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The Premier University in ZamboangadelNorte

Main Campus, Dapitan City

A Marketing Research
Presented to
The Faculty of the College of Business and Accountancy
The Premier University in Zamboanga Del Norte
Main Campus, Dapitan City

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirement of the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Business Administration
Major in Marketing Management


February 2019
Republic of the Philippines
The Premier University in Zamboanga Del Norte
Main Campus, Dapitan City




fulfillment for the degree Bachelor of Science in Business Administration major in Marketing
Management, has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval for Oral


APPROVED by the Panel of Examiners on Oral Defense with the rating of ________.



____________________________ _____________________________
Member Member

ACCEPTED and APPROVEDby the Dean of the College of Business and Accountancy.


Dean, College of Business and Accountancy
Street foods are a source of culturally accepted, inexpensive, convenient and often
appealing foods for both urban and rural people worldwide. These are prepared and sold by
sellers on places like streets, festivals areas and consumed by the consumers on the run. Street
foods are alternatives to homemade food and are more affordable when compared with the food
supplied at the restaurants. This study aims to provide information onthe benefits and challenges
of street food consumption for both customers and consumers

Like most endeavor, this research would not have become a reality without the
collaborative effort of other personalities. We owe a great debt to every individual and
organizations who shared their resources, talents and time in order to realize this research.

The researchers would like to express their heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to the
people who inspired them in making this study.

To our instructor, Amiel B. Andias, who guided us and nourished our mind that we may
be able to perform and come up with a better output.

Dr. Wilfredo D. Carreon Jr., the Dean of College of Business and Accountancy for his
support, encouragement and invaluable for the development of this manuscript;

Dr. Wilfredo D. Carreon, members of the panel for their remarkable suggestions and
brilliant ideas;

Above all, our endless praises for the countless blessings, strength, courage and wisdom
our Almighty Father has bestowed upon us.

To our Family and Friends who rendered their full

Support in making this research successfully;

To the Faculty and Staff of the

College of Business and Accountancy;

To our adviser


For the help and guidelines;

And most of all to the almighty Father that bless and guide us

For the fulfillment

Of this requirement, without Him all of

This would be impossible.

This book is heartily dedicated to you all.

The Researchers

Street food is very popular all over the world and about two billion people consume it
every day. (FAO, 2009) defines street food as ready-to-eat foods and beverages that are prepared
and/or sold by itinerant or stationary vendors, especially on streets and in other public places.
Street food constitutes a major economy and a key nutritional source for millions of people
globally but it brings the concerns of food safety and informal economy in its wake. Like fast
foods, the final preparation of street foods occurs when the customer orders the meal which can
be consumed where it is purchased or taken away. Street foods and fast foods are low in cost
compared with restaurant meals and offer an attractive alternative to home-cooked food. In spite
of these similarities, street food and fast food enterprises differ in variety, environment,
marketing techniques and ownership.Street food is wide spread both in developing and
developed countries. Itprovides a source of affordable nutrients to the majority of the people
especially the low-income group in the developingcountries (Muzaffar et al. 2009). Most street
foods are classed as both finger food and fast food, and are cheaper on average than restaurant
meals. Some of the foods are sold already prepared while others are cooked on the spot.Street
foods are often seen as dirty, but this is only with unlicensed vendors. While most street foods
are not particularly nutritious, they are convenient, fast and cheap. In these days street foods are
an important source of affordable and ready-to-eat food available to everyone since it is sold in
almost every country in the world. Affordable yet accessible and approachable by the common
people, while being unique and ingenious, they have the added benefit that not only the people
from the country of origin but also the foreigners with a variety of nationalities and races can try
them easily without reluctance.Street food is inherently quick, handy, and relatively inexpensive,
very tasty and filling. These qualities make it a perfect supply for the demands of a wide range of
consumers, from lower to higher classes, students, and tourists. Working people in urban and
metropolitan areas find street food to be perfect solution to food access, given their time and
budgetary constraints. For young people, it is becoming a ritual in their late nights out, as the
only food outlets still running are trucks and carts. When tourists, especially those from
developed countries, travel to “exotic” places, they view street food as an essential ingredient in
that “ethnic” experience they seek; the quintessence of the real local, traditional food.
In addition to its original function, street foods are expanding to function as a tourism
resource with the characteristics of a specific region or a country. The demand for eating street
foods decreases in eating at home due to of rapid modernization. It reduces household food
spending and expanded the street food industry as a new income source of the laid-off.Street
food business represents a feasible solution to make a living.Urban population growth has
stimulated a rise in the number of street food vendors 1 in many cities throughout the world.
Migration from rural areas to urban centers has created a daily need among many working
people to eat outside the home. Demand for relatively inexpensive, ready-to-eat food has
increased as people, especially women, have less time to prepare meals.

This study anchored to the theory of (Tinker, 2018) that Street food is acknowledged as a
phenomenon of developing countries to provide fast, convenient, and cheap food for low and
middle income consumers (Tinker, 2018). Yet street food is currently prevalent in the developed
countries too (Bhimji, 2010; Newman & Burnett, 2013), and it is not only considered as an
option for poor but as a source for an authentic gastronomic experience for tourists (Torres-
Chavarria&Phakdee-auksorn, 2017).
Provide Fast Food is a vigorously uprising trend among the youngster (Kaushik et al,
2011). Although, its impact exits on whole society, whether belong to lower middle class and or
elite class. But beside this thing till today there is no proper definition of other fast food.
According to leading website, fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served
very quickly. (Habibiet at, 2011) described fast food as quickly prepared, reasonably prices\d and
readily available alternatives to home cooked food.
Convenient involves more than just quality time, especially in food preparations (Gofman
and Marshal, 1998; Buckley et al, 2007), but it also concentrates on physical and mental effort
associated with food-specific activities (Man and Fullerton, 1990; Buckley et al, 2007). It is
important to consider convenience at all stages in the process of food consumption and to
determine the proportionate importance that consumers attach to time and energy use in
acquisition, consumption and disposal (Brown and McEnally, 1993). Therefore, convenience is
defined in terms of time, physical energy and mental effort savings related to food preparation
and consumption.
Cheap food but it condenses a broader sociological, philosophical, and economical scope.
First, street food vending is a survival strategy for disadvantaged groups of large cities. It
generates a means of living for women (Tinker, 1999), rural-urban migrants (Etzold, 2016), and
transnational immigrants of modern cities (Bhimji, 2010). Second, a great variety of food is sold
on the streets. Street food is mostly produced by using local foods and cooked with traditional
techniques and also reflects the ethnic diversity of city residents and their cuisines (Calloni,
2013). Third, the creation of a vibrant urban space by street food vendors enables socialization
for city residents and also attracts tourists to the districts of food sale (Newman & Burnett,
On the other hand challenges facing of consumer and customers in street foods are food
poisoning, food borne diseases and food safety and maintaining hygiene have been declared a
major public health concern by international health agencies and street foods have in many
studies been associatedwith microbiological contamination and low hygienic standards (WHO
Food Poisoning is the result of consuming contaminated foods and drinks. Not following
hygienic rules in the process from preparation to the consumption of food, or in the inappropriate
storage of food can be harmful for health. Chemical materials, natural food poison, parasites and
microorganism can cause food illness and poisoning (Merdolet al.2000; Ozcan, 2007). Food
poisoning is a group of illness acquired by consumption of foods contaminated with a variety of
causes raging from effective organism or their toxins to chemical contaminant where metallic or
organic (Yagod, 2004).
Food Borne Disease it is an illnesscomprises a broad spectrum of decease and is
responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a growing public health
problem in developing as well as developed countries. It is difficult to determine the exact
mortality associated with food bone illness. However, worldwide estimated 2 million deaths
occurred due to gastrointestinal illness, during the year 2005. More than 250 different foodborne
illnesses are caused by various pathogens or by toxins (Fleury et al, 2008). Foodborne decease
remains a major public health problem across the globe. The problem is more severe in
developing countries because of lack of personal hygiene and food safety measures. As much
70% of diarrhea deceases in developing countries are believed to be of foodborne origin (Amany
Food Safety contamination and health risk are deeply embedded in the social and cultural
context and everyday life practices. Biomedical concept of contamination and health risk are
therefore not adequate to capture all complexity of behaviours and attitudes (Mary Douglas
Maintaining Hygiene perceptions and practices also turned out to be part of a complex
system of interactions between vendors and consumers, particularly concerned with appearance
and presentation (Goffman 2006) According to (Barth, 1983; Allain, 1988) street foods are a
bargain for customers when the demands of time and costs of food, fuel, cooking equipment and
transportation are taken into account .The consumer's limited purchasing power and competition
by fellow hawkers lead to relatively low mark-ups (averaging 40 percent) on street foods (Barth,
1983). Vendors can often provide items at lower prices than other retailers since they have lower
rent and capital equipment expenses. Because ingredients are bought in large quantities and at
the cheapest markets, the cost of a single serving is quite competitive with home cooking and
often less expensive because vendors cater for numerous consumers. Street foods can be an
excellent value for consumers if they have easy access to stalls; there is fair competition;
overheads are kept low; sanitary conditions are acceptable; and the nutritional value of meals is
Street food is not only a cultural phenomenon and a source of nutrition, but it also is a
way for many people to generate income. Street foods are long existent and embedded in urban
cultures worldwide, and are cheap and easily accessible, even for the poorest in the city. The
changes in urban life caused by globalization and urbanization, such as growing distance
between home and work and the increased woman labor force also contribute to an increased
demand for easily accessible food (FAO, 2007).
Although there has been research on street foods, little of it provides insight in the socio-
economic aspects and the dynamics of the sector. There is very little information to be found on
the history of street foods, and on how it has come to play an important role in urban life. Since
the street food sector is considered to be predominantly informal, its importance is not accounted
for in official statistics which thus tends to overemphasize the role of supermarkets and other
aspects of a modernized food system such as fast food restaurants. The literature that can be
found on the topic mostly covers research on hygiene issues and quantitative data on income
(FAO, 2007, 2012; WHO, 2007; Mensah et al., 2002; Mwangi, 2002). Street (food) vendors tend
to be characterized as problematic, as there are many concerns about food safety and
municipality regulation (Cohen et al., 2000). Local governments, for instance in Kampala,
Uganda considers the street (food) vendors as a sign of underdevelopment and attempts to evict
them from the streets (KCCA, 2006). However, the street food sector is flourishing as ever. In
Kampala, most people eat on the streets daily.



Provide Fast Food, Convenient and Cheap Food

Food Poisoning, Food Borne Disease and Food


The topic of food safety dominates the field of street food research. In this context, most
of the research studies examined producers’ and/or vendors’ practices, but fewer of them
concentrated on how consumers of street foods are aware of potential threats to food safety. By a
review of existing literature, Alimi and Workneh (2016) reported that generally consumers do not
know about health risks associated with street food but there are also some studies indicating a
high level of consumer awareness about possible failures of safety. Interestingly, people can
continue to consume street food even though they do not have confidence in its quality and they
believe that food could have been contaminated (Vieira-Cardoso et al., 2014). However, it is not
plausible to make reasoning that although there are risks of safety, people still consume street
food very frequently because it is a cost-saving alternative to conventional food. This view
received an empirical support from a study attempting to describe international tourists’ attitudes
towards street food. In that study, Torres-Chavarria and Phakdee-auksorn (2017) found that
affection is the most important predictor of tourist’s behavioral intentions to consume foodstuffs
prepared and served on the streets. Moreover, participants of another study by Isaacs (2014)
describe street food to be dirty but tasty which connotes the importance of taste over health risks.
Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that customers cannot truly know whether
the food is prepared by conforming to food safety rules. They could only observe the visible
clues of the food, the vendor, and the food stand. Thus appearance of vending site becomes
crucial. In a study conducted in Turkey with both customers and vendors, Rheilander et al.
(2008) found that consumers rely on aesthetic appearance of food and food stand, appearance of
the food vendor, and trustworthiness of the vendor as risk avoidance strategies. Authors used a
Ghanaian proverb, which is frequently cited by their respondents: if you can’t see it, it does not
hurt you in order to explain how difficult it is for consumers to monitor the whole food
preparation process. In addition to the discussion of food safety, findings of that study are also
important to an understanding of sensorial, social, and normative dimensions of street food
consumption. Consumers’ trust in vendor is shaped by interpersonal factors rather than safety
concerns, those including the reputation of a vendor, recommendations of friends/relatives,
personal experiences or relationship with the vendor(Rheinlander et al., 2008). Bhimji (2010)
also observed similar interpersonal relations through site observations and specifically mentioned
that a vendor did not charge her customer immediately but agreed to receive the payment later.
Thus interpersonal relations could also strengthen mutual trust between vendors and customers.
Furthermore, Isaacs (2014) extends the scope of social factors and adds that food-vending streets
are social spaces where parents let their children play; people meet and have their meals with
friends. In such a conceptualization, street food vending locations help to generate a kind of
social safety and familiarity, and can invoke nostalgic feelings; those recreate social identity and
social relationships. The social space together with the palatable food presented on street could
be considered as a pleasant atmosphere for eating out; those evoke sensory and emotional
responses of consumers rather than being solely a rational consumption of cheap food. Street
food in urban areas is a growing and worldwide phenomenon and today street foods are
important sources of daily foods for massive urban populations – not least in African towns. But
food poisoning, food borne diseases and food safety have been declared a major public health
concern by international health agencies and street foods have in many studies been associated
with microbiological contamination and low hygienic standards (WHO 2006). Hence, street food
vendors are of massive importance for public health since they alone have influence on the
health of thousands of people every day. Several studies from the Ghanaian capital Accra have
already confirmed that the street food sector is facing serious challenges in maintaining hygiene
and safety of foods (Mensah1999, 2001, King 2000, Tomlins 2002) and with more than 10.000
street vendors in Kumasi and the town rapidly expanding Kumasi is now facing the same
challenges. Studies conducted in Kumasiunder IWMI have also identified vegetables prepared by
street food vendors to be highly contaminated with faecal material and harmful micro-organisms
(Amoah et al. 2006) and several related risk practices of food handling have been identified by
Henseler (2005) and Olsen (2005). However, if we in future which to effectively encourage
vendors to improve street food safety and thereby minimize the dangers of food borne diseases, it
is vital to gain in-sight into the perceptions which form practices and attitudes towards food
safety and hygiene.
As I started investigating perceptions it became evident that concepts of food as well as
hygiene, contamination and health risks are deeply imbedded in the social and cultural context
and everyday life practices. Biomedical concepts of contamination and health risks are therefore
not adequate to capture the full complexity of behaviors and attitudes. Cultural and
anthropological theories of contamination by Mary Douglas (1956) and Edward Green (1999)
are therefore relevant to explain the variety of beliefs and attitudes towards safe and unsafe food.
Hygiene perceptions and practices also turned out to be part of a complex system of interactions
between vendors and consumers, particularly concerned with appearance and presentation. The
impression management theory of Goffman will therefore add to understanding such behavior
patterns. Finally, I found factors such as demand and trust to be strong values and this thesis
therefore takes its point of departure in realizing that perceptions of street foods quality are
multi-dimensional– dependent upon far more than hygiene and health concerns. There is a major
concern about the safety of street foods and the chemical substances that are presented to
consumers. These concerns include sanitation problems, traffic congestion in the streets where
street vendors operate, illegal occupation of the space by the street as well as social problems,
child labor, and unfair competition to formal trade (Rahman et al. 2014). An increase in the
number of people in the cities and the changes in their lifestyle has seen growth in the street food
businesses (Khongtong 2014). An interesting finding on the street foods was that few customers
are concerned about safety associated with the food handling practices of the vendors; this might
be reflection on prevailing local health standards (Tinker 2007)Relying on the view that street
food consumption is basically a form of eating out that specifically includes consumption of
foodstuffs prepared and served on street, it is reasonable to adapt consumers’ eating out
behaviors, which are widely examined in restaurant settings, to the consumption of street food.
This view is implicitly supported by the definition of Warde and Martens (1998) who state that
eating out or eating away from home includes meals eaten either on commercial premises or in
someone else’s home. Intrinsically, the commercial premises involve all the forms street food.
Commonly in Western cultures, eating out may primarily mean a meal in a restaurant (Warde&
Martens, 1998), but in some cultures like India it may traditionally mean consumption of street
food (Choudhury et al., 2011). Then, the first critical question is that “what constitutes street
food consumption”. Referring to the definition of commercial eating out would be helpful to
produce a response to that question. Özdemir (2010) suggests a three phased model for eating
out; (1) decisions (whether to eat out or home, meal choice, and restaurant choice), (2) meal
experience (generally in a streets where interactions with food & beverages, accompanying
persons, other customers, service staff, and atmosphere occur) and (3) evaluation of experience
(satisfaction or dissatisfaction, and behavioral intentions such as word-of-moth or revisit).
Additionally, some researchers (Gul et al., 2003; Tan, 2010) also consider frequency of and
expenditure on eating out as an important component of consumers’ food-away-from-home
consumptions. Similar variables are also employed for street foods, such as reasons of
consumption by Hiamey et al. (2013), frequency of patronage by Hiameyet al., 2013) and Vieira-
Cardoso et al. (2014), and meal choice by Steyn&Labadorios (2011) and Vieira-Cardoso et al.
(2014). Consequently, it seems reasonable that decision to eat street food, food vendor choice
and meal choice, frequency of patronage, expenditure, satisfaction and behavioral intentions are
all critical variables that tangibly constitute street food consumption. Then, the second and third
critical questions are related to why people consume street food, and whether atmosphere and
hedonism are predictive variables of street food consumption. As explicated in previous sections,
atmosphere is found to influence all dimensions of eating out and stands as the potent variable to
study consumer behavior. The notion of atmosphere for street foods would have analogous and
also differentiating characteristics with restaurant atmosphere. Studies on restaurant atmosphere
extensively defined its dimensions including facility aesthetics, ambience, layout, table setting,
appearance of service staff, and social interactions. However, for street food vending sites these
dimensions should be reconsidered and revised. For example, the dimensions such as facility
aesthetics, layout, and table setting that are referring to the physical surroundings would be
extended to the overall streetscape. Urban fabric together withenvironmental, functional,
economical and socio-cultural aspects of the city and the communitywould form and impact the
atmosphere perception of street food consumers. This broad definitionof atmosphere connotes a
complex and unstable environment which is difficult to control andmanipulate for vendors.
However, streets are lively and vivid places with sounds, colors, scents,and people passing by.
This may create a great ambiance for street foods and a pleasant mealexperience.The food itself
as the core product is another important dimension of atmosphere. Stuffs andutensils to prepare
and to present foods, the process of preparation and cooking are mostly visiblefor street foods.
Sounds from chopping food accompany the aroma from cooking stove at thevending site
following a customers’ order. Even the appearance of the stall and the aroma pervading.


This study aims to look into the Benefits and Challenges of Street foods Consumption
among consumer and customer in Dapitan City for the calendar year 2019-2020.
1. To know the benefits of street food.
2. To know the challenges of street foods.
3. To evaluate the consumption among consumers and customers of street foods in
Dapitan City.


This research, benefit the vendor, consumer and customer. To the vendor, consumer and
costumers he/she will able to know the advantage and disadvantage of street food consumption.
Vendor – this study will provide ideas on how to formulate proper hygiene and proper
disposal of waste.
Researchers – it can help broaden researcher’s knowledge and skills in gathering
information about street foods consumption.
Customers – customers will have the benefits in identifying their preferences on the street
Consumers – consumers should be aware of what they eat when it comes to street food.

This study focused on the benefits and challenges of eating street foods consumption
among customers and consumer as a basis for street vendors to the improvement and
development in producing and selling their street foods. The data that were gather by the
researchers were used a basis for analysis on the indicator of aspects, namely: (1) Benefits (2)
Challenges (3) Consumption (4) Consumer and Customer. This was undertaken to evaluate
consumer and customer consumption. The respondents of the study are the students, government
employee, and private employee and anyone who consume street foods in Dapitan City. The
studies were conducted during school year 2019-2020.
Street Foods–it is a food that in the street where there are consumer eating beside the
street where there’s a lot of vehicle passing by.
Consumption – when consumer and customer bought product for their satisfaction.
To provide and gather as much informative and relative evaluation quantitative method
was used. This method includes the use of questionnaire and interview.


The data gathering procedure is answered by recording all the information that we get
from the respondents. This procedure determined whether the research is truly measured that
which it was intended to measure how truthful the research result are. The researchers consulted
in the internet and books to gather more information and later choose the information that would
serve as the basis of the research.
The questionnaires were issued to the total of 50 respondents from consumer and
costum,er.In this type of questionnaire the respondents were given possible choices. The
researcher presented it to their research adviser and ask for her/his approval before were finally
able to reproduce enough copies of the questionnaire intended for the respondents.
This study used the quantitative method research wherein all the data that were gathered
through researching from the internet sources. Some previous studies were also carefully
examined and analyzed by the researchers in order to come up with an output which is different
but related to the existing one.
The study will be conducted in Dapitan City under the first congressional district of
Zamboanga Del Norte.
The targets of this study are thestudents, government employees and private employees.

Republic of the Philippines

The Premier University in Zamboanga Del Norte
Main Campus, Dapitan City


We are the College of Business and Accountancy major in Marketing Management

students conducting a survey on the “BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF STREET


conducting this survey for our research.

Legend Scale: Verbal Description Interpretation

5 - Strongly Agree (SA) - The respondent is VERY MUCH SATISFIED whose satisfaction level ranges from 81% - 100%

4 - Agree (A) - The respondent is MUCH SATISFIED whose satisfaction level ranges from 61% - 80%

3 - Neutral (N) - The respondent is SATISFIED whose satisfaction level ranges from 41% - 60%

4 - Disagree (D) - The respondent is LESS SATISFIED whose satisfaction level ranges from 21% - 40%

5 - Strongly Disagree - The respondent is NOT SATISFIED whose satisfaction level ranges 1% - 20%


They provide your order on your expected time
They prepared and serve their food very quickly
Are you satisfied on their service
Experienced waiting too long for your order
Provide easy to order service
Street foods are accessible in your place
Their food are ready made
Offers good customer service
Experienced inconvenience in purchasing street food
Purchasing street food with less effort and not time

They provide foods in a affordable price
Do you buy street food because of being cheap?
Street foods has reasonable price
Street foods provide cheap and low quality of foods
Purchasing street food as an alternative to the foods that
has a high price.
Are you aware of Food Poisoning?
Are you aware that eating street food can cause Food
Have you experienced food poisoning by eating street
Have you encountered cases of food poisoning by
eating street foods?
Do you have relatives that had experienced poisoning
by eating street foods?
Are you aware of Food borne disease?
Are you aware that eating street food can cause Food
borne disease?
Have you experienced Food borne disease by eating
Do you have relatives that had experienced Food borne
by eating street foods?
Have you encountered cases of food borne disease by
eating street foods?
They perform proper hygiene in making their products
Are you aware of the risk of eating street food?
They observe cleanliness in their utensils
They assure the safeness of their consumer
They provide their food clean and harm free