 1) and 2) above. Enter the readings in table A-1-1.

Value to be measured R R-C R-L

Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)


Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Rms Load Current (from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)
Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)
Table A-1

You will notice a difference between the mean and rms voltages since the moving iron
voltmeter is measuring a true root mean square voltage, whereas the digital meter is
measuring an approximation to the mean ac voltage. In general the rms reading will be
higher than the mean due to its method of calculation. (The average of the squares of a
set of vales is greater than the square of the averages, unless all the values are the
same).

Observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope, showing the voltage across
the load and the current through the load.

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Figure 1-9: Result: Resistive load

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Resistive and capacitive load


Switch the 10µF capacitor on the 67-201 unit to the ‘on’ position to give a 10µF
capacitance in parallel with the resistive load. Observe the voltmeter and ammeter
readings and enter the readings in the second column of TableA-1-1. Also observe and
record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Figure 1-10: Result: Resistive Capacitive load

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Resistive and Inductive Load


Switch all the capacitors on the 67-201 to the off position and remove the shorting link
across the terminals of the 67-300 variable inductor.
Insert the movable core of the inductance in completely,
Observe the voltmeter and ammeter readings and enter the readings in the third column
of Table 1-1.
Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Figure 1-11: Result: Resistive inductive load

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

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LAB # 1- Introduction to Lab Equipment

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

LAB # 02: Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Introduction:
The majority of electronic instruments derive their power from the public electricity supply,
which is usually alternating. A transformer is required in most cases in order to provide isolation
and also to alter the supply voltage to whatever higher or lower voltage may be needed in the
instrument. If the instrument needs only alternating current, the transformer may be all that is
required as a power supply unit. The specification of transformers can require attention to many
details.

Objective:
When you have completed Assignments 2, 3, 4, and 5 you will:
 Understand the difference between half and full waverectification
 Understand the difference between single and three phase rectification
 Understand the benefits of one against theother
 Understand some of the terminology used in rectifierspecifications

Pre Lab:

Pre request
Understand the difference between rms and mean in an electrical circuit.
Know how to use and read ammeters and voltmeters in an electricalcircuit
Have an understanding of circuits containing both ac and dc voltagelevels
Know how to read and understand basic circuitdiagrams
Know how to use and read anoscilloscope
Have an understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac and dccircuits

Rectifiers:
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically
reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction. The process is
known as rectification.

The simplest rectifier is a two terminal device called a ‘diode’ (Figure A-2-1), which passes
current in one direction but not in the other. Combinations of rectifier diodes are frequently used
and such a combination may also be called a rectifier. Several such arrangements will be studied
in this assignment. Rectifier circuits are often classified as full-wave or half-wave.

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Voltage ratios of rectifier circuits:


The input to a rectifier is often expressed in rms volts, since the supply voltage is usually so
expressed and in rms amperes, since the rms value of the current is what determines the ratings
of transformer windings, cables and fuses.

The output from the rectifier may be expressed also in rms terms, but more usually is expressed
in mean (or average) volts and amperes, since this is how dc is usually measured, and the
majority of dc loads respond to the mean value of the voltage, hence the rms value is usually of
little interest.

For a sine wave this can be shown to be

𝑉𝑅𝑀𝑆 = 𝑉𝑃 ⁄√2 𝑜𝑟 0.707𝑉𝑃

Where Vpis the peak voltage

The mean (or average) value of a half-cycle of a sine wave of peak value Vpis

𝑉𝑎𝑣 = 2𝑉𝑃 ⁄𝜋 𝑜𝑟 0.637𝑉𝑃

Measurement and Measuring equipment


The moving iron instruments measure rms voltage and current, the digital voltmeter measures
average or mean voltage and current. The oscilloscope displays the voltage and current
waveforms, and can be used to measure the peak voltage, using the calibration settings

The moving iron instruments scales are not linear, and cannot accurately measure voltages at
their low ends. In the case of the 68-114 voltages below 100 and currents below 1 amp can only
be approximately determined.

Single Phase Half Wave Rectification


For the sinusoidal input, the voltage on the supply side of the rectifier diode has the format
shown in Figure 2-1.

Input from
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supply

Time
LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Figure 2-1a: Sine wave input wave form.

We would therefore expect that the voltage and current on the load side would have the forms
shown in Figure 2-2 for the pure resistive load.

Half wave
rectified
output

Figure 2-2: Half wave rectified output

Where a reactive load is involved we would expect the current to be out of phase with the
voltage; in the case of a capacitive component the current will lead the voltage and for an
inductive component the current will lag the voltage. This has the following effect:

At the instant in time the supply voltage is zero or at a phase which is a multiple of 180°the
voltage across the inductor or capacitor is not zero.

In the case of the capacitor this results in the diode becoming reversed biased and ceasing to
conduct even while the supply voltage is still positive. In the case of the inductor the diode
remains forward biased and continues conducting even when the supply voltage has become
negative.

Note that the rectified waveform is no longer sinusoidal, even for the idealized rectified
waveforms shown in. This means that the load voltage and current waveforms will no longer
simply be simply phase shifted but, in general, will be distorted as well. The distortion will be
greater if the supply voltage is not sinusoidal. This is because the impedance of an inductor or
capacitor is frequency dependent, and any non-sinusoidal waveform is a sum of a number of
frequencies greater than the fundamental frequency (See Appendix). The effect of these higher
frequencies is most pronounced where the load voltage has a discontinuous change, such as
when a diode starts or ceases conducting.

Pre Lab Task:


Tag Vp, VRMS and Vavg in following Figure 2-3.

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Input from ac
supply

Time

Figure 2-3: sinusoidal signal

Write impedance formula for RC parallel circuit.

Write impedance formula for RL series circuit.

Find the VPP, VRMS and Vavg for the sinusoidal signal having VP = Your Reg #

Draw output for Figure 2-4, with signal shown in Figure 2-3 and VP= your Reg#

Figure 2-4: Half wave rectifier

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

Connect the 67-132 power supply as shown in Figure A-2-7 (Configuration B).

Set the firing pulse selector switch to the 0-180position.

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in Figure A-2-5 and the circuit diagram in
Figure A-2-8.

Figure 2-5: Circuit diagram for single phase half wave rectification

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Figure 2-6: Patching diagram

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Figure 2-7: 60-132 in Configuration B

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, and that the 67-142 switches are set to on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Aketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, and record the peak voltage and current
in the first column of a table similar to that shown in Table 2-1.

Record the rms voltage and mean voltages across the load and the rms supply voltage and current
in the first column of the table

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Value to be measured R R-L R-C


Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)
Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Mean Load Current (from 68-116)
Rms Load Current from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)
Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)
Rms Supply Voltage (from 68-114)
Table 2.1: Result table

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), switch on the unit.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope.

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Continue to observe the waveforms as the inductance is slowly increased by re-inserting the
core. With the core fully inserted, sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, on to
suitable graph paper and record the peak voltage and current in the second column of the table
with the core fully inserted.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

NOTE If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 2-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that the 10µF switch on the 67-201 is
on, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

Figure 2-8: Result: Resistive load

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Figure 2-9: Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure 2-10: Result: Resistive and capacitive load

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

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LAB # 2- Half Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

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LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

LAB # 03: Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Introduction:
The majority of electronic instruments derive their power from the public electricity supply,
which is usually alternating. A transformer is required in most cases in order to provide isolation
and also to alter the supply voltage to whatever higher or lower voltage may be needed in the
instrument. If the instrument needs only alternating current, the transformer may be all that is
required as a power supply unit. The specification of transformers can require attention to many
details.

Objective:
When you have completed Assignments 2, 3, 4, and 5 you will:

 Understand the difference between half and full waverectification


 Understand the difference between single and three phase rectification
 Understand the benefits of one against theother
 Understand some of the terminology used in rectifierspecifications

Pre Lab:

Pre request
Understand the difference between rms and mean in an electrical circuit.
Know how to use and read ammeters and voltmeters in an electricalcircuit
Have an understanding of circuits containing both ac and dc voltagelevels
Know how to read and understand basic circuitdiagrams
Know how to use and read anoscilloscope
Have an understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac and dccircuits

Single Phase -Full Wave Rectification:


The full wave connection, also described as bridge or double way, is often shown in different
diagrammatic layouts as shown in Figure A-3-1.

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LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Figure 3-1: Single Phase -Full Wave Rectification.

Current flow and commutation:


In this diode circuit, the current flow is shown schematically in Figure 3-2. For simplicity the
load is assumed to be resistive.

During the positive phase of the supply voltage cycle current flows from the supply positive
through D3, through the load and returns to the supply negative through D2.

During the negative phase of the supply voltage cycle current flows from the supply positive
through D1, through the load and returns to the supply negative through D4.

D1 D3 D1 D3 VO +
VO +
V VI

- I
+ + ~ -
~
ACSupply VO - VO -
D2 D4 D2 D4
AC Supply

Figure 3-2a: Current flow 0° to180° Figure 3-2a: Current flow 180° to 360°

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LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Voltage waveforms:
The practical circuit delivers the single phase voltage relative to a mid-point neutral as shown in
Figure A-3-2 a).

a)
SupplyVoltage

LoadVoltage
b)

Figure 3-2: Full wave rectification waveforms

Note that the rectified voltage waveform is cyclic with a frequency double that of the supply
frequency.

Pre Lab Task:

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 36


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

Connect the 67-132 power supply for single phase (Configuration B).

Set the firing pulse selector switch to the 0-180position.

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in Figure A-3-3 and the circuit diagram in
Figure A-3-4.

Figure A-3-3: Circuit diagram for single phase full wave rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 37


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Figure A-3-4: Patching diagram

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, and that the 67-142 switches are set to on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, and record the peak voltage and current
in the first column of a table similar to that shown in Table 3-1.

Record the rms voltage and mean voltages across the load and the rms supply voltage and current
in the first column of the table

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 38


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Value to be measured R R-L R-C


Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)
Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Mean Load Current (from 68-116)
Rms Load Current from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)
Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)
Rms Supply Voltage (from 68-114)
Table 3.1: Result table

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), switch on the unit.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope.

Continue to observe the waveforms as the inductance is slowly increased by re-inserting the
core. With the core fully inserted, sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, on to
suitable graph paper and record the peak voltage and current in the second column of the table
with the core fully inserted.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

NOTE If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 3-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 39


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that the 10µF switch on the 67-201 is
on, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

Figure 3-5: Result: Resistive load

Figure 3-6: Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure 3-7: Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 40


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram and patching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

Connect the 67-132 power supply for three phase (Configuration A).

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in circuit diagram Figure A-4-4 and
patching diagram Figure A-4-5.

Figure A-4-4: Circuit diagram for single phase full wave rectification

Figure A-4-5: Patching diagram

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 41


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Figure A-4-6: 60132 – Configuration A

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, and that the 67-142 switches are set to on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, and record the peak voltage and current
in the first column of a table similar to that shown in Table 4-1.

Record the rms voltage and mean voltages across the load and the rms supply voltage and current
in the first column of the table

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 42


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Value to be measured R R-L R-C


Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)
Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Mean Load Current (from 68-116)
Rms Load Current from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)
Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)
Rms Supply Voltage (from 68-114)
Table4.1: Result table

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), switch on the unit.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope.

Continue to observe the waveforms as the inductance is slowly increased by re-inserting the
core. With the core fully inserted, sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, on to
suitable graph paper and record the peak voltage and current in the second column of the table
with the core fully inserted.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

NOTE If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 4-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 43


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that the 10µF switch on the 67-201 is
on, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

Figure 4-7: Result: Resistive load

Figure 4-8: Result: Resistive and inductive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 44


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Figure 4-9: Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 45


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 46


LAB # 3- Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 47


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

LAB # 04: Three phase Half wave Rectifier

Introduction:
Generally the three phase half wave connection is the basic element in most of the polyphase
rectifier circuits. It does, however require a supply transformer with an interconnected star
secondary. When the 67-132 power supply is connected as for configuration B, the supply
transformers are in this configuration, with the neutral point connected to the 70-220 neutral
socket. See Figure A-4-1.

Figure A-4-1: Star connected 3 phase supply

Single Phase half wave rectifier:


For each supply phase is connected to the load via a diode, and, as in all half wave connections,
the load current is returned to the supply neutral.

The circuit functions in a manner such that only one diode is conducting at any given instant.
This is the one which is connected to the phase having the highest instantaneous value of the
voltage.

To see why this is so consider Figure A-4-2.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 48


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

Figure A-4-2: Three phase half wave rectification

Recall that a diode only conducts when it is forward biased, i.e. L1 must be positive with respect
to D1 for it to conduct and similarly for L2, D2, and L3, D3. Suppose that D3 has the highest
instantaneous voltage applied and is conducting. The point D3 is then at the same potential as
L3. Since L2 and L1 are at lower instantaneous voltages, they both become negatively biased
and stop conducting.

Therefore when the voltage of any phase applied to a non conducting diode becomes greater than
that applied to the diode currently conducting, it immediately becomes the conducting diode.
This process or transferring the load current from one diode to another is called “commutation”.
The resultant waveform is shown in Figure A-4-3.

Figure A-4-3: Three phase half wave rectification

It will be clearly seen that the rectified load voltage is much smoother than is the case for the
single phase half wave circuit.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 49


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

The instantaneous dc load voltage repeats itself three times per cycle and varies between the
maximum value of the phase voltage and half of this value (sin 60xVmax)

Objective:
When you have completed Assignments 2, 3, 4, and 5 you will:

 Understand the difference between half and full waverectification


 Understand the difference between single and three phase rectification
 Understand the benefits of one against theother
 Understand some of the terminology used in rectifierspecifications

Pre Lab:

Pre request
Understand the difference between rms and mean in an electrical circuit.
Know how to use and read ammeters and voltmeters in an electricalcircuit
Have an understanding of circuits containing both ac and dc voltagelevels
Know how to read and understand basic circuitdiagrams
Know how to use and read anoscilloscope
Have an understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac and dccircuits

Pre Lab Task:

Mean value of load voltage


Vmax = 0.83Vmax(Phase)

Rms value of load voltage


Vrms=0.84Vmax(Phase)

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 50


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

Connect the 67-132 power supply for three phase (Configuration A).

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in circuit diagram Figure A-4-4 and
patching diagram Figure A-4-5.

Figure A-4-4: Circuit diagram for single phase full wave rectification

Figure A-4-5: Patching diagram

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 51


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

Figure A-4-6: 60132 – Configuration A

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, and that the 67-142 switches are set to on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, and record the peak voltage and current
in the first column of a table similar to that shown in Table 4-1.

Record the rms voltage and mean voltages across the load and the rms supply voltage and current
in the first column of the table

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 52


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

Value to be measured R R-L R-C


Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)
Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Mean Load Current (from 68-116)
Rms Load Current from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)
Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)
Rms Supply Voltage (from 68-114)
Table4.1: Result table

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), switch on the unit.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope.

Continue to observe the waveforms as the inductance is slowly increased by re-inserting the
core. With the core fully inserted, sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, on to
suitable graph paper and record the peak voltage and current in the second column of the table
with the core fully inserted.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 4-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that the 10µF switch on the 67-201 is
on, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 53
LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

Figure 4-7: Result: Resistive load

Figure 4-8: Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure 4-9: Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 54


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 55


LAB # 4- Three Phase Half Wave Rectifier

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 56


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

LAB # 05: Three phase full wave Rectifier

Introduction:
The three phase bridge connection is most readily seen as a full wave or double way connection.

Figure A-5-1: Three phase full wave rectification

The load is fed via a three phase half wave connection, the return current path being via another
half wave connection to one of the three supply lines. Note that no neutral is required. Again we
assume that the 3 phase supply is star connected, in a similar manner to the case for the half
wave connections

30°- 90º 150º- 210º

150º- 210º 210º-270º

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 57


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

270º-330º 330º-360º
Figure A-5-2: Three phase full wave diode switching sequence

Objective:
When you have completed Assignments 2, 3, 4, and 5 you will:

 Understand the difference between half and full waverectification


 Understand the difference between single and three phase rectification
 Understand the benefits of one against theother
 Understand some of the terminology used in rectifierspecifications

Pre Lab:

Pre request
Understand the difference between rms and mean in an electrical circuit.
Know how to use and read ammeters and voltmeters in an electricalcircuit
Have an understanding of circuits containing both ac and dc voltagelevels
Know how to read and understand basic circuitdiagrams
Know how to use and read anoscilloscope
Have an understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac and dccircuits

Pre Lab Task:

Mean value of load voltage


Vmean = 0.95 Vmax (line)

Rms value of load voltage


Vrms=0.955Vmax

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 58


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

Comparison to half wave case

In the half wave case we saw from Equation 1 that Vmean= 0.83 Vmax.

From Equation 2, the mean voltage in the full wave case is closer to the maximum voltage
implying a smoother waveform with less ripple.

However there is a significant difference. In the half wave case we saw that the maximum
voltage across the load is equal to the phase voltage. Consequently Equation 1 reads

Vmean = 0.83 Vmax (phase)

In the case of the full wave rectification the maximum voltage across the load is equal to the line
voltage which is 3 times the phase voltage.

Hence the three phase rectified full wave voltage output not only has less ripple, but its
maximum value is 3 times the maximum vaue of the three phase half wave supply.

Find Vmax for rectified 3 phase voltage available in lab.

Vmax (3phase half wave)_____________________. Vmax (3phase full wave)____________________.

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

Connect the 67-132 power supply for three phase(Configuration A).

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in circuit diagram Figure A-5-3 and
patching diagram Figure A-5-4.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 59


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

Figure A-5-3: Circuit diagram for single phase full wave rectification

Figure A-5-4: Patching diagram

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 60


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

Figure A-5-5: 60132 – Configuration A

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, and that the 67-142 switches are set to on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, and record the peak voltage and current
in the first column of a table similar to that shown in Table 4-1.

Record the rms voltage and mean voltages across the load and the rms supply voltage and current
in the first column of the table

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Value to be measured R R-L R-C


Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)
Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Mean Load Current (from 68-116)
Rms Load Current from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 61


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)


Rms Supply Voltage (from 68-114)
Table5.1: Result table

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), switch on the unit.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope.

Continue to observe the waveforms as the inductance is slowly increased by re-inserting the
core. With the core fully inserted, sketch the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope, on to
suitable graph paper and record the peak voltage and current in the second column of the table
with the core fully inserted.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 5-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Switch off the 67-132 power supply

Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that the 10µF switch on the 67-201 is
on, and that all the switches on the 67-142 are on.

Turn on the 67-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 62


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

Figure 5-6: Result: Resistive load

Figure 5-7: Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure 5-8: Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 63


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 64


LAB # 5- Three Phase Full Wave Rectifier

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 65


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

LAB # 06: Single Phase Half Wave Controlled


Rectification

Introduction:

The Silicon Controlled Rectifier


The silicon controlled rectifier or SCR is like an electronic switch. The circuit symbol is shown
in Figure A-6-1a, connected with terminals called ‘anode’ (A) and cathode (K).

The switch may be controlled by signals applied between a third terminal called the ‘gate’ (G)
and the cathode. It comprises four silicon layers which are doped alternately P and N, shown in
Figure A-6-1b. These may be considered equivalent to a pair of interconnected transistors,
Figure A-6-1c and Figure A-6-1d.

Suppose first that in Figure A-6-1d the gate terminal G carries no current, and that Ib2 = 0. With
no base drive the lower (NPN) transistor does not conduct, so that Ic2 = Ib1 = 0, giving no base
drive to the upper (PNP) transistor either. All the currents are therefore zero and no current flows
in the external load R.

Now suppose that current is injected into the G terminal so that Ib2 takes a positive value. This
will cause a current Ic2 to flow, which in turn causes the upper transistor to conduct. Its collector
current Ic1 adds to IG causing the lower transistor to conduct more. The action is regenerative,
and builds up until both transistors conduct heavily with low voltage drop.

It may seem as if the regenerative action ought to build up the current from even the smallest
level, such as leakage current. What prevents this from happening in practice is the fact that at
very low currents the current gain of a transistor falls off, so that the regenerative action is not
strong enough to build up. It is important however, when the SCR is required not to conduct, to
prevent the current within it rising temporarily for any reason. Such a rise can happen due to
voltage between anode and cathode momentarily exceeding the break-over voltage (see Figure
A-6-2)

Voltage between anode and cathode rising so suddenly that a capacitance between the silicon
layers passes a current pulse

The temperature rising so much that leakage currents becomeexcessive

Normal control action, the injection of gatecurrent.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 66


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

In Assignments 2-5, the waveforms produced by various loads were studied and their effects on
the semiconductors rectifying the supply. In the following assignments, the same type of work
will be carried out, taking into account the lessons from these first assignment, but concentrating
more on the effects of variable supplies to the load and the requirements of the SCR’s to provide
them.

Before commencing these practicals, you should be aware of some of the terms used when using
SCR circuits. In an ac circuit, both the positive and the negative halfs of the cycle are used. The
circuit is then deemed to have a conduction angle of 360°. The conduction angle can be readily
remembered as the part of the waveform that isworking.

In unsmoothed dc circuits, such as those produced from either a half wave rectified or full wave
rectified supply, it is usual to talk only of a 180° conduction angle. Look at Figure A-6-6. This
shows the usable part of an ac waveform, ie. all 360°, but with the dc half wave supply, there is
only 180° that is usable and with the full wave supply, the waveform repeats after 180° anyway.

The conduction angle is measured from where the dc pulse touches the zero line, to a point
‘previous’ to this zero point, where the half cycle commences to conduct. The word previous is
important here, because time is always shown as going from left to right and conduction will
always begin before the zero point.

The point at which conduction commences, is usually called the conduction, firing or trigger
point of an SCR. The circuit that fires the SCR into conduction, is called the firing circuit, which
works by applying a firing pulse, a pulse of current onto the SCRgate.

Figure A-6-6 shows these firing pulses and how they are measured. The firing circuit usually
produces two such firing pulses, one between 0° and 180° (to use on the positive half of an ac
supply) and one between 180° and 360° (to use on the rectified, negative half of the cycle).

The firing pulses are also measured as an angle but this time as an ordinary angle compared to
the ac waveform. You should notice a switch marked “Firing Pulses” on the 70-220 which gives
the user the choice between all six pulse outputs to be in the 0° to 180° region or split with three
at 0° to 180° and three at 180° to 360°, or with overlap, so that each thyristor is fired twice
consecutively for full wave operation which requires two thyristorsalways to be conducting
during the conductionperiod.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 67


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

On commercial SCR units, the potentiometer that controls the firing angle via the firing circuit is
usually called the ‘reference voltage’. In this assignment, we shall be using the 70-220’s ‘set
speed control’ to give our reference voltage.

A +V I

P1
N1 gate
G P2
K N2 I
G
a. Symbol

b. SiliconEquivilent

R I
+V
A P1
N1 N1
Ic2 gate
=Ib1 P2 P2
Ic
1 N2 I
G

Ib
G d. CircuitEquivalent
2
K c. SimplifiedEquivalent

Figure A-6-1:Silicon Control Rectifier

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 68


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

forward current forward characteristic in


conducting state
forwardbreakover voltage

forward
voltage
forward blocking characteristic in
non-conductingstate

reverse current
Figure A-6-2: SCR characteristics

AC

Supply

360°

DC
Conduction
Supply angle
Half-wave
180° 180°

DC

Supply
Full-wave
180° 180° 180°
DC

controlled
supply
135° 135°
Half-wave
DC
Conduction
controlled point
supply
135° 135° 135°
Full-wave

Firing

circuit 1

Firing
Firing
circuit 2 angle
225°
Figure A-6-3: Conduction angles

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 69


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Objective:
In these assignments, the student will study the use of half and full wave rectification in both
single and three phase circuits under different load conditions, using silicon controlled rectifiers
or SCR’s

Pre Lab:

Pre request
 Understand the difference between rams and meanin an electricalcircuit
 Understand the use and meaning ofsemiconductor specificationsymbols
 Know how to read and understand basic circuit diagrams
 Know how to use and read anoscilloscope
 Know how to use and read ammeters and voltmeters in an electricalcircuit

Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification


Consider Figure A-6-4. This shows the supply voltage waveform and the rectified waveform for
a firing angle of . The conduction angle is clearly -.

Supply Voltage

  
Controlled
Output Voltage for
firing angle α
 

Time

Figure A-6-4: Controlled single phase half wave rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 70


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Note the large discontinuous jump in the load voltage when the thyristor fires. This jump is
greatest at a firing angle of / 2 (90), so we will expect any capacitance in the load to have the
greatest distorting effect on the rectified waveform at this angle. At a firing angle of 0 the
thyristor is behaving in most respects as a normal diode, whilst at a firing angle of (180) the
thyristor is not conducting atall.

Mean value of load voltage

𝝅
𝟐𝝅
𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 = 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 ∫ 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜽 𝒅𝜽⁄∫ 𝒅𝜽
𝟎
𝜶

Therefore
𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝒅𝜽
𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 =𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝟏 +
𝟐𝝅

RMS Load Voltage

𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝟐𝜶
√𝝅 − 𝜶 + 𝟐 ⁄
𝑽𝒓𝒎𝒔 = 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝝅

Pre Lab Task:

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 71


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

Connect the 67-132 power supply for single phase (Configuration B).

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 as circuit diagram shown in Figure A-6-5 andpanel shown
in Figure A-6-6.

Figure A-6-5: Circuit diagram for single phase half wave control rectification

Figure A-6-6: Patching diagram

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 72


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Figure A-6-7: Single phase half wave control rectification

Figure A-6-5 shows the patching connections for this assignment.

For readability not all the 70-220 connections are shown in Figure A-6-6. They are shown in the
magnified view in Figure A-6-7.

Inspection of the circuit diagram in Figure A-6-5 shows that the current flows from the supply
positive, through the thyristor, and back to the neutral line during the supply input positive
cycleonly.

Figure A-6-8 illustrates the resulting dc voltage for a firing angle of 45, and a conduction angle
of 135

DC
controlled
supply
Half-wave

Figure A-6-8: Waveform for a conduction angle of 135.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 73


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, that the 67-142 switches are set to on, and that the 0-10V reference voltage control is
turned fully anti-clockwise to the “0” position. The reference voltage control is immediately
below the 70-220 green power on button

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Press the green power on button on the 70-220

Watch the oscilloscope as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Ref. R R-L R-C


Voltage
rms rms Mean rms rms Mean rms rms Mean
Scale
Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load
Divisions Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Table 6.1: Result table

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 74


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage control is at

zero (fully anti-clockwise).

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), press the green power on button on
the 70-220. Fully insert the inductance core.

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit. Also observe and record the two traces on the
oscilloscope.

NOTE If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 6-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
on, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage is set to zero (fully
anti-clockwise).

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.


COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 75
LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-6-9 : Result: Resistive load

Figure A-6-10 : Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-6-11 : Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 76


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 77


LAB # 6- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 78


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

LAB # 07: Single Phase Full Wave Controlled


Rectification

Introduction:

Single Phase Full WaveControlled Rectification


Consider Figure A-7-1. This shows the supply voltage waveform and the rectified waveform for
a firing angle of . The conduction angle is clearly -.

Supply
Voltage

  
Controlled
Output
Voltage for
  
firing angle 

Time

Figure A-7-1: Controlled single phase full wave rectification

Note, as for the half wave case, the large discontinuous jump in the load voltage when the
thyristor fires. This jump is greatest at a firing angle of / 2 (90), so we will expect any
capacitance in the load to have the greatest distorting effect on the rectified waveform at this
angle. At a firing angle of 0 the thyristor is behaving in most respects as a normal diode, whilst at
a firing angle of (180 ) the thyristor is not conducting atall.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 79


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Objective:
In these assignments, the student will study the use of half and full wave rectification in both
single and three phase circuits under different load conditions, using silicon controlled rectifiers
or SCR’s

Pre Lab:

Pre request
 Understand the difference between rams and meanin an electricalcircuit
 Understand the use and meaning ofsemiconductor specificationsymbols
 Know how to read and understand basic circuit diagrams
 Know how to use and read anoscilloscope

Mean value of load voltage

𝝅
𝟐𝝅
𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 = 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 ∫ 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜽 𝒅𝜽⁄∫ 𝒅𝜽
𝟎
𝜶

Therefor

𝟏+𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶
𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 =𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙
𝝅

RMS Load Voltage

𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝟐𝜶
𝑽𝒓𝒎𝒔 = 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 √(𝝅 − 𝜶 + 𝟐
)⁄
𝟐𝝅

Pre Lab Task:

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 80


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.
Connect the 67-132 power supply for single phase (Configuration B).
Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 as circuit diagram shown in Figure A-7-2 and panel shown
in Figure A-7-3
Set the firing pulse selector switch to the fully clockwise position.

Figure A-7-2: Circuit diagram for single phase half wave control rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 81


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-7-3: Patching diagram

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Figure A-7-4: Single phase full wave control rectification

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, that the 67-142 switches are set to on, and that the 0-10V reference voltage control is
turned fully anti-clockwise to the “0” position. The reference voltage control is immediately
below the 70-220 green power on button

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Press the green power on button on the 70-220

Watch the oscilloscope as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 82


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage control is at

zero (fully anti-clockwise).

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), press the green power on button on
the 70-220. Fully insert the inductance core.

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit. Also observe and record the two traces on the
oscilloscope.

NOTE If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 7-1.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 83


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Ref. R R-L R-C


Voltage
rms rms Mean rms rms Mean rms rms Mean
Scale
Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load
Divisions Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Table 7.1: Result table

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
on, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage is set to zero (fully
anti-clockwise).

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 84


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-7-5 : Result: Resistive load

Figure A-7-6 : Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-7-7 : Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 85


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 86


LAB # 7- Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 87


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

LAB # 08: Three phase Half wave Controlled


Rectification

Introduction:

Three phase Half wave Controlled Rectification


The circuit functions in a manner such that only one thyristor is conducting at any given instant.
In contrast to the uncontrolled diode case, the load current will become zero at a particular firing
angle.

Figure A-8-1: Three phase half wave rectification

Figure A-8-2: Three phase half wave rectification at firing angle α

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 88


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-8-2 shows the voltage waveform across the load for a firing angle α= 30 degrees. In
this case commutation does not occur until the next thyristor candidate is fired. In the case of
small firing angles the voltage remains positive until commutation takes place, but for large
firing angles the voltage will reduce to zero and may remain at zero before the next firing cycle.

Note that the rapid rise of load voltage at the point of commutation will generate harmonic
frequencies, and that this effect is greatest for large firing angles where the voltage has become
zero before the next conduction point.

Objective:
In these assignments, the student will study the use of half and full wave rectification in both
single and three phase circuits under different load conditions, using silicon controlled rectifiers
or SCR’s

Pre Lab:

Pre request
 Understand the difference between rams and meanin an electricalcircuit
 Understand the use and meaning ofsemiconductor specificationsymbols
 Know how to read and understand basic circuit diagrams
 Know how to use and read anoscilloscope

Current flow and commutation


It will be seen from Figure A-8-2, that the commutation points are displaced by the firing angle
from the uncontrolled diode case, and are given in the following table 8-2.

Phase Commutation Conducting


angle thyristor
Red (L1 or VA) 300+ T1
Yellow (L2 or VB) 60+ T2
Blue (L1 or VC) 180+ T3
Table 8-1

Mean value of load voltage


𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟑𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙(𝒑𝒉𝒂𝒔𝒆) 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 89


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Pre Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.
Connect the 67-132 power supply for single phase (Configuration A).
Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 as circuit diagram shown in Figure A-8-2 and panel shown
in Figure A-8-3
Set the firing pulse selector switch to the “0-180°” position.

Figure A-8-2: Circuit diagram for single phase half wave control rectification

Figure A-8-3: Patching diagram

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 90


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Figure A-8-4: 70-220 magnified showing thyristor gate connections

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, that the 67-142 switches are set to on, and that the 0-10V reference voltage control is
turned fully anti-clockwise to the “0” position. The reference voltage control is immediately
below the 70-220 green power on button

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Press the green power on button on the 70-220

Watch the oscilloscope as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 91


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage control is at

zero (fully anti-clockwise).

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), press the green power on button on
the 70-220. Fully insert the inductance core.

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit. Also observe and record the two traces on the
oscilloscope.

NOTE: If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 8-2.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 92


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Ref. R R-L R-C


Voltage
rms rms Mean rms rms Mean rms rms Mean
Scale
Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load
Divisions Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Table 8.2: Result table

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
on, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage is set to zero (fully
anti-clockwise).

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 93


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-8-5 : Result: Resistive load

Figure A-8-6 : Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-8-7 : Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 94


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 95


LAB # 8- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 96


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

LAB # 09: Three phase Full wave Controlled


Rectification

Introduction:

Three phase Full wave Controlled Rectification


The three phase bridge connection is shown as a full wave or double way connection by
reference to the circuit layout shown in Figure A-9-1.

Figure A-9-1: Three phase full wave


Load
Voltage

rectification
Figure A-9-2: Three phase Full wave rectification at firing angle α

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 97


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

The resultant waveform for a firing angle of 30 degrees is shown in bold and blue in Figure A-9-
2. Its maximum value is dependent on the actual firing angle, but for firing angles in the range 0
≤ α ≤30°, the maximum voltage is equal to the line voltage. For firing angles greater than 30°,
the maximum load voltage varies between the line voltage and zero depending on the firing
angle.

The interpretation of the terms VA, VB, Vc is as follows:

VA, represents line voltage L1-L2

VB, represents line voltage L2-L3

VC, represents line voltage L3-L1.

Objective:
In these assignments, the student will study the use of half and full wave rectification in both
single and three phase circuits under different load conditions, using silicon controlled rectifiers
or SCR’s

Pre Lab:

Pre request
 Understand the difference between rams and meanin an electricalcircuit
 Understand the use and meaning ofsemiconductor specificationsymbols
 Know how to read and understand basic circuit diagrams
 Know how to use and read anoscilloscope

Current flow and commutation


Commutation occurs at the firing point when a thyristor starts to conduct. Figure A-9-3
illustrates the commutation process by showing the current flow through the circuit at each
commutation angle stage over a full 360° cycle. Note the similarities with the uncontrolled diode
rectification case in Assignment 5.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 98


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Thyristor pair in
Commutation angle
conduction
30+  T1 and T6
90+  T1 and T2
150+  T2 and T3
210+  T3 and T4
270+  T4 and T5
330+  T5 and T6
Table 9-1

Note that, at any given instant, two thyristors must be simultaneously conducting to provide a
continuous circuit. This requires that the thyristor pair in conduction must both be
simultaneously fired. This method of firing is termed “overlap”, and is activated by turning the
firing selector switch on the 70- 220 Front Panel to the overlap position.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 99


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-9-3: Three phase full wave thyristor switching sequence


COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 100
LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Mean value of load voltage


𝟐𝝅
+𝜶
𝟏 𝟑 𝟑
𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 =𝝅 ∫ 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙(𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒆) 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝒅𝜽 = 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙(𝒍𝒊𝒏𝒆) 𝒄𝒐𝒔𝜶
⁄𝟑 𝝅+𝜶 𝝅
𝟑

Where Vmax(line) is the maximum line to line voltage. Clearly the mean load voltage varies
between zero and 3/ 𝜋Vmax(line).

As for all other cases where the voltage is discontinuous, we will expect a frequency harmonic
content in the voltage which will affect the behavior of the load voltage and current in reactive
loads containing inductance and capacitance.

Pre Lab Task:

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 101


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

Connect the 67-132 power supply for single phase (Configuration A).

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 as circuit diagram shown in Figure A-8-2 and panel shown
in Figure A-8-3

Set the firing pulse selector switch to “overlap”.

.
Figure A-9-4: Circuit diagram for single phase half wave control rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 102


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-9-5: Patching diagram

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.


A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Figure A-9-6: 70-220 magnified showing thyristor gate connections

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 103


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, that the 67-142 switches are set to on, and that the 0-10V reference voltage control is
turned fully anti-clockwise to the “0” position. The reference voltage control is immediately
below the 70-220 green power on button

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Press the green power on button on the 70-220

Watch the oscilloscope as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage control is at

zero (fully anti-clockwise).

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), press the green power on button on
the 70-220. Fully insert the inductance core.

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit. Also observe and record the two traces on the
oscilloscope.

NOTE: If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 104
LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 9-2.

Ref. R R-L R-C


Voltage
rms rms Mean rms rms Mean rms rms Mean
Scale
Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load
Divisions Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current Voltage Current Current
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Table 9.2: Result table

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
on, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage is set to zero (fully
anti-clockwise).

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 105


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-9-7 : Result: Resistive load

Figure A-9-8 : Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-9-9 : Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 106


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 107


LAB # 9- Three Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 108


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

LAB # 10: Single Phase Half Controlled Rectification

Introduction:
It is possible to control the mean dc load voltage by using only two thyristors and two diodes as
shown in the half controlled schematic shown in Figure A-10-1.

Figure A-10-1: Diode thyristor schematic for half controlled rectification

Figure A-10-1 clearly shows that the full wave connection is the addition of two half wave
circuits, the input current to the load being via the thyristorswith the diodes providing the return
path.

Figure A-10-2: Waveforms for half controlled rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 109


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Objective:
Understand the working and usage of single phase half control rectifier

Pre Lab:

Pre request
Know the functionality of single phase control and uncontrolled rectifiers.
Understand the working of SCR.
Have an understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac and dccircuits

Mean load voltage


𝟏 𝝅 𝒗𝒎𝒂𝒙
𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 = ∫ 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝒅𝜽 = (𝟏 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶)
𝝅 𝜶 𝝅
As for all other cases where the voltage is discontinuous, we will expect a frequency harmonic
content in the voltage which will affect the behavior of the load voltage and current in reactive
loads containing inductance and capacitance.

Pre Lab Task:

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 110


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.

Connect the 67-132 power supply for single phase (Configuration B).

Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in Figure A-10-3 and the circuit diagram

in Figure A-10-4.

Figure A-10-3: Circuit diagram for single phase full wave half control rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 111


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-10-4: Patching diagram

A, B & C position of meters are to measure supply readings.

A*, B* & C* position of meters are to measure load readings.

Figure A-10-5: Single phase full wave half control rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 112


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, that the 67-142 switches are set to on, and that the 0-10V reference voltage control is
turned fully anti-clockwise to the “0” position. The reference voltage control is immediately
below the 70-220 green power on button

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Press the green power on button on the 70-220

Watch the oscilloscope as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Value to be measured R R-L R-C


Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)
Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Mean Load Current (from 68-116)
Rms Load Current from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)
Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)
Rms Supply Voltage (from 68-114)
Table 10.1: Result table

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage control is at

zero (fully anti-clockwise).

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 113


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), press the green power on button on
the 70-220. Fully insert the inductance core.

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit. Also observe and record the two traces on the
oscilloscope.

NOTE If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 10-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
on, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage is set to zero (fully
anti-clockwise).

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 114


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-10-6 : Result: Resistive load

Figure A-10-7 : Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-10-8 : Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 115


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 116


LAB # 10- Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 117


LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

LAB # 11: Three Phase Half Controlled Rectification

Introduction:
As in the single phase half controlled case, control of the load voltage is possible if three
thyristors are used for the half wave connection feeding the load with three diodes providing the
other half cycle to return the current to the supply.

Figure A-11-1: Diode thyristor schematic for half controlled rectification

Figure A-11-1 clearly shows that the full wave connection is the addition of two half wave
circuits, the input current to the load being via the thyristorswith the diodes providing the return
path.

Figure A-11-2: Waveforms for half controlled rectification

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LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

The action of the circuit is shown in Figure A-11-2.

Inspection of Figure A-11-2 shows that a zero mean voltage is reached at a firing angle of 180.

Objective:
Understand the working and usage of three phase half control rectifier

Pre Lab:

Pre request
Know the functionality of three phase control and uncontrolled rectifiers.
Understand the working of SCR.
Have an understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac and dccircuits

Mean load voltage


𝟏 𝝅 𝒗𝒎𝒂𝒙
𝑽𝒎𝒆𝒂𝒏 = ∫ 𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽𝒅𝜽 = (𝟏 + 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝜶)
𝝅 𝜶 𝝅
As for all other cases where the voltage is discontinuous, we will expect a frequency harmonic
content in the voltage which will affect the behavior of the load voltage and current in reactive
loads containing inductance and capacitance.

Pre Lab Task:

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 119


LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Circuit diagram andpatching:


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit.
Connect the 67-132 power supply for Three phase (Configuration A).
Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in Figure A-11-3 and the circuit diagram
in Figure A-11-4.

Figure A-11-3: Circuit diagram for single phase full wave half control rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 120


LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-11-4: Patching diagram

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LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, that the 67-142 switches are set to on, and that the 0-10V reference voltage control is
turned fully anti-clockwise to the “0” position. The reference voltage control is immediately
below the 70-220 green power on button

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Press the green power on button on the 70-220

Watch the oscilloscope as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Also observe and record the two traces on the oscilloscope.

Value to be measured R R-L R-C


Mean Load Voltage (from 68-116)
Rms Load Voltage from 68-114)
Mean Load Current (from 68-116)
Rms Load Current from 68-114)
Peak Load Voltage (from oscilloscope)
Peak Load current (from oscilloscope)
Rms Supply Voltage (from 68-114)
Table 11.1: Result table

Resistive plus Inductive Load


Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage control is at

zero (fully anti-clockwise).

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 122


LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Ensuring that the inductance is at minimum (core fully out), press the green power on button on
the 70-220. Fully insert the inductance core.

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit. Also observe and record the two traces on the
oscilloscope.

NOTE If both waveforms on the oscilloscope are superimposed on each other, this practical
demonstrates a very good example of the phase shift obtained with an inductive circuit.

Record the rms and mean voltage and current across the load, and the rms supply voltage and
current, in the second column of Table 11-1.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Replace the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
on, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage is set to zero (fully
anti-clockwise).

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 5 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Observe the waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope and record.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 123


LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Figure A-11-5: Result: Resistive load

Figure A-11-6: Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-11-7 : Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 124


LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 125


LAB # 11- Three Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectification

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 126


LAB # 12- AC Control

LAB # 12: AC Control

Introduction:
In the previous assignments we have seen how SCR’s or thyristors can be used to provide a
variable dc voltage from a single or three phase ac source.

Similarly thyristors can be used to control an AC source. To do this the positive and negative
portions of the waveform must remain of equal magnitude (otherwise a dc component will be
present) and retain the same phase relationship to each other as the original supply voltage
waveform.

Where the thyristors are configured to produce dc output, the positive part of the waveform is
unaltered, but the negative part is reversed in sign to become positive. If we wish not to reverse
the negative part of the waveform, it would seem reasonable to reverse the connections of the
thyristors which are usually conducting in the dc case. This is exactly how ac control is
accomplished.

Single phase ac control


For the single phase case the arrangement shown in Figure A- 12-1 is used. Clearly T1 conducts
during the positive, and T2 during the negative half of the cycle. The voltage across the load is
therefore ac with a waveform as shown in Figure A-12- 2.

T1

T2

~ Lo ad

Figure A-12-1: Arrangement for single phase ac control

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LAB # 12- AC Control

The voltage across the load is therefore ac with a waveform as shown in Figure A-12-2.

Figure A-12-2: Single phase controlled ac waveform

Figure A-12-3: Arrangement for three phase ac control

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LAB # 12- AC Control

Three Phase ac control


AC Control of 3 phases is accomplished by treating each as a single phase, with each one
providing a controlled ac output as shown in Figure A-12-3. For applications such as motor
control it is important for the three outputs to be balanced to avoid problems such as motor
vibration, and so the firing angles for all three phases should be the same. The two thyristors
involved in each phase control have firing angles separated by 180°.

Figure A-12-3 shows three star connected loads and this arrangement will be used in the
experiments in this Assignment.

Objective:
After completing this assignment you will be able to control

 Single phase AC devices.


 Three phase AC devices.
 Understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac devices.

Pre Lab:

Pre request
Understanding of single and three phase control rectifiers.
Know how to read and understand basic circuitdiagrams.
Know how to use and read anoscilloscope.
Have an understanding of the behavior of inductors and capacitors in ac and dccircuits.

Pre Lab Task:


Write a note on AC fan regulator.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 129


LAB # 12- AC Control

Lab Task:

Lab Task-01:

Single Phase AC Control


Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit
Patch the 67-132 Power Supply as shown in Figure A-12-7 (Configuration B).
Set the firing pulse selector switch to the most clockwise position (P1,3,5 –0-180and P2,4,6
180-360).
Connect the Load Units to the 70-220 panel as shown in Figure A-12-4 and the circuit diagram
in Figure A-12-6.
Patch the 70-220 Panel as shown in Figure A-12-5

Figure A-: Patching diagram

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 130


LAB # 12- AC Control

Figure A-12-5: 70-220 magnified showing thyristor gate connections

Figure A-12-6: Circuit diagram for single phase ac control

Single Phase Half Wave Resistive Load:


Ensure that the switches in the 67-201 are all open, the shorting link across the inductor is
present, that the 67-142 switches are set to on, and that the 0-10V reference voltage control is
turned fully anti-clockwise to the “0” position. The reference voltage control is immediately
below the 70-220 green power on button

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 131


LAB # 12- AC Control

Watch the oscilloscope as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 2 scale divisions sketch the load voltage and current waveform as
shown on the oscilloscope.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Resistive plus Inductive Load:


Remove the shorting link across the inductor and ensure that all the switches on the 67-201 are
off, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage control is at zero
(fully anti-clockwise)

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220.
Fully insert the inductance core.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope and switch
off the green power button on the 70-220.

At a reference voltage of 2 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveform as
shown on the oscilloscope.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit.

Resistive plus Capacitive Load


Replace the shorting link across the inductor, ensure that the 10 F switch on the 67-201 only is
on, that all the switches on the 67-142 are on, and that the reference voltage is set to zero (fully
anti-clockwise).

Switch on the 60-132 power supply unit and press the green power on button on the 70-220.

Watch the oscilloscope trace as you slowly turn the reference voltage control clockwise to its
maximum.

Return the reference voltage control slowly to zero whilst observing the oscilloscope.

At a reference voltage of 2 scale divisions, sketch the load voltage and current waveforms.

Switch off the 60-132 power supply unit and the 70-220 on completion of the assignment.

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 132


LAB # 12- AC Control

Figure A-12a: Result: Resistive load

Figure A-12a: Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-12a: Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 133


LAB # 12- AC Control

Lab Task-02:

Three Phase AC Control


Figure A-12-8 shows the patching connections for this the first Practical in this assignment.

Figure A-12-10 shown the circuit diagram for this practical. Note that the moving iron voltmeter
and the oscilloscope are measuring the line to line voltage, and that the moving iron ammeter and
current sensor are measuring the current through a single phase of the controlled output.

Figure A-12-8: Patching for 3 phase ac control

Turn off the 67-132 power supply unit


Patch the 67-132 Power Supply as shown in Figure A-12-11 (Configuration A).
Connect the resistive load unit in a star configuration and connect to the 70-220 panel as shown
in Figure A-12-8 and the circuit diagram in Figure A-12-10.
Set the firing pulse selector switch to the “P1, 3, 5 –0-180and P2, 4, 6 180-360” position.

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LAB # 12- AC Control

Figure A-12-9: 70-220 Panel patching

Figure A-12-10: Circuit diagram for 3 phase ac control

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LAB # 12- AC Control

Figure A-12b: Result: Resistive load

Figure A-12b: Result: Resistive and inductive load

Figure A-12b: Result: Resistive and capacitive load

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 136


LAB # 12- AC Control

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 137


LAB # 12- AC Control

Lab Assessment

Pre Lab /5

Performance /5

Results /5 /25

Viva /5

Critical Analysis /5

Instructor Signature and Comments

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Page 138